You are on page 1of 58

PROJECT REPORT

On
Project title:

Geneva Cam Mechanism

5th Semester of
DIPLOMA ENGINEERING
IN
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

B.S. PATEL POLYTECHNIC, KHERVA

Submitted By
Ankit Mevada (126440319162)
Harsh Patel (126440319161)

Guide By
Mr. H. S. Patel
Mechanical Engineering Department
B.S.Patel Polytechnic, Kherva

Certificate

This is to certify that Mr. Mevada Ankit K. having Enrolment No:126440319162 have
completed Part-I IDP Project work having title Geneva Cam Mechanism.
He has undergone the process of shodh yatra, literature survey and problem Definition. He is
supposed to carry out the residue IDP Part-II work on same problem during Semester-VI for the
final fulfilment of the IDP work which is Prerequisite to complete Diploma Engineering.

Institute Guide

Head of Department

Mr. H.S. Patel

Mr. K.P. Patel

Mechanical Engineering
Department
B.S.Patel Polytechnic, Kherva

Mechanical Engineering
Department
B.S.Patel Polytechnic, Kherva

Certificate

This is to certify that Mr. Patel Harsh R. having Enrolment No.: 126440319161 has completed
Part-I IDP Project work having title Geneva Cam Mechanism.
He has undergone the process of shodh yatra, literature survey and problem Definition. He is
supposed to carry out the residue IDP Part-II work on same problem during Semester-VI for the
final fulfilment of the IDP work which is Prerequisite to complete Diploma Engineering.

Institute Guide

Head of Department

Mr. H.S. Patel

Mr. K.P. Patel

Mechanical Engineering
Department
B.S.Patel Polytechnic, Kherva

Mechanical Engineering
Department
B.S.Patel Polytechnic, Kherva

INDUSTRY DEFINED PROBLEM/PROJECT (IDP) STATEMENT FORM

STUDENT PARTICULARS-1
FIRST NAME

ANKITKUMAR

LAST NAME

KIRITBHAI MEVADA

MOBILE NO.

+91

EMAIL

ankitmewada71@gmail.com

COLLEGE
NAME

B.S.PATEL POLYTECNIC, GANPAT UNIVERSITY.

8735933694

+91

33/ Alok Tenament, Part-2, Maheshwari Nagar road,
ADDRESS

Vastral, Ahmedabad.

BRANCH

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

SEMESTER

5th SEM.

TEAM NAME
SIGNATURE
OF STUDENT

YEAR

2014-2015

9825723235

STUDENT PARTICULARS-2

FIRST NAME

HARSHKUMAR

LAST NAME

RAMESHBHAI PATEL

MOBILE NO.

+91

EMAIL

dharshp106@gmail.com

COLLEGE
NAME

B.S.PATEL POLYTECNIC, GANPAT UNIVERSITY.

7801862128

+91

A/67, Kashinath Parth, Mahadevnagar tekra,
ADDRESS

Vastral, Ahmedabad.

BRANCH

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

SEMESTER

5th SEM.

TEAM NAME
SIGNATURE
OF STUDENT

YEAR

2014-2015

9825575585

Opp. GVMM. Ahmedabad-382415. Estate. Odhav. Maheshwari Nagar road. CONTACT ADDRESS MOBILE NO. MEVADA 33/ Alok Tenament. +919825723235 EMAIL - -----INDUSTRY---NAME LAXMI PHARMA MACHINES 75. +91 79 22900488 NAME OF INDUSTRIAL ESTATE COMPANY LOGO MOBILE +91982572325 BILESHWAR INDUSTRIAL ESTATE . Bileshwar ind. Nr. Ahmedabad. Part-2. Ring Road. ADDRESS CONTACT NO. Vastral.INDUSTRY PARTICULARS ---INDUSTRY COORDINATOR--NAME KIRITBHAI B. Odhav-Kathwada Road.

Expected Out Come/Future Modifications 11. Study And Data Collection 4. Introduction Of Project & background of the invention 2. Cost Estimation 9. Implementation Procedure. Manufacturing Aspects/Process Planning 6. NO. Kinematics Of Jeneva 7. References . TOPICS NAME 1. Advantages And Limitations 8. Description Of Project 5.INDEX SR. Conclusions 10. Project Descriptions 3.

which rotates continuously. projection lens. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Geneva Mechanisms are widely used in motion picture film projectors to intermittently advance film through a film gate having a projection aperture. but the Geneva Mechanism has proven itself over the past century to be particularly well suited to accurately drive a load (the film) in an intermittent fashion when the time allowed for motion of the load is minimal. This intermittent frame-by-frame motion of the film is enabled by the Geneva Mechanism. the teeth of which are engaged with perforations in the film. For example. and which causes intermittent rotation of a second portion. film frame. In a motion picture projector the star wheel shares its central shaft with a sprocket. and onto a screen. Therefore. Other mechanisms. have been used to drive film through a gate in an intermittent manner. motion picture film is typically projected at a rate of 24 frames per second.Introduction The Geneva drive or Maltese cross is a gear mechanism that translates a continuous rotation into an intermittent rotary motion. The film is moved or advanced by a Geneva Mechanism (also known as a “Maltese Cross”) until an image frame is in alignment with the projection aperture. The rotating drive wheel has a pin that reaches into a slot of the driven wheel advancing it by one step. The drive wheel also has a raised circular blocking disc that locks the driven wheel in position between steps. such that a new film frame is positioned in the projection aperture every {fraction . which comprises one portion. including servo motors and a Mitchell Movement. the star wheel. The film is then held stationary for a discrete time period during which light is passed through the aperture. when the driver moves the star wheel. both the star wheel and the film experience a resulting intermittent motion. the driver.

and in a manner such that the straight slots sequentially receive the drive pin. No. The projectable frame time. which. The restraining cam has a side cam surface. As the number of straight slots is changed.774. During essentially all of this indexing time. A driver component. Furthermore. or approximately 42 ms. is employed for indexing the star wheel.S. and thereby greatly reduce the apparent flicker perceived by the human eye. is further reduced to only approximately one-half of the total frame period because the typical motion picture projector employs a two-bladed shutter. a shutter must block the light incident to the film to prevent the appearance of “travel ghost” (smear of the image caused by film motion). are uniformly dimensioned and arranged. 1.5ms. like the slots. The number of slots radially disposed around a Geneva Mechanism's star wheel is variable. comprised of a restraining cam. is described in U. such a mechanism includes a star wheel having a plurality of radially extending straight slots spaced equally around the periphery of the star. since one blanking period must be approximately one-fourth of the frame period in order to blank the projected image as the film moves. The star wheel is thus restrained intermittently.(1/24)} second. Therefore. Interposed between these slots are concave cam guide surfaces.789. The typical projector Geneva Mechanism moves a film frame into the projection aperture with an indexing time of onefourth of the frame period. a Geneva Mechanism is used to convert uniform rotary motion to incremental rotary motion. The close contact of this convex cam surface to the concave cam guide surfaces restrains the star wheel from experiencing rotary motion except during the periods in which the star wheel is driven by the drive pin. it is necessary for these two shutter intervals to be nearly equal in duration in order to limit perceived flicker. which would appear to be approximately three-fourths of the total frame period. which is convex and configured to interact with the concave cam guide surfaces of the star wheel. and may be any whole number greater than 2. In general. a drive arm extending from the base of the cam. A basic Geneva Mechanism. which causes two blanking periods per frame of the film. specific features of the mechanism such as component . and a drive pin near the far end of the drive arm. Pat. Typically. the other blanking period must be of essentially the same duration. as is commonly employed in motion picture projectors. in order to raise the apparent frame rate to 48 frames per second. or approximately 10.

For example. star wheel slots. and to the load (film) all vary as well. the acceleration and velocity experienced by both the star wheel . making the three-slot mechanism undesirable for use in a projector. U. it would be very advantageous to find a geometry for a Geneva Mechanism in `6 incurring a substantial increase in the acceleration forces applied to the drive pin. slots.S. a star wheel with five straight slots will have any one slot engaged with the driver pin over 118° of the 360° revolution of the driver. Thus. in the case of film projected at 24 frames per second. 1. On the other hand. the Geneva Mechanisms used in motion picture projectors (which vary some in detail depending on the projector) typically use a star wheel with four equally spaced straight-sided slots. and the load (the film and film perforations). the acceleration forces applied to the drive pin. While a three slot star wheel would thus decrease the time required to move the film and thereby increase the available projection time. However. and load (film perforations) would be reduced relative to a three or four straight slot star wheel.5 ms of the approximately 42 ms available time per frame. and the forces or loads applied to the drive pin and star wheel. Such star wheels with four straight slots are engaged with the driver pin for 90° of a 360° revolution of the driver.969 proposes to solve this problem by altering the slots of the star wheel to have curved surfaces. No.801. If used in a motion picture projector at 24 frames per second.sizes. and a more powerful lamp would be needed to obtain the same screen luminance. and the load (the film and film perforations) are greatly increased over those of a four-slot mechanism. By comparison. the speed and duration of the intermittent motion. but the engagement of the star wheel with the driver pin occurs over only 60° of the 360° revolution of the driver. for an indexing time of approximately 14 ms versus the approximately 42 ms available time per frame. as the drive pin moves in engagement with these curved slots. the star wheel and film experience movement during an indexing time of only approximately 10. a star wheel with three straight slots will also experience intermittent motion once per revolution of the cam. Accordingly. as the light efficiency to the screen would be significantly reduced when compared with those of a four-slot mechanism. the acceleration forces on the drive pin. This is not desirable in a projector. Pat. Thus. star wheel. a star wheel with three slots would utilize an indexing time of approximately 7 ms per frame to move a film frame into the projecting aperture. producing the intermittent motion.

It should therefore readily be appreciated that there currently exists a need for an improved Geneva Mechanism. would likewise be advantageous. Likewise. Pat. As a result. 1. and the load are all controlled.801. No. a drive pin and/or slot surfaces manufactured per U. and load are substantially reduced. without sacrificing any of the advantages normally attendant to the use of a Geneva Mechanism. would also have value. However.969 fail to adequately provide for the forces applied both to the drive pin and to the star wheel slot surfaces with which the pin is in contact. Finally. drive pin.S.801. it should be apparent that yet other improved configurations for Geneva Mechanisms. while the load forces applied to the star wheel. drive pin.S. . and in motion picture projectors particularly. in which the indexing time is effectively unchanged. it should be readily apparent that such improved Geneva Mechanisms could be employed in devices generally. and the indexing time is greatly reduced when compared with that of a star wheel with an identical number of straight slots operating at the same frame rate. but where the load forces applied to the star wheel. No. the designs for the curved star wheel slots described in U. 1. which includes a driver with a cam and a star wheel. that other improved configurations for Geneva Mechanisms. Pat.S. It should also be apparent. Pat. No.and the load (film) are altered. 1. in which a load can be advanced intermittently with a reduced indexing time required to experience the intermittent motion.969 also fails to provide sufficient slot width at the mouth of the slot for the drive pin to enter and exit the slot without very heavy interference. Furthermore. the curved star wheel slot geometry as described in U. in which the indexing time required to experience the intermittent motion can be reduced while the forces on the load driven by the star wheel and on the drive pin are also reduced.801. with an advantageous affect.969 would quickly experience overloading failure during operation.

The present invention further relates to a Geneva Mechanism for intermittently driving a load which comprises: a rotating driver having a shaped drive pin. with the star wheel comprising a plurality of radially extending slots which are located periodically around a circumference of the star wheel. The mechanism comprises: a rotating driver having a drive pin. and the star wheel reaches a peak acceleration and deceleration in a continuous and controlled manner. the load on the mechanism is reduced. The drive pin of the rotating driver is engageable with one of the radial extending slots to drive the star wheel in an incremental angular manner. with the star wheel comprising a plurality of radially extending slots. The present invention also relates to a drive mechanism for driving a load which comprises a first rotary member which provides an essentially uniform rotary motion. such as film. an object of the present invention to provide for a drive mechanism such as a Geneva Mechanism for intermittently moving a load. The second rotary member comprises a plurality of radially extending slots which are curved along a substantial portion of a length of the slots. where the time for intermittent motion is reduced. in a motion picture projector. The present invention relates to a Geneva Mechanism for intermittently driving a load. and each of the radially extending slots being curved along a substantial portion of its length. therefore. and a star wheel operationally associated with a load which is to be intermittently driven. with each of the slots being engageable with the drive pin of the first rotary member during a rotation of the . the star wheel and the load to be intermittently driven. and a second rotary member operationally associated with a load which is to be driven. and a star wheel operationally associated with a load which is to be intermittently driven. such that a drive pin load on the drive pin and forces applied to the load operationally associated with the star wheel remain in control. or some combination thereof. the load on the object being moved is reduced. The shaped drive pin has a controlled shaped surface and is engageable with one of the radially extending slots to drive the star wheel in an incremental angular manner while minimizing load forces on the drive pin. with the first rotary member comprising a drive pin.SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is.

such that film frames of the film move past the projection aperture. illumination optics for directing light from the light source into the projection aperture of the film gate. One of the drive pin or the radially extending slots being shaped in a controlled manner to permit the star wheel to reach a peak acceleration and deceleration in a continuous manner. such that film frames of the film move past the projection aperture. to provide an incremental angular rotation to the second rotary member while a drive pin load on the drive pin and forces applied to the load which is to be intermittently driven remain in control. The drive mechanism comprises a first rotary member having a drive pin and a second rotary member operationally associated with film. One of the drive pin or the slots being shaped in a controlled manner to permit the second rotary member to reach a peak acceleration and a peak deceleration in a continuous manner. a light source. a Geneva Mechanism for moving the film progressively past the projection aperture. and a shutter mechanism which blocks light incident onto the film frames of the film in synchronization with the intermittent motion of the film. and a drive mechanism for moving the film progressively past the projection aperture. a projection lens for projecting an image of each of the film frames onto a screen. . The present invention further relates to a projection system for film which comprises a film gate having a projection aperture. The present invention further relates to a projection system for motion picture film which comprises a film gate having a projection aperture. The second rotary member comprises a plurality of slots which cooperate with the drive pin of the first rotary member to cause an intermittent rotation of the second rotary member and thereby cause an intermittent motion of the film.first rotary member. and a star wheel operationally associated with the film. with the Geneva Mechanism comprising a rotating driver having a drive pin. with the star wheel comprising a plurality of radially extending slots which cooperate with the drive pin of the rotating driver to cause an intermittent rotation of the star wheel upon a rotation of the rotating driver and thereby cause and an intermittent motion of the film.

these mechanisms are frequently used in watches. In the most common arrangement. the device. The Geneva converts continuous rotary motion into intermittent rotary motion. Switzerland being an important centre of watch making. In this form. can be used to limit the number of turns of the input wheel.Background The name derives from the device's earliest application in mechanical watches. the driven wheel has four slots and thus advances by one step of 90 degrees for each rotation of the drive wheel. Geneva. then called a Geneva Stop. the ×Geneva was used to limit the wind-up in clockwork springs. it advances by 360°/n per full rotation of the drive wheel . The Geneva drive is also commonly called a Maltese cross mechanism due to the visual resemblance when the driven wheel has four spokes. Because the mechanism needs to be well lubricated. Since they can be made small and are able to withstand substantial mechanical stress. . If the driven wheel has n slots. it is often enclosed in an oil capsule. When one of the slots in the driven wheel is obstructed.

designed by EDIBON. The drive wheel has a pin that reaches into a slot of the driven wheel. where the angle of both wheels can be measured. is a mechanism that transforms continuous circular motion into intermittent motion. This paper discusses the design and fabrication of one such mechanism called the Geneva Wheel mechanism. The standard SUMMiT process has been made use of in developing this.The drive wheel and the driven wheel are mounted in two graduated discs. It is a positive drive in which the driven wheel is positively moved or locked. All the related mathematics of the Geneva wheel was developed and the system was analysed. The Geneva Stop Mechanism (MME). It is made of aluminum and consists of a rotating drive wheel and a driven wheel with six slots. The drive wheel also has a raised half-moon locking disc that locks the driven wheel in position between steps. advancing it by one step.Abstract Converting constant rotary motion into intermittent rotary motion gives rise to a range of useful applications in silicon micromachining. .

wear is the hardest to control. the maximum pin load. C. 5-. Unsuccessful experimental applications of this mechanism usually result in two modes of failure: pin wear and wheel breakage. and 8-slot Genevas are shown although the concept can be extended to Genevas with any number of slots. surface finish. In this paper. lubricant. (b) beam section geometry. will show the effect of geometrical differences between any Geneva wheel and the “standard” Geneva. Of these two modes. etc. and the internal wheel stresses. For the “standard” set chosen. These performance parameters will be normalized to the corresponding parameters of a set of predefined “standard” Genevas for convenience in interpreting results. stress levels. curves will show the stress and load parameters as a function of inertia and speed. tolerances. The normalized curves GENEVA WHEEL. 6-. and therefore it was necessary to use a digital computer (IBM . Figure l(a) Geometry of the Geneva mechanism. Johnson3 showed that an optimum wheel diameter exists for minimum wear stress. R.Design approach Many factors contribute to a successful Geneva mechanism design. loads. consideration is given to two additional dimensions (pin diameter and tip thickness) on the wear stress and certain internal beam stresses. the contact stress. such as materials used. The complexity and voluminous nature of 2 the calculations prohibit any complete closed form solution of the problem. Graphical curves for 4-. This paper will begin by defining the wheel geometry and then developing the relationships between this geometry and the wheel inertia. The present design approach will be to reduce wear by altering the geometry of the Geneva wheel to reduce the contact stress while maintaining acceptable stress levels in other regions of the wheel.

7094) for most of the results. and the emphasis will be on the results obtained and how they can be used in the analysis and synthesis of Geneva mechanism. For this reason. 3 . no detailed derivations will be given.

4 .

This pin ‘a’ engages into the slots ‘s’ of the Geneva Wheel G (a basic 4-slot Geneva mechanism is shown here) and rotates it as long as it is engaged with the slot. By varying the number of slots on G. which gives rise to the desired discrete motion. one can varythe time period and the angular displacement of the same.1. when the pin ‘a’ is not inside one of the slots ‘s’and is moving freely. The conversion mechanism of this disk system is as follows.then it can be used to deflect light rays in different directions(by discretely positioning the moving mirror by using thediscrete angular positions of the Geneva wheel) thereby givingrise to an optical switching technique. one complete rotation of the slotted wheel requires N complete rotations of the other disk. The system consists of a constantly rotating disk coupled with a slotted disk. Wheel G has a rotation time period of t when it is moving along with disk W and n idlingtime period. Thus. For a four slot Geneva mechanism. Referring to Fig. thereby also increasing he otal time period. pinwheel W rotates constantly about axis A and as shown below. has a pin ‘a’ attached to it. . While the wheel W rotates continuously. The three quarter wheel ‘L’ is placed inorder to prevent any unintentional rotation of wheel G hile itis idling. Ifthis system is now coupled with some optical system like amicromirror (through a rack and pinion kind of arrangement). A rotation of 2p radians of the former causes 2p/N radians of rotation of the latter.1. the rotation timeperiod. the Geneva wheel G has a discrete rotation about axis ‘b’.Geneva Wheel Mechanism The basic structure of a four slot Geneva wheel is shown in Fig. where N is the number of slots available on the slotted disk.

Along the same lines. This will again bediscussed in detail in the following sections. The basic criterion that has to be maintained indesigning any number of slotted Geneva wheel is that. . multiple slot wheels canbe designed. four slot and six slotGeneva wheels have been analysed and a design layout hasbeen provided. the pinhas to enter and leave the slots radially.In the following sections.

The dwell period of all internal Geneva wheels is less than 180°. The maximum angular acceleration occurs when the crank enters the slot. other than its smooth operation. For proper operation. However. The internal Geneva wheel is one way of obtaining this form of motion. A disadvantage is the relatively large size of the driven member. and 12 slotted Geneva wheels with unit crank link length (r1=1). 8. this leads to significant differences in the mechanics of the system. the drive pin (crankpin) must enter and leave the slot tangentially. The main advantage of the internal Geneva wheel. lowering the acceleration. The design of the internal Geneva mechanism is very similar to that of the external mechanism. The highest value of acceleration occurs when the crankpin enters or leaves the slot. but this continuation has no significance since the driven member will have entered the dwell phase associated with the high angular displacement of the driving member. 10.Internal Geneva Wheel When the dwell period must be less than 180°. which increases the inertial forces resisting acceleration/deceleration. This geometrical maximum falls into the region representing the motion of the external Geneva wheel. other intermittent drive mechanisms must be used. is its sharply defined dwell period. Figure 3 shows a plot of the angular acceleration of the wheel with respect to the crank angle for 3. The maximum angular velocity occurs when the crank angle is zero with respect to the centerline c. It can be seen that there exits a non-zero angular acceleration . Structurally. 6. leaving more time for the star wheel to reach maximum velocity. 4. the internal Geneva wheel differs from the external Geneva wheel in that the distance of the crank center from the wheel center is less than the wheel radius. 5. however the acceleration curve does not reach a peak within the range of motion of the driven wheel. The geometrical maximum would occur in the continuation of the curve.

The design of this was done on Draftsight (see my review of this AutoCAD clone). I plan on making one that works a bit better. working like a champ after 20+ years. they may not afford nearly the adjustability or the “easy” electrical programming of a servo of PLC controlled device. Like most cam-type devices. I’ve never designed one of these before. In fact this is the maximum angular acceleration of the system during the non-dwell phase. partly to blame for the reverse not working as it should in the video.” Although replaced by servo drives in many cases. This could be worked around by changing the tool. drawing . so the middle hole was crudely marked with the cutter. with few problems. then drilled with my manual mill. I recently machined one out of MDF on my router. hence an infinite jerk upon contact. This is where I first saw this type of drive. Everything was cut with a 5/16 inch bit that I’ve been using as a flycutter on my router. these were once used in movie projectors and to power rotary tables in industrial assembly lines. providing a relatively high pocketing speed. and after redoing practically the entirety of these machines. I would assume. Unfortunately. but check out the video below for my prototype: This is a crude model a this point. but they will run for literally decades on end with little maintenance.component as the crankpin makes contact with the Geneva slot. but I’ve included the G-code and DXFs for the mechanism at the end of the article. and is possibly motor-driven. Once again this leads to a singularity. but it’s a prototype. CNC Cut Geneva Drive A Geneva Drive is defined by Wikipedia as “a gear mechanism that translates a continuous rotation into an intermittent rotary motion. I did it visually. So after that introduction. and there are some equations to use if you want to do it that way. it doesn’t provide for cutting small holes. the venerable Geneva mechanism was still at the heart of it. Instead. The cut inaccuracy is.

and the base can be cut out at one time with a CNC router. making everything fit. After I cut the two rotating elements out. and rotating each piece around the central axis. or just do yourself a favor and subscribe to the RSS feed! The Geometry of the Geneva Mechanism In the four slot Geneva stop. . both wheels are the same size. It works OK. Be sure to check back on this project. but I’m sure other numbers could be done this way. I’m sure I’ll have to do some finishing work. the driven “cross”. but I plan to redo this design so that the drive gear. I placed them both on a spare piece of MDF. especially if I end up putting a motor on it (maybe recycled from the “rotary engine” model project). spaced out by the circular cavity. I then put a few washers under the driven element and bolted them both down lightly.the basic circles first. In Geneva drives with different numbers of slots a little geometry soon reveals the relative sizes of the wheel. This is probably easiest to do with a four-stroke device like I made. and drilled pilot holes for the axes.

working out the dimensions is straight forward.For example. Originally the Geneva mechanism was used as a way of preventing springs from being wound too tight. The crescent shaped cut out in the drive wheel lets the points of the cross pass. the drive wheel turns continuously. arrowed. The Geneva drive is named after the city of its invention where it was used in the construction of clocks. the rest of the circle locks the slotted wheel into place while it is stationary. The Geneva drive mechanism is used commonly in film projectors to move the film on one frame at a time then hold it stationary as the bright projector light is shone through it. the pin on the drive wheel then turns the cross shaped piece quarter of a turn for each revolution of the drive wheel. the pin hits the blanked out slot. Specialized Mechanisms Mechanism GENEVA WHEEL The Geneva drive or Maltese cross is a gear mechanism that translates a continuous rotation into an intermittent rotary motion. In the six slot example. Drive motion can be changed by changing the number of slots in the slotted wheel. In this case the spring would be connected to the smaller wheel. left. and the spring is prevented from being over wound. The Geneva drive is used to provide intermittent motion. construct a right angled triangle with one the the angles being sixty degrees. One of the slots would be blanked off so the winder could only be turned a fixed number of turns. After five turns. The rotating drive wheel has a pin that reaches into a slot of the driven wheel advancing it by one step. The drive pin needs to to enter the top of the slot at an angle of ninety degrees. The . the slots are sixty degrees apart. With the angles fixed. the slotted wheel is there to limit the number of turns. in the six-slot design. This mechanism is known as a Geneva stop or Geneva stop works. The radii (radiuses?) of the two wheels are the lengths to the two shortest sides of the triangle and the wheels are separated by the length of the longest side.

the roller must traverse the open cam problem twice. if the input member roller-crank completes one revolution. If the driven wheel has n slots.drive wheel also has a raised circular blocking disc that locks the driven wheel in position between steps. Consequently. They are used in watches and for the main reason of being made small and can withstand mechanical stress.The Geneva drive is also commonly called a Maltese cross mechanism due to the visual resemblance when the driven wheel has four spokes. However. It is now clear that we can specify the motion of the cam in only a half the cycle and the remaining half is determined automatically. the driven wheel has four slots and thus advances for each rotation of the drive wheel by one step of 90°. Analysis of the output motion of the cam As discussed above. In the most common arrangement. the output motion of the cam while the Roller retraces its path is governed by the problem that prescribes the motion of the cam in the rest part of the cycle. . The name derives from the device’s earliest application in mechanical watches. it advances by 360°/n per full rotation of the drive wheel. thus limiting control over the complete motion. Switzerland and Geneva being an important center of watchmaking. by studying the motion in the second half we can design the cam problem to have better control over its motion.

today we look towards 20 different types of Geneva mechanisms. In this version. .Types Of Geneva Drive As we know that GENEVA Mechanisms are very important in Automated machine tools. Geneva mechanisms are nothing but the Indexing mechanisms like Dividing head. We can adjust the Geneva mechanism so as to rotate or transfer work around the working stations within some fixed Intervals 1) Locking-arm Geneva drive: The driving follower on the rotating input crank of this Geneva enters a slot and rapidly indexes the output. the roller of the locking-arm (shown leaving the slot) enters the slot to prevent the Geneva from shifting when it is not indexing.

2) Planetary gear Geneva drive: The output link remains stationary while the input gear drives the planet gear with single tooth on the locking disk. The disk is part of the planet gear. The two disk surfaces keep the output in the position shown during the dwell period. and it meshes with the ring-gear Geneva to index the output link one position. The rotation of the input wheel causes a driving roller to reciprocate in and out of the slot of the output link. 7 3) Four bar Geneva drive: A four-bar Geneva produces a long-dwell motion from an oscillating output. .

it moves radially inward. This produces a wide variety of output motions including very long dwells between rapid indexes. the input link. it tends to have very high acceleration and deceleration characteristics. . This action reduces the Geneva acceleration force. which contains the driving roller. In this modifi cation. can move radially while being rotated by the groove cam. Thus. 8 5) Groove cam Geneva drive: When a Geneva is driven by a roller rotating at a constant speed.4) Twin Geneva drive: The driven member of the first Geneva acts as the driver for the second Geneva. as the driving roller enters the Geneva slot.

Simultaneously. 90° apart. 7) Rapid transfer Geneva drive: The coupler point at the extension of the connecting link of the four-bar mechanism describes a curve with two approximately straight lines. the second pin rotates the Geneva during the unlocked phase. the locking pin is just clearing the slot. In the position shown. which .6) Locking slide Geneva drive: One pin locks and unlocks the Geneva. Then there is an extremely rapid index. the drive pin is about to enter the slot to index the Geneva. This provides a favorable entry situation because there is no motion in the Geneva while the driving pin moves deeply into the slot. A locking cam.

8) Dual-track Geneva drive: The key consideration in the design of Geneva’s is to have the input roller enter and leave the Geneva slots tangentially (as the crank rapidly indexes the output). the locking roller is just about to exit from the Geneva. The roller enters one track. is connected to the input shaftthrough gears.prevents the Geneva from shifting when it is not indexing. In the positionshown. indexes the Geneva 90° (in a four-stage Geneva). and then automatically follows the exit slot to leave the Geneva. The associated linkage mechanism locks the Geneva when it is not indexing. . This is accomplished in the novel mechanism shown with two tracks.

for given dimensions and number of stations. which restricts flexibility in design. Elliptical gears produce a varying crank rotation that permits either extending or reducing the dwell period. Some of the links have special extensions to lock the Geneva in place between stations. This permits a long dwell between each 90° shift in the position of the Geneva. The spacing between the sprockets determines the length of dwell. the dwell period is determined by the speed of the input shaft. . That is.9) Long-dwell Geneva drive: This Geneva arrangement has a chain with an extended pin in combination with a standard Geneva. 10) Modified motion Geneva drive: The input link of a normal Geneva drive rotates at constant velocity.

the driving roller has just completed indexing the Geneva.) . a separate locking device might be necessary to prevent an external torque from reversing theGeneva. (During this time. and it is about to coast for90° as it goes around the curve.11) Internal groove Geneva drive: This arrangement permits the roller to exit and enter the driving slots tangentially. In the position shown.

The output member has two arms with rollers which contact the surface of the truncated sphere. 13) Sinusoidal reciprocator drive: This reciprocator transforms rotary motion into a reciprocating motion in which the oscillating output member is in the same plane as the input shaft. The slotted output crank oscillates briefly at the vertical positions. The rotation of the sphere causes the output to oscillate. 14) Controlled output escapement: The output in this simple mechanism is prevented from turning in either direction unless it is actuated by the .12) Progressive oscillating drive: A crank attached to the planet gear can make point P describe the double loop curve illustrated.

the input disk forces the escapement tip out of its slot and into the notch. But as the lever leaves the pin. . In operation. By making the three gears equal indiameter and having gear 2 serve as an idler. The escapement is cammed out of the way during indexing because the slot in the input disk is positioned to permit the escapement tip to enter it. 15) Parallel guidance drive: The input crank contains two planet gears. The center sun gear is fixed.input motion. any member fixed to gear 3 will remain parallel to its previous positions throughout the rotation of the input ring crank. the drive lever indexes the output disk by bearing on the pin. That locks the output in both directions.

A simple automatic-feed mechanism makes it possible to produce 2400 forgings per hour.16) Rotating-cam reciprocator drive: The high-volume 2500-ton press is designed to shape such parts as connecting rods. tractor track links. . and wheel hubs.

The duration of dwell is more than 180º of driver rotation. . 18) An internal Geneva drive. During movement. The driver grooves lock the driven wheel pins during dwell.17) An external Geneva drive. the driver pin mates with the driven-wheel slot. The driver and driven wheel rotate in same direction.

The driver and driven wheel are on perpendicular shafts. The SUMMiT process [2. 3. The oxide layer in this .3. The duration of dwell is exactly 180° of driver rotation. In this process four layers of polysilicon alternated by sacrificial silicon dioxide layers are laid down.3] and the layout design have been discussed in detail in this section.4] is a standard process developed by the Sandia National Laboratories.19) A spherical Geneva drive.2. The first level is a silicon dioxide and nitride stack layer. A crosssection of the main layers in the process is shown in Fig. Design Design of the Geneva wheel has been done using the 4-level polysilicon surface micromachining technology by Sandia National Laboratories.1 The Summits Process:The Sandia Ultra-planar. Multi-level MEMS Technology (Summit) process[2. All the four levels of polysilicon are required for designing this mechanism.

the structural poly0 level was not laid down. the pin should enter and leave the slots in such a way that the tangent to the constantly rotating wheel at the pin passes through the center of the slotted wheel. The slots are thus placed at 2p/N radians intervals. This means that if ‘r’ is the radius of the constantly moving disk. The thickness of the various layers is given in Fig.then the distance ‘D’ between the centers of the two disks has to be: D = r/sin (p/N) and the radius of rotation ‘R’ of the Geneva wheel is given by: R = r/tan(p/N) The minimum length of the slot through which the pin on disk W moves should be: S = D-[(D-R)+(D-r)] . he four polysilicon layers function as the structural layers used for developing various micromachined structures. Fig. he nitride layer acts as an etch stop and protects this oxide layer when the sacrificial oxide etch is carried out.level is used as an insulating layer. Once the whole structure has been developed. The oxide layers alternating between the polysilicon layers are used to physically isolate the polysilicon layers. For any N slotted wheel. the angle by which the slotted wheel rotates for a given rotation of the constantly rotating wheel is 2p/N. Wheel Design: Two types of slot designs for the Geneva wheel were considered.2. An important requirement is that during every rotation. Layers of the SUMMiT process Courtesy: Sandia National Laboratories. these oxide layers are etched away and polysilicon structures are released. The designs were laid out using the Cadence software for MEMS layouts. Since the technology file available with the software allowed for only three levels f polysilicon. The two things that are unique to his process and which make a variety of designs possible at the micro level are the conformal SACOX2 layer and planarized SACOX3 layers.2.

8] driven by comb-drives.1 we get: Aa = ab = Ab/ 2 Fig. Layout of a four slot Geneva wheel using Cadence The layout of a four slotted wheel in Cadence is shown in Fig. The pins holding the . The design should therefore. a truncated wheel (with a chopped arc angle of 4p/N radians) is placed on the constantly moving disk. To avoid unintentional rotation of the Geneva wheel. which would mesh with the microengine.3. The gears of the microengine can be made to mesh with the gears of the constantly rotating wheel that can be provided on it. have the truncated disk and the Geneva wheel on the same polysilicon layer and the constantly moving disk in another layer. which stops any rotation of the Geneva wheel when the pin is moving freely and is not engaged with any of the slots.= R+r-D Applying these relations to the wheel shown in Fig. The Geneva wheel and the chopped disk are made on the Poly2 layer and the constantly moving disk lies below in the Poly1 layer.7.6. 3 with projections on the constantly rotating wheel to so that it can be moved with a probe. The engaging pin on this disk is placed on Poly2 layer. The constantly rotating disk can be rotated using a Sandia microengine[5.

which gets contacted to the Poly0 layer and allows rotation of the disks after release. which can then be meshed with a rack to convert the intermittent rotation of the disk into discrete linear motion. This can then be applied to micromirrors and other systems requiring such motions.Geneva wheel and the other disks are then placed on Poly3 layer. A gear can be fabricated on poly1 layer concentric with the Geneva wheel. .

Previous projectors. . each frame standing still in front of the lens for 1/24 of a second (and being exposed twice in that time. rather to limit the tension of the spring. but not in a drive. Instead. marketed by Edison as the Vita scope.Uses and applications One application of the ×Geneva drive is in movie projectors: the film does not run continuously through the projector. the number of rotations the drive wheel can make is limited. the "drive" wheel is the one that winds up the spring. such that it would operate only in the range where its elastic force is nearly linear. had used a "beater mechanism".) The first uses of the ×Geneva drive in film projectors go back to 1896 to the projectors of Oskar Messter and ×Max Gliewe and the Teatrograph of Robert William Paul. and the Geneva wheel with four or five spokes and one closed slot prevents over winding (and also complete unwinding) of the spring. the film is advanced frame by frame. (Modern film projectors may also use an electronically controlled indexing mechanism or stepper motor. resulting in a frequency of 48 Hz). Geneva wheels having the form of the driven wheel were also used in mechanical watches. invented by Georges Demenÿ in 1893. In watches. This intermittent motion is achieved using a Geneva drive. including Thomas Armat's projector. If one of the slots of the driven wheel is occluded. This so-called Geneva stop or "Geneva stop work" was the invention of 17th or 18th century watchmakers. which allows for fast-forwarding the film. to achieve intermittent film transport.

The angle by which the drive wheel has to rotate to effect one step rotation of the driven wheel is always smaller than 180° in an external ×Geneva drive and always greater than 180° in an internal one. where the switch time is therefore greater than the time the driven wheel stands still. . The external form is the more common. tool changers for CNC machines. An internal ×Geneva drive is a variant on the design. indexing tables in assembly lines. Animation showing an internal Geneva drives in operation. automated sampling devices. It was selected to ensure that should the mechanism fail at least one filter would be usable. A Geneva drive was used to change filters in the Dawn mission framing Camera used to image the asteroid 4 Vesta in 2011. The axis of the drive wheel of the internal drive can have a bearing only on one side.Other applications of the ×Geneva drive include the pen change mechanism in plotters. banknote counting and so on. Internal Geneva drive Internal Geneva drive. as it can be built smaller and can withstand higher mechanical stresses. The Iron Ring Clock uses a Geneva mechanism to provide intermittent motion to one of its rings.

Assembly Drawings .

The figure shows the motions curves for an external four-slot Geneva drive. This generates an "infinite" peak of jerk (Dirac peak). and therefore vibrations.Kinematics Motion curves for one turn of the drive wheel. There is a discontinuity in the acceleration when the drive pin enters and leaves the slot. from top to bottom: angular position θ. . angular acceleration α and angular jerk j a . angular velocity ω. in arbitrary units.

.

Between the slots there are four concave surfaces that fit the surface S on the driver and serve to keep the follower from rotating when they are fully engaged.e. . one of the most commonly used devices for producing intermittent rotary motion.. In the Figure the driver A carries a pin or roller R that fits in the four radial slots in the follower B. on further rotation of the driver.e. stands still. In the position shown. and. followed by a dwell period with the shutter open. rotating a shaft through a prescribed angle). more than 18 are seldom used. the driver will rotate through 270° while the follower dwells—i. it will move into the slot and rotate the follower through 90°. If one of the slot positions is uncut. the pin is entering one of the slots. characterized by alternate periods of motion and rest with no reversal in direction. Early motion-picture projectors used Geneva mechanisms to give the film a quick advance while the shutter was closed. It is also used for indexing (i. After the pin leaves the slot. For this reason it is sometimes called a Geneva stop. the number of turns that the driver can make is limited.Geneva mechanism Geneva mechanism. It is said that the Geneva mechanism was invented by a Swiss watchmaker to prevent the over winding of watch springs. The lowest practical number of slots in a Geneva mechanism is 3. also called Geneva Stop..

There are three basic types of Geneva motion uses in our industry as shown in the figures below.APPLICATION OF GENEVA MECHANISMS IN INDUSTRY Geneva mechanisms are generally used in induction unit. External the most common type. This cam has great precision work. In industry we use this cam in pharma machines. Internal Spherical This is rarely used. .

g. which connect succeeding stages. Impact is still a problem unless the slots of the driven wheel are accurately made and the driving pin enters these slots at the proper angle. but this type is bulky and not practical for significant power levels. For best results the pin should be shaped so that the pin picks up the driven member as slowly as possible. Mutilated pinions. Impact can also be reduced by leaving the top and bottom of the slot open. However strength is of primary importance and the slot must be bridged by a web.Because the driven wheel in a Geneva motion is always under full control of the driver there is no problem with overrunning. Molded or cast spherical Geneva’s are adequate for light duty applications. External Geneva and Internal Geneva have been used for both light and heavy duties. They are frequently used as inputs to high speed devices e. . Geneva’s used as planets in planetary chains and those combined with cycloid cranks. could not absorb the shocks transmitted from the first to the second wheel. Typical Geneva with special characteristics are those driven by 4 bar linkages for improved acceleration characteristics. The fingers that form the slot will then have some resiliency. high speed mechanical counters use a Geneva between the first and second wheels. When input and output shafts must be perpendicular few intermittent mechanisms are as suitable as the spherical Geneva. Geneva’s with variable dwells .

Geneva or star wheels are usually preferred for high speeds and for high power applications. Since the teeth will meet near a centerline. but it can have any even number of teeth. Mutilated gears as shown below are used in almost all counters. In this case some of the teeth have been removed from the driver and a partial holding surface has been added to each gear to prevent slight rotation of the drum gear during the dwell period. The mutilated pinions as shown below are virtually identical to the gear above except that the locking ring on the output gear has been eliminated. They stand up well under the type of loading found in instruments. they are inexpensive reasonably precise and efficient. The shape of the first teeth that will mesh is sometimes modified to reduce impact but only a slight advantage is gained. A typical unit is the "mutilated gear" shown in the figure below. A desirable feature with mutilated gears is their indexing accuracy and in addition to the inherent accuracy of the gears. Attempts have been made to slack mount the first teeth but only a slight advantage is gained.Mutilated Gears Gears can be used in several ways to produce intermittent motion. Every other tooth on the input end of the pinion has been cut away so that the remaining teeth can hold the pinion during dwell periods. the output is always under control on the input. the teeth of the driver will sooner or later top the teeth of the output gear. Mutilated gears can be run without holding rings but it is not desirable no matter how slow the motion. In counters the driver has only two teeth. even small input torque can produce large toggle forces that can damage the teeth. . Mutilated gears of the type shown in the figure below are subject to large impact loads and accelerations if the driving speed is high.

There are many other variations of this type of mechanism including hypercyclonical. These devices are very . ratio of input to output motions etc. otherwise. epicyclical & peri-cycloidal arrangements. the output will either slow and not stop or actually reverse the motion. In this type the drive pin or roller must on the pitch circle of the planet gear if the output crank is to stop. dwell periods. Cycloid gearing provides considerable latitude in selection of operating characteristics.decelerations.Cycloid Gears With cycloid intermittent gearing the input and output remains in constant mesh. A basic cycloid mechanism is shown in the figure below.

to this mechanism. The output wheel . In the arrangement shown in the figure below pins are used as teeth on the driver. The arrangement as shown below can be classed with the hyper-cycloidal gear arrangements since the driver moves around the inside of a ring gear.versatile and can be used with Geneva’s for additional output variations. Accelerations are low and the two gears are always in mesh. Star Wheels A different type of intermittent motion mechanism is the star wheel. This arrangement is reliable. The input shaft turns the eccentric. It provides considerable freedom in choosing operating parameters. but involutes teeth can be used instead. inexpensive. In this case the ring rotates 36 degrees for every 360 degrees of input motion. the sliding pin can be replaced by a link loosely pinned to the gear and to the frame. remaining at rest for the remaining 324 degrees of rotation. which is mounted with a sliding fit within the internal gear and is concentric with it. The amount the ring gear. Below. This is another versatile mechanism. quiet and compact. is indexed by the internal gear is determined by relative size diameter of the eccentric and location of the pin. in principle. A company "Ikongear" manufactures a gear reduction design similar. In this case however the driver is constrained from rotating by a fixed pin. Since the inner gear is really only link of a four bar mechanism.

Star wheel devices can rotate at different amounts at each index point. Internal pairs are also possible." By careful shaping of the teeth.for example can be made to rotate more than one revolution. . This is not possible with pure simple Geneva’s. Accelerations and decelerations can be controlled more readily than in a mutilated gear pair. Cams Various types of cams can be used to produce intermittent indexing rotations. As o an example the scroll-shaped disc cam showed below indexes a wheel 180 when o the solenoid pulls the levers down and a further 180 when the solenoid is releases the levers.

The reciprocating drive arm moves a pin or roller back and forth in the zig -zag groove in the face of the wheel. A cylindrical cam as shown below can serve as the driver in another type of indexing drive. This simple arrangement is used in moderate speed counters. Impact is light particularly if the drive arm is itself driven by a properly shaped cam. The cam system shown below is used often for Sequenced grabs.A face cam as shown below is also often used for indexing. Every time the centre shaft is lowered down the ring in which internal slots are machined is caused to rotate a fixed angle. This is used for sequenced grabs in which each . As with many inexpensive cam drives efficiency is not high. a typical commercial unit can handle moderate to high loads at speeds of 1000 steps /minute. In this form of drive there is little danger of over travel.

alternate ring position conforms to a grab open position and the other positions conform to a grab locked closed position. The diagram below show the cylinder flattened out to illustrate the action. acceleration and dwell periods. The mechanism shown below is a diagrammatic representation of a ball point retracting mechanism. . In practice this mechanism is a cylindrical mechanism arranged such that at each press of the end projection the pen is sequentially extended and retracted. However since small changes in cam contour can result in significant changes in performance each design must be tailored to the particular application. One significant advantage of cam drives over most other intermittent motion drives is that the cams can be shaped to control such dynamic factors as impact.

Disadvantages • Limited number of dwells from 3 to 18 per rotation. • Very difficult to change timing once design is chosen. . • Maintains good control of its load at all times. • Have little wear leading to a very long life span. • Has a greater instantaneous change of acceleration than a cam mechanism.Advantages • Available in a wide variety of sizes.

− By using adequate relationships was made Geneva mechanism. − The determined data were used for computer-aided design of the crank and wheel of Geneva mechanism using NX CAD module. − It was performed Computer aided manufacturing of virtual prototype of the Geneva wheel with NX CAM module − It was verified the CNC program obtained by post processing on Heidenhain iTNC 530 equipment.Conclusion − Taking into account the presented relationships it was created a computer program to determine the geometric parameters of Geneva mechanism elements. .

University of California. K.J. Berkeley for this invaluable guidance during the course of designing this system. We also thank Elliot Hui and Karen Cheng.Acknowledgement We wish to thank Prof. Berkeley for giving us great technical assistance during the design of this system.S. University of California. . Pister. Department of Electrical Engineering.

III. Vol. S. I. [3] Sniegowski J.. 1979..References [1] I. F. . Artobolevsky. [2] Sniegowski J. MIR Publications Moscow. F. “Manufacturing Microsystems-on-a-chip with a 5-Level micromachining technology”. Mechanisms in modern engineering design. and Rodgers M. “Chemical Mechanical Polishing: Inhancing the manufacturability of MEMS”.