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Bello, Geleni Shalaine P.


MetE 11 TYZ


Cast Iron (Bollard)


Iron, the fourth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, is a silvery-white or grayish metal which is known for its high ductility and malleability. It is also one of only three naturally occurring magnetic elements, which include nickel and cobalt. It also has a very high tensile strength which enables it to be stretched without breaking. It is also easy to be formed into desired shape and thickness.

The melting point of pure iron is 1,536°C (2,797°F) and its boiling point is about 3,000°C (5,400°F). Its density is 7.87 grams per cubic centimeter. The melting point, boiling point, and other physical properties of steel alloys may be quite different from those of pure iron which makes it allotropic.

When it comes to its chemical properties, iron is a very active metal. It readily

combines with

moist air.

The product of

this reaction, iron



Fe 2 O 3

), is known as rust. Iron also reacts with very hot water and steam to

produce hydrogen gas. It also dissolves in most acids and reacts with many other elements.

Extraction of Iron

In the blast furnace process, the initial step is the production of pig iron from iron ore. The composition of the ore and additions is accurately adjusted to the final products.


Burdening materials such as sinter, pellets, lump ore, alloys, and coke is measured in exact quantities. The limestone removes impurities in the iron ore. These are transported alternately via a belt conveyor to the blast furnace head. Using a rotary chute, these are charged in layers via sluice vessels into the furnace.


The cowper supplies the blast furnace with a current of hot air ("blast"), initiating the chemical reaction. Top gas produced in the blast furnace heats the refractory checker bricks in the cowper. A temperature of over 1300 °C will be reached by the blast, then flows through these hot bricks.

Blast furnace

A counterflow principle is followed by the blast furnace. This starts from

the stock

column, made



ore, coke

and additions, slides down



conversion, while the top

gases rise


heat the



3Fe 2 O 3 +CO→2Fe 3 O 4 +C O 2 Fe 3 O 4 +4CO →3 Fe+4CO 2 Fe 2 O 3 +CO→2FeO+C O 2

At the bottom of the furnace the iron ore is chemically reduced. The blast reacts with the coke; carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide are formed at temperatures of up to 2000 °C.

C O 2 +C→2CO 3FeO+C O 2 →Fe+C O 2

The carbon monoxide removes the oxygen from the iron ore resulting in pig iron production. Slag is formed from the other ore components and the additions.

Casting bay

Through the blast furnace tap hole, the hot metal is filled into torpedo cars, launder lined with refractory material, and transported to the steel plants. The silicon content of between 0.3 % and 0.5 % is already adjusted to steel plant and rolling mill requirements. Escaping of dust is prevented by a modern dust extractor during tapping. The slag floating on the top of the hot metal in the lauder, which has low specific gravity, is separated from the metal and poured into slag dumps where it solidifies or is immediately granulated with high-pressure water. The solidified slag is used as road building material, whereas the granulated material is supplied to the cement industry.

Foundry Process

This is the production of “near-net shape” products by pouring molten

metal, produced

from scrap,

pig iron,

ingots and alloys, into molds. This also












The Production of Cast Iron

The production of cast iron may be employed through traditional sand casting techniques enhanced by modern materials and technology. There are four stages in production; Design, Pattern Making, Mould Making and Casting.


In this stage, the ideas of the expected product are converted into solid metal. This requires planning and taking into account the product’s function and appearance. These factors include the stresses, conditions under it operate, strength, durability and decorative embellishment. Designs must be with detailed and precise dimensions, metal thickness.

Pattern Making:

The design is made into a pattern, normally in wood but sometimes using fibreglass or plastics. These have to be exactly the shape of the finished item and precise in their dimensions. Patterns can be re-used to make more molds. A meticulous process must be done to prevent any irregularity or mistake that might be reproduced in the casting. Patterns must also allow metal shrinkage when it cools and provide channels and runners to allow metal to flow into the mold. Risers must also be created to allow gas escape.

Mold Making:

The next stage involves making a mold in sand into which the molten iron












components or sometimes, with resin and clay. Molds are made in two parts and held in ‘boxes’ for the actual pouring. When these are placed face to face, one on top of the other, a cavity is created into which the molten iron can be poured and will take its shape of the final product.

In a special case, casting for bollards and columns has hollow centers or cavities. To create a cavity the internal shape of the casting is formed by making a sand core, which is then placed in the mold cavity. Precise metal thickness and form is ensured. The molten iron runs round the core so that when the casting is broken out of its mould the internal sand core remains. It is then removed to leave a cavity.

When breaking out the casting the sand mould is destroyed, but of course new moulds can be made from the pattern using the same sand after it has been re-cycled.


This is the final part of the process and the one associated with foundries.

Melting and pouring iron


1,350 °C

is a potentially violent process.

Correct chemical characteristics for the prescribed grade of iron are

ensured as the


is loaded

in the furnace.


is then melted



furnace and poured off to go into the molds. After the iron has cooled in the molds, it is broken out. All the excess iron from the process, the runners, is cleaned off through fettling, which also includes grinding and shot blasting, to produce a finished casting. Excess iron can then go back to be melted down again.

Casting of a Bollard:

furnace and poured off to go into the molds. After the iron has cooled in the

1. A wooden pattern is made, half a bollard, and placed in a box for sand moulding. The inside of the pattern box is coated with either micronized talcum powder or micronized aluminium to ease mold release.

















furnace and poured off to go into the molds. After the iron has cooled in the

the molten iron is poured in.

made using a sand

and resin mix packed

pattern. The mold is made in

two halves.

resin mix has compacted, the mold can be the pattern box and the second half of the made. A refractory paint is used to coat the mold to protect the finished product when

furnace and poured off to go into the molds. After the iron has cooled in the



sand core


made that

fits precisely within the


leaving a space between the core and the mould that will

produce a constant and exact metal thickness.

furnace and poured off to go into the molds. After the iron has cooled in the

4. The top half and the bottom half are placed face to face. Metal can now be poured into the mold.

6. Any extraneous the sand core. is shot blasted 5. When the molten iron has solidified

6. Any extraneous

the sand core. is shot blasted

5. When the molten iron has solidified and cooled down, the sand mould is broken open, exposing the finished casting.

6. Any extraneous the sand core. is shot blasted 5. When the molten iron has solidified

iron is removed at the fettling stage, as is Once the fettling is complete, the casting ready for painting and delivery.

7. The final product is produces and the mold is used again, if applicable or is recycled to form more casting.


(1) Foundry Process

pdf (accessed May 15, 2016). (2) Metal Casting Process (accessed

May 16, 2016). (3) Cast Iron Production

onproduction.pdf (accessed May 15, 2016). (4) Extraction Of Iron | What happens in the Blast Furnace & Reactions

(accessed May 17, 2016). (5) Iron, Chemical Element - reaction, water, uses, elements, metal, gas,

number, name (accessed May 18, 2016).