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TDA0288/05.07/BEL

TDA 2007

Primary induction

Training and Development Agency for Schools


151 Buckingham Palace Road, London, SW1W 9SZ
TDA switchboard: t 0870 4960 123

Primary induction

Teaching assistant file

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information. To request this item in another
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Role and context


Promoting positive behaviour
Inclusion
Literacy
Foundation stage literacy
Foundation stage mathematics
Mathematics
Understanding how children learn
ICT

Updated 2007

Teaching
assistant file

Contents

Section 1

page 1.1

Introduction

Section 2

page 2.1

Role and context

Section 3

page 3.1

Promoting positive behaviour

Section 4

page 4.1

Inclusion

Section 5

page 5.1

Literacy

Section 6

page 6.1

Foundation stage literacy

Section 7

page 7.1

Foundation stage mathematics

Section 8

page 8.1

Mathematics

Section 9

page 9.1

Understanding how children learn

Section 10

page 10.1

ICT

Teaching assistant file

Key to symbols

The following symbols are used in the margins of this text:

Indicates a presentation slide


PPT 1.1

Indicates reference to a course document


Book 1.1

Indicates an audio clip sequence


Audio clip

ii

Teaching assistant file

Section 1

Introduction

Section 1
Introduction

Welcome to the induction course for teaching assistants (TAs) in primary schools, prepared
by the Training and Development Agency for Schools (TDA).
The training consists of nine modules:
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Role and context

Promoting positive behaviour

Inclusion

Literacy

Foundation stage literacy

Foundation stage mathematics

Mathematics

Understanding how children learn

ICT

These may be delivered in several whole-day sessions or in various shorter, separate


sessions. The local authority may also offer additional modules. In any event, you will get
the dates and arrangements from your local authority.
In order to make the best use of this time we have asked you to do some advance
preparation, and you should already have received instructions for this. You should have
received a general outline of the course and a complete list of all the activities, including a
few that you are asked to do between training sessions. All these activities are reproduced in
the appropriate section of this file.
We have recommended that the school appoints a mentor from its staff to support you in
these activities and to help establish you in your job. The mentor has been asked to attend
the first module of the course with you, and any other sessions that are of interest to them.
This file contains materials for the whole course, so do not try to read all these materials at
once! The materials will be used during the training sessions or afterwards and you do not
need to read them beforehand. However, there are preparatory activities for you to do
before attending the first session of each module.
As you complete the course and its activities, and continue working in your school, you are
likely to accumulate a considerable set of resource materials. These will be useful for your
job and for your continuing professional development. You may be able to use some of the
materials later in other training programmes that lead to accreditation, so it is worth
keeping them well organised.

Section 1 Introduction

1.1

This file
The file contains all the material for each module of the course, including:
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a complete set of the presentation slides used during each module, so you do not need
to copy them down. There is space next to each one for you to make notes

any course documents that are referred to during the module

details of any activities you are asked to complete before, during or after modules, and
suggestions for further reading.

During the course, you may find it helpful to make notes on the file itself, so that all your
materials and notes are kept together.
You will need to have this file with you at every training session.

1.2

Teaching assistant file

Section 2

Role and context

Section 2
Role and context

Contents
Pre-module activity

page 2.2

Activity A

Session 1

page 2.8

The role of the teaching assistant

Session 2

page 2.15

Every child matters


Inter-sessional activity
Activity B

page 2.33

Session 3

page 2.34

Supporting in the classroom

Session 4

page 2.39

Support for teaching assistants

Section 2 Role and context

2.1

Pre-module activity

Activity A Finding out about your school or setting, your role and the
context in which you work
Note: This activity should be started before TAs attend session 1 of the role and context
module, but TAs should return to it throughout the training to update it or to identify
further issues arising from their training that they wish to follow up with their mentors.

Activity
Find out as much as you can about your school/setting, your role and the context in which
you work through discussions with your mentor and your colleagues.
The following notes are to guide you. Not everything will be relevant to your school/setting
and there may be other points that you think it is important to include.
You need not be familiar with the documents listed in this section straight away, but you
will need to know of their existence and where they can be found. You may wish to look at
some of the documents in more detail when you reach the relevant part of your training,
For example, you may wish to look at the schools/settings safeguarding/child protection
policy during this module, but leave the behaviour and attendance policy for detailed
scrutiny when you are doing the Promoting positive behaviour module.
You can continue to collect this information throughout your induction training. Please
discuss this with your mentor. You should bring your work-in-progress on this activity to
the role and context module.
1. Do you know key facts about your school/setting?
What key stages does your school/setting cover?
Is there a nursery class?
How many pupils are there on roll?
How many teachers are there?
How many TAs are there? Are any of them higher level teaching assistants or leading
teaching assistants?
How many other support staff are there? What are their roles?
Does the school/setting have a special designation? What does this designation
mean in practice?
Is the school in a special local initiative?
Is it an extended school?
Is your school/setting an Investor in people?
What else should you know? Check with your mentor.

2.2

Teaching assistant file

2. Do you know about the local community?


How would you describe the area from which the pupils are drawn?
For example, is it rural, suburban or urban, an old community or new estates, a tourist
centre, multi-ethnic, with refugees or asylum seekers part of the community?
Do pupils live locally or come from further afield?
What is the employment pattern in the area? For example, do people commute, work in
local industry? Is there high unemployment?
What links does the school have with:
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pre-school settings, other primary schools, secondary schools, special schools

employers?

community groups churches, businesses, organisations that regularly hire the


premises etc?

What else should you know? Check with your mentor.


3. Do you know what the governing body does and who the governors are?
4. What regular visitors from the local authority, other services, agencies or teams
come to the school?
For example, school nurse, educational psychologist, speech or occupational therapists,
curriculum advisers?
What do they do? Does their work affect yours?
What is the school/settings protocols/procedures for communicating with practitioners
and professionals from outside the school/setting?
What else should you know? Check with your mentor.
5. How is the school organised?
How many classes are there?
How are classes/year groups organised?
How are the staff organised? What are their various responsibilities?
Are you familiar with general staff guidance on:
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confidentiality, expectations of dress, punctuality, code of courtesy, etc?

job descriptions, pay policy, discipline and grievance procedures?

line management systems, staff structure, staff support systems, professional


development procedures?

Section 2 Role and context

2.3

Do you have a map of the school/setting?


Where can you find up-to-date information? eg. staff handbook, noticeboards, staff
message system, school brochure, school intranet?
Where can you find copies of school policies?
What resource areas are there? eg. library, learning support base, information and
communications technology (ICT) areas, workshops, preparation areas, stationery stores,
virtual resource centres on the school intranet? What responsibilities do you have for
these resources?
What access to books, equipment and resource areas do you have for yourself and on
behalf of the teachers or pupils?
Can you borrow ICT equipment? eg. a laptop to take home?
Are there good sources of information near the school? eg. museums, libraries,
field centres?
Do you have access to the internet at school?
Can you access the school intranet from home?
What else should you know? Check with your mentor.
6. Are you familiar with the school procedures?
The school may have a school handbook that includes some if not all of these.
Have you read the health and safety policy?
Do you know who the qualified first aiders are?
What happens in an emergency, eg. fire, accident, incident, severe weather?
What are the health and safety procedures, including hygiene and food, ICT, security and
off-site responsibilities, school trips, recording and reporting of incidents?
Where are the risk assessments?
What is the behaviour policy: expectations, roles of all staff, responsibilities and
strategies, rewards and sanctions?
Who is the designated senior person (DSP) responsible for safeguarding children? Do you
know what the safeguarding procedures are?
Who is responsible for the school premises, equipment and resources?
What are the rules on confidentiality?
What are the school security procedures?
What else should you know? Check with your mentor.

2.4

Teaching assistant file

7. How does the school provide for pupils differing needs?


In providing for the differing needs of the pupils you work with, you will need to know
what specialist support is available to you.
Where are the code of practice for special educational needs (SEN) and other relevant
documents kept?
Do you know the schools policy for pupils with SEN and disabilities?
What kinds of special needs and disabilities do pupils have in your school?
Who is the nominated special educational needs coordinator (SENCO)?
Who is the SEN governor?
What other agencies provide services for pupils with SEN or disabilities? eg. nurse,
occupational therapist, speech therapist, educational psychological service? What are
their roles?
What proportion of pupils speak a language other than English at home?
What support is available to pupils from minority ethnic groups and those who speak
English as an additional language?
Is there a resource bank of specialist materials or equipment available for you to draw
on? If so, where is it kept?
What else should you know? Check with your mentor.
8. What do you know about the curriculum?
Are you familiar with the national curriculum in the foundation stage and at key stages
1 and 2?
Do you know its values, aims and purposes?
Are you familiar with its structure and terminology?
Do you know about other requirements, eg. those for religious education?
Do you know which skills teachers promote across the curriculum?
Are you familiar with the inclusion statement and its implications for practice?
Do you know how the curriculum is assessed?
Are you familiar with the Primary National Strategy for school improvement?

Section 2 Role and context

2.5

Does your school/setting use any standardised tests to assess pupils?


Does your school have a policy on:
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teaching and learning, including planning, feedback, marking, assessment, recording


and reporting pupils progress and attainment, including to parents?

areas of the curriculum which you support?

presentation of work and displays?

SEN and disabilities?

equal opportunities, cultural diversity and anti-discrimination?

work-related learning?

out of school learning?

How does your school prepare pupils for secondary school?


Do you know about Ofsted inspections?
When was your school/setting last inspected?
What did the report say about your school/setting?
Are you familiar with the school improvement plan (SIP)?
How does it say the school will continue to improve?
What implications does this have for your role?
What else should you know? Check with your mentor.
9. What is your school/local authority doing in relation to the Every child
matters agenda?

2.6

stay safe?

be healthy? eg. healthy school standard, healthy eating, breakfast clubs, counselling,
mentoring etc?

enjoy and achieve?

make a contribution?

achieve economic well-being?

Teaching assistant file

10. What training and development opportunities are available to you in your
school/setting or local area?
How does your school/setting help pupils to:
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stay safe?

be healthy? eg. healthy school standard, healthy eating, breakfast clubs, counselling,
mentoring etc?

enjoy and achieve?

make a contribution?

achieve economic well-being?

11. What training and development opportunities are available to you in your
school/setting or local area?
What continuing professional development opportunities are available to you?
What qualifications are available that might be useful for you?
What career progression opportunities are open to you? eg. higher level teaching
assistant status, leading teaching assistant in the local authority?

Section 2 Role and context

2.7

Session 1 The role of the teaching assistant

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 1.1

Definition of effective practice


PPT 1.1

Effective practice in relation to TAs involves


contributions that:
foster the participation of pupils in the academic
and social processes of the school
seek to enable pupils to become more
independent learners
help to raise standards of learning for pupils

Presentation slide 1.2

Aims of the programme


PPT 1.2

The programme aims to provide induction training


for newly recruited TAs to enable them to assist
teachers in raising the standards of pupil
performance. The training is designed to promote:
The training is designed to promote:
support by the TA for teachers, pupils and the
school
support for the TA in carrying out the
responsibilities and functions of the role
ascribed by the school

Presentation slide 1.3

The role of mentors


PPT 1.3

To support the TAs in this session and in the


follow-up to this and other sessions back in
their schools
To help the TAs relate course principles to
school practice
To help TAs consider follow-up and further
training and professional development,
including that which can lead to qualifications
or career progression

2.8

Teaching assistant file

Presentation slide 1.4

PPT 1.4

The four types of support provided by


the TA

Helping with classroom resources and records


Helping with the care and support of pupils
Providing support for learning activities
Providing support for colleagues

Presentation slide 1.5

Support from the school


PPT 1.5

Support from the school might include:


an appraisal of performance to inform
decisions about priorities for further support
or professional development
involving TAs in planning the programme
of support
including TAs in relevant school-based
meetings and training

Presentation slide 1.6

Defining responsibilities clearly


PPT 1.6

Indicator 1: Schools have clear policies outlining


the roles and responsibilities of TAs
Does the school provide appropriate job
descriptions for TAs?
Does the school involve TAs in drawing up the
job descriptions?
Do the job descriptions reflect a balance of
responsibilities, reflecting TAs help with
classroom resources and records, care and
support of pupils, support for learning activities
and support for colleagues?

Section 2 Role and context

2.9

Course documents

Course document 1.1


Book 1.1

What the five outcomes of Every child matters mean


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Be healthy
Physically healthy
Mentally and emotionally healthy
Sexually healthy
Healthy lifestyles
Choose not to take illegal drugs

Parents, carers and families promote healthy choices


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Stay safe
Safe from maltreatment, neglect, violence and sexual exploitation
Safe from accidental injury and death
Safe from bullying and discrimination
Safe from crime and anti-social behaviour in and out of school
Have security, stability and are cared for

Parents, carers and families provide safe homes and stability


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Enjoy and achieve


Ready for school
Attend and enjoy school
Achieve stretching national educational standards at primary school
Achieve personal and social development and enjoy recreation
Achieve stretching national educational standards at secondary school

Parents, carers and families support learning

2.10

Teaching assistant file

Make a positive contribution


Engage in decision making and support the community and environment
Engage in law-abiding and positive behaviour in and out of school
Develop positive relationships and choose not to bully and discriminate
Develop self-confidence and successfully deal with significant life changes
and challenges
Develop enterprising behaviour

Parents, carers and families promote positive behaviour

Achieve economic well-being


Engage in further education, employment or training on leaving school
Ready for employment
Live in decent homes and sustainable communities
Access to transport and material goods
Live in households free from low income

Parents, carers and families are supported to be economically active

Section 2 Role and context

2.11

Course document 1.2


Book 1.2

Responsibilities/functions TAs undertake as part of their role

2.12

Teaching assistant file

Course document 1.3


Book 1.3

Framework for a job description


Job title:

Teaching assistant

Grade:

School:
(employer and location)

Responsible to:
(line manager)

Liaises with:
(subject teachers, form tutors, etc.)

Main purpose of job:

Duties and responsibilities:

Helping with classroom resources and records

Helping with the care and support of pupils

Providing support for learning activities

Providing support for colleagues

Section 2 Role and context

2.13

Arrangements for appraisal of performance:

2.14

Teaching assistant file

Session 2 Every child matters

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 2.1

Every child matters: change for children


PPT 2.1

Outcomes

Be healthy
Stay safe
Enjoy and achieve
Make a positive contribution
Achieve economic well-being

Presentation slide 2.2

The national healthy schools standard


PPT 2.2

Schools are asked to demonstrate evidence in the


core themes using a whole-school approach
involving the whole school community:
personal, social and health education including
sex and relationship education and drug
education (including alcohol, tobacco and
volatile substance abuse)
healthy eating
physical activity
emotional health and well-being
(including bullying)

Presentation slide 2.3

Aims of PSHE in primary school


PPT 2.3

PSHE should help pupils to lead confident, healthy


and responsible lives as individuals and members of
society. It should:
equip pupils with the knowledge, skills and
understanding they need to develop personally
and socially
help them make positive choices as they grow and
move into adult life and contribute to their
communities and society
help them develop confidence and responsibility and
make the most of their abilities
prepare them to play an active role as citizens
help them develop healthier and safer lifestyles
help them to develop good relationships and respect
the differences between people

Section 2 Role and context

2.15

Presentation slide 2.4

Healthy eating
PPT 2.4

To achieve the required standard, schools must ensure


that, through a whole-school approach, they:
present consistent, informed messages about healthy
eating for example, food on offer in vending
machines, tuck shops and school meals should
complement what is taught about healthy eating in the
taught curriculum
provide, promote and monitor healthier food at lunch
and break times and in any breakfast clubs where they
are provided
include education on healthier eating and basic food
safety practices in the taught curriculum
The DfES also published compulsory nutritional
standards for school lunches which came into effect
on 1 April 2001.

Presentation slide 2.5

Physical activity
PPT 2.5

To achieve the required standard, schools


must ensure that, through a whole-school
approach, they:
offer all pupils, whatever their age or ability,
two hours of physical activity a week within
and outside the national curriculum
take advantage of appropriate opportunities to
promote and develop physical activity
encourage staff, pupils, parents/carers and other
adults, eg. sports development officers, to
become involved in promoting physical activity
and develop their skills, abilities and
understanding through appropriate training

Presentation slide 2.6

Health and safety


PPT 2.6

TAs need to be familiar with:

health and safety policies and procedures


areas of risk and how risks can be minimised
emergency procedures
accident and security procedures

2.16

Teaching assistant file

Presentation slide 2.7

Safety on school visits


PPT 2.7

TAs should:
be clear about their responsibilities
not be left in sole charge of pupils, except
where it has been agreed as part of the
risk assessment
follow the instructions of the group leader
and teacher supervisors and help with control
and discipline
speak to the group leader of teacher supervisors
if they have concerns about the health and
safety of pupils at any time during the visit

Presentation slide 2.8

Aims of this section


PPT 2.8

To build a basic understanding of safeguarding


matters likely to be encountered by TAs

To inform TAs what to do if they have concerns


about pupils that relate to their safety

Presentation slide 2.9

Children Act 2004


PPT 2.9

Local authorities and governing bodies must


make arrangements to ensure that their
functions are discharged with a view to
safeguarding and promoting the welfare
of children

They must have regard to any guidance given


to them by the secretary of state

Presentation slide 2.10

Safeguarding
PPT 2.10

All agencies working with children, young


people and their families take all reasonable
measures to ensure that the risks of harm to
childrens welfare are minimised

Where there are concerns about children


and young peoples welfare, all agencies
take all appropriate actions to address those
concerns, working to agreed local policies
and procedures

Section 2 Role and context

2.17

Presentation slide 2.11

What do we mean by child abuse?


PPT 2.11

Abuse is when a child is hurt or harmed by


another person in a way that causes significant
harm to that child and which may well have an
effect on the childs development or well-being.

Presentation slide 2.12

Duty to refer
PPT 2.12

Through their day-to-day contact with pupils and


direct work with families, education staff have a
crucial role to play in noticing indicators of
possible abuse or neglect, and in referring
concerns to the designated senior person
(DSP) in their school.

Presentation slide 2.13

Designated senior person


PPT 2.13

The designated senior person:


need not be a teacher, but must have sufficient
authority within the school management structure to
carry out the duties of the post, including
committing resources to child protection matters
and, where appropriate, directing other staff

will have undertaken training to standards set by the


local safeguarding children board and is responsible
for coordinating action to safeguard pupils

liaises with other agencies about safeguarding


concerns and referrals

offers support and advice to staff who may have


concerns about pupils

2.18

Teaching assistant file

Presentation slide 2.14

Barriers to diagnosis
PPT 2.14

The biggest barrier to diagnosis is the existence


of emotional blocks in the minds of
professionals. These can be so powerful that
they prevent diagnosis even being considered in
quite obvious cases. All those working with
children should be warned that their
overwhelming impulse on confronting their first
case is to cover it up.
British Medical Journal (1989)

Presentation slide 2.15

Physical abuse
PPT 2.15

Physical abuse may involve hitting, shaking,


throwing, poisoning, burning or scalding,
drowning, suffocating or otherwise causing
physical harm to a child. Physical harm may
also be caused when a parent or carer fakes
the symptoms of, or deliberately causes ill
health to, a child whom they are looking after.

Presentation slide 2.16

Emotional abuse
PPT 2.16

Actual or likely adverse effect on the emotional


and behavioural development of a child under
the age of 18 years, caused by persistent or
severe emotional ill-treatment or rejection.

Presentation slide 2.17

Neglect
PPT 2.17

Persistent or severe neglect of children under


the age of 18 years, or the failure to protect a
child from physical harm or danger.

Section 2 Role and context

2.19

Presentation slide 2.18

Sexual abuse
PPT 2.18

Sexual abuse is the actual or likely sexual


exploitation of a child or adolescent under the
age of 18 years by any person. This would
include any form of sexual activity to which the
child cannot give true consent either by law or
because of ignorance, dependence,
developmental immaturity or fear.

Presentation slide 2.19a


PPT 2.19a

Golden rules
It is not the responsibility of education staff to
interview pupils. If a pupil makes a disclosure
of abuse they should listen carefully to what
the pupil has to say, but should not question
them in a way that puts words in their mouth
It is important to make accurate notes about
what has been heard, seen or told
Interviewing pupils should be left to the police
and social care staff, who have the necessary
training to carry out this role effectively.
Inappropriate interviewing may jeopardise
the chances of a successful prosecution at a
later date

Presentation slide 2.19b

Golden rules
PPT 2.19b

Concerns should always be made known


quickly to the DSP, or in their absence to
another senior member of staff
Concerns should not be discussed with
parents/carers until advice on how to be
proceed has been obtained from the DSP
A pupil must not be promised confidentiality
about any information on abuse they may
choose to disclose. The TA must explain that
they may need to pass on information to other
professionals to help keep the pupil or other
children safe

2.20

Teaching assistant file

Presentation slide 2.20

Useful websites
PPT 2.20

www.publications.doh.gov.uk/safeguardingchildren
www.teachernet.gov.uk/childprotection

Presentation slide 2.21

The nature of bullying


PPT 2.21

There are many definitions of bullying, but most


consider it to be:
deliberately hurtful (including aggression)
repeated over a period of time
difficult for victims to defend themselves against
Bullying can take many forms, but three main
types are:
physical hitting, kicking, taking belongings
verbal name calling, insulting, making
offensive remarks
indirect spreading nasty stories, exclusion from
social groups, being the subject of malicious rumours,
sending malicious e-mails or text messages

Presentation slide 2.22

The school curriculum


PPT 2.22

The school curriculum comprises all learning


and other experiences that each school plans for
its pupils. The national curriculum is an
important element of the school curriculum.
The national curriculum: handbook for primary teachers
in England, p. 10

Section 2 Role and context

2.21

Presentation slide 2.23

Answers
PPT 2.23

1. 5 to 16
2. Foundation stage: 35; KS1: 57; KS2: 711
3. English, mathematics, science, design and
technology, information and communication
technology, history, geography, music, art and
design and physical education
4. KS1 English, mathematics
5. KS2 English, mathematics and science
6. (Answers will vary)
7. Religious education
8. Qualifications and curriculum authority, and office
for standards in education
9. Department for education and skills

Presentation slide 2.24

The national curriculum


PPT 2.24

The whole curriculum (includes whats


taught in lessons, break times,
assemblies, extra-curricular, activities)

The legally required basic curriculum,


including RE

The national curriculum

Presentation slide 2.25

Core and non-core foundation subjects


PPT 2.25

The national curriculum (2000) in England


contains the teaching requirements for
primary schools:
core subjects English, mathematics
and science

non-core subjects art and design, design


and technology, information and communication
technology, geography, history, music and
physical education

2.22

Teaching assistant file

Presentation slide 2.26

Phases of education
PPT 2.26

The foundation stage is for children aged 3 to the


end of the reception year

National curriculum key stages


Key stage 1
Key stage 2
Key stage 3
Key stage 4
(years 10 and

pupils
pupils
pupils
pupils
11)

aged
aged
aged
aged

5 to 7 (years 1 and 2)
7 to 11 (years 3 to 6)
11 to 14 (years 7 to 9)
14 to 16

Post-16 provision

Presentation slide 2.27

Terminology used in the national curriculum


PPT 2.27

Attainment targets
Level descriptions

Presentation slide 2.28

Age-related expectations
PPT 2.28

Range of levels within which the great majority


of pupils are expected to work:
Key stage 1
13
Key stage 2
25
Key stage 3
37
Expected attainment for the majority of pupils
at the end of the key stage:
Age 7
level 2
Age 11
level 4
Age 14
level 5/6

Presentation slide 2.29

The foundation stage


PPT 2.29

The six areas in the foundation


stage are:
personal, social and emotional development
communication, language and literacy
mathematical development
knowledge and understanding of the world
physical development
creative development

Section 2 Role and context

2.23

Presentation slide 2.30

Learning across the curriculum


PPT 2.30

Creativity
ICT
Education for sustainable development
Literacy
Numeracy

Presentation slide 2.31

Supporting transitions
PPT 2.31

Look out for signs of changes in attitudes and


behaviour

Build open and honest relationships with pupils


Employ good listening skills
Empathise and reassure
Understand the limits of your role
Know about school procedures and referral
routes

Provide practical help if it has been agreed by


senior colleagues

2.24

Teaching assistant file

Course documents

Course document 2.1 Audio transcripts


Book 2.1

Audio clip 2.1 Encouraging healthy eating


Audio clip

Were trying to work on his eating at the moment. Hes not open to many things.
Theres like five crunchy dry things that he will eat and thats the kind of consistency he
likes. But we started growing vegetables, and we grew some strawberries and Samir
loved going out and doing all the watering. He actually loved the whole process of the
gardening. And we grew these strawberries, we brought them in and made strawberry
jam and he ate them, and that was the first time hed eaten something completely alien
to his pallet. Now he will eat jam on toast.
We started introducing different tastes in life skills, and hell taste a lot more things than
he would have done before. He doesnt like the feel of bananas, and wouldnt normally
eat something with banana in, but today we made a smoothie with banana in and he
was quite happy to taste it along with his buddy, Antonia.
Its important to talk to his mum because were trying to tackle his different behaviours
at home and in school. Hes a lot more open to new suggestions and ideas in school
than he is at home, especially with his eating, so if we speak to his mum and shes aware
of what he does in school, it may then carry over at home.

Audio clip 2.2 Multi-agency working


Audio clip

We have a range of outside agencies who work with the children, such as the speech and
language therapists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists and so on. They often
devise programmes for the children, which the assistants can then help the class teacher
to implement. For example, if its a physiotherapy programme it might be that a child
needs to do certain exercises every day. Well, thats something that the teaching
assistant could do, say first thing in the morning, or at regular intervals during the day.
The same with speech and language programmes again, small periods of intensive
work can be done with the teaching assistant.
Wherever possible, we endeavour to have joint meetings with the therapists and the
other outside agencies so there can be regular feedback on pupil progress, and
programmes can be monitored quite carefully. Clearly, the teacher is always involved
and, wherever possible, we try to include the teaching assistant.

Section 2 Role and context

2.25

Audio clip 2.3 Golden time


Audio clip

The children have golden time at the end of every day. Its like an after-school club
time to socialise with their friends. They have football, tea and toast, disco and they can
choose which club they go to. We change the activities on a regular basis to keep the
children interested.
It can be teaching assistants or teachers that run the groups. It depends on the teacher
or teaching assistants strengths and what they enjoy. If they enjoy playing football or
outdoor activities then those are the types of groups that theyll run with the children.

Audio clip 2.4 Pyramid club


Audio clip

Ive been involved with the pyramid club, which is a club in year 3 that promotes selfesteem, and it helps the invisible child in the corner just come out of their shell a bit.
And that was something that I wanted to do and the school paid for. It involved going
on a training course to show us how to bring these children out. They do a 10-week club
after school from three till five and we take them on a trip. We do lots of fun activities
with them and every time we start with a circle time, we eat, we drink, we have fun and
then at the end of the day we do a circle time and end it. And at first the children dont
speak and then they come out of their shells a bit, yeah, its really good. By the tenth
week theyre like Can you quieten down please.

Audio clip 2.5 Living locally


Audio clip

I live very close to the school and I know a lot of the parents that send their children
here. Im aware how important it is to be professional. Parents usually come up to me
and ask questions about how their childs doing, What do you think about this? Whats
going on at the school? and sometimes they try to prise information out of you. But I
find the best way to deal with this is to say, If youve got a problem, would you like to
go and see your class teacher, please.
Working with children that you know from outside school, you occasionally hear things.
If its to do with child protection, its very important that this is brought forward to the
class teacher or senior members of staff.

2.26

Teaching assistant file

Course document 2.2 Case studies


Book 2.2

Sally
Eight-year-old Sally has been physically and sexually abused by her father for three years.
She has tried to tell her mother without success. She has a younger brother and sister who
attend this school. Her older half-sister is 17 and in care. Sally wants to tell someone whats
going on, but cannot decide who would keep it a secret. She doesnt want anyone to know
shes told and is terrified the police would come to her house.
Sally tells you.
G

What would you do and why?

Wayne
Wayne (11) is the eldest of four children. The family live in a caravan on the local travellers
site. Wayne is absent from school for long periods while working with his father in the
family scrap metal business. On his return to school after a period away you notice a dirty
bandage over a deep wound to his leg. When you ask him how he got the injury he tells you
to mind your own business and limps away.
G

What do you think you should do next?

Sanjay
Sanjay is a sickly child. He no sooner recovers from one illness than another attacks. He is
nearly 12 years old, very thin, lethargic and quiet. You have talked to his parents who believe
very strongly that human illness should be treated through faith. They refuse to take him to
the doctor or allow the school medical officer to examine him. Sanjay comes into school
looking so ill that you think he should have stayed at home.
G

What should you do?

Section 2 Role and context

2.27

Shawana
Shawana has just turned 13. She is physically disabled and profoundly deaf. She
communicates through sign language. Her mother died when she was a baby, and her father
has always refused help and assistance in caring for her. Shawana has told you that she
doesnt like the way her father bathes her any more. You are surprised that her father is still
bathing her because she joins in with many physical activities in school and she is capable
of bathing herself.
G

What do you do next?

John
John is 10 years old, bright and comes from a very supportive family. His father was recently
made redundant and his mother works as a clerk at a local bank. You notice that John seems
increasingly reluctant to leave the classroom to go home after school. When you ask him
why, he eventually tells you that his dad is always in a bad temper, goes to the pub a lot
and comes home and hits his mum. His mum tells them to go to bed before he gets home
and not to worry, but he hears his mum crying a lot and is scared.
G

2.28

What would you do now?

Teaching assistant file

Course document 2.3


Book 2.3

Referral

TA has concerns about pupils welfare

TA immediately discusses with the designated senior person (DSP) or, in their
absence, the pupils class teacher, form tutor, head of year or headteacher

Still has concerns

No longer has concerns

DSP refers to social services,


following up in writing within
48 hours

No further safeguarding action,


although may need to act to
ensure services provided

Social worker and DSP


acknowledge receipt of
referral and decide on next
course of action within
one working day

Feedback to referrer on next


course of action

No further social services


involvement at this stage, although
other action may be necessary,
eg. onward referral

Initial assessment required

Initial assessment

Concerns about pupils


immediate safety

Emergency action

Section 2 Role and context

2.29

Course document 2.4


Book 2.4

Transition A
A child tells you that his dad moved out of the house after rowing with his mum and has
been living apart from the family, in a flat, for several months now. They are going to get
divorced and the child has to decide who he wants to live with. He doesnt know what to do
and is worried that whatever decision he makes will upset and alienate him from one or
other of his parents. He also feels guilty because he thinks that he was responsible for the
break-up because his parents always used to argue about his behaviour
What should you do?
What effect might this transition have on the childs learning and behaviour?
How could the school support him through the transition?
What might be a TAs role in this?
What knowledge or skills might they need to act appropriately?
Transition B
A child has been in your school for some time. Originally she came from Turkey but she and
her family left because they were scared of being harassed because of their culture. She has
made friends and made good progress with learning English. She seemed very settled. She
has just heard that she and her family will be moved to a detention centre. She will no
longer be able to attend school. She and her family are scared and upset. They do not know
how long they will be in the detention centre or what will happen to them next.
What can you do?
What effect might this transition have on the childs learning and behaviour?
How could the school support her?
What might be a TAs role in this?
What knowledge or skills might they need to act appropriately?

2.30

Teaching assistant file

Transition C
A pupil who uses a wheelchair is in her final year at primary school. She has attended since
nursery and is included fully in the curriculum and the wider life of the school. She is
worried about moving to the local secondary school.
What can you do?
What effect might this transition have on the childs learning and behaviour?
How could the school support her through this transition?
What might be a TAs role in this?
What knowledge or skills might they need to act appropriately?
Transition D
A pupil tells you that his mum is very sad and he is worried about leaving her to come to
school because he is frightened about what might happen to her or what she might do
when he is not there.
What can you do?
What effect might this transition have on the childs learning and behaviour?
How could the school support and advise him?
What might be a TAs role in this?
What knowledge or skills might they need to act appropriately?

Section 2 Role and context

2.31

Recommended further reading

Further reading 2.1


Level descriptions for English attainment target 2: reading
Level 1
Pupils recognise familiar words in simple texts. They use their knowledge of letters and
soundsymbol relationships in order to read words and to establish meaning when reading
aloud. In these activities they sometimes require support. They express their response to
poems, stories and non-fiction by identifying aspects they like.
Level 2
Pupils reading of simple texts shows understanding and is generally accurate. They express
opinions about major events or ideas in stories, poems and non-fiction. They use more than
one strategy, such as phonic, graphic, syntactic and contextual, in reading unfamiliar words
and establishing meaning
Level 3
Pupils read a range of texts fluently and accurately. They read independently, using strategies
appropriately to establish meaning. In responding to fiction and non-fiction they show
understanding of the main points and express preferences. They use their knowledge of the
alphabet to locate books and find information.
Level 4
In responding to a range of texts, pupils show understanding of significant ideas, themes,
events and characters, beginning to use inference and deduction. They refer to the text when
explaining their views. They locate and use ideas and information.
Level 5
Pupils show understanding of a range of texts, selecting essential points and using inference
and deduction where appropriate. In their responses, they identify key features, themes and
characters and select sentences, phrases and relevant information to support their views.
They retrieve and collate information from a range of sources.
Level 6
In reading and discussing a range of texts, pupils identify different layers of meaning and
comment on their significance and effect. They give personal responses to literary texts,
referring to aspects of language, structure and themes in justifying their views. They
summarise a range of information from different sources.

2.32

Teaching assistant file

Level 7
Pupils show understanding of the ways in which meaning and information are conveyed in a
range of texts. They articulate personal and critical responses to poems, plays and novels,
showing awareness of their thematic, structural and linguistic features. They select and
synthesise a range of information from a variety of sources.
Level 8
Pupils response is shown in their appreciation of, and comment on, a range of texts, and
they evaluate how authors achieve their effects through the use of linguistic, structural and
presentational devices. They select and analyse information and ideas, and comment on how
these are conveyed in different texts.
Exceptional performance
Pupils confidently sustain their responses to a demanding range of texts, developing their
ideas and referring in detail to aspects of language, structure and presentation. They make
apt and careful comparison between texts, including consideration of audience, purpose and
form. They identify and analyse argument, opinion and alternative interpretations, making
cross-references, where appropriate.

Inter-sessional activity
Activity B School improvement plan
A school improvement plan (SIP) is a tool to plan the progress of the school and to ensure
everyone, including parents, knows what the school intends to achieve. It is like the business
plan of a company.
SIPs define how schools (or other settings) intend to develop policy and practice within a
given timeframe. They also state who will be responsible for carrying out actions within the
plan individuals, teams and groups of staff. In most schools several people are usually
involved in identifying needs for staff development and training, and in setting the targets.
In many schools this process includes TAs.
If you have not done so already, find a copy of your SIP. Your mentor can help you with this.
Discuss with your mentor the way your SIP applies to you.

Section 2 Role and context

2.33

Session 3 Supporting in the classroom

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 3.1

The purpose of observation


PPT 3.1

Observation is intended to:


provide reliable information of pupils progress
on the curriculum
identify pupils strengths and weaknesses
discover how well pupils are responding to the
teaching resources
enable feedback to pupils of what they need to
do to progress
enable feedback to teachers of the response of
pupils to the work

Presentation slide 3.2

Differentiation
PPT 3.2

By grouping
By task
By outcome
By support

Presentation slide 3.3

Definition of effective practice


PPT 3.3

Effective practice in relation to TAs involves


contributions that:
seek to enable pupils to become more
independent learners
foster the participation of pupils in the social
and academic processes of the school
help to raise standards of learning for pupils

2.34

Teaching assistant file

Presentation slide 3.4

Working cooperatively with teachers


PPT 3.4

Indicator 3.1: TAs work cooperatively with teachers to


support the learning and participation of pupils.
Do TAs understand the purpose of lesson activities?
Do TAs share in long- and medium-term planning?
Are TAs involved in the planning of specific lessons
where teachers and TAs share the classroom?
Do TAs and teachers have arrangements
that encourage them to offer one another
constructive feedback?
Do TAs and teachers plan in ways that demonstrate
to pupils their commitment to teamwork?
Are there agreed plans for TAs to respond to
individual pupils needs?

Presentation slide 3.5

The use of TAs skills


PPT 3.5

Indicator 2.2: The expertise, skills and knowledge of


TAs are used flexibly to foster the learning of pupils.

Are TAs previous experiences and skills used to


support curriculum access and flexible approaches?

Is care taken to make sure that TAs are actively


encouraged to work in curriculum areas or faculties
in which they feel confident and interested?

Is the particular curricular knowledge of TAs


recognised and used?

Do TAs contribute to record keeping and collecting


evidence of pupils progress for formal
assessments?

Presentation slide 3.6

PPT 3.6

The virtuous circle of support for the


curriculum, teachers and pupils
Planning

Review

Preparation

Practice

Section 2 Role and context

2.35

Course documents

Course document 3.1


Book 3.1

Observation sheet for classroom use example 1


Record the following:
Name of observer:

Class:

Teacher:

Date and time:

Number in class:

Objectives of the lesson:

What activities are taking place?

What is the focus of your observations?

A sketch map of the location with the placing of the key players:

2.36

Teaching assistant file

Observations
Time

Activity

Section 2 Role and context

Pupil(s) observed

Observations/notes

2.37

Recommended further reading

Further reading 3.1 Observing in the classroom


Before making and recording observations in the classroom, please discuss this with your
teacher and mentor. They will guide you in the first instance and ensure you follow the
protocols established in your school.
It is, for example, important to keep confidential the details of what you observe in a lesson,
especially if you keep a written record. If any materials are shared more widely on a
course, for instance then the names of those observed should be withheld or altered.
If you go further and plan to use observational work for serious study purposes, take
photographs or video, the permission of all taking part should be sought beforehand.
The purposes of the observation should be made clear to them.
If you are planning to make observations in a class other than the one in which you work,
you should arrange this beforehand with the teacher taking the class. Make sure that they
understand what you are doing and who you are observing, and that they are happy with it.
If it is being done for the purposes of your own studies, such as the activities contained in
this course, this should not normally be a problem, but if you are planning to share what
you have seen with other people, especially those outside the school, offer to show what
you have written to the teacher afterwards so that they can check it for accuracy.

2.38

Teaching assistant file

Session 4 Support for teaching assistants

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 4.1

Support for the TA


PPT 4.1

Indicator 6: TAs are supported in relation to their


induction, mentoring and development needs.
Are TAs provided with a school induction
programme?
Are TAs encouraged to complete a professional
achievement and development portfolio?
Are TAs appraised as a means of developing their
contributions and accountabilities in the school?
Does the school structure responsibilities for TAs to
reflect their qualifications, experience and training?
Are there clear means of identifying appropriate and
relevant continuing professional development to
support TAs further development?

Presentation slide 4.2

Appraisal
PPT 4.2

The purpose of appraisal is to:


provide an opportunity for two-way dialogue
and review
enhance professional development
recognise achievement
identify any areas of weakness
set targets
identify any professional development needed
provide information for management

Presentation slide 4.3

Self-review
PPT 4.3

A self-review should be an honest appraisal of:


your strengths and development needs in
respect of working in support of the school,
the curriculum, pupils and teachers
any extra contributions you have made to
school life, in particular in relation to your
key responsibilities
any appreciative or critical comments you
have received from others
your future professional development needs

Section 2 Role and context

2.39

Presentation slide 4.4a

The process of an appraisal


PPT 4.4a

Consideration of how well targets established in


the last appraisal have been met

A self-assessment by the person being


appraised

Observations on the performance of the person


being appraised by the line manager

Dialogue, including any problems raised by the


person being appraised

Presentation slide 4.4b

The process of an appraisal


PPT 4.4b

Agreeing the actions required to meet those


targets, including any training needed

Consideration of the job description and


agreeing any changes, if necessary

Setting a date for the next review


Agreeing what is to go on the recorded note
for the headteacher/staff development
manager/governors

Presentation slide 4.5

PPT 4.5

Study skills needed for further


professional development

Organisation time management


Recording
Reflective thought
Sharing professional ideas

2.40

Teaching assistant file

Course documents

Course document 4.1


Book 4.1

Appraisal preparation
These are my key:
G

Strengths

Skills

Experiences

I use them in the following situations:

I would like to use them...

Something I know Im not condent about is...

To help me overcome, or if necessary avoid, this I would like...

Action points

I will discuss this with...

I will need help/support from...

Possible obstacles might be...

I will need (eg. resources, practical help, time)...

Section 2 Role and context

2.41

Course document 4.2 Audio transcripts


Book 4.2

Audio clip

Audio clip 4.1 Support for TAs


Teaching assistants are an important part of the school team. They provide invaluable
support in the school, not only for individual pupils, but also for the teachers and for the
school as an organisation.
All our assistants have very clear job descriptions and weve now brought them into the
performance management cycle.
At their review meeting we go through the job description and thats a good opportunity
to identify areas with which, perhaps, theyre having difficulty, but also to celebrate the
successes they are having. We discuss what their training needs are, not only for their
own personal development, but also in relation to whole-school targets and objectives.
We then set objectives for them in the same way that we do for the teachers and they
have targets to achieve in terms of their professional development and also for how
theyre going to help the teachers achieve the pupil progress targets.
We have invested heavily in training for our teaching assistants over the past three years
because we want them to be competent and confident to deliver the job we want them
to do. They are always included in training that takes place in school and they have an
equal voice with the teachers.
The teaching assistants have their own meeting once a week. Its either used for training
or issues that theyd like to discuss. The higher level teaching assistant who chairs the
meeting also attends the senior management team meetings, and weve found this
improves communication throughout the school and ensures that everyone not only
knows whats going on, but also has a voice.
We have whole-school training once a term, for example in behaviour management.
The assistants all attend as well as going on courses and also visiting other schools.
Schools can be very stressful places in which to work and we have a buddy system that
was actually suggested by our teaching assistants, because, in the same way we
encourage the children to talk about things that are upsetting them or worrying them,
sometimes staff need this safety valve. So all staff in this school have an unofficial
buddy to whom they can go for what we call a buddy moment, if they need to, and
that can be for something really good that has happened or somethings happened
thats made them really upset or absolutely furious. Sometimes you just need to go and
tell someone and get that off your chest.
All staff here have very clear job descriptions and are aware of the boundaries and their
responsibilities within the school. But we also have a collective sense of responsibility,
so if someones having difficulty with a particular pupil, or group of pupils, we work
together as a team to see how we can support the member of staff and overcome
the problem.

2.42

Teaching assistant file

Recommended further reading

Further reading 4.1 Appraisal and further development


When you have been in post for a while it is good practice for there to be a formal review
of your job, usually called an appraisal. If you are serving a probationary period, it may come
at the end of it, or it may be towards the end of your first year. It should then become at
least annual.
Basically, the appraisal is a review of your performance conducted by you and your line
manager. The aim is to review progress on targets that were set at the last appraisal, set
targets for the future, identify any training or other help you might require, and identify any
changes that need to be made to the job description. An appraisal should be a positive
process that recognises and identifies areas for development.
The form below is offered as an example of what you might complete as part of the selfreview in preparation for appraisal. The school may have its own form. In any event, the
process should be discussed with your mentor. This will prepare you for the topics that will
be discussed at the appraisal.
Self-review is a process whereby you consider your performance in your job, concentrating
on the successes you have achieved, any areas requiring development, and your plans for
the future. You should make notes of what you consider to be your strengths and what you
want to improve.
Self-review
Areas to consider include:
The job description is it still appropriate? If not, what changes need making in relation to
the following points:
G

helping with classroom resources and records

helping with the care and support of pupils

providing support for learning activities

providing support for colleagues

the resources available for the job

the way you organise your job, eg. time management and communication with others

Section 2 Role and context

2.43

What extra contributions have you made to school life, in particular through using your
talents and in relation to your key accountabilities?
What appreciative and critical comments have you received from others?
What aspect of your job satisfies you the most and what the least? List your successes
and those things that you are still concerned about.
What targets were set at the last appraisal/start of the job? What do you feel you
have achieved?
Where you have not achieved the targets, what are the reasons?
Are there areas of your present work you would like to improve upon?
How successful was any training received?
What factors helped or hindered your professional development during the year?
What are your thoughts on future aspirations, with reference to development opportunities
and training, in or outside of school?
Are there other areas you would like to extend your work into, that you cannot be involved
in at present?
Consider your needs for career development; for example, where do you see yourself in five
years time?
Would you like some formal observation of your work? If so, what focus would you like it to
have? (If you have decided that you would like your work to be observed prior to the
appraisal, agree the time and place of appraisal with your line manager, and also agree the
focus and the class in which you will be observed.)
The appraisal meeting
The appraisal meeting should cover:

2.44

consideration of how well targets established in the last appraisal have been met

a self-assessment by the person being appraised

observations on the performance of the person being appraised by the line manager

dialogue, including any problems raised by the person being appraised

setting targets to be achieved by the next appraisal

agreeing the actions required to meet those targets, including any training needed

Teaching assistant file

consideration of the job description and agreeing any changes, if necessary

setting a date for the next review

agreement on what is to go on the recorded note for the headteacher/staff development


manager/governors.

Further reading 4.2 Study skills


Whatever else you do with the school, or with the local authority, or in courses you
undertake at a local college, developing your own study skills will help.
Discuss the following with your mentor and ask where you can get help if you feel you need
it in any of the following areas. They are all things that you will need to develop for yourself
if you take on more advanced training.
Study skills include things like:
G

organisation skills

recording skills

ICT skills

reflective thought

sharing professional ideas.

You will need to be able to:


G

read for interest or information

take notes and keep references as you read

take notes at courses or meetings

write essays or summaries concisely

use local libraries/resource centres

use websites, CD-ROMs and DVDs

find a quiet place to study at home, a shelf for books

keep articles/information/handouts/pamphlets on a range of topics likely to be useful


in school (such as recipes, instructions, games with their rules) and organise them so
you can access the information easily.

Section 2 Role and context

2.45

Section 3

Promoting positive
behaviour

Section 3
Promoting positive behaviour

Contents
Pre-module activities

page 3.2

Pre-module activity course documents

Session 1

page 3.13

The importance of working within school behaviour policies

Session 2

page 3.16

The significance of positive relationships


and creating a safe learning environment

Session 3

page 3.19

Skills for promoting positive behaviour

Session 4

page 3.23

Social and emotional aspects of learning

Session 5

page 3.27

Managing difficult situations

Section 3 Promoting positive behaviour

3.1

Pre-module activities

The pre-module preparation consists of a range of activities from which you can select one
or more to suit your own interests and circumstances. The activities are designed to help
you gain an insight into behaviour in your school. (You will also remember that, in the
Role and Context module, you were asked to familiarise yourself with your school policies,
including those on behaviour and bullying.) You should bring any notes or reflections with
you. No-one will ask to see these but activities will be followed up during the module. It is
recommended that you discuss any issues and ideas raised with your mentor, so that you
can gain a wider understanding of your role in promoting positive behaviour.
Course document PM1
Book PM1

Pre-module activities
Participants can select one or more from the following:
Activity 1 (pre-module) Personal reflection
Think of an adult who made a difference to you when you were at school. What was it
about this adult that made a difference? What did they do and say? What difference did
they make? How did this affect your learning and your responses to them (your behaviour)?
Activity 2 (pre-module) Personal reflection
Would you like to be a pupil in your school? Your response should focus on the schools
ethos, values and beliefs. Reflect on the reasons for your answer.
Activity 3 (pre-module) Reflection on personal qualities
Use the list below to help you reflect on your personal strengths or successes. Consider how
the qualities you bring will help you make a valuable contribution to the whole-school team.
Helping others
G Have you helped anyone recently?
G Have you cheered anyone up lately?
G Have you comforted anyone recently?
G Have you helped in the school community in any way?
G Have you congratulated or praised anyone lately?
Managing situations
When did you deal with a difficult situation successfully?
G Have you handled a difficult letter, e-mail or phone call well?
G

Challenges and successes


Have you improved your home or school surroundings in any way?
G Do you pursue any hobbies or interests?
G What work have you done well?
G Have you been praised for something you did at work?
G Do you do any voluntary work?
G Have you taken on any new challenges?
G

3.2

Teaching assistant file

Activity 4 (pre-module) Reflections on the school behaviour policy


How does your schools behaviour policy support pupils to make them feel safe, make a
positive contribution, develop social and emotional skills and understand expectations and
limits? Note any issues this raises for you, or points you would like to clarify with your mentor.
Activity 5 (pre-module) Learning environment
Suggest some ways of improving the learning environment (physical, social or emotional) in
your school so that pupils feel safe and valued, are engaged and motivated to learn.
Activity 6 (pre-module) Breaktimes
Read this quotation from Joanne a primary school lunchtime supervisor talking about how
teaching pupils playground games improves pupils behaviour at lunchtime:
After we do the dinners, we take them out onto the playground where we play some
games with them. While were playing the games, it stops the children getting bored,
so theyre not thinking about picking on anybody or bullying. Theyre all playing
together. Theyre all occupied not getting up to mischief.
Joanne (primary school lunchtime supervisor)
What are playtimes and lunchtimes like at your school? What is available for pupils?
How well used is it? How does what happens at playtimes support pupils to feel safe
and healthy, develop social skills, make friends and relax?
Activity 7 (pre-module) Teachers expectations
Interview one or more teachers at your school. What do teachers look for in a TA? How can a
teacher and TA work together to promote positive behaviour? If you cannot interview teachers,
some responses from teachers in another school are included in course document PM2.
Activity 8 (pre-module) Parents/carers views
Interview some parents/carers about how they feel when their children start school and
what kind of support they would welcome from a TA. If you cannot interview parents/carers,
some responses from parents/carers of pupils in another school are included in course
document PM2.
Activity 9 (pre-module) Pupils views about behaviour
Use a simple schedule to find out what pupils in your school think about behaviour
(for example: the school behaviour policy, how the school deals with bullying, the
effectiveness of rewards and sanctions, how they think their own behaviour and that of
others affect learning, how easy is it to get support, what pupils look for in a TA, etc).
If you cannot interview pupils, some responses from pupils in another school are included
in course document PM2.
Activity 10 (pre-module) Pupils views about attendance
Interview pupils who are poor attendees to find out their reasons for not attending school.
Ask what support would help them to improve their attendance. If you cannot interview
pupils, refer to the responses from pupils in another school which are included in course
document PM2.

Section 3 Promoting positive behaviour

3.3

Course document PM2


Book PM2

Supplementary materials for the pre-module activities


Activity 7 ( pre-module) Teachers expectations
If you are unable to interview teachers from your own school, here are some extracts from
interviews with teachers from other schools that should enable you to complete the pre-session
task. You may hear some teachers expressing these views again, in context, as part of the module.
Its brilliant to have a teaching assistant working in the classroom. With 30 children,
theres always going to be somebody whos not paying full attention and they could
easily disrupt the rest of the class. A teaching assistant can instantly focus those
children and make sure everybodys listening, so that everybodys learning.
Teachers and teaching assistants have a great relationship. Everyone knows
whats going on in the day and what they need to do. We work really well together.
The pupils have equal respect for teachers and teaching assistants.
Caroline (teacher)

We have a good working relationship. I think the humour we bring to each other
is really key. We bounce off each other.
I think its vital that we both have that awareness of the behaviour policy and that
were both effectively singing from the same song sheet in terms of what we
expect from pupils because otherwise theyre going to get mixed messages.
The relationship between the teacher and TA is fundamental. We just sort of look
at each other instinctively, just as a small gesture, if something has happened or if I
want Sharon, my TA, to pick up on something she hasnt noticed, or theres a child
strayed off task Ill give Sharon a look and she will be over there intervening!
Helen (teacher)

My TA Louise and I work together as a teaching team and not teacher and TA.
Were also friends and I think that helps. We have a positive working relationship
and we respect each other. We have different roles but they are of equal value.
The TA is au fait with the school behaviour policy because weve all had training in
it and everybody contributed to it. She knows what the behaviour sanctions and
reward systems are because it is consistent throughout the school, it doesnt just
apply to our class. If the TA thinks a pupil has done something that warrants a
reward or going to see the head she is able to send them down to get that reward
in the same way that I can.
The TA understands what my expectations for behaviour are and she demonstrates that
when shes working with pupils, so what I say, she says and what she says is what I say.
Sharon (teacher)

3.4

Teaching assistant file

Activity 8 (pre-module) Parents and carers views


If you are unable to interview parents/carers of pupils from your own school, here are some
extracts from interviews with parents/carers of pupils from other schools that should enable
you to complete the pre-module task. You may hear parents expressing these views again, in
context, as part of the module.
When my daughter started nursery it was the teaching assistants who did the
most to settle her in. And it was one teaching assistant in particular who spent an
awful lot of time settling her in.
When my daughter started, one of the things the school identified, quite quickly,
was that she found it quite difficult to form relationships with other children in the
nursery and the teaching assistant was fantastic at helping her and directing her
and putting her together with other children in a very low-key way, which she
didnt realise was happening.
The teaching assistant gave us such a lot of reassurance and we felt that when our
daughter was with her, she would have as good quality care as she had at home
effectively, because the warmth the teaching assistant felt towards the children
was enormous. And that reassured us, and because we could see the efforts she
was making, it didnt remove all the worry, but it took an awful lot of it out and we
felt she was in the best possible hands.
The best teaching assistants and teachers work together as a team and try and
have as few arbitrary distinctions about this is my role, this is your role as
possible. They plan together. They share their planning. They can almost adapt their
styles to fit in with each other, rather than trying to plough their own paths and
impose how they like to do it. They work fantastically together, so you get a really
strong impression of a team that communicates with each and that works
together for the good of the children, rather than a split between teacher and
teaching assistant with little communication between them.
Our teaching assistants here do an awful lot of the social and emotional work with
the children. Some of them are specially trained to do extra work, but the whole
school places a lot of emphasis on social and emotional aspects. In terms of its
contribution to the behaviour of the school and the development of the children,
I think its an enormous plus for the school.
You get very positive and strong messages about the care and well-being of the
children, which is always clearly their prime concern. The teaching assistants play
a hugely important role in being role models and being there to listen and to
understand and to hear any concerns or worries and to reassure the children.
If they are reassured, happy children then they will generally learn more rather
than misbehave.
Katy (parent)

Section 3 Promoting positive behaviour

3.5

I think teaching assistants in school are vital. Looking back when I was at school
there werent any. There was just the teacher and 50 kids and youd always have
children that were not so much ignored but, sort of, left out.
I think teaching assistants do make a difference. The group that my daughter is in has
been helped by the assistant. Its really come on, really, really quickly and it just
shows what impact they make in the classroom.
I dont think the children see them so much as assistants as almost like a teacher
really someone else they can go to, someone else they can get help from and
someone else they can maybe share problems with.
If you go into a classroom and you are new to that classroom, you couldnt probably
tell who was who because theyre both, technically, doing the same job. Theyre both
working with groups of children. Theyre both teaching. Theyre both assisting. Theyre
both helping and theyre both encouraging.
Its just their mannerisms and the ease with which they do their job. They know what
they're doing. Theyre confident in what theyre doing and I think that just sort of
flows out through the work theyre doing with the children. Ive never heard a
negative thing about teaching assistants. Theyve always been an integral part of the
classroom and enabled the kids and staff just to move along.
I think teaching assistants need to like children. They have to be good listeners, be
willing to teach. Being approachable, I think, is quite important. Theyre like an anchor.
Zac (parent)
Activity 9 (pre-module) Pupils views about behaviour
If you are unable to interview pupils from your own school, here are some extracts from
interviews with pupils from other schools that should enable you to complete the pre-session
task. You may hear some pupils expressing these views again, in context, as part of the module.
Im expected to be well-behaved and if I dont I get punished.We do have rules.Theyre
good rules and they should be followed and theyre not really hard, you just have to focus.
If people took no notice then it would be chaos. Everyone would be just hitting each other,
they wont do their work, they wont be kind to people and they wont respect teachers. It
would make me feel upset. I dont think we would learn anything in school like that.
I find out what the school rules are cause theres posters everywhere in the school. Loads
of people will tell us about them. We get reminded when we have lessons and when we do
something wrong. We have, maybe, a few times, got reminded about the rules in assembly.
The praise I like is when my teacher hugs me. I like that kind of praise cause its like my
mum. If they write good things on my work then it just makes me feel proud again.
When were good for the whole week, we are rewarded with a certificate. I like it
because I get to show my mum of my achievements. My mum always says well
done. It makes me feel very happy and proud of myself.
Andrew (year 6)

3.6

Teaching assistant file

We are expected to behave like any kids no shouting, no bullying and just treat
each other with respect.
I think its a good idea to have rules. Rules help you feel safe. Otherwise people
would just beat people up and then some people would be left out and then
people get depressed or injured. It would make me feel quite sad that people were
behaving like that. Some people would be so depressed, they wouldnt be able to
learn. If you werent happy in school, youd just think of the bad stuff thats
happening to you and the good stuff would never be in your mind.
If we dont follow the rules well have to stay in for plays, or if its really bad,
sometimes suspension has to come into it. But suspension doesnt usually come
into primary schools. I think the punishment we get is fair, but sometimes some
people deserve a harsher one.
When were good we sometimes get treats sometimes extra play, sometimes
new equipment in the activity box that we take outside.
We get certificates if we do really good work or if our class attendance is really
good, our class gets a certificate.
I prefer to get praised if they write it in the book instead of out loud, cause I dont
want people really to say that much about me, like Well done and stuff. They do
give you winks, pats on the back sometimes to show you that youve done really
good work, but mostly they write it so its private to you. It makes me feel like Ive
done really good work.
Curtis (year 6)

Its a good idea to have rules because people know what to do when theyve been
told what to do. Because we have rules, everybodys happy. I dont think I would
like to come to school if there was no rules because everyone would keep pushing
and kicking. That would make me unhappy.
Bullyings cruelty because bullying can make people hurt their feelings. It made me
feel unhappy when people bullied me. It makes me feel safe when I tell the teacher
that people are bullying me. It just makes me safe because people look after me.
And if youre good in PE, someone will cheer or tell our teacher that weve been
good. Shes pleased when we be good. I like it when our teacher says that weve
been good. It makes me feel proud of myself. If we get a certificate, we take it home
and we tell our mum or our dad. Sometimes they say nothing, but sometimes they
say things like, Im proud of you. It makes me feel happy and proud.
Daniel (year 2)

Section 3 Promoting positive behaviour

3.7

Our school has rules, including being polite to every adult in our school,
welcoming visitors, always talking to each other with respect. We also have to be
able to share, listen to each others views without saying things against them
because we know that everyones opinion is valued.
It is a good idea to have rules because if we didnt then people would be doing
things that they shouldnt be doing and nobody would be able to communicate
with each other. Id feel very upset and I think Id get quite frustrated with people
being constantly annoyed with each other.
The headteacher, when children first come with their parents to the school, she
gives them the rules so that the parents can remind the children as well how to
behave while theyre at home as well as in school. In year 6, youre constantly
reminded to go to younger children, and if you see them doing something wrong,
then show them, like read to them the pupils choices and the code of conduct so
that they understand, throughout their education, the right decisions to make.
At our school, if somebody breaks the rules, there are consequences like missing
playtime, so that they can understand next time what they have to do right. I think
they are fair because before, with our old headteacher, what she used to do is if
one child or a class were naughty, the whole school would have to stay in, which
wasnt fair on the rest of the school because we hadnt done nothing wrong.
Whereas if its just one child or the class that has done something wrong, then the
rest of the school arent being affected by the consequences of their actions.
If you have done something well, theyll always congratulate you on what youve
done and theyll always make you feel proud about yourself. So if you do
something really well, or you try with it but you cant do it, theyll still praise you,
so theyll say things like You should be really proud of yourself, you done great
work or That was an excellent effort at that work, so that youre constantly being
reminded of all the good things that youre doing, instead of being reminded of the
bad things that youre doing. It makes you feel quite special because your teachers
telling you how well youve done at something and some children dont always get
that at other schools, and here theyre very good at doing that.
Ella (year 6)

3.8

Teaching assistant file

We have a school rule song and it tells you how to behave. There are lots of rules
in it and some of the words are were learning. The song helps us to remember
the rules but it gets faster so you can have lots of fun with it.
I do think its a good idea to have rules because there wont be any bullying or
things like hurting anybody, and thats, thats one of the rules of school dont
hurt anybody.
I think its a good idea to have rules because everyones happy, well nearly
everyones happy.
Sometimes, if you misbehave in class you get to miss your playtimes. I think
the punishments are fair because youre missing something that people like.
The punishments are sort of suitable for the things youve done. If you do
something other people dont like, you have to do something you dont like.
Im pleased when my mum knows Ive been good and got a certificate. It makes
me feel really happy. When I take certificates home, my mum says Well done
and I put it up in my room.
Eleanor (year 2)

Section 3 Promoting positive behaviour

3.9

At our school were expected to behave well, but youd expect kids to sometimes
misbehave, because thats what were like.
We do have rules. Weve got pupils choices and a code of conduct, both displayed
all around the school. Pupils choices are our choices about how we should behave,
but the teachers gave us some ideas of what we could use as well. So weve got
sharing, playing well together and weve got a few more. I agree with all the rules
because we chose them and we know what they are so we can stick to them. It
makes a difference that we chose them ourselves. It makes us interact with each
other more because we decided them all together. If someone was telling me what
to do all the time, Id get really frustrated with them.
We get reminded of the rules in assemblies. Weve got them displayed and the
headteacher says to look at them and think how you should behave. And when
were in class, if weve been misbehaving outside, we sometimes get told to look at
them and think how we should have behaved outside.
The code of conduct is where were representing our school. When were out and
about we should behave respectfully and respect other peoples property and
be polite.
We get reminded all the time that were the role models of the school. When were
around the younger children, because they dont really know how to behave properly,
we act sensibly with them, but sometimes they just are naturally naughty, so they
just misbehave, but we are aware that weve got to show them how to behave.
Our school hates bullying because like its not very nice and it makes you really
feel down, but we dont have it so everyone normally feels good. We look out for it.
We join in with anti-bullying. We do all sorts of activities with it. We have stories
of people who have been bullied and we get to think how they would feel. How we
would feel. I think it has taught us how to behave.
When we behave well, we get treats like having extra playtime. We get to do things with
the headteacher in class like she plays games sometimes, when weve been good.
When youve done good work, you can go down to the headteacher and you get
an achievement certificate for good work. And we have an attendance certificate
as well. They get the certificates in assembly and they all get a clap. We also have a
top table where, when people have been behaving at lunchtimes, they get to sit on
the top table with the headteacher and eat lunch with her. And they get to discuss
what theyve been doing in class and that.
Emily (year 6)

3.10

Teaching assistant file

They expect us to be on our best behaviour all times being polite, kind, friendly.
We have golden rules. Theyre good rules because theyre rules that everyone can
abide by, not too hard. Theyre good rules for our safety like say if the do be
gentle one, if youre running down the corridor, you can knock someone over.
Its safe at school at the moment. I like it to be calm because when its calm
everyones nice and relaxed and you can just get on with your day. It helps me to
learn because its quiet and you can like think better and not get distracted. If
youre good you get lots of praise and people thank you a lot and if youre lucky,
you get sent to the head and then she praises you. I like being praised. That gives
you a nice feeling inside.
Boy (year 6)

People are expected to behave well. We have to treat each other with respect so
people dont feel left out. Were definitely not allowed to bully never physical
actions and never verbally. Our headteacher would punish us very heavily because
she really doesnt like bullying in the school.
The code of conduct, its kind of like making a promise and promising everybody
in the school that you will behave well and follow all the rules. They want you to
keep safe and the code of conduct says what you have to do to keep safe.
If nobody followed the rules, everybody would be fighting, everybody would be
alone and nobody would have friends and they wont have any feelings for
anybody else.
If we do break the rules, we get punishment and the punishments are fair because,
say like you miss your playtimes, if youre wasting everybody elses time, like the
teachers time of teaching you, then they waste your time, of doing what you want
to do in school.
Sometimes you can get quite annoyed when you get in trouble and you dont
think you should have been in trouble and, yeah, you want to change the school
rules to change that. We sometimes discuss the rules in class, in kind of circle time.
You sit on the carpet in a circle and you pass a ball around and the teacher
sometimes asks you questions like Do you like school rules how they are or do
you want to change the school rules?.
If were good they praise you. Sometimes they pat you on the back but they dont
do it out loud only people close can hear. If the whole class is good, we get extra
play but sometimes, if the whole schools really, really good and we do well, our
headteacher sometimes invites actors to do a play for us in the hall.
William (year 6)

Section 3 Promoting positive behaviour

3.11

Activity 10 (pre-module) Pupils views about attendance


If you are unable to interview pupils from your own school, here is an extract from an
interview with a pupil from another school that should enable you to complete the
pre-session task. You may hear some pupils expressing these views again, in context,
as part of the module.
There was once a time, at my old school, when I didnt want to come to school
because I used to get bullied sometimes. At this school, they try their hardest to
tell people not to bully and if they do, theyre severely punished. You feel much
safer and you can just walk or do what you do normally without worrying.
The TAs have helped me get into my classes by taking me there. They keep me in
our unit for a little bit, then slowly move me into some of my classes and sit with
me. Now, they leave me on my own. They help me to learn. When youre doing one
of your classes they praise you and make you more confident to go back. Theyre
supporting you when you need them. If were upset they try and cheer you up.
Get angry, they calm you down. And if youre happy, theyre happy with you.
Boy (year 6)

3.12

Teaching assistant file

Session 1
The importance of working within school behaviour policies

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 1.1
Aims of the module
PPT 1.1

To introduce you to:

the importance of working within the school behaviour policy

ways of supporting pupils to develop social and emotional


skills

the skills of positive behaviour management and managing


conflict and confrontation

ways of building positive relationships that underpin good


behaviour and create a safe learning environment

Presentation slide 1.2


The Learning Behaviour report
PPT 1.2

All staff in schools should be provided with the skills to


understand and manage pupil behaviour effectively. This is
as important for heads as it is for NQTs and support staff

Presentation slide 1.3


Purpose of school policies on behaviour
PPT 1.3

Capture the values and beliefs of the school

Set out how inappropriate behaviour will be corrected

Set out expectations of behaviour


Indicate how good behaviour will be developed
and encouraged
Promote a consistent and shared approach for the
whole school community

Section 3 Promoting positive behaviour

3.13

Presentation slide 1.4


Framework for a behaviour policy
PPT 1.4

Values and ethos


Rights and responsibilities
Rules, routines and consequences
Support for staff, pupils, families and carers

Presentation slide 1.5


Purpose of school policies on behaviour
PPT 1.5

Behaviour can be
an area where we
expect so much
and teach so little
Galvin, Miller
and Nash (1999)

Presentation slide 1.6


Summary of session 1
PPT 1.6

You should aim to:

3.14

understand and
work within school
behaviour policies

manage behaviour
in a positive way as
part of a team

support pupils
to understand
expectations of
behaviour

Teaching assistant file

Course documents
Course document 1.1
Book 1.1

Audio clip transcript


At my school, Im expected to be well-behaved and if I dont I get punished.
We do have rules. Theyre good rules and they should be followed and theyre not
really hard, you just have to focus. If they took no notice then it would be chaos.
Everyone would be just hitting each other, they wont do their work, they wont be
kind to people and they wont respect teachers. It would make me feel upset.
I dont think we would learn anything in school like that.
I find out, what the school rules are cause theres posters everywhere in the
school. Loads of people will tell us about them. We get reminded when we have
lessons and when we do something wrong. We have, maybe, a few times, got
reminded about the rules in assembly.
Andrew (year 6)
Louise is au fait with the behavioural policy because weve all had training with it.
Weve had an Inset and everybody contributed to it. And she would know what
the behaviour sanctions and reward systems are because its all through the
school, its not just in our class. Its consistent across the school.
Sharon (teacher)
We had an Inset day where all the staff came in so we were all aware of what was
expected through the school and the behaviour. Every child knows exactly how each
teacher deals with it. We each deal with it the same way, throughout the school not
my way, or Sharons way, its a set way within the class, really within the whole
school. We would use the code of conduct thats displayed in the classrooms, go
through the pupil choices, saying just whats expected of everybody really.
Louise (teaching assistant)

Course document 1.2


Book 1.2

Understanding expectations of behaviour


Make a list of the expectations of behaviour that are evident in any classroom where you
work. (You might also choose other areas outside the classroom such as the playground,
dining room or assembly.)
G

Where do these expectations come from?

How do the pupils know these expectations exist and what they mean?

How do all the adults who work in this classroom/school know about these expectations?

Section 3 Promoting positive behaviour

3.15

Session 2
The significance of positive relationships and creating a safe learning environment

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 2.1

PPT 2.1

Talk is paramount.
You both need to be able
to say how youre feeling
and share your thoughts.
All decisions come
through compromise
and bouncing ideas
off each other.
From Primary Teachers,
January 2007, No 48, DfES

Presentation slide 2.2


Maslows hierarchy of needs
PPT 2.2

Self-actualisation
Self-esteem
Love, affection and belonging
Safety
Physiological or survival needs
Motivation and personality, Pearson Education

Presentation slide 2.3


Summary of session 2
PPT 2.3

In promoting positive
behaviour you should aim to:

3.16

build positive relationships


with pupils, parents, carers
and colleagues

focus on developing
your skills and qualities
as a role model

consider how you can


influence aspects of the
learning environment

Teaching assistant file

Course documents
Course document 2.1
Book 2.1

Transcript of audio clips


Audio clip 2.1
Sharon: Weve got a brilliant relationship and we bounce off each other. I know what
shes going to do before she does it and visa versa.
Helen: Definitely I think thats really key, its the humour we bring to each other.
I think the children need to see us working as a team because effectively we are equal
partners in this.
Sharon: The way Helen talks to me obviously she talks to me with a lot of respect so I
talk to her with a lot of respect. And they can see that we get on, inside school as well
as outside school.
Helen: I think its vital that we both have that awareness of the behaviour policy and
that were both effectively singing from the same song sheet in terms of what we
expect from the children because otherwise theyre going to get mixed messages.
We just sort of look at each other instinctively just as a small gesture. If something has
happened, or if I want Sharon to pick up on something she hasnt noticed, or theres a
child strayed off task, Ill give Sharon a look and she will be over there intervening!
Audio clip 2.2
They help me to learn. When youre doing one of your classes they praise you and
make you more confident to go back. Theyre supporting you when you need them.
If were upset they try and cheer you up. Get angry, they calm you down. And if theyre
[youre] happy, theyre happy with you.
Boy (year 6)
If a child is upset and theyre that upset that they cant talk, they will go over and
theyll calm the situation down and then theyll start to talk to them about whats
happened, why its happened and I think one of the main qualities of a teaching
assistant is that they, they always make you feel like its ok to go and speak to them.
Ella (year 6)
I like my teaching assistant because shes nice and she doesnt shout a lot and shes
really good with children when you cant get along with each other. She helps a lot.
Michelle (year 2)
My teaching assistant is Mrs Dear and what I like about her is that shes always calm
and gentle. She doesnt shout at you if you do anything wrong; says its all right to be
wrong, to say something wrong. When we all come in after break, Mrs Dear is always
there, just to get us calm and ready for the next lesson.
Mohammed (year 6)

Section 3 Promoting positive behaviour

3.17

Course document 2.2


Book 2.2

Important qualities in building positive relationships


Respect is behaviour that makes others feel worthwhile and important.
It can be conveyed by:
G

introducing yourself

remembering details about the person

giving others time to talk

listening to them

responding to what they say

asking questions

not interrupting or talking over people

recognising the value of others points of view

avoiding put-downs

not making snap judgements

honouring commitments

giving people appropriate choices

giving responsibility and autonomy in decision-making

sharing leadership and control.

Empathy is shown by:


G

reflecting the feelings you are picking up

paraphrasing to show you have understood

sharing appropriately related experiences of your own

mirroring behaviour

showing that you are trying to see things from others point of view

asking for and welcoming feedback

seeing everybody as having something to contribute

focusing on feelings as well as information.

Genuineness can be conveyed by:

3.18

being consistent

being clear about boundaries

using appropriate self-disclosure

being prepared to admit mistakes

recognising limitations

avoiding pretending to be someone or something you are not

not being defensive

taking risks.

Teaching assistant file

Session 3
Skills for promoting positive behaviour

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 3.1

PPT 3.1

There are two ways


pupils get noticed in our
schools, for good work
or for bad behaviour
The Elton Report
(1989)

Presentation slide 3.2


Praise and affirmation
PPT 3.2

Praise statements
Affirmation statements
Public praise
Discreet, private praise

Presentation slide 3.3


Key point
PPT 3.3

Positive feedback and


praise encourages
and promotes good
behaviour

Catch children being good

Section 3 Promoting positive behaviour

3.19

Presentation slide 3.4


An effective instruction or request
PPT 3.4

Use a name or other verbal cues


to gain attention
Establish eye-contact and pause
Give your instruction simply
and clearly
Give the pupil a chance to do
it and thank them

Repeat the instruction, if necessary.

Presentation slide 3.5


Research on types of communication
PPT 3.5

Words
How words are
spoken/tone of voice
Non-verbal
communication
body language

Presentation slide 3.6


Key points
PPT 3.6

The way you communicate


with others affects how
they feel and can have an
impact on their behaviour

What you say, how you


say it and your body
language are important

You can develop skills for


positive communication

Presentation slide 3.7

PPT 3.7

If you think you are too small to make a difference,


try sleeping in a room with a mosquito
African proverb

3.20

Teaching assistant file

Course documents
Course document 3.1
Book 1.2

Transcript of audio clip 3.1


I prefer to get praised by, if they write it in the book instead of out loud, cause I
dont want people really to say that much about me, like well done and stuff.
They do give you winks, pats on the back sometimes. They show you that youve
done really good work, but mostly they write it so its private to you. It makes me
feel like Ive done really good work.
Curtis (year 6)
If you have done something well, theyll always congratulate you on what youve
done and theyll always make you feel proud about yourself. So if you do
something really well, or you try with it but you cant do it, theyll still praise you.
So, theyll say things like, You should be really proud of yourself, you done great
work or That was an excellent effort at that work, so that youre constantly
being reminded of all the good things that youre doing instead of being reminded
of the bad things that youre doing. It makes you feel quite special because your
teachers telling you how well youve done at something and some children dont
always get that at other schools and here theyre very good at doing that.
Ella (year 6)

Section 3 Promoting positive behaviour

3.21

Course document 3.2


Book 3.2

Using language positively


The first line has been filled in as an example.
Common phrases

Could become

Dont use that language to me!

Speak to me politely, as I do to you thank you

Why is your work so untidy?

Youve left sand all over the floor again

How dare you argue with me?

Stop shouting out, Year 4

You lot shouldnt be in here at playtime

Youre always interrupting

Youve been upsetting people again

3.22

Teaching assistant file

Session 4
Social and emotional aspects of learning

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 4.1
Social and emotional aspects of learning
PPT 4.1

Self-awareness
Managing feelings
Motivation
Empathy
Social skills

Presentation slide 4.2


SEAL and learning (1)
PPT 4.2

Its difficult to:

pay attention

keep going when


things are difficult

concentrate on a task
be creative
work within a group
be motivated and
interested

Presentation slide 4.3


SEAL and learning (2)
PPT 4.3

if we feel:

awkward
anxious
embarrassed
stressed
angry
frustrated
excluded

Section 3 Promoting positive behaviour

3.23

Presentation slide 4.4


Maslows hierarchy of needs
PPT 4.4

Self-actualisation
Self-esteem
Love, affection and belonging
Safety
Physiological or survival needs
Motivation and personality, Pearson Education

Presentation slide 4.5


Summary of key points from this session
PPT 4.5

Pupils often need help to learn and develop the social


and emotional skills that underpin good behaviour.

3.24

You can help pupils learn these skills

You are important people in the lives of pupils and


other adults in school

It is important to look behind behaviour and to try to


understand the reasons for it

Teaching assistant file

Course documents
Course document 4.1
Book 4.1

Social and emotional skills


Find someone who

Name

Has brown eyes


Was born in another town or city or country
Can identify two characters from any TV soap
Enjoys going to the cinema or theatre
Has an allergy
Has a special interest in behaviour
Feels confident in meeting new people
Participates in a sport or other physical activity
Has learnt something new lately
Is new to the TA role
Is taller than you

Section 3 Promoting positive behaviour

3.25

Course document 4.2


Book 4.2

Transcript of audio clip 4.1


Your own moods affect a child straight away, so the role model throughout the
school with all the adults is to show that we all get on and it is nice to be polite
and has to come from the children seeing the adults do it. If the adults are going to
ignore each other, children will ignore each other cause if the adults dont do it why
should we do it? It does reflect on the children and is a lovely school to work in.
Louise (TA)

Course document 4.3


Book 4.3

Understanding pupils behaviour


Motivation
Does the pupil know the behaviour is inappropriate? Do they want to change it?
Reason
Does the pupil have a reason for the behaviour? What are they getting from it? Is there
pressure from peers to behave in a certain way? Is it positive or negative? What rewards do
they seem to get out of this behaviour? Can the reward be achieved in positive ways?
Skills
Does the pupil have the skills and resilience to deal with strong feelings and negative
experiences such as frustration, anger, failure or hurt?
Successes
Has the pupil used skills successfully in other problem situations in the past?
Support
Do the adults and other children in the pupils life support her or him in developing the skills
needed? Does the pupil have positive role models in their life?

3.26

Teaching assistant file

Session 5
Managing difficult situations

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 5.1
Model the behaviour you want to see
PPT 5.1

Presentation slide 5.2


Stay calm!
PPT 5.2

Presentation slide 5.3


Become more assertive
PPT 5.3

Section 3 Promoting positive behaviour

3.27

Presentation slide 5.4


Defer an issue until later
PPT 5.4

Presentation slide 5.5


Focus on the real problem
PPT 5.5

Presentation slide 5.6


Search for a solution together
PPT 5.6

Presentation slide 5.7


Label the behaviour, not the pupil
PPT 5.7

3.28

Teaching assistant file

Presentation slide 5.8


Give choices but not ultimatums
PPT 5.8

Presentation slide 5.9


Know when and how to get help
PPT 5.9

Presentation slide 5.10


Summary of key points in this section
PPT 5.10

Capitalise on positive relationships humour, trust,


friendship. Prevention is better than cure

Stay calm in your body language and tone of voice


Practise the skills introduced in this session
Know when and how to get help
Report and record incidents in line with your school policy

Presentation slide 5.11


Summary of the module
PPT 5.11

Know your school policies and systems and work within them

Remember, how you communicate affects how


people behave

Practise the skills needed to manage difficult situations

Model the social and emotional skills you want to see in others
Build positive relationships with all adults and pupils in
your school

Be aware of your own skills and qualities and develop


them further

Section 3 Promoting positive behaviour

3.29

Course documents
Course document 5.1
Book 5.1

Managing difficult situations


Conflicts are inevitable in human relationships, between adults and between adults and pupils.
Conflict produces strong feelings, such as anger, fear and frustration. There may be concerns
about public image (losing face), self-esteem and maintaining control.
There may be other contributing factors, such as physical states (tiredness) and high
adrenalin flow.
We are not able to control other people but if we can try to manage ourselves, our own
feelings and our behaviour, sometimes we are able to manage the situation.
We will all come across difficult situations, perhaps involving challenging behaviour, in a
school setting. These may be incidents in which we are directly involved, or where we need
to provide support for another pupil or adult.

Course document 5.2


Book 5.2

Case study
For quite a few minutes now, Rita has been disturbing her group, preventing them from
learning. You ask Rita to move seats. She looks you in the eye, folds her arms and refuses to
move, saying loudly, You cant make me move, youre not the teacher.

Course document 5.3


Book 5.3

Transcript of audio clip 5.1


If there is a problem in the classroom and the child is shouting or is swearing, I
usually ask them to keep calm. I try and stay calm myself and show the child that I
am calm. If the child is still shouting and doesnt want to listen I usually ask the
child to leave the classroom.
Once we get outside the classroom, staying away from the child, giving the child his
space, using the right body language as well, giving him time to calm down and
then coming to some kind of agreement with the child and see how they feel about
that. Once they are calm, and weve sorted the situation out, obviously letting them
back into the classroom, back into the environment with the other children.
Sumitra (TA)

3.30

Teaching assistant file

Course document 5.4


Book 5.4

Managing difficult situations


Model the behaviour you want to see
TAs are important role models of the behaviour expected within the school. One of the
most difficult things to respond to when correcting pupil behaviour is the riposte Why
should I, you do it?.
Stay calm
Calmness, predictability and certainty are key skills to model. Avoid trying to soothe as this
can often make people angrier. Listening to other viewpoints and allowing a right of reply is
a powerful tool in defusing a situation. If you apologise when you are too hasty in a
judgement, you give a significant message to pupils and others. It takes more than one
person to have an argument, so if you refuse to be drawn in and do not compete for the last
word you can quickly reduce the heat in a difficult situation. Sometimes you need to walk
away, leave space and come back to the conversation later.
Become more assertive
Using I messages is a powerful way of showing how you feel about behaviour without
criticising, blaming or threatening. It helps to keep the interaction calm and focused. In using
I messages you:
G

describe the behaviour

say how it makes you feel

say why you feel like this

say what you would like to happen.

For example, rather than saying This group is the worst Ive ever met, say
When you talk to each other instead of listening I feel upset because I cant explain
properly. I need you to listen so that you can do a good job on this work.
Partial agreement can help in becoming more assertive. It involves acknowledging the other
persons point of view as well as restating what it is you want them to do: for example,
saying I understand that you want to sit with Sumru but I need you to work with Johnny
on this, rather than No you cant sit with Sumru.
Blocking argument
This strategy absorbs the argument but does not fuel it. Agree with any truth in a
statement: for example, say, Yes thats true. I was angry yesterday, or accept the other
persons feeling or point of view by saying I can see that youre angry. Maybe it does seem
unfair to you.
Expressing certain feelings without demonstrating them
For example, you can show you are angry without shouting and using angry body language.
Communicating feelings about a situation in a calm way deals with it without blaming or
condemning the other person: I feel angry about the way you spoke to me yesterday.

Section 3 Promoting positive behaviour

3.31

Broken record
This technique is useful in defusing conflict. It helps you to be clear without showing that
you are angry, uncomfortable, loud or irritated:
G

Make sure that the pupil is listening: I need you to listen to me

Explain clearly what you want and give the pupil time to comply

Look as if you mean what you are saying (body language, facial expression)

Stick to the issue

Ignore side issues and do not get drawn into argument.

Defer an issue until later


Sometimes it can be useful to buy time to allow the situation to cool down or to defer an
issue until later. This is helpful in that no-one loses face; others around see that you are in
control; you have time to understand each others feelings; it is more likely that you can
retain a positive relationship; and the conflict is less likely to happen again. For example:
G

Wait there please. Ill be with you in a minute. I just need to speak to Joe.

We obviously cant sort this out right now. Lets fix a time to talk about it.

I need to think about what youve said. We will talk tomorrow.

Keep the focus on the real problem


People often become diverted into wasting time and emotional energy talking about side
issues or secondary behaviours rather than confronting the problem.
Secondary behaviours are the negative responses you sometimes see from pupils after
receiving correction. The responses can be non-verbal, such as tuts, pouts, sighs or
exasperated arm-folding. Verbally, they usually manifest as the last word syndrome:
It wasnt me, I was only, They were, Mrs Jones lets us.
Often when pupils are challenged about something they have done wrong they feel bad. So
as not to feel this way they try to deflect responsibility for the behaviour by trying to divert
you. If you are drawn into reacting to these diversions (or secondary behaviours) then the
pupil feels better because the feelings about the original behaviour are diluted.
Secondary behaviours are not an attack on adults. They are not attempts to make adults look
wrong or silly, but are used by pupils, especially teenagers, to make themselves feel better.
A typical response to secondary behaviour is to get drawn into arguments over who was or
wasnt doing what and when. This can often lead to you becoming frustrated, especially
when you have actually witnessed the misbehaviour in question.
Experience tells you that the more you engage with secondary behaviours, the more you are
going to be faced with them. Your outward frustrations, or even anger, signal to the pupil
that their strategy is working.
The more you keep the focus on the real issue, the less likely you are to be sidetracked.

3.32

Teaching assistant file

Search for a solution together


Work to find a solution that allows both parties to save face. It may involve offering choice:
I would like you to However, I can see it is a problem for you. What about? It may
involve inviting a view from the other person to help you find a solution together: What do
you think we could do?
Label the behaviour, not the pupil
Making the behaviour wrong, rather than making the pupil bad, allows pupils to change, to
learn a new skill or to choose better behaviour next time. It accepts that everyone can make
mistakes and that we can all learn new (or develop existing) social and emotional skills.
For example: Molly, speaking to me like that really upsets me, I want you to speak politely,
rather than Molly, you are a very rude young lady. The latter can begin to build the pupils
picture of herself as a rude or bad person. As everyone likes to be good at something, some
pupils aim to be the best baddy!
Give pupils a choice (but not an ultimatum)
Using the language of choice and consequences is a powerful way of helping pupils to see the
link between their actions and the effect they have on other people. In this way, pupils are
encouraged to take responsibility for their own actions and are more likely to be learning or
developing social and emotional skills. Explain that using the language of choice gives you
words to support and redirect pupils towards more successful learning experiences. Offering
choices means that pupils are not backed into corners, thus reducing the likelihood of conflict.
Explain that it is not possible to force pupils to pick up litter, move seats, apologise or leave
their classrooms tidy. No matter how much you insist, the answer pupils give you might be
No!. You cannot force pupils to do things, but you can motivate and encourage so that
they want to do things for you and, more importantly, for themselves.
Often, when children behave in an unacceptable way, adults present them with a
consequence: for example, If you dont tidy your room, then you wont be watching TV.
This approach can create conflict and confrontation, raising the emotional temperature and
making it difficult to stay calm. It is more effective to provide pupils with clear choices. This
will support them in taking responsibility for managing their own behaviour.
For example: Susie, Ive asked you to stop disturbing Sunita, she is trying to think about her
story. If you choose to continue, then you will have to move over there near the window.
Its your choice.
Know when and how to get help
When faced with a difficult situation, you sometimes need help. You know that emotions
run high and relationships could be damaged. You need to know when and how to get help.

Section 3 Promoting positive behaviour

3.33

Course document 5.5


Book 5.5

Scenarios
A group of pupils comes to you complaining about a lunchtime supervisor who, they claim,
is picking on them.
In the staffroom, a member of staff is talking about a pupil with whom you have worked
hard to build up a relationship. I dont know why we bother with that kid. His behaviour is
appalling, just like his sister. We should exclude him.
You are supporting learning and behaviour in a class you work with regularly. You feel the
behaviour is getting worse but the class teacher doesnt seem to be aware.
You notice the teacher always seems to favour the same group of pupils giving them extra
attention, asking questions of them while ignoring others in the class. Some pupils are fed
up with this and their behaviour is deteriorating.
A pupil in a group you are working with whispers to you, Ive never, ever had a sticker from
my teacher.
You feel that the pupils behaviour is poor because this teacher is not following the school
behaviour policy.
You feel that a pupil has given 100 per cent effort but the teacher tells him off for not
working hard enough.
You overhear a group of year 6 girls having a conversation in the corridor.
You think they are swearing.
You find pupils in the toilets throwing scrunched wet toilet paper up on the ceiling.
You see a worried-looking pupil giving his lunchbox to another boy.
You hear a parent shouting and swearing at their child (one of your pupils) in the street
outside the schools gate before coming in.
A pupil says to you, Youre not my teacher, what do you know?.
A group of pupils are playing around in a classroom or corridor ignoring your request for
them to go outside at lunchtime.
A parent/carer asks your advice their child is being bullied.
A member of staff is in difficulty with a violent pupil.
You give a pupil a simple instruction. They refuse to do as you have asked, commenting,
No Im not doing it, and you cant make me.
Two pupils come to tell you that another pupil is being bullied out in the playground.
You hear the cry, Fight, fight!, and see pupils crowding around two pupils.
A pupil is being bullied because of his sexuality or race.
You meet an angry and upset adult in the corridor who wants to see someone in charge.
A pupil swears directly at you when you ask her/him to concentrate on the work you are
doing together.
A pupil is in trouble with a teacher for something they have not done. You know the true situation.

3.34

Teaching assistant file

Course document 5.6


Book 5.6

Managing ourselves in difficult situations


Prevention
Try to avoid conflict and prevent difficult situations arising by:
G modelling the behaviour you want to see
G

acknowledging, praising and rewarding good behaviour

listening and trying to understand situations from the other persons point of view

finding out about pupils as people and treating them with respect

reporting good behaviour to others (teachers, headteachers, parents/carers, supervisors,


people in the community, each other)

encouraging responsibility providing special roles/jobs for pupils if appropriate

apologising when you make mistakes. It models respect

separating the behaviour from the person. Never label pupils, or say they are bad
people; refer instead to their behaviour

distracting before trouble begins if you can start a conversation; walk with them; notice
something good about them

avoiding shouting, sarcasm and humiliation.

Managing ourselves
G Calm yourself before trying to calm others: count to five, breathe deeply, focus on your
outward behaviour show you are calm (on the outside, at least!)
G

Use a calm tone of voice and non-threatening body language. Maintain a safe distance,
hands by side, slow movements, avoiding direct eye contact. Do not point, wag your
fingers or prod

Speak calmly but assertively. Say how you feel and why, say what you would like to
happen. Use humour, as appropriate

Capitalise on your relationships

Give any instructions clearly and then give time to do it. Use the language of choice
(offer choices not ultimatums) and give time to comply. Keep the options open

Try to be fair and consistent

Try to avoid an audience

Avoid trying to solve a problem when people are angry. Talk to them later when you, and
they, are calm

Know where to go for help and ask for it if you need it

Know the policy in your school on following up an incident

Focus on the real problem

Try to find common ground and search for solutions.

Section 3 Promoting positive behaviour

3.35

Course document 5.7


Book 5.7

Post-module activities
You should discuss the choice of activity with your mentor.
Introduction: Developing skills
When you want to try out a new skill or idea in your work with pupils, introduce it in a
structured way. You could use this process to help you.
1. Have an idea. If I try to catch children being good as often as possible, then they will
feel better motivated to learn.
2. Be as precise as possible about what is happening now. Try and work out how often
you use this skill at the moment. Ask the class teacher to give you feedback.
3. Rehearse mentally. Think of the situations in which you could catch pupils being good
and practise some of the phrases you might use, thinking about how to make the praise
personal, specific and genuine. Try to practise the skills you have learned in your own
classroom or school context.
Activities
G Discuss with your mentor which of the adults in your school successfully use the skills you
have discussed in this module. Use opportunities to observe these colleagues, to notice how
they build relationships with others, the language they use in promoting positive behaviour
and their approach to difficult situations. Use this as a model for your own practice.

3.36

Discuss with your mentor opportunities that may arise for you to participate in wholeschool training in promoting positive behaviour and developing social and emotional skills.

Discuss with your mentor any opportunities open to you and other school staff to share
your good ideas and your successful strategies for promoting positive behaviour.

Find opportunities to praise, reward and give feedback to pupils you teach. Think about
how they will feel and be careful about the context.

Practise reframing language in a positive way to focus on the skills you want to see
being developed.

Teaching assistant file

Stop calling out

becomes

Dont do it like that

becomes

You cant play with that

becomes

Thats far too noisy

becomes

Theres no point in all talking at once

becomes

You cant go out to play yet.

becomes

Dont waste time

becomes

Stop dreaming and get on

becomes

You cant change your book now

becomes

One person at a time thanks


or
Hands up to answer this thanks

Help pupils develop social and emotional skills: for example, helping pupils to learn
about feelings.

Take time to understand and explore the reasons behind a pupils behaviour.

Find ways to build positive relationships: for example, by involving yourself in meeting
and greeting pupils as they arrive at or leave school, by eating with them or by visiting
them in breakfast club.

Think of some ways you could contribute to the improvement of the learning
environment in a classroom or more generally in school.

Look for ways to acknowledge good behaviour and to praise, reward and celebrate
achievement (within your schools usual systems).

When working with an individual pupil after an incident involving problem behaviour,
help them to reflect on how they can put the situation right. Model the skills you want
to promote. Use problem solving to identify solutions, work with pupils to help them
identify the action they will take to put things right.

Have a discussion with pupils about ways to calm down when they are angry (use the
calming down strategies poster from the SEAL curriculum resource).

Find ways to involve yourself in setting up a playground friend or buddy system.

Discuss with your manager or teacher partner the areas that you found interesting and
would like to develop further. Identify ways in which this could happen.

Section 3 Promoting positive behaviour

3.37

Course document 5.8


Book 5.8

Further reading and weblinks


Education and Inspections Act 2006
This can be found at www.dfes.gov.uk/publications/educationandinspectionsact/index.shtml
Learning Behaviour The Report of the Practitioners Group on School Behaviour
and Discipline (DfES, 2005)
Also known as the Steer Report. You can download this report or order copies online at
www.teachernet.gov.uk/publications
SEAL
The SEAL resource has been developed by the Primary National Strategy as part of
Excellence and Enjoyment: Learning and Teaching in the Primary Years (DfES 0518-2004G).
You can find out more about the SEAL resources at www.teachernet.gov.uk/seal
NPSLBA
You can find out more about the NPSLBA at www.teachernet.gov.uk/npslba/
Guidance on use of force
Guidance on the power of members of staff to use force (Education and Inspections Act
2006) is available on Teachernet at www.teachernet.gov.uk

Course document 5.9


Book 5.9

Glossary of terms and useful weblinks


Anti-bullying policy
The aim of the school anti-bullying policy is to ensure that pupils learn in a supportive,
caring and safe environment without fear of being bullied.
More information is available at
www.teachernet.gov.uk/management/atoz/a/antibullyingpolicy/
Behaviour for Learning
Behaviour for learning emphasises the crucial link between the way in which pupils learn
and their social knowledge and behaviour. The focus is on establishing positive relationships.
This module helps TAs to develop strategies and techniques for modelling and teaching
explicitly, the specific behaviours needed for learning.
More information is available at www.behaviour4learning.ac.uk

3.38

Teaching assistant file

Behaviour (and attendance) policy


The school behaviour and attendance policy shapes the school ethos and makes a
statement about how the school values and includes all the people in it. Positive behaviour
and attendance are essential foundations for a creative and effective teaching and learning
environment in which all members of the school community can thrive and feel respected,
safe and secure. The policy is usually agreed by the whole staff and shared with
parents/carers.
More information is available at
www.teachernet.gov.uk/wholeschool/behaviour/schooldisciplinepupilbehaviourpolicies
Behavioural, emotional and social difficulties (BESD)
BESD is a term used to describe a particular set of special educational needs. Pupils with
BESD cover the full range of ability and a continuum of severity. Their behaviours present a
barrier to learning and persist despite the implementation of an effective school behaviour
policy and personal/social curriculum. They may be withdrawn or isolated, disruptive and
disturbing, hyperactive and lack concentration, have immature social skills or present
challenging behaviours.
Behaviour and education support teams (BESTs)
Under the Behaviour improvement programme (BIP) initiative, some schools have been able
to set up BESTs. These are multi-agency teams, which bring together a range of
professionals, working to support schools, families and children (aged 5 to 18) who present
or are at risk of developing emotional, behavioural and/or attendance problems. Teams
include professionals from the fields of education, social care, health and other. The focus of
BEST work is identification, prevention and early intervention, to promote emotional wellbeing, positive behaviour and school attendance.
More information is available at www.dfes.gov.uk/best/
Behaviour improvement programme (BIP)
The BIP is a government initiative aimed at improving poor behaviour and attendance in
schools where these issues form significant barriers to learning and pupil progress.
Supported locally by local authorities and managed locally by the Excellence in Cities (EiC)
Partnerships, BIPs target resources at a small number of schools with the greatest behaviour
and attendance challenges across the primary and secondary sectors.
More information is available at www.dfes.gov.uk/behaviourimprovement/
Behaviour support plan (BSP)
A behaviour support plan outlines a local authoritys arrangements for the education of
pupils with behavioural difficulties.
Body language
The process of communicating through conscious or unconscious gestures and poses.

Section 3 Promoting positive behaviour

3.39

Bullying
There are many definitions of bullying, but most consider it to be:
G

deliberately hurtful (including aggression)

repeated over a period of time

difficult for those being bullied to defend themselves against.

Bullying can take many forms, but three main types are:
G

Physical: hitting, kicking, taking belongings

Verbal: name-calling, insulting, making offensive remarks

Indirect: spreading nasty stories about someone, exclusion from social groups, being
made the subject of malicious rumours, sending malicious emails or text messages.
Name-calling is the most common direct form. This may be because of individual
characteristics, but pupils can be called nasty names because of their ethnic origin,
nationality or colour, sexual orientation, or some form of disability.
Dont suffer in silence, DfES anti-bullying pack

More information is available at


www.teachernet.gov.uk/management/atoz/a/antibullyingpolicy/
The Anti-Bullying Alliance (ABA) was founded by NSPCC and the National Childrens Bureau
in 2002. It brings together 65 organisations into one network with the aim of reducing
bullying and creating safer environments in which children and young people can live, grow,
play and learn.
More information is available at www.anti-bullyingalliance.org.uk
Code of conduct
Behaviour policies should include a code of conduct for pupils. Conduct rules can apply before
and after school as well as during the school day. They set expectations for how pupils will
behave in corridors, in bus queues and at lunch and break times as well as in the classroom.
Conflict
A disagreement, a fight or a struggle. See also Restorative justice (p114) for one method of
dealing with conflict.
Teachernet has advice for schools on violence reduction at
www.teachernet.gov.uk/wholeschool/behaviour/violencereduction
Confrontation
Hostile or defiant incident.
Consequence
In this module, a consequence describes what happens as a result of a particular behaviour.
Consequences can be either positive or negative. They are applied to promote and
encourage good behaviour and to set necessary limits. To promote positive behaviour there
should be consistent and fair consequences for behaviour choices, which encourage pupils to
reflect on and to take responsibility for their own behaviour.

3.40

Teaching assistant file

Empathy
Being able to empathise involves understanding others and anticipating and predicting their
likely thoughts, feelings and perceptions. It involves seeing things from anothers point of
view and modifying ones response, if appropriate, in the light of this understanding.
Empathy is one of the social and emotional aspects of learning (SEAL) that pupils need to
develop so they can learn effectively. See SEAL (p115)
I message
An I message begins with the word I and tells pupils how you feel about a particular
situation or behaviour. Using I messages is a powerful way of showing how you feel about
behaviour without criticising, blaming or threatening. It helps to keep the interaction calm
and focused. In using I messages you:
G

describe the behaviour

say how it makes you feel

say why you feel like this

say what you would like to happen.

For example, rather than saying This group are the worst Ive ever met, say
When you talk to each other instead of listening I feel upset because I cant explain
properly. I need you to listen so that you can do a good job on this work.
Individual behaviour plan (IBP)
An IBP is an important document that sets out a plan for supporting an individual child in
improving their behaviour. It is a planning and reviewing tool which usually includes targets
and strategies to support behavioural change and to help the pupil access education more
effectively, and arrangements for reviewing how progress will be monitored and reviewed.
Language of choice
The appropriate use of language encourages pupils to make responsible choices in their
behaviour. No adult can make a pupil do something if they are determined not to.
By regularly using the word choice the pupils are encouraged to take responsibility for
their own behaviour and have a chance to feel in control.
For example: I need you to complete this piece of work. If you choose not to complete the
piece of work during the lesson, it will have to be completed at another time. Its up to you.
The word choice also has a positive emphasis, which builds confidence and self-esteem.
Lead behaviour professional (LBP)
LBPs are senior members of staff who work in schools to help staff improve skills in
promoting positive behaviour and in behaviour and attendance management.
More information is available at
www.teachernet.gov.uk/wholeschool/behaviour/npsl_ba/lbprole/

Section 3 Promoting positive behaviour

3.41

Leading behaviour teacher


A leading behaviour teacher is an excellent teacher, with proficiency in promoting positive
behaviour, who is able to demonstrate his/her expertise in a way that will help others to
learn and use skills to promote positive behaviour.
Learning mentors
Learning mentors originated as one of the three main strands of the Excellence in Cities
(EiC) initiative, and work largely in primary and secondary education settings. They are:
G

salaried staff who work with school and college students and pupils to help them
address barriers to learning, including behaviour and attendance

a bridge across academic and pastoral support roles with the aim of ensuring that
individual pupils and students engage more effectively in learning and achieve
appropriately

a key ingredient in many school and college approaches to improve the achievement
levels of pupils and students.

More information is available at www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/learningmentors/


Learning support unit (LSU)
LSUs are school-based centres for pupils who are disaffected, at risk of exclusion or
vulnerable because of family or social issues. They provide short-term teaching and support
programmes tailored to the needs of pupils who need help in improving their behaviour,
attendance or attitude to learning. The aim is to keep pupils in school and working while
their problems are addressed, and to help to reintegrate them back into mainstream classes
as quickly as possible.
More information is available at www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/sie/eic/lsu/
Managing feelings
In managing feelings, pupils use a range of strategies to recognise and accept their feelings.
They can use this to help regulate their learning and behaviour for example, managing
anxiety or anger, or demonstrating resilience in the face of difficulty. Managing feelings is
one of the social and emotional aspects of learning (SEAL) that pupils need to develop so
they can learn effectively. See SEAL (p115)
Mediation
Intervention between the parties in a dispute to produce agreement or reconciliation.
See also Restorative approaches (p114).
More information is available at
www.Teachernet.gov.uk/wholeschool/behaviour/violencereduction
Modelling
A way of teaching, for example, social and emotional skills to others through demonstration.
Motivation
Motivation enables learners to take an active and enthusiastic part in learning. Intrinsically
motivated learners recognise and derive pleasure from learning. Motivation enables learners
to set themselves goals and work towards them, to focus and concentrate on learning, to

3.42

Teaching assistant file

persist when learning is difficult and to develop independence, resourcefulness and personal
organisation. Motivation is one of the social and emotional aspects of learning (SEAL) that
pupils need to develop so they can learn effectively. See SEAL (p115)
NPSLBA
The National Programme for Specialist Leaders of Behaviour and Attendance (NPSLBA)
provides leadership training in behaviour and attendance (B&A). The programme offers
qualifications and creates career pathways for the growing number of specialists who work
in the field of B&A. Not all of these professionals are teachers. They work in varied settings:
in mainstream or special schools or units, in primary or secondary schools, and as LA
officers. All have a leadership role in B&A as part of their work or they aspire to become
such leaders.
More information is available at www.teachernet.gov.uk/npslba/
Pastoral support programme (PSP)
A PSP is an intervention determined by a school to help individual pupils to manage their
behaviour. A PSP is set up automatically for any pupil at risk of permanent exclusion,
although a PSP can also be set up for any pupil who the school has identified as being at
risk of failure because of disaffection.
Peer counselling
See Peer mediation and Peer support (below)
Peer mediation
Peer mediation involves pupils helping their peers to resolve conflicts. Pupils who are trained
as peer mediators learn vital skills in communication, negotiation, understanding and
problem solving. A peer mediator is able to refer to a teacher if a situation becomes too
complex for them to handle.
More information is available at
www.teachernet.gov.uk/teachers/issue31/primary/resources/Whatispeermediation_Primary/
Peer pressure
A need to conform to the behaviour of friends or others in order to be accepted into the
group. Peer pressure can be positive as well as negative.
Peer support
See also Peer mediation (above)
There are different types of peer support, for example involving mediation skills, peer
education or peer listening. Peer support is not about telling people what to do, but rather
listening and, if necessary, sign-posting to relevant individuals or organisations.
Primary behaviours
Primary behaviours occur first and are generally what trigger a response from the adult. The
most common primary behaviours that staff face in children are pupils talking out of turn,
being out of their seats and hindering other children.

Section 3 Promoting positive behaviour

3.43

Pupil referral unit (PRU)


A PRU is a centre maintained by a local authority for pupils who, because of exclusion or
other reasons, are not able to attend a mainstream or special school.
More information is available at
www.dfes.gov.uk/exclusions/alternative_provision_policies/pupil_referral_units.cfm
Restorative justice (RJ) and restorative approaches
Restorative justice is a method of conflict resolution. The approach is based on the belief
that the people best placed to resolve a conflict or a problem are those directly involved,
and that imposed solutions are less effective, less educative and possibly less likely to be
honoured. Through structured communication RJ approaches seek to include all of the
people affected by an incident safely, encourage and facilitate opportunities for
communication and reparation, and find ways of agreeing mutually acceptable outcomes.
Rewards
Rewards are an important part of encouraging good behaviour. The school behaviour policy
will usually indicate the range of rewards, approval, affirmation or positive recognition used
in a school. These might be informal rewards such as smiling, verbal praise or thumbs up, or
formal rewards such as certificates, points, class treats discos, films, trips, vouchers or
responsibilities such as prefect, peer mentor or buddy.
Rights and responsibilities
Rights and responsibilities are the basis on which school relationships are built. They are
closely linked and shared by adults and pupils.
Rights might include:
G

the right to respect and dignity

the right to feel safe

the right to learn.

Responsibilities might include:


G

the responsibility to manage our own behaviour

the responsibility to treat others with respect and dignity

the responsibility to cooperate with others

the responsibility to work within the agreed systems.

Rules
All schools have rules. They set out how rights and responsibilities translate into adult and
pupil behaviour.
Sanctions
The school behaviour policy should make clear the boundaries of what is acceptable and set
out a hierarchy of sanctions for unacceptable behaviour, along with arrangements for their
consistent and fair application, and a linked system of rewards (see above) for good
behaviour. Schools have a range of sanctions at their disposal, from withdrawing children
from activities to permanently excluding them.

3.44

Teaching assistant file

SEAL
Social and emotional aspects of learning (SEAL) are the underpinning qualities and skills that
help promote positive behaviour and effective learning. The governments SEAL programme
focuses on five social and emotional aspects of learning: self-awareness, managing feelings,
motivation, empathy, social skills. Curriculum materials help pupils develop skills such as
understanding anothers point of view, working in a group, sticking at things when they get
difficult, resolving conflict and managing worries. SEAL builds on effective work already
taking place in primary schools who pay systematic attention to the social and emotional
aspects of learning through whole-school ethos, initiatives such as circle time or buddy
schemes, and the taught PSHE and citizenship curriculum.
More information is available at www.teachernet.gov.uk/seal
Secondary behaviours
Secondary behaviours are negative responses from students after receiving correction.
Non-verbal examples are tuts, pouts, sighs or exasperated arm-folding. Verbally, they usually
manifest as the last word syndrome: It wasnt me!, I was only., They were,
Mrs. Robinson lets us.
Self-awareness
Self-awareness enables pupils to have some understanding of themselves. They know how
they learn, how they relate to others, what they are thinking and what they are feeling. They
use this understanding to organise themselves and plan their learning. Self-awareness is one
of the social and emotional aspects of learning (SEAL) that pupils need to develop so they
can learn effectively. See SEAL (above)
Self-esteem (self-worth)
Self-esteem is complex. It involves people making judgements about their own value based
on a sense of their own worth and competence. High self-esteem helps pupils to feel good
about themselves, valued and socially worthwhile and can enhance their ability to learn.
If pupils feel successful and competent and see themselves as good learners they will be
more willing to take risks, try out new ideas and help others to succeed. Self-esteem is not a
fixed state. If a pupil has low self-esteem, significant adults in school can help to improve it
and this, in turn, will improve the pupils proficiency as a learner. Providing praise,
encouragement and support and showing pupils how much we value and respect their ideas
are ways of building self-esteem.
Social skills
Social skills enable pupils to relate to others, take an active part in a group, communicate
with different audiences, negotiate, resolve differences and support the learning of others.
Social skills are one of the social and emotional aspects of learning (SEAL) that pupils need
to develop so they can learn effectively. See SEAL (above)
Sympathy
Sharing in an emotion with another person.
Win-win
A way of reaching a solution to a problem that allows all participants to feel positive about
the outcome.

Section 3 Promoting positive behaviour

3.45

Course document 5.10


Book 5.10

Roles in school that relate to work in behaviour and attendance


Schools have a range of different ways of working. These are some of the behaviour-related
roles that you may come across. In each case, only their role in relation to promoting
positive behaviour has been described.
Behaviour and attendance leader
As LBP (below) titles may be interchangeable.
You can find out more about leadership in behaviour and attendance by visiting the
Primary National Strategy behaviour and attendance website at
www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/primary/and NPSLBA website at www.teachernet.gov.uk/npslba/
Headteacher
Responsible for the quality of provision and standards and determination of behaviour
policy. (See Education and Inspections Act 2006, Part 7, Chapter 1, section 88).
Inclusion manager (or coordinator)
Member of staff with responsibility for leading and coordinating policy and practice relating
to inclusion. The responsibility is closely related to LBP, SENCO and the behaviour and
attendance leader.
Lead behaviour professional (LBP)
Member of senior leadership team who takes the lead in coordinating all work on behaviour
and attendance, with pupils and families, and staff professional development, liaising with
outside agencies and coordinating multi-agency work. The responsibilities of this role may
be dispersed among members of SLT.
More information can be found about the role of LBP at www.teachernet.gov.uk
Learning mentor/senior learning mentor
Works with pupils experiencing social, emotional and learning difficulties that may lead to
problems in accessing the whole-school curriculum. In extreme cases these pupils may be
excluded from school. In addition, learning mentors work closely with the families of
vulnerable pupils.
Lunchtime supervisor team leader
Some schools appoint a senior lunchtime supervisor who takes on the role of leading
the lunchtime supervision team, acting as a guide and role model for effective behaviour
policy implementation and application of behaviour management strategies at times
outside the classroom.
SEAL lead (or coordinator)
Teacher responsible for leading the implementation of SEAL in school. Often works closely
with PSHCE coordinator and can be responsible for both areas.
You can find out more about the role of staff leading SEAL by visiting the SEAL website at
www.teachernet.gov.uk/seal

3.46

Teaching assistant file

SENCO
Member of staff responsible for leading and coordinating work with pupils experiencing
behaviour, emotional and social difficulties (BESD) as a special need. This will also include
multi-agency liaison and supporting work with families of pupils experiencing BESD.
Teaching assistant (TA)
TAs may take on a variety of roles in this area, for example, supporting teachers by working
with whole classes, groups or individual pupils on social and emotional skills; leading a team
of other TAs or lunchtime supervisors; and acting as a guide and role model for effective
behaviour policy implementation and application of behaviour management strategies.

Section 3 Promoting positive behaviour

3.47

Section 4

Inclusion

Section 4
Inclusion

Contents
Session 1

page 4.2

Equality, access and inclusion

Session 2

page 4.6

Including pupils with special educational needs (SEN) and disabilities

Session 3

page 4.40

Including pupils for whom English is an additional language

Post-module activity

page 4.64

Activities 1-4

Recommended further reading

Section 4 Inclusion

page 4.77

4.1

Session 1 Equality, access and inclusion

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 1.1

What is educational inclusion?


PPT 1.1

Educational inclusion is
In an inclusive school:
about creating a secure,
the inclusive ethos
accepting, collaborating
permeates all school
and stimulating school in
policies so that they
which everyone is valued,
increase learning and
as the foundation for
participation for all pupils
the highest achievement

school practices reflect the


for all pupils
inclusive ethos and
policies of the school
(adapted from Index for
inclusion, CSIE)

Presentation slide 1.2

Three principles for inclusion


PPT 1.2

Setting suitable learning challenges


Responding to pupils diverse learning needs
Overcoming potential barriers to learning
and assessment for individuals and groups
of pupils

Presentation slide 1.3

PPT 1.3

Every child has the right to


live free from discrimination
(United Nations Convention on the Rights of
the Child 1989)

4.2

Teaching assistant file

Presentation slide 1.4

Anti-discriminatory practice
PPT 1.4

Diversity and the valuing of difference


Self-esteem and positive identity
Fulfilment of individual potential
Full participation of all groups

Presentation slide 1.5

Feelings associated with:


PPT 1.5

Inclusion
valued
at ease
content
happy
useful

Exclusion
rejected
upset
angry
frustrated
unhappy
hard done by
useless

Presentation slide 1.6

The three circles


PPT 1.6

Setting
LEARNING
suitable
learning OBJECTIVES
challenges

TEACHING
STYLES
IN
C

Responding
to pupils
diverse
needs

N
SIO
LU

ACCESS

Overcoming potential
barriers to learning

By setting suitable learning challenges, responding to pupils diverse needs and overcoming potential
barriers to learning and assessment for individuals and groups of pupils, schools can make sure that all
pupils learn and make progress.
Presentation slide 1.7

To get INCLUSION right


PPT 1.7

ATTITUDES

SKILLS

Section 4 Inclusion

RESOURCES

4.3

Course documents

Course document 1.1


Book 1.1

Teaching assistants are concerned to support the learning and


participation of all pupils
G

Are TAs involved in curriculum planning and review?

Are TAs attached to a curriculum area rather than particular pupils?

Are TAs concerned to increase the participation of all pupils?

Do TAs aim to maximise independence of pupils from their direct support?

Do TAs encourage peer support for pupils who find difficulties in learning?

Are TAs careful to avoid getting in the way of pupils relationships with their peers?

Course document 1.2


Book 1.2

Anti-discriminatory practice
Moving towards successful anti-discriminatory practice involves:

4.4

awareness of legislation and guidance on the issue

understanding significant issues in relation to gender, ethnicity, sexuality, class and


disability and understanding the impact that discrimination can have on the lives and
life-chances of pupils

knowing how discrimination operates in society

understanding that diversity is inclusive and that we all have cultural backgrounds and
multiple identities derived from various sources, including our families, our peer groups
and experiences

examining personal prejudices and how they operate, and committing ourselves to
unlearning such prejudices

promoting positive values for pupils and colleagues

ensuring that settings are welcoming and unthreatening, where pupils and their
parents/carers and staff feel valued because of their differences and not in spite of them

getting to know pupils and colleagues on a personal and professional basis

avoiding pre-judgement and fixed expectations

Teaching assistant file

using effective anti-discriminatory practices and looking for creative and


individual solutions

developing the awareness, confidence, skill and knowledge to challenge stereotypes and
misconceptions effectively; for example, the pupil who thinks black skin is dirty or the
colleague who makes assumptions about a disabled pupils inability to join in an activity

constantly monitoring, evaluating and improving practice.

Course document 1.3


Book 1.3

The meaning of inclusion


Think about what inclusion means to you.
Can you think of a time when you felt included and really part of a group you wanted
to be with, or were picked for a team event? What feelings do you associate with
that experience?

Most of us have had times when we were not included for some reason or another. Think
of a time when you experienced exclusion when you were excluded perhaps from a
social group, a team or a family situation.
What feelings do you associate with that experience?

Section 4 Inclusion

4.5

Session 2 Including pupils with special educational needs (SEN)


and disabilities

Pre-session reading
Inclusion
Inclusion is a key concept when considering special educational needs (SEN) and disabilities.
The DfES published Inclusive schooling: children with special educational needs in 2001. This
sets out the principles of an inclusive education service. The principles include the following:
G

Inclusion is a process by which schools, local authorities and others develop their
cultures, policies and practices to include pupils

With the right training, strategies and support nearly all pupils with SEN and disabilities
can be successfully included in mainstream education

An inclusive education service offers excellence and choice and incorporates the views
of parents/carers and children

The interests of all pupils must be safeguarded

Inclusive education means that, whatever their needs, pupils learn together in ageappropriate classes in local schools. To get inclusion right, schools must be willing and able
to meet the needs of a wide range of pupils. Inclusion is, therefore, a whole-school
commitment. This means that attitudes, skills and resources must be right.
As a teaching assistant, you need to remember:
G

schools must be careful not to discriminate against pupils with SEN or disabilities

what pupils have in common is greater than the differences between them

everyone has a range of needs

support is available to enable you to do your job.

However, you need to be aware of the danger that, in your efforts to help you can give too
much support and end up doing the task for the pupil. It is really important that you
remember that your role is to promote independent learning and that encouraging too
much dependence on assistance is not helpful for the pupil.
What is meant by special educational needs and disabilities?
Though often overlapping in the way they are dealt with in legislation, there are important
differences between SEN and disabilities. For example, not all children with disabilities will
have SEN. Nevertheless, children with disabilities who do not have SEN may be at risk of
being less favourably treated and need reasonable adjustment made for them under the
protection offered by the Disability Discrimination Act 1995.

4.6

Teaching assistant file

The SEN code of practice describes four areas of need, as follows:


G

communication and interaction

cognition and learning

behaviour, emotional and social development

sensory and/or physical.

SEN is a relative term: need is somewhat dependent on the learning environment,


the effectiveness of the teaching and the task to be done.
SEN code of practice
This is a policy and procedural framework to help schools, teachers and local authorities
understand their responsibilities. It requires the school to record the actions that are
additional to or different from those in place for the rest of the group or class. One way of
recording these is in individual education plans (IEP), although these are not statutory.
IEPs (or equivalent) are a teaching and planning tool. They describe the practical
arrangements to be put in place in the school to support the pupil. They usually contain no
more than three or four targets, the teaching strategies to be used and a record of the
outcomes. The targets will usually relate to the key areas of communication, literacy,
mathematics, behaviour and social skills. The strategies might be used across the curriculum
or just in specific subjects. The pupil and his or her parents/carers should be involved in
identifying short-term targets and strategies and reviewing the outcomes.
As a TA, you may be part of the support arrangements for pupils with SEN, you might be
involved in drawing up the plan and you will probably help to deliver it. You should certainly
see it! The special educational needs coordinator (SENCO), or the teacher(s) you normally
work with, will help you use IEPs or other plans effectively.
Where will I get support?
Your main source of support in your work with pupils with SEN will be subject teachers, but
there are other people who will make important contributions. Within the school, you may
be helped by the SENCO, the head of year and by other TAs. The local authority will have
educational psychologists, learning/behaviour support staff and advisory teachers to work
with pupils with specific difficulties such as hearing impairment or visual impairment and, as
appropriate, speech and language therapists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists and
the community paediatrician (school doctor).
Do not be afraid to ask you are learning, and learning is about asking questions, and
making mistakes sometimes. If you are to be an effective TA you need to ask:
Is what I am doing, working?
Is the pupil settled, happy and learning?

Section 4 Inclusion

4.7

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 2.1

PPT 2.1

The governments strategy for giving


pupils with SEN and disabilities the
opportunity to succeed includes:
Removing barriers to
learning by embedding
inclusive practices in
every school and early
years setting

Raising expectations
and achievements by
developing teachers
skills and strategies for
meeting the needs of
pupils with SEN and
disabilities and sharpening
the focus on the progress
children make

Presentation slide 2.2

The nature of special educational needs


PPT 2.2

Pupils with SEN may have:

difficulties with some or


all school work
difficulties with reading,
writing, number work or
understanding
information
difficulties in expressing
themselves or
understanding what
others are saying

difficulty in making friends


or relating to adults

difficulty in behaving
properly in school

difficulty in organising
themselves

some kind of sensory or


physical need which may
affect them in school

Presentation slide 2.3

The SEN code of practice


PPT 2.3

Sets out statutory


Seeks to enable
guidance on policies
pupils to:
and procedures for
reach their full
providing appropriately
potential and to be
for pupils with SEN
included in their
Helps schools,
school communities
teachers, local

make a successful
authorities and others
transition to
to understand their
adulthood
responsibilities

4.8

Teaching assistant file

Presentation slide 2.4

Areas of need:
PPT 2.4

Communication and interaction


Cognition and learning
Behaviour, emotional and social development
Sensory and/or physical

Presentation slide 2.5

What factors influence learning?


PPT 2.5

Teacher/Assistant

Child

Task

Environment

Presentation slide 2.6

Doing something hard


PPT 2.6

Presentation slide 2.7

Disability discrimination
PPT 2.7

It is unlawful for schools to


discriminate against disabled
pupils for a reason relating to their
disability, without justification.
(Disability Discrimination Act 1995)

Section 4 Inclusion

4.9

Presentation slide 2.8

Discrimination: example 1
PPT 2.8

A pupil who presents on the autistic spectrum


goes to the front of the dinner queue. A TA
standing nearby tells him not to barge in.
The pupil becomes anxious but does not move.
The TA insists that the pupil must not jump the
queue. The pupil becomes more anxious and
agitated and hits the TA. The pupil is excluded
temporarily from the school.
(adapted from the DRC Code of practice for schools)

Presentation slide 2.9

Discrimination: example 2
PPT 2.9

A pupil tells the school secretary that she has


diabetes and that she needs to carry biscuits to
eat when her blood sugar levels fall. A teacher
has no information about her diabetes and
refuses to allow pupils to bring food into the
classroom. The girl has a hypoglycaemic attack.
In this case, the school is unlikely to be able to
argue that it did not know about her condition.
It is unlikely that the governing body (or other
responsible body) could rely on a defence of lack
of knowledge.
(adapted from the DRC Code of practice for schools)

Presentation slide 2.10

Reasonable adjustments
PPT 2.10

Schools are required to make reasonable


adjustments to ensure that disabled pupils are
not put at a substantial disadvantage in
comparison with those who are not disabled.
(Disability Discrimination Act 1995)

Presentation slide 2.11

Making provision
PPT 2.11

Schools are required to make different or


additional provision available (for example,
equipment, resources or additional adult
support, where necessary) to meet the needs of
pupils with SEN, or SEN and a disability.
(Education Act 1996)

4.10

Teaching assistant file

Presentation slide 2.12

Developing plans
PPT 2.12

Since September 2002 local authorities and


schools have been required to develop plans to
improve access for disabled pupils by:
increasing access to the curriculum
making improvements to the physical
environment of the school to increase access
making written information accessible in a range
of different ways
(Disability Discrimination Act 1995)

Presentation slide 2.13

Key parts of a TAs role


PPT 2.13

Promoting independent learning


Encouraging the inclusion of the pupils in the
mainstream environment as far as possible

Enabling the pupil to carry out a task, not


doing the task for them

Presentation slide 2.14

Developing positive relationships


PPT 2.14

Take an interest in the pupils interests


Notice when pupils are feeling low
Give support, when needed
Encourage effort and independence
Talk and listen to pupils and take account of
what they say

Inspire confidence and trust


Have positive expectations

Presentation slide 2.15

Ways of supporting pupils


PPT 2.15

Ways of supporting pupils, under


teacher direction:
as members of the whole class
as members of a small group in the class
as individuals in the class
as members of a small withdrawal group
as individuals outside the class

Section 4 Inclusion

4.11

Presentation slide 2.16

Their role is not to do the task for the pupil


PPT 2.16

Presentation slide 2.17

Where to get help


PPT 2.17

School staff:
pastoral or subject
teachers
special educational
needs coordinator
(SENCO)
year head/coordinator
other teaching assistants
their mentor

4.12

Teaching assistant file

Local authority staff:

educational psychologist
advisory teacher (such as
for hearing impairment or
visual impairment)
learning/behaviour
support services
health authority staff:
speech and language
and other therapists
community paediatrician
(school doctor)

Course documents

Course document 2.1


Book 2.1

Doing something that is too hard


G

Write your name using the hand you dont normally write with

Copy the images from presentation slide 1.10, using your wrong hand

1.

2.

Section 4 Inclusion

4.13

Course document 2.2


Book 2.2

What have you learnt?

4.14

Teaching assistant file

What do you plan to do when


you get back to school?

Post-session activities
Activity A Case studies
Discuss the case studies in course document 2.3 with your mentor. What can you learn from
these case studies that you can apply to your own practice?

Course document 2.3 Post-session activity


Book 2.3

Read the following fictional case studies and then consider and note down your answers to
the questions that follow each case study. Discuss each case study and your answers with
your mentor back in school. Allow about 10 minutes to consider each case study. Once you
have discussed them, together with your mentor, look at the suggestions that follow for
how a teaching assistant might support each pupil. Add any ideas you have not considered
to your notes.

Case study 2.3a Communication and interaction


Mark (age 6)
Background
Mark has a specific language difficulty. When he started school, his teachers were concerned
about his language development. He had been very quiet at playgroup - this was attributed
to shyness, but as he got older it became clear that it was more than this. He has been seen
by a speech and language therapist. The results of the assessment indicate that his
understanding of language (receptive language skills) is delayed by about 18 months and his
expressive language (vocabulary, use of language, language structure) is delayed by about
two years. Marks non-verbal skills are age-appropriate (eg. ability to do jigsaws, follow
picture sequences).
Current situation
Mark is in a class of 30. He is passive in the class and does not initiate conversations with
the other children. As a result, he is often left out of games and is rather isolated in the
playground. He has poor self-confidence and hesitates to try anything new. He only speaks
when spoken to and he uses only short phrases or sentences. His use of tenses is poor
(eg. I holded my rabbit) and he sometimes gets words in the wrong order, eg. No, me can
do that (I cant do that). He is finding it hard to read and only recognises a few words,
eg. I, go, cat, and, look. During literacy lessons he seems lost. He is very good at
jigsaws and he likes making Lego models. His individual education plan includes a speech
and language therapy programme.
As a TA:
1. How can you support Mark?
2. How can you support Marks teachers?
3. What skills do you need to support Mark effectively?

Section 4 Inclusion

4.15

Case study 2.3b Cognition and learning


Sunil (age 5)
Background
Sunil was a premature baby who was slow to walk and talk. He has been seen twice a year
by doctors at the Child Development Centre at the local hospital. He has made good
progress and most of his skills are at about a three-year-old year level, so he has some
learning difficulties. He did not attend a pre-school. When he started school at age four, he
was seen by an educational psychologist who worked with the teacher and the teaching
assistant to develop individual targets for him.
Current situation
Sunil is in a class of 30 children. He is small for his age but is happy in the class group and
follows classroom routines well. He does not seem to understand much when the teacher
talks to the whole class. His language skills are limited. He speaks in short phrases, eg. Go
home now, Coat off. He can follow simple instructions. He likes to play with the train set
in the classroom and loves PE, following the lead of other children. He can name three
colours. He cannot count. Some older children in the school tend to mother him. He cannot
yet recognise any words but enjoys looking at picture books. He has individual targets.
As a TA:
1. How can you support Sunil?
2. How can you support Sunils teachers?
3. What skills do you need to support Sunil effectively?

Case study 2.3c Behaviour, and social and emotional development


Daniel (age 10)
Background
Daniel has a disturbed background. His parents separated when he was very young and his
mother cared for him and his three brothers and sisters. Because of family difficulties, the
children were taken into public care by the local authority three years ago and so Daniel has
been looked after by foster parents since that time. He sees his mother once a week but has
not seen his father since his parents separated.
Current situation
Daniel is in a class of 33. He finds it hard to settle to work and is frequently out of his seat.
He has average general ability but his reading, writing and number work are not as good as
might be expected. He gets into trouble, especially at breaktime and lunchtimes, because of
aggressive incidents in the playground. In class he finds it hard to concentrate during the
daily mathematics lesson and the literacy hour, and he does not organise himself in
readiness for work, frequently losing his pen. His books are untidy. He rarely finishes a task
without a lot of prompting from the teacher. Daniel is interested in animals and supports
Sheffield United Football Club.

4.16

Teaching assistant file

As a TA:
1. How can you support Daniel?
2. How can you support Daniels teachers?
3. What skills do you need to support Daniel effectively?

Case study 2.3d Sensory and/or physical


Lisa (age 9)
Background
Lisa has mild cerebral palsy. As a result, she has little use in her left arm and her left leg is
also weak. She wears splints on her arm and her leg. She is able to walk but is rather
unsteady on her feet, so she uses a frame with wheels (rollator). Her speech is slow and she
finds it difficult to write. She is a friendly girl who likes to be as independent as possible.
She is seen regularly by a physiotherapist and an occupational therapist. Assessment by an
educational psychologist shows that her reasoning ability is average for her age. She has a
statement of special educational needs.
Current situation
Lisa is in a class of 32 in a mainstream school. Each day she does 15 minutes of exercises
following a programme set by the physiotherapist. Because of her disability Lisa takes longer
than the other children in the class to complete written work. She also takes longer to move
around the school, and PE presents particular challenges. Some pupils in the school have
been insensitive to her needs. Lisa enjoys reading and is making good progress. She listens
well to the teacher and understands instructions. She has an individual education plan.
As a TA:
1. How can you support Lisa?
2. How can you support Lisas teachers?
3. What skills do you need to support Lisa effectively?

Suggested responses
Case study 2.3a Communication and interaction
Question 1: You can support Mark by:
G

simplifying your own language and encouraging/prompting others to do the same


(this should be based on what you know of Marks receptive language levels),
eg. chunk information into smaller sentences and use familiar vocabulary

modelling appropriate utterances, for example if he says I holded my rabbit,


say, Yes, you held your rabbit

waiting for his response after you ask a question he may need more time to think
about what has been said and to respond

Section 4 Inclusion

4.17

providing visual support such as symbols, drawings, a visual timetable to alert him to
any changes, using personal props such as left to right arrows

giving instructions one at a time

giving instructions in a sequential order

checking Mark has understood he may not be able to monitor this himself, so ask him
to tell you what he thinks you meant

facilitating opportunities for working in pairs with other children.

Question 2: You can support Marks teachers by:


G

minimising the distractions Mark has to deal with

monitoring the teachers language and feeding back on what was not understood

preparing Mark with key concepts and vocabulary in advance of specific lessons,
eg. science

repeating and revisiting topics and vocabulary

keeping Mark focused on the teacher and prompting him to listen for key items

making a visual representation of the information being presented, eg. stick drawings as
the story is read by the teacher and using it to jog his memory later

monitoring the childs non-verbal cues re: understanding.

Question 3: The knowledge and skills you need to support Mark effectively include:
G

understanding the structure of language, eg. the difference between receptive and
expressive language

understanding the speech and language therapy programme you are following and how
to support this on a daily basis

sensitivity and perception

ability to modify plans according to the pupils responses or actions and to evaluate and
recognise success in relation to targets

knowledge of specialist approaches as required, eg. colour coding, cued articulation,


signing

listening and communication skills

creativity and ability to think on your feet.

You can get further information about ways to help pupils to communicate from
I-CAN, 4 Dyer's Building, Holborn, London, EC1N 2QP. Telephone: 0845 225 4071
or at http://www.ican.org.uk

4.18

Teaching assistant file

Case study 2.3b Cognition and learning


Question 1: You can support Sunil by:
G

reading to him, so he enjoys stories

engaging him in playscripts (little storytelling sessions using play people)

making sure he understands instructions

teaming him up with a pupil with more advanced language skills

encourage him to play counting games.

Question 2: You can support Sunils teachers by:


G

using the speaking and listening P scales to set modified learning

setting objectives/tasks which are appropriate to his developing understanding

preparing materials with plenty of visual images and finding appropriate concrete
objects for lessons that are planned

devising or finding games for Sunil to play with his parents/carers to develop
his communication.

Question 3: The knowledge and skills you need to support Sunil effectively include:
G

understanding his learning needs, ideally with the help of a speech and
language therapist

comparison: differences between home language and the language of instruction

professional development in modifying tasks and materials

understanding of appropriate ICT approaches to motivate Sunil to practise his language.

Case study 2.3c Behaviour, and social and emotional development


Question 1: You can support Daniel by:
G

making sure he has all his equipment with him and being prepared to provide
equipment if necessary

supporting his understanding of instructions if necessary by breaking them in chunks

working through some strategies, such as traffic lights, to help him settle calmly

finding him a playtime buddy

supporting him through transitions in lessons or the day.

Section 4 Inclusion

4.19

Question 2: You can support Daniels teachers by:


G

making sure he is ready to work

supporting strategies to help him manage his own behaviour

observing him and warning the teacher if he seems to be unhappy about anything

being his first port of call.

Question 3: The knowledge and skills you need to support Daniel effectively include:
G

the teachers planned pattern of response to Daniels behaviour

understanding of attachment theory and issues of transition for vulnerable pupils

a range of strategies to help him manage his own behaviour

an understanding of Daniels strengths and interests

ideas on effective positive reinforcement

opportunities to develop your ability to listen to him.

Case study 2.3d Sensory and/or physical


Question 1: You can support Lisa by:

4.20

working with the class teacher to ensure that the reward programme for the class
recognises Lisas efforts and achievements and that her group see the value she adds
to their efforts

finding ICT hardware and software that allows her to demonstrate her knowledge and
understanding (Becta can advise)

being aware of the time constraints and supporting her to complete work in time to
move to the next activity or break

discussing with her and with her physiotherapist what her needs are in subjects such
as PE, so that she can make the best use of time in that lesson and be included as
much as possible

arranging physiotherapy exercises so that she is not excluded from the curriculum

helping her set challenging and achievable targets for herself

supporting group work where she is able to make a contribution such as through the
group recording work on a computer.

Teaching assistant file

Question 2: You can support Lisas teachers by:


G

discussing Lisas needs with the teacher and being aware what the main aims of each
lesson are

ensuring that the classroom is organised for Lisa to use a class computer adapted for
her needs if she does not yet have one of her own

facilitating group interaction so that Lisa demonstrates her abilities within the group

bringing to the teachers attention any particular difficulty Lisa has with access or
understanding in any subject area

discussing new areas of work and working with the class teacher to ensure the lesson is
inclusive and enables Lisa to receive praise and recognition

discussing homework activities with the teacher and looking at ways to differentiate
these so that she is not overburdened.

Question 3: The knowledge and skills you need to support Lisa effectively include:
G

disability equality training

her physiotherapy needs and what they are trying to achieve

ICT skills and how to enable her to access recording her work through IT
(Becta can advise)

the level of fatigue that she may experience and how this will increasingly affect her
throughout the day and towards the end of the school week

safeguarding training in the area of disability, with particular understanding of the ways
to prevent disabled pupils being bullied.

Section 4 Inclusion

4.21

Activity B Particular special educational needs


Course document 2.4 contains descriptions of the most frequently encountered special
educational needs. Read through these and keep them for reference. Remember, these notes
are just to support your own understanding and to help you have well-informed discussions
with teachers about which particular arrangements and approaches to use to meet pupils
particular needs. They should not be used for diagnosis.

Course document 2.4


Book 2.4

Activity B Particular special educational needs


The following pages describe briefly the special educational needs that are most frequently
encountered in mainstream schools. These should give you a greater understanding of the
arrangements and approaches appropriate for particular types of need. Read these in your
own time and keep them for reference. Bear in mind, however, that they are just for your
own understanding, and that the descriptions are not for you to use for diagnostic purposes
that is the role of specialists. They should, however, help in discussions with teachers about
which particular arrangements and approaches suit pupils with particular needs, and how
you might support such pupils.
In the framework described in the Special educational needs code of practice (revised edition
2001), which was referred to in the SEN and disabilities session, special educational needs
are grouped as follows:
G

communication and interaction, eg. dyspraxia, dyslexia, autistic spectrum disorders,


Aspergers syndrome

cognition and learning, eg. Downs syndrome

behaviour, emotional and social development, eg. attention deficit hyperactivity


disorder (ADHD)

sensory and/or physical, eg. visual impairment, hearing impairment, cerebral palsy.

Children with SEN may have a range and combination of difficulties extending across more
than one of these groups.

4.22

Teaching assistant file

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

What is ADHD?
ADHD is a term used to describe the condition of children who have long-term difficulties in
attention, hyperactivity and impulsive behaviour:
G

inattentive means being easily distracted, not being able to settle and being forgetful
and disorganised

hyperactive means being restless, fidgety and always on the go

impulsive means having a tendency to interrupt, talk out of turn or be unable to wait.

ADHD is a medical diagnosis. Difficulties should have been obvious for more than six
months for a diagnosis to be made, and should be apparent before the age of seven years.
Some children do not have symptoms of hyperactivity but fit the descriptions of
inattentiveness and impulsiveness. These children are described as having ADD attention
deficit disorder without hyperactivity.
Sometimes doctors prescribe tablets (stimulants such as Ritalin, Concerta, Equasym
or a non-stimulant such as Strattera) which help children to focus and have better
impulse control.
As a result of their difficulties, pupils with ADHD find it difficult to plan and control their
behaviour. They often seem to be unaware of danger and have a tendency to rush into
things. With their seemingly endless talking and activity, these pupils can be extremely hard
work for adults.
What are the learning implications?
Skills in concentration, paying attention and following rules are needed in school. Pupils with
ADHD find these skills hard to learn. They find listening to and remembering instructions
difficult. They are often out of their seats and distract others. Their classmates sometimes
find them irritating.
A TA can:
G

encourage and give frequent meaningful praise

make instructions clear and simple

use rewards to encourage good behaviour

give immediate sanctions for poor behaviour

be consistent and calm

think ahead about potentially difficult situations and how they might be managed.

Section 4 Inclusion

4.23

Where can more information be found?


G

The SENCO or the local authority educational psychology service

National Attention Deficit Disorder Information and Support Service (ADDISS),


PO Box 340, Edgware, MIDDLESEX, HA8 9HL
website: www.addiss.co.uk

Parents/carers

Aspergers syndrome

What is Aspergers syndrome?


Aspergers syndrome is an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and pupils with Aspergers
display the three core impairments that characterise ASDs (see above).
Aspergers syndrome is sometimes referred to as high functioning autism. Within the three
core impairments, each pupil with Aspergers will be affected in different ways and some will
have highly complex needs.
The three core impairments and the way they may be displayed by pupils with
Aspergers are:

4.24

social communication
The verbal language of a pupil with Aspergers may appear formal, often limited to set
phrases. A pupil with Aspergers interprets what is said literally and this can cause
problems of understanding when, for example, figurative language is used. Pupils with
Aspergers may have difficulty in initiating conversation, sustaining conversations and
correcting mistakes in conversations. While they will happily talk at length about
subjects that interest them, they often do not take another persons interests into
account. They may also find it difficult to recognise the usual rules of normal
conversation, such as listening, reflecting and taking turns

social interaction
Pupils with Aspergers face real difficulties in relating to others, especially other pupils,
who may find them odd and awkward in their attempts at making friends. They often
have to be taught specific social skills and even then they may have difficulty using
those skills in different situations. Pupils with Aspergers may find it difficult to show or
recognise emotions in themselves or others and to understand facial expression, eyecontact and other forms of non-verbal communication. Pupils with Aspergers will
usually say exactly what they mean, and will not usually understand the need to adapt
what they say because of the effect it may have on others. For example, a pupil with
Aspergers might quite happily state a fact such as that a person is fat without
realising that in saying it they may hurt that persons feelings

Teaching assistant file

thinking and behaving flexibly according to the situation


Pupils with Aspergers often have a restricted range of interests, and sometimes only
one, which may turn into an obsession. They may prefer factual information to fictional,
and while often being extremely knowledgeable on a specialist subject, can find it
difficult to make up stories. If they do show an interest in fictional characters and
stories, they will tend to prefer exaggerated caricatures such as cartoon stories and
horror stories, where extreme emotions are overstated. Pupils with Aspergers often rely
heavily on routine, such as always having to follow exactly the same route to school
every day, perhaps touching certain objects along the way. Unexpected happenings and
changes in routine can cause extreme anxiety. Sometimes it can be difficult to pinpoint
the cause of that anxiety

Some pupils with Asperger's display other difficulties such as clumsiness.


Some will be clumsy both in general coordination and in smaller movements, like
handwriting.
What are the implications for teaching and learning?
G

Pupils with Aspergers like routines and may become anxious if these are altered

They are often unaware of others feelings so may not be included by classmates

As they often take things literally, they may find it difficult to understand subjects where
a lot of figurative language is used, eg. in English or humanities subjects

PE may be difficult because of their clumsiness or awkwardness

Pupils may have an unusually accurate memory for detail and they often have good
memories for facts and figures

One idea might lead to another that seems irrelevant

They might have trouble understanding what they read

Particular circumstances may trigger anxiety, eg. classroom or corridor noise or bustle,
or particular smells, eg. ethanol in science lessons

Some pupils may be very precise and have problems completing tasks on time

How might a teaching assistant give support?


G

Give short, clear and precise directions allowing the pupil time to process the
information and check for understanding

Prepare the pupil for changes well in advance

Ensure a structured timetable, daily plans and structured lessons

Use visual prompts

Apply rules and routines consistently

Section 4 Inclusion

4.25

Give meaningful praise with reference to what the pupil is being praised for

Use stories and role-play to teach social skills

Make use of appropriate information and communications technology (ICT)

Ensure that all staff and classmates are aware of the characteristics of
Aspergers syndrome

Encourage inclusion in social situations by planning support

Where can more information be found?


G

Parents/carers

The SENCO

Local authority educational psychology service

www.teachernet.gov.uk/asd

The National Autistic Society, 393 City Road, LONDON, EC1V 1NG
website: www.nas.org.uk

Autistic spectrum disorders (ASD)

What is ASD?
ASD is a generic term used to describe people who have a common set of difficulties that
affect communication, relationships and imagination. Individuals with ASD range from those
with severe learning difficulties to those with above average intelligence or high intelligence.
The latter are referred to as having Aspergers Syndrome. ASD generally means that a child
has difficulties in three areas of development. These areas are:

4.26

social interaction
Pupils with autism can display a marked aloofness and indifference to other people, a
passive acceptance of social contact or an inappropriately stilted and formal manner
of interaction

social communication
Pupils with autism range from not speaking or communicating at all, by either word or
action, through to understanding words but not being able to understand the hidden
rules of normal conversation or the nuances of meaning

Teaching assistant file

imagination
Pupils with autism can have problems in the development of interpersonal play and
imagination, for example having a limited range of imaginative play, possibly copied and
pursued rigidly and repetitively. Some pupils may show bizarre and sometimes
obsessional interest in facts and figures, such as timetables, drainage systems or
motorway networks

A diagnosis of autism will only be made if there is clear evidence of some degree of
difficulty in all three areas of development. Of course, the severity of autism in a child varies
considerably, and people with autism are often referred to as being somewhere on the
autistic continuum because of the wide range of differences between them. Although
autism is found in children of all abilities, it is more often linked with either moderate or
severe learning difficulties.
What are the learning implications?
G

The pupil will not respond as other pupils do they will not seek contact or seek to take
part in activities the way most pupils do

They become anxious when routines are broken

It is hard to know how much the pupil understands

Structured routines and approaches to learning are really important

Activities should be planned to reduce anxiety

How might the teaching assistant give support?


G

Learn about particular approaches that are appropriate for pupils with autism

Have a calm and consistent approach

Provide routines and structure

Help the pupil to communicate to the best of their ability

Where can more information be found?


G

Parents/carers

The SENCO

The local authority educational psychology service

www.teachernet.gov.uk/asd

The National Autistic Society, 393 City Road, LONDON, EC1V 1NG
website: www.nas.org.uk

Section 4 Inclusion

4.27

Cerebral palsy

What is cerebral palsy?


Cerebral palsy is not just one condition but a group of complicated conditions that affect
movement and posture, stemming from damage to or failure in the development of the
part of the brain that controls movement.
The condition itself does not normally change, but the effects of the cerebral palsy on
muscles and joints can change as people get older.
Many forms of cerebral palsy are now recognised. It is often described either:
1. according to the part of the body affected:
G

hemiplegia: one side of the body

diplegia: whole body affected; or

2. according to the way in which the body is affected:


G

spasticity: the person finds it very difficult to move their limbs so they have problems
with posture and general movements

athetosis or dyskinetic: involuntary movements such as writhing, twitches or spasms

ataxia: the person finds it difficult to coordinate their muscle groups so they have
problems with balance, walking, etc.

Most people with cerebral palsy will have a combination of these types and may also have
associated conditions such as those indicated below. However, it is important to remember
that no two children will be affected in the same way. Cerebral palsy is as individual as the
child and needs should be assessed on an individual basis.
What are the learning implications?
There is huge variation between individual children. The disability can be anything from a
fairly minor condition that affects the pupils life only a little, to a major disability that
comprehensively affects both the pupils own life and that of their family.
Its important to realise that some (but not all) pupils who have cerebral palsy also have
other difficulties with learning, such as:

4.28

perceptual difficulties

communication difficulties

movement and control difficulties

Teaching assistant file

problems with mixing socially, because it is hard for them to communicate

sensory impairment, affecting hearing and vision and also sensitivity to touch and
food textures

epilepsy, affecting the child through epileptic seizures and through the drugs used to
control these

behavioural problems, particularly anxiety, opposition and short attention span.

It is essential to look for every possible way for such pupils to communicate, but it is also
important to keep a balance between accepting a pupils genuine limitations and making
sure they are provided with as many opportunities as possible to progress as far as they can.
Developments in ICT are able to make significant differences to the quality of life of pupils
with cerebral palsy.
How might a teaching assistant give support?
G

Encourage independence

Help the pupil to move from lesson to lesson, for example by removing obstacles

Encourage support for the pupil from classmates

Be clear about what equipment is needed and how to use it (the occupational therapist
can advise)

Enable communication with the class teacher and with friends

In some circumstances assist with toileting (respecting the needs of the pupil)

Deliver a physiotherapy programme, under the guidance of a physiotherapist

Support understanding, where needed, by using objects and pictures

Support responses to learning by programming a voice aid or computer

Facilitate pupil-to-pupil interaction in learning and social settings

Where can more information be found?


G

The local authority is likely to have specialist teachers or educational psychologists who
can provide information or advice

Scope the cerebral palsy helpline, PO Box 833, MILTON KEYNES, MK12 5NY.
Tel: 0808 800 3333 (confidential freephone), email: cphelpline@scope.org.uk
website: www.scope.org.uk

Scope inclusion checklists supporting the inclusion of pupils into early years, primary and
secondary settings are available from the Scope website

Parents/carers

Section 4 Inclusion

4.29

Downs syndrome

What is Downs syndrome?


Downs syndrome is the most common form of learning disability, occurring once in about
every 8001000 live births. Two babies are born with Downs every day in the UK.
Downs syndrome is a genetic condition caused at conception, due to a failure in cell
division of chromosome 21. A baby born with Downs syndrome thus has three of
chromosome 21 instead of the usual two, making a total of 47 instead of 46 chromosomes.
In the vast majority of children, every cell in the body will have this extra chromosome
(this form of Downs syndrome is called Trisomy 21). In a very small number of cases
(12 per cent) only some of the cells will contain the extra chromosome called mosaic.
Although children with Downs syndrome do share certain physical characteristics, these
vary from child to child. Most importantly, each child inherits its own family
looks/characteristics.
Children with Downs syndrome have learning difficulties, but these can vary from mild to
severe. They can vary as widely in their development as typically developing children and
each has individual talents and aptitudes to be developed. However, generally speaking, at
age five many will be functioning at roughly two years below their chronological age, while
the most-able children will be functioning at near average for their age. At the other end of
the ability range, there are children with severe learning difficulties and/or additional
problems such as autism or epilepsy.
Children with Downs syndrome develop more slowly than their peers, arriving at each stage
of development at a later age and staying there for longer. The gap between pupils with
Downs syndrome and their peers thus widens with age.
As with many children, progress for children with Downs syndrome is a continual but
unsteady process continuing into adulthood where progress in learning new skills continues.
Their progress does not decline as they get older nor, as previously thought, do they plateau
in their development.
It is important to remember, however, that although Downs syndrome is due to genetic
factors, environmental factors and upbringing play a critical role in the development, as for
any child.
Certain medical problems are more common in children with Downs syndrome: hearing
impairment, visual impairment, respiratory problems, coughs, colds, lower immune system
and thyroid disorder. Some 40-50 per cent of Downs babies are born with heart problems
and there is a slightly higher incidence of autism, leukaemia or diabetes compared with
typically developing peers.

4.30

Teaching assistant file

What are the learning implications?


Children with Downs syndrome are not just developmentally delayed they have a specific
learning profile with implications for their education, learning and styles of differentiation. A
key strength is the fact that they are strong visual learners and a key weakness is the ability
to listen to, process and retain speech, ie. they can be poor auditory learners. Factors in the
learning profile have physical and/or cognitive implications. These factors are also seen in
other pupils with learning difficulties.
Factors that facilitate learning
G

Strong visual awareness and visual learning skills

Ability and desire to learn from their peers to imitate and take their cue from them

Keen communicators in spite of speech and language delay

Ability to use and learn from demonstration, sign, gesture and visual support

Ability to read and use the written word

Factors that may inhibit learning


(Not all pupils with Downs syndrome will have all of the following factors)
G

Delayed motor skills fine and gross

Auditory and visual impairment

Speech and language delay

Poor short-term auditory memory

Shorter concentration span

Difficulties with consolidation and retention

Generalisation, thinking and reasoning difficulties

Sequential difficulties

Avoidance tactics

How might the teaching assistant give support?


G

Encourage independence through visual timetables, peer support and targeting


self-help skills

Liaise with teaching staff over lesson plans and appropriately differentiated or
modified activities

Teach reading and use the written word to reinforce and teach new vocabulary and
concepts, aid differentiation and develop speech and language skills

Section 4 Inclusion

4.31

Use visual/tactile materials such as pictures and concrete materials to reinforce oral
work and help understanding of new concepts and vocabulary

Speak directly to the pupil and reinforce what is said with facial expressions, sign
and gesture

Use simple and familiar language, short sentences and clear instructions

Give the pupil time to process language and form a response

Provide short listening activities to develop listening and auditory processing skills

Provide additional practice to develop and consolidate skills

Make sure the pupil understands the task

Make sure the rules are clear and apply them to pupils with Downs syndrome alongside
their classmates

Set up regular and frequent opportunities for social communication

Make sure the pupil is working with others who are good role models

Dyslexia

What is dyslexia?
Dyslexia is a specific learning difficulty that hinders the learning process in relation to reading,
writing and spelling. When the ability to recognise and manage numbers is affected it is
sometimes called dyscalculia. These difficulties are often called specific learning difficulties.
These are lasting difficulties but do not affect all learning skills. In many cases children who
have dyslexia can achieve at or above the average level in other areas.
Dyslexia may affect:

4.32

the development of the ability to remember what is seen or heard in sequence

the ability to identify sounds in words, eg. rhymes, similar sounds and syllables

speed of reading and understanding

concentration

coordination

the ability to put things in order, eg. letters, groups of letters, days, months, stories
or information

Teaching assistant file

What are the learning implications?


Pupils with dyslexic-type difficulties make mistakes in reading and writing. For example,
some letters and numbers are swapped or back-to-front. The connection between letter
shape and sound is difficult to learn and remember. When they are learning to read, some of
the usual ways of working out unknown words are harder for them than for others. More
able readers will recognise a word through its shape, or by looking at parts of the word,
letter groups, syllables or the meaning of the sentence. Dyslexic pupils often have difficulty
with one or more of these methods. And when they start to write, the letters are often
drawn wrongly and writing may not flow.
In addition, pupils with dyslexia can also find problems with directions, map-reading,
recognising left and right, and reading music.
Dyslexia affects some pupils very little. Others find that they face real difficulties in learning,
their confidence and self-esteem are affected and they lose motivation.
Pupils may find that they need help in recording what they know for example, with the
use of dictaphones, charts, diagrams or models.
How might the teaching assistant give support?
G

Encourage effort

Ensure success as far as possible in all subjects

Amend worksheets to make them understandable

Provide key words

Act as scribe

Read out questions

Enable self-correction

Look through materials in advance of the lesson

Practise memory games

Encourage use of information technology, such as word processor, dictaphone

Plan and evaluate with the teacher and/or SENCO

Where can more information be found?


G

The local authority is likely to have specialist teachers or educational psychologists


who can provide information and advice

The British Dyslexia Association, 98 London Road, READING, RG1 5AU


website: www.bda-dyslexia.org.uk

Section 4 Inclusion

4.33

The Dyslexia Institute, Park House, Wick Road, Egham, SURREY, TW20 0HH
website: www.dyslexia-inst.org.uk

Parents/carers

Dyspraxia

What is dyspraxia?
Dyspraxia is a specific difficulty that affects the brains ability to plan sequences of
movement. It is thought to be connected to the way that the brain develops. The effects
that dyspraxia has on a childs ability to function at home and at school can vary, depending
on the degree of difficulty.
Difficulties may be found in some or all of the following areas:
G

gross motor skills

poor performance in sport, general clumsiness, poor balance, difficulties in learning those
skills that involve coordination of body parts, such as riding a bike or swimming

fine motor skills

poor handwriting, often resulting from too much pressure being applied to the pencil in
an attempt to control it. Conversely, the childs writing may be neat, but extremely slow,
reducing the amount of work that they can complete in a given time

self-help and organisation skills dyspraxic children often take a long time to get dressed
and to organise themselves in the morning. They may find it difficult to remember what
equipment is needed when, and typically will mislay their belongings at school

speech and language skills.

Dyspraxia can be associated with a delay or disorder in expressive language skills, such as in
sequencing words within a sentence, or in controlling the movements necessary to
articulate certain speech sounds.
What are the learning implications?
Dyspraxia can affect a pupils progress in school on a number of different levels.
G

4.34

Poor handwriting skills affect both the speed and quality of written work. Difficulties in
self-organisation can extend to difficulties in organisation of thoughts and in planning,
leading in turn to disorganised or disjointed work. Often the dyspraxic child appears to
have a lot of information in their head, but cannot record that information in a logical
and meaningful order. Their written work does not match their apparent verbal ability.
These difficulties can lead to frustration and problems with self-esteem, which can
further lead either to withdrawn behaviour or to acting out

Teaching assistant file

Difficulties in concentration are often associated with dyspraxia, but it is sometimes


difficult to say whether these are a genuinely separate difficulty, or whether they are
linked to a childs avoidance of difficult tasks

Children with dyspraxia can appear emotionally immature, and are often awkward or
clumsy in their social relationships. This can result in a degree of social isolation

How might the TA give support?


G

Encourage effort

Boost self-esteem at every opportunity

Ensure homework tasks are understood and not too onerous

Provide line guides for setting out work

Know how the pupil should sit and hold the pen, and what particular equipment
might help

Help in planning, such as making lists, sequencing events, drawing up timetables

Encourage support from classmates

Seek advice from an occupational therapist

Other sources of information


G

SENCO or local authority educational psychology service

Occupational therapist

The Dyspraxia Foundation, 8 West Alley, Hitchin, HERTS, SG5 1EG


website: www.dyspraxiafoundation.org.uk

Parents/carers

Section 4 Inclusion

4.35

Hearing impairment

What is hearing impairment?


There are different types of hearing loss:
G

Conductive hearing loss this means any cause or condition that affects the progress of
sound into the ear canal or across the middle ear. Conductive problems can often be
treated by medicine or by surgery; for example, glue ear, which occurs when fluid builds
up in the middle ear, can be treated by an operation to insert a grommet

Sensori-neural hearing loss this means defects in the fine structure of the inner ear or
sound pathways to the brain. Usually high-frequency sounds are most affected. This
hearing loss is more likely to be permanent

Mixed loss this means both types of hearing loss. It is not enough to know that a pupil
has a hearing loss; you need to know which sounds are affected and by how much

There are also different degrees of hearing loss. Losses are often described as ranging from
mild to profound and are measured in decibels (dB).
G

Mild loss is outside the normal range (greater than 20dB and less than 40dB). This
would mean a pupil might have difficulty in hearing faint or distant speech, listening and
concentrating in classroom or in other noisy environments, and possibly some delay in
speech and language skills.

Moderate loss is 41 to 70dB. Most pupils with moderate hearing loss have significant
difficulties with speech and language and they generally need to use hearing aids.

Severe loss a loss measured at between 71 and 95dB, means speech may not be
understood without hearing aids or lip-reading. Speech and language are likely to be
significantly affected.

Profound loss a profound loss (96dB and over) means no speech is heard without
hearing aids.

If a pupil was born deaf, or acquired a hearing loss before learning to talk, then their speech
is likely to be severely affected. If a pupil became deaf after learning to talk, their ability to
talk is not lost, but their speech may be impaired because of their inability to hear their own
speech. The earlier a hearing loss is recognised, the sooner its effect can be reduced by
treatment or by using hearing aids. Children who have a severe or profound loss benefit
from hearing aids or cochlear implants electronic devices which by-pass the damaged
inner ear to stimulate the auditory nerve directly.

4.36

Teaching assistant file

What are the learning implications?


G

The pupil will find it difficult to know where sound is coming from and a high level of
background noise will make things worse

The pupil will need to be close to the teacher to be able to hear and, if necessary,
lip-read effectively, but will also need to be able to see other members of the class

The pupil may not always have understood the task

The pupil may find it difficult to communicate with classmates

Signs of frustration often accompany hearing impairment because of difficulties


in communication

Certain aids and technological support are needed for the pupil to gain maximum
access to the curriculum

How might the teaching assistant give support?


G

Give the pupil time to process information and respond

Give plenty of encouragement

Ensure the pupil is sitting where he or she can see the teacher clearly

Make eye contact and get the full attention of the pupil before speaking

Use lively gestures and facial expressions

Be clear about how to use any aids

Encourage social communication with classmates

Check understanding

Where can more information be found?


G

The local education authority is likely to have specialist teachers of the deaf and
educational psychologists who can provide information, advice and support

The National Deaf Childrens Society, 15 Dufferin Street, LONDON, EC1Y 8UR
website: www.ndcs.org.uk

The Royal National Institute for Deaf People, 19-23 Featherstone Street, LONDON,
EC1Y 8SL
website: www.rnid.org.uk

The British Association of Teachers of the Deaf; website: www.batod.org.uk

Parents/carers

Section 4 Inclusion

4.37

Visual impairment

What is visual impairment?


There are a number of different terms that are used to describe visual impairment:
G

Partial sight partially sighted pupils have enough vision to manage school tasks but
may need the help of special teaching methods and materials to compensate for their
visual difficulties

Low vision pupils with low vision have severely restricted vision but can make some
use of their sight. They may be able to see work or general mobility in close-up, with the
aid of good lighting, careful positioning and low vision aids such as magnifiers. They may
or may not use a tactile code such as Braille

Educationally blind pupils who are educationally blind are unable to learn through
sight and have to be educated mainly by non-sighted methods, using touch and hearing
only for example, using Braille

Being registered blind involves a medical definition and means that an individual is likely to
function in their daily lives mainly through touch and hearing. It does not necessarily mean
that they have no useful sight at all.
A significant number of children with visual impairment also have additional needs such as a
learning difficulty, hearing impairment or physical disability.
What are the learning implications?
The impact of visual impairment varies considerably between individuals according to the
nature and severity of their sight loss and their ability to manage it. For example, a pupil
who has been totally blind from birth is likely to experience significantly greater difficulties
than one with partial sight who has a good understanding of the visual world around them.
To a greater or lesser degree, the following may apply:

4.38

Visual impairment may affect a pupils ability to do detailed and careful physical
movements. Without visual stimuli the usual motivation to explore may be reduced, and
so physical skills and confidence can be slow to develop. Children with impaired vision
often have less opportunity to move about independently and to imitate others, and
thus develop a poor body image. They may find difficulty with skills that involve the
senses and be poor in coordinating movements for example, they may find it difficult
to pour liquids

Speech and language usually develop normally, but may sometimes be delayed if the
pupil has fewer experiences that help develop language and understanding

Teaching assistant file

Because pupils with poor vision cant learn by watching, they may need tasks to be
reinforced for them on an individual basis by additional explanation or modelling. They
may not be able to do schoolwork as quickly as other pupils, because it will often be
harder for them to access the necessary information

Because they are not able to learn the messages of body language or facial expression
that other children learn without realising it, they may also find difficulties in relating
socially with other pupils

Because those around a pupil with a visual impairment may be tempted to over-protect
them, this can combine with all the other things to affect their self-esteem and
confidence

How might the TA give support?


G

Encourage the pupil to develop independence and social skills

Modify worksheets and adapt tasks in consultation with teachers

Encourage the peer group to include and support the pupil

Give assistance as necessary in situations where safety is an issue or reinforcement


is required

Develop skills in working with equipment and resources

Undertake specialist training as necessary, such as in the use of Braille

Where can more information be found?


G

The local authority is likely to have specialist teachers or educational psychologists who
can provide information and advice

Royal National Institute of the Blind, 105 Judd Street, LONDON, WC1H 9NE
website: www.rnib.org.uk

Section 4 Inclusion

4.39

Session 3 Including pupils for whom English is an additional language

Pre-session activity
Activity C
Finding out about your school
Find the answers to the following questions about your school from a senior teacher, your
mentor or the ethnic minority achievement (EMA) coordinator:
G

How many pupils learn English as an additional language?

How many languages are spoken?

What are the main languages spoken?

Does your school have a policy for teaching English as an additional language?

If so, what are the key elements of this policy?

Read these background notes on pupils for whom English is an additional language.

Activity D Background reading


Read these background notes before attending session 3 of the Inclusion module.

Pupils for whom English is an additional language


There are about 375,000 pupils in maintained primary schools in England for whom English
is an additional language (EAL). Teaching assistants can support EAL learners in many of the
same ways in which they support other pupils, but these pupils also have distinct and
additional needs.
EAL learners are not a uniform group. Some will be fluent speakers, readers and writers of
another language or of more than one language; some may not be literate in their other
languages and have only a passing knowledge of them, using them only in a specific context,
such as communicating with certain family members. Some recent arrivals will be at the
very early stages of acquiring English. Some will have had very limited or disrupted
schooling. In certain cases, recent arrivals may have arrived in this country having spent
time in a number of countries other than their country of origin. These pupils may only have
a partial knowledge of several languages, including their original home language. All teaching
and support staff adults in a school need to take account of these differences.

4.40

Teaching assistant file

As EAL learners have a range of individual needs, it is important that these needs are
understood and that the support provided is appropriate for the individual.
It is important to recognise that many EAL learners learn very quickly. They are not, in most
cases, slow learners and any supposition that they have special educational needs should
only be arrived at after thorough investigation and assessment. However, it takes many
years to become fully fluent in English. Research suggests that it takes on average five to
seven years to become fully competent in a second language. Fluency in spoken English is
usually achieved within two years but the ability to read and understand more complex
texts containing unfamiliar cultural references and write the academic language needed for
success in examinations takes much longer.
The challenge that EAL learners face is that they are learning several things at once to
adapt to a new environment; to speak, read and write English; and, through English, to
understand the rest of the school curriculum and make social relationships with their peers.
Many schools will have a specific policy for teaching EAL learners. Most policies will include
the following three principles:
G

Inclusion it is important for EAL learners to feel part of the class, and to be included
in all activities. It is generally best practice for such pupils to be kept in the classroom,
with any support workers, except on particular project activity

Access to the curriculum pupils will be learning the curriculum as well as the English
language. It is therefore the task of the classroom teacher and TA to take every
opportunity to increase their understanding of the words and ideas they need to
progress in all subjects, and to build on pupils previous knowledge and experience to
support learning

Respecting the first language and culture of the learner it helps to build their
confidence and self-esteem if pupils know that their home and culture are respected.
It also helps them to learn some things more readily if they have opportunities to use
their first language while they are learning English.

Ideally, strategies for teaching EAL learners should be coordinated throughout the school,
building on the expertise and judgement of a range of staff, including specialist support
where available. Effective schools plan for pupils needs at class, year and school level.
Class teachers, often in conjunction with specialist EAL teachers, will plan the work
according to school policy. A TA should be included in the agreed teaching strategies to
meet the needs of individual pupils. The contribution of the TA should be invaluable in
supporting the specific strategies that have been planned for each pupil. The particular
knowledge and insight of TAs can, and should, support and inform this process.
The notes below show how the principles described above can be applied in different
situations and classroom activities.

Section 4 Inclusion

4.41

Settling in the pupil with little or no English


It is important that pupils and their parents/carers are welcomed and made to feel they
belong to the school.
Pupils can be made to feel welcome by:

4.42

making sure their names are pronounced correctly and they are introduced to the class

checking with them whether they have any concerns over their dietary or
religious requirements

learning a few words of their own languages (such as words of greeting) and using them
in a context that emphasises respect and value for pupils own languages and cultures

seating them either with other pupils with the same home language or (if there isnt
one) with a pupil who can be trusted to help them settle in

showing pupils where the cloakroom, toilet, dining facilities etc. are, and teaching them
the English words for these

making sure they have enough individual adult attention for the settling-in period

making sure that the conduct of others in the class is appropriate and intervening firmly
at any hint of name calling or similar negative behaviour

making sure that resources are available for pupils that support their understanding of
the task (eg. diagrams, visual aids, vocabulary cards)

allowing them to indicate understanding of a task without necessarily speaking in the


first instance (eg. through drawing diagrams, matching vocabulary cards)

allocating them responsibilities in class (with a partner) that are non-verbal (eg. pinning
up display material, distributing papers)

using bi-lingual labels around the classroom

having tapes and books available in the pupils home language

accepting that being silent for a period is a normal part of second language development,
while the learner is listening and absorbing the sounds of the new language. It is
important that pupils are actively included in all discussions and conversations, even
though they may not respond at first. It can be helpful to include another pupil in the
conversation so that the new pupil can feel part of the teaching activity.

Teaching assistant file

Creating a language rich environment


EAL learners need to have many opportunities to speak, to listen, to learn new words, to
match words to actions and visual aids, and so on. TAs can be a great help with this, for
instance by:
G

while assisting with individual or group activities, stressing and repeating the key
vocabulary of the activity

monitoring the pupils understanding by questioning and discussion, providing


opportunities to display understanding in ways that do not always require the use of
English, and by providing constructive feedback and the opportunity to restate what has
been learnt

providing additional support, such as instructions, explanations or rehearsal of key points

creating additional materials with the pupils, illustrated by drawings, pictures or


photographs, retelling past activities, and recalling key vocabulary and incorporating it in
the text

using this assembled material as a personal resource that will give opportunities for
repeating the language of the activity

displaying and using a range of key visuals pictures which convey an idea relevant to
the curriculum area

helping the pupil gain understanding of metaphoric or idiomatic language and the
context of colloquial language, using every opportunity for discussion and praising EAL
learners for their contribution, even if hesitant

encouraging correct usage by rephrasing incorrect language in a correct form rather than
publicly pointing out the mistake.

helping pupils talk about a teaching and learning activity in language which moves
towards appropriate written form.

Section 4 Inclusion

4.43

Bilingual or multilingual teaching assistants


Where TAs are bilingual or multilingual they can bring a valuable additional dimension to
their work by drawing on and using their knowledge of the pupils language and community.
They may be recruited specifically to work with one language group, and in this case may
have a distinct job description. Or they may share a language (other than English) with only
some of the pupils in the school. In addition to the activities described above, their duties
may include:
G

supporting pupils learning and developing their confidence by using the home language
as well as English

improving two-way communication between parents/carers and staff, and explaining


educational practices and expectations in the UK

encouraging parents/carers to attend school events and feel part of the school
community

contributing to teachers records through observation of pupils progress in their


own language.

During any assessment of the pupils abilities or aptitudes, the bilingual or multilingual TA
can provide a crucial link to ensure mutual understanding between the pupil and the teacher
or assessor.
Even where bilingual TAs do not speak the home language of particular pupils, they will have
a useful insight into how language works, how language misunderstandings can arise, the
importance of homeschool links and the need for cultural sensitivity.
In general
It is important to remember that EAL learners have differing needs. Some may already speak
more than one language, or may speak different languages to different family members.
Pupils should be made to feel that having skills in a number of languages is something to be
proud of.
Some students may have arrived in this country having suffered considerable hardship,
separation or trauma. A TA may be the first to gain the trust of a pupil in such a position
and may be the first to gain an understanding of any fears, apprehensions or misconceptions
such a pupil may have.
Pupils who may appear fully fluent in both spoken and written English may also benefit
from additional support.
Each school should have a behaviour and attendance policy which makes it clear that any
sort of racist behaviour is unacceptable. TAs, who are often in informal settings with pupils,
may be the first to pick up name-calling or bullying or to identify that certain pupils are
being left out. These situations need to be dealt with promptly, in line with the behaviour
policy, in partnership with the class teacher.

4.44

Teaching assistant file

Many local authorities publish advice on how to support EAL learners. Most have teams or
individuals with specific responsibility for minority ethnic pupil support within the authority
and they will be able to provide additional support and advice.
Some useful websites
G

Pathways to learning for new arrivals www.qca.org.uk/8476.html


This area aims to help teachers respond to the needs of pupils newly arrived from
overseas. It provides background information on migration, countries of origin and
childrens rights and entitlements; guidance for schools and teachers on promoting the
educational achievement of newly arrived pupils; and case studies of good practice.

inclusion website http://inclusion.ngfl.gov.uk


Target audience: governors, headteachers, specialist and mainstream teachers and those
interested in good practice for raising the achievement of minority ethnic pupils.

A language in common: assessing pupils for whom English is an additional language


(QCA) www.qca.org.uk/2933_500.html
Target audience: headteachers, specialist and mainstream teachers working with pupils
learning English as an additional language.
Content: Key points relating to the assessment of EAL learners, including assessment
scales linked to national curriculum levels, guidance and exemplification.

Activity E Common terms


Familiarise yourself with these common terms before attending session 3 of the
inclusion training.
EAL

English as an additional language


This acknowledges that there are pupils who regularly use one or more languages in
addition to English

E2L

English as a second language


Generally replaced now by EAL

TEFL

Teaching English as a foreign language


The teaching of English to individuals who live outside the UK and regularly use a
language other than English

ESOL

English for speakers of other languages


A term used to describe courses for older students or adults who are not catered for
in the statutory education system

In the session, the term bilingual is used to describe any person who uses more than one
language regularly, not just for a person already fluent in two languages.

Section 4 Inclusion

4.45

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 3.1

Aims of this training


PPT 3.1

By the end of the training module, participants


should begin to:
know the main factors that enable pupils to
acquire EAL
know how to help and support EAL learners in
the classroom
feel confident to work in multilingual classrooms

Presentation slide 3.2

Important factors for learning


PPT 3.2

For EAL learners we must think about ways


in which:
they can acquire English through interaction
with peers and adults in the school
the classroom environment can support all
learners
activities can be planned to support language
acquisition
the curriculum can be presented to ensure
access for all

Presentation slide 3.3

Changes in the nature of language provision


PPT 3.3

Language centres were established in many


local authorities

Language centres were phased out and the


teachers went into schools

Language support teachers taught in


partnership with class and subject teachers

Language specialist and mainstream teachers


plan the inclusive curriculum together. TAs
support implementation in the classroom

4.46

Teaching assistant file

Presentation slide 3.4

Making inclusion a reality


PPT 3.4

How does the TA help to develop the pupils


English language acquisition?

How does the TA support the pupils


understanding of the lesson?

In what ways do primary and secondary


schools differ when settling in a newly
arrived pupil?

Presentation slide 3.5

Making inclusion work


PPT 3.5

TAs are central to making inclusion work in


schools by:
getting to know the pupils
familiarising newly arrived pupils with school
life and classroom routines
facilitating pupils acquisition of the English
language
acting as an advocate for pupils from a
knowledge of their strengths and skills

Presentation slide 3.6

A stress-free environment
PPT 3.6

First language learning normally takes place in a


stress-free environment:
through interaction with adults who care
when every attempt at speaking is praised
when the rules of the language are modelled
naturally
when there are interesting things and events
that stimulate language
when gesture and body language, including
facial expression, reinforce the spoken word

Presentation slide 3.7

Speaking and listening


PPT 3.7

EAL learners:
need to listen and tune in to English being
used in context
may be silent for a time
need lots of opportunities to talk

Section 4 Inclusion

4.47

Presentation slide 3.8

Reading and writing


PPT 3.8

Some pupils will be literate in their first


language, others will not

Most pupils will be learning to read and write


in English at the same time as they are learning
to speak
All pupils will need specific support with
writing in English
Pupils who are already literate in a language
will already know a lot about reading and
writing as a process

Presentation slide 3.9

Language quiz
PPT 3.9
Stap 2 Plaatsing van de opvanglade
1. Haal de opvanglade uit haar plastic
omhulsel
2. Zet de geleiders op de opvanglade
gelijk met de groeven op de printer
3. Duw de lade erin en vergrendel eerst
de linkerkant en daama de rechter
4. Breng de lade naar breneden, in haar
horizontale stand

Presentation slide 3.10

Language quiz answers


PPT 3.10

Parcio a Theithio

Plaatsing van de opvanglade

Aberystwyth

Presentation slide 3.11

Language quiz answers


PPT 3.11

4.48

Teaching assistant file

Presentation slide 3.12

Management of teaching assistants


PPT 3.12

Points made by senior managers:


TAs need to be well managed by senior
management
Time should be allocated for TAs to plan and
review alongside the teacher
Good continuing professional development
needs to be provided for teachers and TAs

Presentation slide 3.13

Management of teaching assistants


PPT 3.13

The virtuous circle of support for the curriculum,


teachers and pupils

Presentation slide 3.14

Knowledge, skills and experience


PPT 3.14

Experience of developing own


childrens language

Experience of learning an additional


or second language

Being bilingual
Knowledge of local community

Section 4 Inclusion

4.49

Course documents

Course document 3.1


Book 3.1

Language stories
My name is Layla. I am 11 years old. I have just arrived in England from Somalia. I used
to go to the Italian school in Mogadishu and my favourite subject is history. I am looking
forward to starting secondary school in September.
My name is Ercan. I was born in Turkey and I started school when I was six years old.
I moved to Germany when I was eight and learned to speak, read and write in German
during my two years at school there. I have just come to England and am learning to
speak English. I find it easier to use Turkish and English in class activities, but I find it
easier to write in German.
My name is Ahmed. I am 12 years old and I came to England to join my family
when I was 10. I can read and write in Bengali and I also speak Sylheti. I enjoy maths
and Im very good at it but sometimes I cant show what I can do because I cant read
the questions.
My name is Kiran. I am seven years old. I was born in England and my family all speak
Gujarati. When I went to nursery, I didnt speak any English, but I was used to hearing it
in shops, in the street and on television. Now I can speak English, and read and write in
English, but I still speak Gujarati at home.
My name is Abraham. I come from Ghana. My family language is Twi, but we all speak
English because English is the language of education in my country. I am 16 years old
and I was a successful student at my school in Ghana. When I came to England I was
surprised to find that the English spoken here is quite different from the English spoken
in Ghana. I am also finding the school is very different from the schools I have been
accustomed to.
My name is Boris. I am Russian. I came to England a year ago when I was six. I had
never been to school before, but I had been to kindergarten. My mother has taught me
to read and write in Russian. Now I can read English as well. My favourite book at the
moment is The worst witch.
My name is Dido. I am 14 years old and I have just arrived in England from Zaire.
I speak Lingala and French. I went to a French-speaking school in Zaire for a little while
but we had to leave the country suddenly and Ive missed a lot of school. I would like
to return to my country one day, but I have no one to look after me there.

4.50

Teaching assistant file

Course document 3.2


Book 3.2

Minority ethnic achievement and English as an additional language


Provision and practice a brief history
Language centres
established pupils
new to English
withdrawn from
mainstream lessons

1966

Language centres
phased out E2L
teachers support
pupils in school
both within
mainstream and in
withdrawal groups

Language support
teachers work in
partnership with
mainstream class
and subject teachers

Language specialist
(EMA) and
mainstream
teachers plan the
inclusive curriculum
together. TAs
support
implementation in
the classroom

Section 11 of Local Government Act

1975/6 Race Relations Act


Bullock Report A language for life
1981

Rampton Report West Indian children in our schools

1985

Swann Report Education for all

1988

Calderdale ruling
Education Reform Act
National curriculum introduced

1993

Private Members bill concerning funding support for minority ethnic pupils

1999

Introduction of ethnic minority achievement grant (EMAG)


MacPherson Report

2000

Curriculum 2000
Statutory inclusion statement
Race Relations Amendment Act
Learning for all

2002

All schools produce a race equality policy

2005

In schools with significant numbers of bilingual or ethnic minority learners,


EMAG finances additional specialist teachers and support staff to address the
specific needs of EAL learners.
In mainly monolingual areas, specialist LA staff undertake advisory visits,
short-term placements or peripatetic support.
Focus on developing mainstream expertise to provide for the needs of
EAL learners.

Section 4 Inclusion

4.51

Course document 3.3


Book 3.3

Summary of key legislation


1966 Section 11 of the Local Government Act 1966 provides additional funding for local
government for English language teaching, and is principally geared to teaching children
arriving in UK schools from the New Commonwealth.
1975 The Bullock Report, a major report on the teaching of English, promotes the
importance of language across the curriculum. It states: No child should be expected to
cast off the language and culture of the home as (s)he crosses the school threshold.
1976 The Race Relations Act 1976 makes racial discrimination open to legal challenge.
1981 The Rampton Report attempts to address growing concerns about race relations
among parents and communities. It introduces the notion of institutional racism and
promotes a programme of multi-cultural education.
1985 The Swann Report focuses attention on linguistic and other barriers that prevent
access to education. It implies that the use of separate language centres may be
discriminatory in effect as they deny children access to the full range of educational
opportunities available.
1988 In the report of a formal investigation in Calderdale local education authority, the
Commission for Racial Equality (CRE) states that Calderdales policy of separate English
language tuition for minority ethnic pupils cannot be justified on educational grounds and
amounts to indirect racial discrimination.
The national curriculum states that all pupils are entitled to a broad and balanced curriculum.
1993 A Private Members bill extends Section 11 funding to include support for all minority
ethnic pupils.
1999 The ethnic minority achievement grant (EMAG) replaces Section 11 funding and
places the responsibility for the achievement of minority ethnic pupils on schools.
The Macpherson Report, following the enquiry into the murder of Stephen Lawrence
in 1993, emphasises the need to address institutional racism. It requires all LAs, other
branches of local government, and the police to make their actions to counter racial
discrimination explicit.
2000 The national curriculum is revised and the duty to ensure teaching is inclusive is made
statutory: Teachers have a duty to plan their approaches to teaching and learning so that
all pupils can take part in lessons fully and effectively.

4.52

Teaching assistant file

Ofsted institutes training for all inspectors in the evaluation of educational inclusion, with a
strong emphasis on race issues.
The Race Relations Amendment Act 2000 requires all public bodies to produce a race
equality policy by 31 May 2002, and to have explicit means of reporting, monitoring and
challenging racial harassment.
The CRE publication Learning for all sets out the standards for race equality in schools.
2005 In some schools, the ethnic minority achievement grant (EMAG) finances additional
specialist teachers and support staff, including EAL and EMA teachers or coordinators, bilingual
teaching assistants, higher level teaching assistants, teaching assistants, community language
teachers and instructors, and nursery nurses, as well as other staff who address the specific
needs of pupils learning English as an additional language. Specialist staffing is limited largely
to schools with significant numbers of bilingual or minority ethnic learners. In mainly
monolingual areas, specialist consultants, teachers and support staff are likely to be employed
by the local authority and may undertake only advisory visits, short-term placements or
peripatetic support in schools. Recent government initiatives focus on raising the achievement
of pupils from minority ethnic groups and developing mainstream expertise in providing for
the needs of EAL learners. For example, the Primary National Strategy has produced
Excellence and enjoyment: learning and teaching for bilingual pupils in the primary years.

Section 4 Inclusion

4.53

Course document 3.4


Book 3.4

4.54

When pupils are learning a


language its normal for them to
be silent for a while.

Pupils learn languages more


easily if they are not afraid of
making a mistake.

Its very important to have


opportunities to talk and work
with others when learning a
new language.

Its very important to correct


pupils mistakes when they are
learning a language.

Pupils learn languages more


easily if they work through
grammar exercises.

Pupils learn languages most


easily when they have a real need
to communicate with other
people who speak the language.

Once pupils can communicate in


English they dont need additional
support in lessons.

Children in this country have


to learn English their home
language is of no use to
them any more.

Teaching assistant file

Course document 3.5


Book 3.5

Statement

Comments/rationale

When pupils are learning a language its


normal for them to be silent for a while.

An initial silent period, which may last for


a very short time or up to a few months, is
a natural stage when learning a language.
It is a time for listening, and tuning into
the language and routines of the lessons.

Its very important to have opportunities


to talk and work with others when learning
a new language.

Pupils learn the language of the curriculum


through talking and working
collaboratively with English speakers, who
act as role models.

Pupils learn languages more easily if


they work through grammar exercises.

Grammar exercises can reduce relevance,


purpose and content, all of which are
crucial to enhance the learning of
languages.

Once pupils can communicate in


English they dont need additional
support in lessons.

Oral fluency in English is usually ahead of


literacy development. Appropriate
provision needs to be made to ensure
continuing language and literacy
development.

Pupils learn languages more easily if they


are not afraid of making a mistake.

We cannot learn a language without


making mistakes. It is important to create
a safe environment that allows pupils to
practise the language without worrying
about these mistakes.

Its very important to correct pupils


mistakes when they are learning
a language.

Pupils benefit from good models of the


language that is being learned, and from
sensitive error correction. Over-correction
of mistakes will inhibit learners from
having a go, slowing down the process of
language learning.

Pupils learn languages most easily when


they have a real need to communicate
with other people who speak the language.

To learn a language it is necessary to use


it in a meaningful way.

Section 4 Inclusion

4.55

Children in this country have to learn


English their home language is of no
use to them any more.

Course document 3.6


Book 3.6

Ways in which TAs can support EAL learners


Speaking and listening

Reading and writing

4.56

Teaching assistant file

It is essential for children in this country to


continue to use their home language as
they are learning English. Their first language
gives pupils a sense of identity, and
research shows that it also improves their
progress in English and raises achievement.
Being bilingual is a very useful attribute,
which should be encouraged. It is not as easy
to maintain and develop proficiency in your
first language as is often assumed.

Course document 3.7


Book 3.7

Ways in which TAs can support pupils who are learning English as an additional language:
Speaking and listening
G

Welcome and show a positive attitude to bilingualism

Engage the pupils in conversation and encourage as much spoken response from them as
possible, inside and outside the classroom

Sit with them and act as a mediator

Speak to them directly and help them join in with class and group activities

Help them to contribute to group discussion

Provide models of English language use in different contexts

Reading and writing


G

Tell stories and share books

Discuss texts and illustrations

Share useful additional material which explains texts or tasks

Act as a scribe occasionally to record their ideas

Help run reading, homework and other clubs

Section 4 Inclusion

4.57

4.58

Teaching assistant file


G

Using a range of formats to record


achievement

Pupils paired/grouped with


supportive peers

Opportunities provided for pupils to


work in first-language pairs or groups,
where possible

Collaborative group work planned

Pupil grouping

ENGLISH LANGUAGE
ACQUISITION AND
CURRICULUM LEARNING

Offering support and challenge, praise


and encouragement

Recognising and valuing pupils


background and language experience

Knowing the pupils and pronouncing


their names correctly

Opportunities created for pupil-to-pupil


and pupil-to-teacher/TA talk
Challenging activities presented and
supported including problem solving
and constructing argument and opinion

Creating opportunities for talk


G Purposeful talk planned, pupils provided
with clearly defined tasks/roles

Tracking pupils involvement and


progress

Classroom environment and


appropriate resources
G Pupils feel safe and protected from
harassment and racism
G Topic-related books, dual language texts
and bilingual dictionaries are available,
also props and artefacts
G Bilingual pupils have access to ICT-based
resources in English and first languages

Observing pupils in the classroom and


feeding back to teachers

Valuing diversity

Observation and monitoring

Classroom displays provide visual


support for the main points from work,
as well as text in English and other
languages

Opportunities to read and reflect on


reading through talk
Support and intervention during
writing tasks

Planning for inclusion


G Teacher plans to develop language
alongside the curriculum subject content
G Individual pupils considered, eg.
planning to ask questions that are
within pupils experience
G Teacher and TA define their roles in the
classroom, eg. agreeing that the TA will
scribe on the board

Key words and structures discussed


and explained
G

Supporting English language acquisition

Pictures, photos, diagrams and


multimedia material form part of the
curriculum delivery

Visual support

Course document 3.8

Book 3.8

Section 4 Inclusion

Listening
Pupils listen attentively for short bursts of time.
They use non-verbal gestures to respond to
greetings and questions about themselves, and
they follow simple instructions based on the
routines of the classroom.

Step 1

Reading
Pupils begin to associate sounds with
letters in English and to predict what the
text will be about. They read words and
phrases that they have learned in different
curriculum areas. With support, they can
follow a text read aloud.

Writing
Pupils use English letters and letter-like forms
to convey meaning. They copy or write their
names and familiar words, and write from left
to right.

Writing
Pupils attempt to express meaning in writing, supported
by oral work or pictures. Generally their writing is
intelligible to themselves and a familiar reader, and shows
some knowledge of sound and letter patterns in English
spelling. Building on their knowledge of literacy in
another language, pupils show knowledge of the function
of sentence division.

Working
towards
Level 1
No longer applies
to pupils acquiring
English as an
additional
language

Writing
Pupils use phrases and longer statements that
convey ideas to the reader, making some use of
full stops and capital letters. Some grammatical
patterns are irregular and pupils grasp of English
sounds and how they are written is not secure.
Letters are usually clearly shaped and correctly
orientated.

Writing
Pupils produce recognisable letters and words
in texts, which convey meaning and show
some knowledge of English sentence division
and word order. Most commonly used letters
are correctly shaped, but may be inconsistent
in their size and orientation.

Reading
Pupils use their knowledge of letters,
sounds and words to establish meaning
when reading familiar texts aloud,
sometimes with prompting. They
comment on events or ideas in poems,
stories and non-fiction.

Reading
Pupils can read a range of familiar words, and
identify initial and final sounds in unfamiliar
words. With support, they can establish
meaning when reading aloud phrases or
simple sentences, and use contextual clues to
gain understanding. They respond to events
and ideas in poems, stories and non-fiction.

Reading
Pupils participate in reading activities. They
know that, in English, print is read from left to
right and from top to bottom. They recognise
their names and familiar words and identify
some letters of the alphabet by shape
and sound.

Speaking
Pupils copy talk that has been modelled.
In their speech, they show some control
of English word order and their
pronunciation is intelligible.

Speaking
Pupils speak about matters of
immediate interest in familiar settings.
They convey meaning through talk and
gesture and can extend what they say
with support. Their speech is sometimes
grammatically incomplete at word and
phrase level.

Level 1 Threshold

Speaking
Pupils speak about matters of interest to a range
of listeners and begin to develop connected
utterances. What they say shows some
grammatical complexity in expressing
relationships between ideas and sequences of
events. Pupils convey meaning, sustaining their
contributions and the listeners interest.

Speaking
Pupils echo words and expressions drawn from
classroom routines and social interactions
to communicate meaning. They express some
basic needs, using single words or phrases
in English.

Listening
Pupils understand simple conversational
English. They listen and respond to the
gist of general explanations by the teacher
where language is supported by nonverbal cues, including illustrations.

Step 2

Level 2

Level 1 Secure

Listening
In familiar contexts, pupils follow
what others say about what they
are doing and thinking. They listen
with understanding to sequences of
instructions and usually respond
appropriately in conversation.

Listening
With support, pupils understand and
respond appropriately to
straightforward comments or
instructions addressed to them. They
listen attentively to a range of speakers,
including teacher presentation to the
whole class.

NATIONAL
CURRICULUM
ENGLISH

Course document 3.9

Book 3.9

4.59

Course document 3.10


Book 3.10

The assessment of English as an additional language should follow the same principles of
effective assessment of all pupils. It should:
G

recognise what pupils can do and reward achievement

be based on different kinds of evidence

be a valid reflection of what has been taught or covered in class

be reliable in terms of enabling someone else to repeat the assessment and obtain
comparable results

be manageable, both in terms of the time needed to complete the task and in providing
results which can be reported or passed on to other teachers.

In addition, teachers assessing pupils learning should:


G

be clear about the purpose of the assessment, distinguishing summative, formative and
diagnostic aims

be sensitive to the pupils first or main other language(s) and heritage culture

take account of how long the pupil has been learning English

assess in ways that are appropriate for the pupils age

focus on language, while being aware of the influence of behaviour, attitude and cultural
expectations

recognise that pupils may be at different levels of attainment in speaking, listening,


reading and writing.

A language in common: assessing English as an additional language (QCA, 2000)

4.60

Teaching assistant file

Course document 3.11


Book 3.11

My skills that are being used at present

Section 4 Inclusion

What else I can offer

4.61

Course document 3.12


Book 3.12

4.62

Knowledge, skills and experience that TAs can offer


G

Experience of developing own childrens language

Experience of learning an additional or second language

Being bilingual or multilingual

Knowledge of the local community

Links with parents/carers

Listening skills

Story-telling skills

Understanding of a pupils view of a situation/experience

Contributing to planning and feeding back to class/subject teacher

Working with a group of pupils

Working with individual pupils

Supporting reading

Running homework clubs

Observing/tracking pupils involvement and progress

Preparing resources

Making displays

Giving administrative support

Teaching assistant file

Course document 3.13


Book 3.13

Add to this grid as you work with EAL learners. You can get information for it from
dictionaries and phrase books, but the best source of expertise is the pupils themselves.
They will be more than pleased to help you with pronunciation!
Language

Hello

Goodbye

Well done

Spanish

Buenos das
Hola

Adios
Hasta la vista

Muy bien

Albanian

Hej

Ndarje

Mire br

Section 4 Inclusion

4.63

Post Module activities

This section of the file consists of the school-based training part of the EAL session.
It contains:
G

guidance on the activities

background notes

pupil profile recording sheets

samples of completed pupil profile recording sheets.

The training consists of four activities. These activities focus on the progress of an individual
pupil who is in the early stage of English language acquisition. The purpose of this focus is to
observe and reflect on the way in which individual pupils learn to use English in school and
how the adults in school promote pupils language and curriculum learning. You should
receive guidance from your mentor in carrying out these activities.

Activity 1: Pupil profile preliminary statement


In order to provide the most appropriate support, it is important to know as much as
possible about a pupil who is acquiring English as an additional language.
Most of the information should be available from school records but sometimes it is difficult
to obtain details during an admissions interview and it may be necessary to ask the pupil or
parents/carers for additional facts. It may take time to gather all the information. In the first
instance, use data that is easily available and add to it over time if you can. When gathering
evidence it might prove helpful to speak to ethnic minority achievement (EMA) staff in your
school. They may have information that helps you understand the pupils perspective and
background experiences.
Languages spoken: some pupils speak more than one language outside school. For example,
their parents/carers may speak different languages; the family may speak one form of a
language but read and write it in another form (such as people who speak Sylheti and read
and write in Bengali); some members of the family may speak English; the pupil may use yet
another language for religious purposes; and some pupils have lived for a time in a third
country before arriving in the UK and have picked up the language there.

4.64

Teaching assistant file

Previous schooling: if the pupil has attended school in another country they will have
age-appropriate literacy experience which will affect the rate of their English language and
literacy development. Previous schooling will also affect the pupils approach to curriculum
learning and their expectations of school. A fractured schooling in the country of origin
and/or changes of school in the UK may adversely affect the way in which the pupil settles
into school.
Community school: where communities are well established there are usually
supplementary schools where community languages, history and culture are taught. It is
useful to know whether a pupil is attending such a school as, if so, they will be learning to
read and write in the community language at the same time as they are learning in English
at school.
To complete the preliminary statement, read through the Qualifications and Curriculum
Authority (QCA) descriptors for speaking and listening in A language in common: assessing
English as an additional language (see Recommended further reading, section 3 of this part
of this file, and course document 3.9). This should be readily available in your school but is
also available at www.qca.org.uk/2933_500.html. Based on your existing knowledge of the
pupil, make an informal assessment of their level of English language acquisition. Then add
any information about their academic and social progress in school that you think is
relevant to the pupil profile.

Activity 1: Pupil profile preliminary statement


Pupils name:

Date:

Information
Date of birth:

Boy/Girl:

Year group:

Languages spoken:
Languages pupil can read:
Languages pupil can write:
Date of arrival in UK:
Date admitted to school:
Previous schooling
(UK and elsewhere):
Community school:

Please comment on your focus pupils level of English language acquisition using the QCA
descriptors in A language in common: assessing English as an additional language, which
extend the national curriculum English scale for speaking and listening.

Section 4 Inclusion

4.65

Activity 1: Pupil profile preliminary statement (example)


Pupils name: Ayse

Date:

Information
Date of birth: 13/9/92

Boy/Girl: Girl

Year group: 4

Languages spoken:

Turkish and Kurdish

Languages pupil can read:

Beginning to read in Turkish

Languages pupil can write:

Writes own name, copies words in English

Date of arrival in UK:

May 2000

Date admitted to school:

June 2000

Previous schooling
(UK and elsewhere):

2 years in Turkey

Community school:

No

Please comment on your focus pupils level of English language acquisition using the QCA
descriptors in A language in common: assessing English as an additional language, which
extend the national curriculum English scale for speaking and listening.
Ayse has settled into the class and has made two or three close friends.
Although Ayse is very quiet in class, she listens attentively and follows instructions well.
She says more when she is working in a small group where she feels comfortable. She
sometimes asks another Turkish speaker for help, but mostly seems determined to use
English in class.
Ayse enjoys listening to stories and loves books her favourite is Winnie the witch. She
takes dual language books home to read with her family.
I think that on the QCA scale, Ayse is at level 1 Threshold for speaking and listening.

4.66

Teaching assistant file

Activity 2: Reading observation


The inclusion of pupils acquiring English as an additional language in the literacy hour
(primary) and the structured lesson (secondary) is a fundamental principle of the literacy
strands of the Primary National Strategy and secondary national strategy for school
improvement. Experience has shown that all EAL learners benefit from taking part in
whole-class and group activities where there are clearly defined objectives, interactive
teaching approaches, opportunities to listen to and join in planned talk, and where the
meaning of texts is made clear through the use of visual support and oral explanation.
Pupils who are literate in a language other than English will already know the conventions of
reading and will actively search for cues, such as the relationship of letters to sounds. They
will also seek contextual and picture clues to meaning. For these pupils books provide a
powerful medium for learning English, and they usually make rapid progress in English
language acquisition and literacy.
Pupils who have not yet learned to read and write in their first language will need to have
the early reading experiences that all learners undergo in the process of becoming literate.
Hearing texts read aloud and talking about the story, the characters or the topic of an
information book is an invaluable part of the process. Early learners of English may not be
able to have this experience at home in English, so reading or sharing books with a TA as
individuals or in small groups, in addition to taking part in literacy work in lessons, will
greatly enhance their language and literacy development.
This activity requires you to spend some time with your focus pupil in an individual reading
or book-sharing session. Your mentor may have to discuss the timing of the session with the
class or subject teachers so that it takes place at a time that is convenient to them.
Make notes on the reading observation sheet, either during or immediately after, the reading
or book-sharing session. Then comment on where you think the pupils reading fits on the
QCA extended scale for English (see activity 1), or whether they are already beyond level 1.

Section 4 Inclusion

4.67

Choose a book to share with your focus pupil. Depending on the pupils experience in
reading, either read the text aloud, encouraging them to join in, or ask the pupil to read to
you, supporting them with unfamiliar words where necessary. Talk about the story and
characters (fiction) or the topic (non-fiction), and any illustrations.

Pupils name:

Year group:

Date:
Title of book:
G

familiar

unfamiliar

Overall impression
of pupils reading
Strategies used:
G

phonic

graphic

syntactic

contextual

Pupils response to text


Support for further
development/
experiences needed
Using the QCA
descriptors for
reading make an
informal assessment
of your focus pupils
reading level

4.68

Teaching assistant file

Level 1 Secure
Level 1 Threshold
Step 2
Step 1

Activity 2: Reading observation (example)


Choose a book to share with your focus pupil. Depending on the pupils experience in
reading, either read the text aloud, encouraging them to join in, or ask the pupil to read to
you, supporting them with unfamiliar words where necessary. Talk about the story and
characters (fiction) or the topic (non-fiction), and any illustrations.

Pupils name: Mohammed

Year group: 7

Date: February 2001


Title of book:
G

familiar

unfamiliar

Dinosaur dreams, Allan Ahlberg & Andre Amstutz

Unfamiliar, but other books in the series are well known.

Overall impression
of pupils reading

Enthusiastic but does not read in English accurately


(Mohammed reads and writes in Arabic).

Strategies used:
G

phonic

Mohammed read the opening lines, which are familiar, but


needed support when the text became specific to this story.
Used phonic cues including initial and final letter sounds.

graphic

Self-correcting, using the context to establish meaning.

syntactic

Looking at the pictures and reading the speech bubbles.

contextual

Pupils response to text

Support for further


development/
experiences needed
Using the QCA
descriptors for
reading make an
informal assessment
of your focus pupils
reading level

Section 4 Inclusion

Enjoyed the story and able to re-tell events. His favourite


picture is when the skeletons crash. Mohammed liked the
book because its funny.
Maintain Mohammeds confidence and enthusiasm through
use of high interest picture books. Widen his experience
through use of non-fiction texts.

Level 1 Secure
Level 1 Threshold

Step 2
Step 1

4.69

Activity 3: Pupil observation monitoring pupil engagement in whole-class


lessons and establishing support strategies
Teachers employ a number of teaching strategies to ensure the active involvement of all
pupils, including those acquiring English. The whole-class session in any lesson is the time
when a pupil who is new to English needs support to ensure as full an understanding as
possible of the topic and lesson objectives. TAs have a crucial role to play before, during and
after the lesson in providing this support.
For this activity you are asked to observe your focus pupil in the classroom and comment
on their participation in the lesson, using the form Pupil observation 1. After the lesson,
discuss with the class/subject teacher any points you have observed where you think the
pupil could have been more actively engaged. Together, decide on a learning priority for the
pupil and agree support strategies to meet that priority. Then complete the feedback and
planning sheet provided.
The strategies for promoting the active involvement of pupils learning English as an
additional language are usually simple and effective (see TA roles in supporting pupils who
are learning English at the end of this activity). Sometimes it can be as easy as thinking
carefully about where the pupil learning English sits, and with whom.
During a whole-class session you can sit near EAL learners in order to:
G

echo the teachers message

explain the content of the lesson

encourage responses to questions

rehearse responses

act as a talk partner

signal to the teacher when the pupil is ready to answer.

During the following half term complete the form Pupil observation 2 and note any
changes in your focus pupils level of participation. Also note which strategies have proved
most effective.

4.70

Teaching assistant file

Activity 3: Pupil observation 1


Pupils name:

Year group:

Date:

Some useful questions to think about when observing pupils:


G Where

does the pupil sit?

Does the pupil appear to be engaging with the content of the session?

Does the pupil respond to questions? Are the responses appropriate?

Brief description of activity

Observation

Activity 3: Pupil observation 1 (example)


Pupils name: Marco

Year group: 8

Date: 19 April 2005

Some useful questions to think about when observing pupils:


G Where

does the pupil sit?

Does the pupil appear to be engaging with the content of the session?

Does the pupil respond to questions? Are the responses appropriate?

Brief description of activity


History lesson matching evidence with source.

Observation
Marco sitting at the back of the classroom. Shuffled evidence cards but clear he did not
know what to do with them. After a while was distracted, looking round the classroom at
others. Matched cards by copying his neighbour. Was unsure and hesitant when asked a
direct question by the teacher.

Section 4 Inclusion

4.71

Activity 3: Feedback and planning


Pupils name:

Year group:

Date:

Using the information from your pupil observations, identify one learning priority
and decide what strategies you intend to use, or strengthen, to increase the pupils
engagement in the lesson.
Learning priority

TA support strategies

Activity 3: Feedback and planning (example)


Pupils name: Marco

Year group: 8

Date: 19 April 2005

Using the information from your pupil observations, identify one learning priority
and decide what strategies you intend to use, or strengthen, to increase the pupils
engagement in the lesson.
Learning priority
G

Marco to understand the demands of the task and carry out the activities.

Marco to listen more attentively and indicate where he does not understand.

TA support strategies

4.72

Change Marcos seat to one where he can see the whiteboard and the teacher
more clearly.

Greater TA/pupil interaction. TA to check understanding of task, give reinforcement


and support, provide positive encouragement to use first language where possible.

Pair Marco with a supportive buddy to work with in the initial stages of each activity
rather than leave him to struggle and then be distracted by others.

Teaching assistant file

Activity 3: Pupil observation 2


Pupils name:

Year group:

Date:

Comment on any significant changes in your focus pupils level of engagement in


whole-class lessons. Also list any strategies that you feel were particularly useful.
Pupil engagement

Successful strategies

Activity 3: Pupil observation 2 (example)


Pupils name: Marco

Year group: 8

Date: 24 May 2005

Comment on any significant changes in your focus pupils level of engagement in


whole-class lessons. Also list any strategies that you feel were particularly useful.
Pupil engagement
G Changed attitude, much more focused and keen to do well.
G Tries to work out what to do as instructions are given out.
G Makes notes of what he doesnt understand.
G Ready to answer without prompting.
Successful strategies
G

TA attention to ensure Marcos understanding of tasks.

Seating arrangement. Marco now sitting with supportive peer and can see
whiteboard clearly.

Acting as talk partner.

Introducing Marco to online first language dictionary to support his work in


subject areas.

Section 4 Inclusion

4.73

TA roles in supporting pupils who are learning English

Planning
G

Being aware of lesson objectives

Discussing access strategies for focus pupil

Contributing ideas based on knowledge of pupils progress

Having clear expectations of TA roles within the lesson

Where appropriate, being aware of the role/intervention planned for by the teacher,
as stated in the short-term plan.

Preparation
G

Ensuring appropriate visual aids/props are available

Ensuring a dictionary is available

Preparing any specific resources required by focus pupils.

Delivery
In a whole-class session, sitting near pupil in order to:
G

echo the teachers message

explain the teachers message

encourage engagement

rehearse responses

act as a talk partner, or facilitate pupil working with another pupil as talk partners.

In group/individual work:

4.74

encouraging talk and acting as a role model of English

explaining key words

demonstrating/supporting the task

supporting reading

supporting writing through talk, scaffolding (ie. writing frames/sentence starters)


re-redrafting or scribing.

Teaching assistant file

At any time during the lesson the TA can observe a group or individual pupils engagement
with the teachers presentation or the groups or pupils approach to any task/activity.

Review
G

Discussing successful/less successful aspects of the lesson in relation to focus pupil

Feeding back specific detail on focus pupils progress within the lesson.

Activity 4: Pupil profile summative statement


The purpose of this activity is to reflect on the progress in English language acquisition
made by your focus pupil. Over the two terms you may have learned more about your
pupils language use at home and at school. You have also had the opportunity to become
familiar with the QCAs extended scale for English, which helps to monitor progress in the
early phase of English language acquisition.
Reflect on your contribution to the pupils language and curriculum learning and discuss
with your mentor the ways in which TAs can be best used within your school to support
pupils acquiring English as an additional language.

Activity 4: Pupil profile summative statement


Name:

Year group:

Languages spoken:
Do you have any further information about the pupils home language use,
literacies and identity?
Comment on the pupils progress in:
G

speaking and listening

reading

engagement in whole-class lessons.

Reflecting on your work with this pupil, what do you think has contributed to his/her
progress in English acquisition?

Section 4 Inclusion

4.75

Activity 4: Pupil profile summative statement (example)


Name: Taner

Year group: Reception

Languages spoken: Turkish and English


Do you have any further information about the pupils home language use,
literacies and identity?
Taners mother is attending ESOL classes and the whole family are using English as well
as Turkish at home.
Comment on the pupils progress in:
G

speaking and listening


At first Taner found it difficult to interact with either children or adults he didnt even
answer the register. Now, although still not totally confident with adults, he is conversing
with and understanding his peers. He joins in during whole-class lessons and shows he
understands what is going on.

reading
Taner has always loved the book corner. He has progressed from imitating the teacher to
sharing texts with adults, commenting on pictures and stories. He is moving towards
independence, developing his phonic skills well.

engagement in whole-class lessons


Taners confidence has blossomed and he loves taking part in all activities. He enjoys
role-play and acting out stories. He is also keen to take part in all practical activities.

Reflecting on your work with this pupil, what do you think has contributed to his/her
progress in English acquisition?
I always make sure I am near Taner when the class is sitting on the carpet and encourage
him to answer questions.
I have built up a relationship with Taner and we talk about anything and everything that
interests him.
I have learned to say hello and well done in Turkish.

4.76

Teaching assistant file

Recommended further reading

Commission for Racial Equality, 2000, Learning for all: standards for racial equality in schools
(ISBN 1 85442 223 5)
DfES, 2005, Aiming high: guidance on the assessment of pupils learning English as an
additional language (DfES 1469-2005DOC-EN)
DfES, 2004, Aiming high: understanding the educational needs of minority ethnic pupils in
mainly white schools. Can be downloaded from
www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/ethnicminorities/links_and_publications/
DfES, 2005, Ethnicity and education: the evidence on minority ethnic pupils (RTP01-05). Can
be downloaded from www.standards.dfes.gov.ek/ethnicminorities/links_and_publications/
DfES, 2005, Marking progress: training materials for assessing English as an additional
language. Can be downloaded from
www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/ethnicminorities/resources/markingprogress.pdf
DfES, 2001, Literacy across the curriculum, module 12: All inclusive supporting EAL learners
(DfES 0235/2001)
DfES, 2002, Supporting pupils learning English as an additional language, revised edition
(DfES 0239/2002)
Gravelle, M (ed), 2000, Planning for bilingual learners: an inclusive curriculum, Trentham
Books (ISBN 1 85856 175 2)
Kenner, C, 2000, Home pages: literacy links for bilingual children, Trentham Books
(ISBN 1 85856 212 0)
Ofsted, 2000, Evaluating educational inclusion: guidance for inspectors and schools
(HMI 253). Can be downloaded from www.ofsted.gov.uk
Ofsted, 2004, Managing the ethnic minority achievement grant: good practice in secondary
schools (HMI 2172). Can be downloaded from
www.ofsted.gov.uk/publications/index.cfm?fuseaction=pubs.displayfile&id=3603&type=pdf
Qualifications and Curriculum Authority, 2000, A language in common: assessing English as an
additional language (QCA/00/584, ISBN 1 8583 4311). Can be downloaded from
www.qca.org.uk/downloads/3359_language_in_common.pdf
Qualifications and Curriculum Authority, Pathways to learning for new arrivals,
www.qca.org.uk/8476.html
Richardson, R & Woods, A, 1999, Inclusive schools, inclusive society, Trentham Books
(ISBN 1 85856 2031)
South, H (ed), 1999, The distinctiveness of English as an additional language:
a cross-curriculum discipline, NALDIC Working Paper 5, NALDIC, Watford

Section 4 Inclusion

4.77

Section 5

Literacy

Section 5
Literacy

Contents
Pre-module activities
Activity 1
Activity 2

page 5.3
page 5.4

Session 1

page 5.13

Introduction to teaching literacy

Session 2

page 5.15

The role of the teaching assistant in helping teachers to teach literacy

Inter-session activity

page 5.22

Activity 3

Session 3

page 5.27

Primary National Strategy resources

Session 4

page 5.30

Early phonics

Inter-session activity

page 5.33

Activity 4

Session 5

page 5.34

Review of activities

Session 6

page 5.35

Later phonics

Inter-session activity
Activity 5

Section 5 Literacy

page 5.38

5.1

Session 7

page 5.39

Reading The simple view of reading

Inter-session activity

page 5.42

Activity 6

Session 8

page 5.42

Writing

Post-module activity
Activity 7

5.2

Teaching assistant file

page 5.45

Pre-module activities

Activity 1 Background reading


This activity will familiarise you with basic information about the curriculum and the way
literacy skills are taught.
1. Read these three summary background sections carefully:
G
the English National Curriculum
G
the Early Years Foundation Stage statutory framework and guidance
G
the Primary Framework for literacy and mathematics.
2. Ask the teacher to show you the Primary Framework (literacy). There is a printed
book in school and more detailed online materials supporting planning, learning
and teaching and assessment. The online materials can be viewed at
www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/primaryframework. Look through the framework,
getting an overview of the various sections.
3. For early reading look at the Early Reading section of the Primary Framework to make
Rose Review recommendations in particular The simple view of reading and discrete
daily teaching of phonics.
4. Ask the teacher to clarify any questions you have about each section of the framework,
and to show you some examples of medium- and short-term planning, and how they
link into the Primary National Strategy (PNS) objectives.
5. The former National Literacy Strategy (NLS) and now the PNS have published a number
of resources for teachers. The Primary Framework website provides links to all PNS
resources. See www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/primaryframework
The school will also have hard copies of the materials listed below. Ask the teacher or
the literacy coordinator to show you the following publications and briefly explain:
G
what they are for
G
the target group of pupils at which they are aimed:
- Letters and Sounds
- Developing Early Writing
- Excellence and Enjoyment: Learning and Teaching for Bilingual Children in the Primary
Years (DfES 0013-2006PCK-EN)
- Spelling Bank out of print but downloadable at:
www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/primary/publications/literacy/63313/nls_spellingbank008601.pdf

- Early Literacy Support (ELS) materials (currently being revised and will be available from January 2008)
- Further Literacy Support (FLS) materials
- Grammar for Writing out of print but downloadable at:
www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/primary/publications/literacy/63317/

- Supporting Pupils Learning English as an Additional Language


- Year 5, 6 materials
- Year 6 Literacy Booster Lessons
- Year 3 Literacy Support materials.
Note that you are not expected to read or learn them you merely need to know of
their existence and what sort of things they contain. You will find yourself using some
or all of them in your work as a TA.
Section 5 Literacy

5.3

Activity 2 Literacy lessons


This involves observing at least one literacy session in each of key stage 1 and key stage 2. If
possible, take the opportunity to observe more than one, as you will benefit greatly from
seeing as many different lessons as possible.
1. Show the teacher the literacy observation sheet on pages 5.8 5.9 and talk through how
to use it. Ask to observe at least one key stage 1 and one key stage 2 literacy lesson.
2. Make a photocopy of the sheet for each lesson you observe, and use it to guide your
observations during the lesson. Fill in the sheet as you watch the lesson, then read it
through and add to it if necessary once the lesson is over.
The observation sheet should be made available for the class teacher to see if they wish. You
may wish to use the pupil observation sheet on pages 5.11 5.12 to observe an individual
pupil during the literacy lesson.

Background to the English National Curriculum


The National Curriculum applies to all pupils in maintained schools. It is organised in key
stages, of which three apply to primary schools:
G

foundation stage pupils aged 3 to 5 nursery and reception classes (sometimes called
foundation 1 and foundation 2)

key stage 1 pupils aged 5 to 7 year groups 1 and 2

key stage 2 pupils aged 7 to 11 year groups 3, 4, 5, 6.

In key stages 1 and 2 it covers ten subjects. Three English, mathematics and science are
core subjects, in which pupils sit national tests at the end of key stages 1 and 2 (end-of-year
national tests). There are also voluntary national tests for other year groups in key stage 2.
For each subject and in key stages 1 and 2:
G

programmes of study set out what pupils should be taught

attainment targets set the level of performance pupils are expected to achieve.

In the primary school from year 1, levels of attainment generally range between level 1 early
in key stage 1 and level 5 at the end of key stage 2.

5.4

Range of levels within which


the great majority of pupils
are expected to work

Expected attainment for the


majority of pupils at the end
of the key stage

Key stage 1

13

Level 2 at age 7

Key stage 2

25

Level 4 at age 11

Teaching assistant file

In the key stage 1 national tests at the end of year 2, most pupils are expected to achieve a
level 2 or higher. In the key stage 2 national tests at the end of year 6 most pupils are
expected to achieve a level 4 or higher.
Details of the programmes of study for all primary subjects can be found in The National
Curriculum Handbook for Primary Teachers in England. There is also a special curriculum
handbook for English English: The National Curriculum for England.
The Primary Framework (literacy) translates the English strands of learning into practical,
manageable, teaching sequences.

Background to the Early Years Foundation Stage curriculum and early learning goals
The governments ten-year strategy for childcare: Choice for parents, the best start for children
(December 2004) proposed the establishment of a single quality framework for services for
children from birth to age five. The Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) is that framework,
bringing together the Curriculum Guidance for the Foundation Stage (3-5 year olds) with
Birth to Three Matters and the National Standards for Daycare. The EYFS becomes statutory in
2008 and will be compulsory for all early years providers who have to register with Ofsted, as
well as independent, maintained and non-maintained special schools with provision for
children from the age of three to the end of the academic year in which they become five.
The EYFS is a comprehensive framework for learning, development and care. It is based on
four overarching principles which guide the work of all early years practitioners:
G

A unique child every child is a competent learner from birth who can be resilient,
confident, capable and self assured

Positive relationships children learn to be strong and independent from a base of


loving and secure relationships with parents and/or a key person

Enabling environments the environment plays a key role in supporting and extending
childrens developing and learning

Learning and development children develop and learn in different ways and at different
rates and all areas of learning and development are equally important and inter-connected.

The EYFS organises learning and development in six areas:


G personal, social and emotional development
G

communication, language and literacy

problem solving, reasoning and numeracy

knowledge and understanding of the world

physical development

creative development

The EYFS sets out the expectations for most children to reach in these six areas of learning
by the end of reception. These are the early learning goals.

Section 5 Literacy

5.5

The early learning goals are reflected in the objectives in the framework for teaching literacy.
By the end of the reception year, some children will have exceeded the goals. Other children
will be working towards some or all of the goals particularly younger children, those with
special educational needs (SEN) and those learning in the early stages English as an
additional language (EAL).
Teachers and others working with children in nursery and reception classes are required to
plan a curriculum that will help all children to make good progress towards, and where
appropriate beyond, the early learning goals.
The Early Years Foundation Stage provides guidance on effective teaching and learning,
including observation, planning and assessment in the six areas of learning. It gives examples
of children working towards, reaching and going beyond the early learning goals.

The Early Years Foundation Stage Profile


The Early Years Foundation Stage profile provides a way of assessing childrens development
and achievements through teacher observation and is based on the early learning goals. The
early learning goals are arranged in the profile as a set of 13 assessment scales, each of
which has nine points:
G

The first three points are based mainly on the stepping stones in the curriculum guidance.
These are now part of the EYFS areas of learning and development.

The next five points are drawn from the early learning goals themselves and are more or
less in order of difficulty (although some children may achieve a later goal without going
through earlier stages). Most children should achieve at least six scale points on each of
the assessment scales by the end of reception.

The final point in each scale describes a pupil who is working consistently beyond the
level of early learning goals.

It is expected that teachers will fill in the profile for each pupil periodically throughout the
year. At the end of reception, the completed profile will form the basis for reports to
parents/carers and will be shared with the year 1 teacher to ensure continuity and
progression as children make this transition. Each child is given a score (out of nine) for each
of the 13 assessment scales.

Background to literacy in the Primary National Strategy


The Primary Framework was introduced in 2006 and provides a framework of learning objectives
for each year of the primary school, including guidance for reception classes. These are organised
into 12 strands of learning which link speaking, listening, reading and writing.
The PNS is supported through continuing professional development for teachers. Materials
including manuals, teaching ideas and videos are available online or for schools to order.
Training on these materials is often carried out in school, initially led by the literacy subject
manager or other senior staff.

5.6

Teaching assistant file

Every local authority has literacy consultants available to help and advise schools in
implementing the strategy. These literacy consultants also report back on examples of
successful teaching and classroom organisation they see in schools. As further resources are
produced, they are able to spread these ideas to other teachers around the country.

The objectives
In general, the daily literacy lessons will continue, so that pupils are taught the knowledge,
skills and understanding as set out in the National Curriculum.
The emphasis on carefully planned, purposeful and well-directed teaching and learning remains
at the core of the Primary Framework (literacy). Lessons still need a clear start and end, so that
pupils know what they are learning and can recognise the progress they are making.
The expectation based on the recommendations of the Rose Review is that in Reception and
Year 1 classes there will be a daily discrete teaching session of phonics for early reading. The
Primary Framework provides guidance materials to support this work. Teachers will be using
a systematic approach to teaching phonics such as that set out in Letters and Sounds, a key
resource to support their teaching.
The emphasis is on planning, focusing on learning key objectives not coverage. Sequences of
lessons that focus on learning outcomes are exemplified in the framework. Examples of
longer sequences of planning are provided. There is a change in emphasis in the structure of
literacy lessons. A three-part lesson may still be suitable, but teachers can now adapt and
revise the structure so as not to limit the flow of pupils learning and the challenges
provided. Sustaining interest and enjoyment and making links between subjects are central
to this flexibility.
A clear structure for learning is provided in the Primary Framework (literacy), organised into
12 strands of learning.
Speaking and listening strands
1. Speaking
2. Listening and responding
3. Group discussion and interaction
4. Drama
Reading strands
5. Word recognition, which includes decoding (reading) and encoding (spelling)
6. Word structure and spelling
7. Understanding and interpreting texts
8. Engaging with and responding to texts
Writing strands
9. Creating and shaping texts
10. Text structure and organisation
11. Sentence structure and punctuation
12. Presentation

Section 5 Literacy

5.7

Literacy observation sheet


What is the activity and which strands of learning is it linked to?

How were pupils sitting? Could they all see and hear the teachers presentation?

Did they have support from an additional adult? If so, what kinds of support
did the adult offer?

Was there any thinking and discussion time? Did the pupils use English and/or
other languages?

If there was thinking and discussion time, were pupils partners selected or random?

How were pupils speaking and listening skills promoted?

Did the pupils discuss and answer questions about the text?

Note some of the prompts the teacher used to encourage them.

Was there any drama to promote speaking and listening?

What were the main teaching objectives?

Note some of the main teaching methods the teacher used.

What kind of text were pupils working on?

5.8

Teaching assistant file

Were pupils learning to read or reading to learn?

Did the teacher introduce the text to pupils?

Which teaching objective did the teacher concentrate on?

Were pupils successful in reading/writing independently for part of the session?

What strategies did the teacher use to keep them on task?

How did the teacher promote enjoyment and independence?

How was the lesson organised to promote learning?

What strategies had the teacher organised to make pupils independent and avoid
them interrupting the teacher?

Were any pupils unable to look after themselves and the things they were using
independently?

How did the teacher draw pupils learning to a close, so that pupils understood how
much progress they had made?

Were pupils confident in talking about what they had learnt?

Were they interested in each others contributions? Consider how this links to
pupils learning.

Section 5 Literacy

5.9

Resources for literacy checklist


Publication looked through
Primary Framework
Letters and Sounds
Developing Early Writing
Spelling Bank
Early Literacy Support (ELS)
Further Literacy Support (FLS)
Grammar for Writing
Supporting Pupils Learning English
as an Additional Language
Year 6 Literacy Booster Lessons
Year 3 Literacy Support materials

5.10

Teaching assistant file

Seen in practice

Pupil observation sheet


Year group:
Additional adult(s) in class:

YES

NO

Gender:
Does the pupil have additional learning needs, such as SEN, EAL, high ability?

Learning objectives:

Where did the pupil sit?

Did the pupil have support from an additional adult?

Did the additional adult use languages other than English?

Did the pupil appear involved in the lesson?

Did the pupil understand the teachers questioning?

Did the teacher aim particular questions at the pupil?

If so, how did the pupil answer the question(s)?

Was the pupil in a specific group?

Section 5 Literacy

5.11

If not, was the pupil supported by an adult or working independently?

Did the pupil need help to do the task?

If so, did the pupil know how to get help?

Did the pupil complete the task set?

Did the pupil contribute to the round-up of the lesson?

Was the pupil interested in others contributions?

Was the pupil clear about the objectives for the lesson?

How were literacy skills promoted across the curriculum?

What did the pupil learn in this session?

What did you learn from watching the pupil?

5.12

Teaching assistant file

Session 1
Introduction to teaching literacy

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 1.1a
Aims of the module
PPT 1.1a

To provide TAs with the knowledge and strategies for supporting


the teaching of literacy within lessons and across the curriculum

To introduce TAs to an overview of the literacy curriculum


- the Early Years Foundation Stage
- the English National Curriculum
- the Primary Framework (literacy)
- support for developing early reading
- other published resources which support literacy

Presentation slide 1.1b


Aims of the module (continued)
PPT 1.1b

To help TAs to understand the changes made with the introduction


of the renewed Primary Framework (literacy), in particular:
- the 12 strands of learning and teaching
- the prime importance of high-quality phonics work
- the simple view of reading
- the importance of actively promoting pupils speaking skills
- pupils learning to read by year 2 and reading to learn
(exceptions being some pupils with learning difficulties and those
at an early stage of learning English as an additional language)
- the development of writing

Presentation slide 1.2


Literacy catch-up packages
PPT 1.2

Early Literacy Support (ELS), for pupils in year 1


(revised version from January 2008)

Year 3 Literacy Support, Sir Kits Quest


Further Literacy Support (FLS), for pupils in year 5

Section 5 Literacy

5.13

Presentation slide 1.3


Literacy in the Primary National Strategy
PPT 1.3

A focus on learning key objectives

Emphasis on the teaching of the simple view of reading and daily


discrete teaching of phonics for early reading

Emphasis on sequences of teaching, focusing on learning outcomes

Sustaining pupils interest and enjoyment are key

Carefully planned, purposeful and well directed teaching and learning


remain at the core of the Primary Framework

A three-part lesson may still be suitable but teachers can now adapt
and revise to aid pupils learning
Making links between subjects are central to this flexibility and support

Presentation slide 1.4


The Primary Framework has a clear structure
PPT 1.4

It is organised into 12 strands of learning


Speaking and listening strands
1. Speaking
2. Listening and responding
3. Group discussion and interaction
4. Drama

Presentation slide 1.5

PPT 1.5

Reading strands
5. Word recognition, decoding (reading) and encoding (spelling)
6. Word structure and spelling
7. Understanding and interpreting texts
8. Engaging with and responding to texts
The Rose Review refers to the simple view of reading.
Phonic teaching and learning will be central to learning.
Rigorous phonic work begins in the reception class.

Presentation slide 1.6

PPT 1.6

Writing strands
9. Creating and shaping texts
10. Text structure and organisation
11. Sentence structure and punctuation
12. Presentation

5.14

Teaching assistant file

Session 2
The role of the teaching assistant in helping teachers to teach literacy

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 2.1
Supporting the teacher during whole-class teaching
PPT 2.1

Drawing in reticent pupils or looking out for those who demonstrate higher ability
Dropping helpful pointers, eg. I can see something that starts with that sound on
your desk
Supporting pupils by nodding, smiling encouragement, etc.
Joining in and making contributions (when appropriate)
Demonstrating for the teacher, eg. how to use a dictionary
Raising questions or problems so the teacher or pupils can explain something
Echoing the teacher by quietly repeating or rewording phrases for pupils who need
extra help
Acting as a partner for a less-able pupil during thinking and discussion time, using
other languages where appropriate for those in the early stages of learning English
Using supportive props, eg. pictures, objects and flash cards
Teaching a small group separately during the whole-class session, as guided by the
class teacher

Presentation slide 2.2


Behaviour management
PPT 2.2

Sitting alongside a pupil with challenging behaviour

Dealing with incidents or behaviour that affects the


pace of the lesson or disrupts the learning of others

Focusing a pupils/pupils attention


Making eye contact
Supporting pupils who need specific help to participate
in and gain from the lesson

Presentation slide 2.3


Resource management
PPT 2.3

Preparing, distributing and collecting resources


Helping pupils use resources
Supporting the effective use of teaching props,
eg. changing screens on whiteboards

Section 5 Literacy

5.15

Presentation slide 2.4


An extra pair of eyes
PPT 2.4

Observing individual pupils

Comparing notes and giving feedback to the


teacher, including any observations that could
inform assessment about targeted pupils

Noting who can and who cant and checking


any assessment information about the pupils

Presentation slide 2.5


Assisting during group and independent work
PPT 2.5

Small group phonics activity

Assessing progress to feed back to the teacher


and recording this in a way that best fits the schools
assessment systems

Guided reading and guided writing


Supporting group discussion
Introducing and reinforcing specific vocabulary
Helping pupils with activities, eg. playing Pelmanism
(memorising letters, words or sounds)

Presentation slide 2.6


The literacy lesson
PPT 2.6

5.16

Lessons may include elements of:


- whole-class shared work reading and writing
- whole-class work words and sentences
- discrete teaching of phonics
- group work guided reading and guided writing
- independent work in reading and writing
- plenary to check on learning

All work is underpinned by opportunities for


speaking and listening

Progress should be monitored and assessed


Literacy should be taught across the curriculum

Teaching assistant file

Course documents
Course document 2.1
Book 2.1

Some ways of supporting the teacher


Assisting during whole-class teaching
G Drawing in reticent pupils or looking out for those who demonstrate higher ability
G Dropping helpful pointers, eg. I can see something that starts with that sound on your desk
G Supporting pupils by, for example, nodding or smiling encouragement
G Joining in and making contributions (when appropriate)
G Demonstrating for the teacher, eg. how to use a dictionary
G Raising questions or problems so the teacher or pupils can explain something
G Echoing the teacher by quietly repeating or rewording phrases for pupils who need
extra help
G Acting as a partner for a less-able pupil during thinking and discussion time, using other
languages where appropriate for those in the early stages of learning English
G Using supportive props (eg. pictures, objects, flash cards)
G Teaching a small group separately during the whole-class session, as guided by the
class teacher.
Assisting with behaviour management
G Sitting alongside a pupil with challenging behaviour
G Focusing a pupils/pupils attention
G Making eye contact
G Supporting pupils who need specific help to participate in and gain from the lesson
G Dealing with incidents or behaviour that affects the pace of the lesson or disrupts the
learning of others.
Assisting with resource management
Preparing, distributing and collecting resources
G Helping pupils use resources
G Supporting the effective use of teaching props, eg. changing screens on interactive
whiteboards.
G

Providing an extra pair of eyes


Observing individual pupils and noting their response or reticence
G Noting who can and who cant
G Comparing notes and giving feedback to the teacher, including any assessments of
individual pupils.
G

Assisting during group and independent work


G Small group phonics activity
G Guided reading and guided writing
G Supporting group discussion
G Introducing and reinforcing specific vocabulary
G Helping pupils with activities, eg. playing Pelmanism (matching pairs of words or letters)
G Assessing progress of individuals, perhaps those targeted by the teacher for this
particular session, to feed back to the teacher.

Section 5 Literacy

5.17

Course document 2.2


Book 2.2

Some ways of working with pupils in literacy lessons


Scenario A Supporting reticent or vulnerable pupils
Joanne is a quiet pupil who lacks confidence in her own ability. Shes so afraid of giving the
wrong answer that shes developed ways of becoming invisible during shared sessions. She
has difficulties with reading and gets muddled when trying to explain something.
Today the TA sits beside her during the shared reading session. The teacher asks the pupils to
read along and, encouraged by the TAs example, Joanne joins in more confidently. The
teacher then gives the pupils two minutes with a talk partner. They have to discuss with a
partner why one of the characters in the book they have been reading behaved in a certain
way. With the TA as her partner, Joanne is willing to make a suggestion and talk it over,
coming up with an explanation. The TA helps her to put this into a sentence and rehearse
how she will say it to the teacher.
For the first time, Joanne has the confidence to put her hand up.
Scenario B Supporting pupils with learning difficulties or disabilities
It is a shared word session and the pupils are sitting in a circle. The objective is hearing initial
sounds in words. Matthew and Sheena suffer from intermittent hearing loss and find phonics
difficult. The class teacher and the TA quickly give objects to each pupil to play Jump in the
hoop. Sheena has a cat and Matthew a pig. The TA helps them both to work out the initial
sounds of their objects by saying cat and pig clearly as the pupils watch her mouth.
The teacher places a can in one hoop in the middle of the circle and a pin in the other and
tells the pupils to jump in the hoop. The TA says cat pin to Sheena. Sheena repeats this
after her and decides that the two words do not start with the same sound. Sheena says
cat can and races to the hoop containing the can. The TA points to the pin and to
Matthews pig. Matthew repeats the words twice but doesnt move. The TA says pig can.
Matthew grins and joins the other pupils in the pin hoop. Meanwhile the teacher has
started to check that the rest of the class have chosen the correct hoop.
Scenario C Supporting a group of pupils, using phonics and word recognition
skills to improve pupils confidence in reading, including those learning English
as an additional language
During a 20-minute independent session, the TA works with a group of less-confident
readers to familiarise them with a big book in advance of the next days shared reading.
In this introductory session the TA wants to give the pupils an overall sense of the book.
She talks about what sort of book it is (its genre) and what the pupils think it will be about.
She reads it to them as they follow, pointing out new and tricky words and explaining what
they mean. She also gives some ways of tackling these words blending the phonemes and
breaking (segmenting) the words into syllables. Kashif and Imran, who are learning English as
an additional language, are able to talk about the ideas using the new vocabulary. The TA
ensures each pupils close attention through questioning, eye contact and careful use of praise.
In the next days shared reading, these pupils have the confidence that comes from prior
warning. They are able to shine in the whole-class session.

5.18

Teaching assistant file

Scenario D Supporting pupils with language comprehension during group reading sessions
In a guided reading session the TA gives out a text that the group read the previous week
with their teacher in a guided reading session. She reminds them about it by asking
questions about the characters names and the outline of the plot. She then reminds them
of the strategies they can use when reading independently, and sets them two questions
about a particular character:
G

What do you think he looks like?

What do you think the authors feelings are about him?

To answer these, the pupils must look for evidence not just in the words they read but by
reading between the lines.
The pupils begin to read independently, and the TA watches and listens, providing a range of
prompts where necessary to scaffold (sequential stages, for example, reinforcing decoding
skills using blending and graphemephoneme correspondence to tackle tricky or unfamiliar
words) their use of independent reading strategies. This one-to-one help encourages a
problem-solving approach to reading. At the end, when discussing the questions, she asks
pupils to point out evidence in the text that led them to their answers. In this small group,
where they are confident of the TAs support, the pupils engage in animated discussion
about the text.
Scenario E Encouraging and supporting pupils with special educational needs during
the plenary of a lesson
In the plenary session of a literacy lesson, the TA helps the teacher to hand out cards with
a full stop on one side and a question mark on the other. She then plays devils advocate
to the teacher, saying she was sure that the class had decided during sentence level work
that questions must always end with a comma. The class explains the TAs error clearly
and confidently!
The teacher calls out sentences and the pupils hold up a full stop if the sentence is a
statement and a question mark if it is a question. The TA sits on the edge of the group
between two pupils with special educational needs, repeating the sentences quietly with
very clear intonation. She does not help the pupils choose their answers, but encourages
them to hold up their cards where the teacher can see.

Section 5 Literacy

5.19

Course document 2.3


Book 2.3

Discussion of scenario
Use your checklist about the role of the TA (course document 2.1) to list the types of
support the TA provides in this scenario.
What did the TA need to know from the teacher before this scenario took place?
What information will the teacher want from the TA at the end?
What are the benefits of this activity to the pupil or group of pupils?
What kind of pupils might benefit in particular?
What are the benefits to the teacher of this activity?
On a scale of 1 to 5, how useful do you rate the TAs involvement during this activity?

Not very useful

5
Very useful

Course document 2.4


Book 2.4

Jigsaw group report procedure


Make sure there is at least one person in your group who has studied each of the scenarios AE.
Quickly read through scenario A. The member(s) of the group who studied this scenario
should then quickly report to the others on their notes, answering any questions about it.
Take no more than a couple of minutes. Repeat for scenario B, and so on.
You have 15 minutes for this activity.

5.20

Teaching assistant file

Course document 2.5


Book 2.5

Possible TA involvement in literacy lessons


Literacy lesson

Possible TA involvement

Whole-class shared reading/writing

Whole-class word/sentence work

Discrete teaching sessions of phonics

Guided reading/writing

Independent/group work

Plenary

Section 5 Literacy

5.21

Inter-session activity

Activity 3 The role of the TA in supporting in literacy lessons


Consider your work and observations in school so far. Use the notes and reflections you
have made in your diary.
Relate this experience to:
G your list of the ways in which a TA can support the teacher, using the table below
G the activities you have undertaken on the first part of the literacy module.
Literacy
lesson

Whole-class shared
reading/writing

Whole-class
word/sentence work

Discrete teaching
of phonics

Guided
reading/writing

Independent/
group work

Plenary

5.22

Teaching assistant file

Strategies
I have used

Benefits and
positive outcomes

Disadvantages
and problems

Points to act
on in future

Supporting whole-class teaching (shared work)


Even when the teacher is leading the discussion from the front, there are many possible
roles for the additional adult. These are some of the ways:
G

Drawing in reticent pupils


These are the pupils who are too timid to put up their hand and answer a question.
Examples of how you can do this: I think Jamie has an idea, Kelly has a good
example, Go on, Lisa

Dropping helpful pointers


Facilitating discussions and starting the ball rolling, such as: I can see something that
starts with that sound on your desk, I think we were talking about one of these the other
day, but avoid leading discussions too much so pupils have time to think for themselves

Supporting pupils
Drawing pupils in to the lesson, encouraging the less-able and less-confident, such as by
nodding, smiling encouragement, saying Hmmm, making eye contact

Joining in and making contributions


Examples are: joining in songs, choral reading, etc. to encourage the pupils, or making
contributions to keep discussion going when it flags (but being careful not to pre-empt
the pupils). This can be useful as long as TAs are careful not to interrupt unnecessarily
when the teacher is hoping for responses from pupils. Sensitively staged contributions
can provide a useful model for the pupils of how to join in the sort of content, tone,
length and manner of contribution required

Demonstrating for the teacher


Under the guidance of the teacher, demonstrating activities such as using a dictionary,
scanning a passage, working out a spelling by applying phonemegrapheme
correspondences, reading a range of familiar and common words and simple sentences
independently, applying phonic knowledge and skills as the prime approach to reading
and spelling unfamiliar words that are not completely decodable

Raising questions or problems


This includes raising questions or problems which a pupil or the teacher can answer,
pretending not to understand so the teacher can go through a step-by-step tuition, or
acting as a character in a book (role-playing characters in stories is a good way to get
pupils involved and interested in books and stories)

Echoing the teacher


Repeating or rewording phrases for pupils who need extra help; for example saying:
Thats right, look for the speech marks, See where Mrs Goodwin is pointing,
Remember what youve been told about blending phonemes to read words!

Acting as a partner for a less-able pupil during thinking and discussion time
In thinking and discussion time or role-play, pupils are given a minute or two to
generate ideas or discuss or develop a point to feed back straight away to the class. TAs
can help slower or less-able pupils to formulate a response, and alert the teacher that
theyre able to make a contribution. This guarantees the less-able pupils a secure and
risk-free opening through which they can contribute to the class

Using supportive props


Supporting the use of teaching props, such as changing screens on whiteboards, holding
up pictures, showing objects.

Section 5 Literacy

5.23

Behaviour management (shared and group work)


Although the teacher has responsibility for behaviour management, additional adults can
help to prevent and manage possible problems in the following ways:
G

Sitting alongside a pupil with challenging behaviour


Perhaps sitting beside restless pupils to help settle and involve them during shared time,
and to keep attention directed on their task during group/independent time

Focusing a pupils/pupils attention


By focusing attention on the teacher during shared work by directing inattentive pupils
to look, answer or apply themselves to questions, saying things such as: Have you seen
the book, Simon? Do you know the answer? Go on, put your hand up!
During group/independent time, it means focusing pupils attention on the task by
breaking it into small steps, such as by saying: Right, whats the very first thing well
have to do?, Thats good now you can go on to sorting the cards

Making eye contact


In shared work this could be catching a pupils eye, smiling and pulling them back into
the lesson, or perhaps holding up a cue card to illustrate the behaviour you want
(eg. a picture of a face in profile with an arrow coming out of the eye, which means
Look at the teacher). It can be helpful to sit at the front rather than the back so your
facial gestures can be seen. Good eye contact with individuals is important in
group/independent time

Supporting pupils who need specific help to gain access to the lesson
For example, pupils with visual impairment may need enlarged text on their knee, or
those with hearing impairment may need to be seated in a particular spot so they can
hear and participate

Troubleshooting
This could mean sorting out minor disagreements within groups, responding to queries
about tasks, or getting latecomers up to speed.

Resource management (shared and group work)


Interactive teaching often requires a range of resources, so help will be required in the
shared session in these ways:

5.24

Preparing, distributing and collecting resources


Handing out whiteboards, pens and cloths, for example, so that the lesson moves briskly
and the teacher has more time for teaching

Helping pupils use resources


For example, showing them the right grip to use for marker pens, prompting them to
hold up cards so the teacher (or other pupils) can see them

Supporting the effective use of teaching props


For example, by changing screens on whiteboards, reading a part in a play, working a
puppet in a phonic game, or operating equipment, such as a tape recorder.

Teaching assistant file

During group time, and especially during the changeover from shared to group work,
TAs can help by:
G

ensuring groups have access to the right resources, eg. pencils, highlighters, paper,
appropriate texts

supervising use of equipment, eg. listening centres, the watching of a schools


TV broadcast.

During independent activities pupils should be encouraged and expected to organise


resources for themselves.
There are, of course, many other aspects of resource management including tidying up at
the end of the session and so on.
An extra pair of eyes (shared and group work)
The TA can be a valuable extra pair of eyes (and ears) for the teacher in the following ways:
G

Observing individual pupils


For this you have to know what to look for and how to record it. Conduct, level of
participation and recording specific responses are the easiest behaviours to observe.
These might be recorded in writing, or using a camera or DVD camera. It helps to have
an agreed and simple format for written notes, especially if theres little time for postlesson discussion. TAs need to find out what works best in the class(es) they are working
in. It may also be useful for TAs to be familiar with the schools assessment procedures

Noting who can and who cant


This could mean recording the names of those pupils who cant yet do a particular task
such as applying a spelling rule, identifying the adjectives in a list of words or hearing
the correct initial sound in a word. TAs may also spot potential problems, which the
teacher is too busy to notice, such as a pupil who is struggling with a topic or behaving
in unexpected ways

Comparing notes and giving feedback to the teacher


Assessment gives an insight into pupils interests, achievements and possible difficulties
in their learning, from which the next steps can be planned. For example, TAs might give
their own perspectives on why they think a pupil has failed to achieve an objective. Such
information all helps the teacher to plan a balanced curriculum that takes note of pupils
strengths, interests and needs.

Assisting during group and independent work


G Supporting small group sessions focusing on phonics activities
Additional advice will be given later in the module
G

Guided reading and guided writing


More information will be given on these later in the module

Supporting group discussion (including the use of additional languages)


This includes reinforcing speaking and listening skills, for example ensuring everyone
contributes, considering alternatives, asking for clarification. It is sometimes useful for
TAs to be involved in the discussion themselves, for example by taking a part in a roleplay scenario. Asking pupils questions can support their thinking, for example: What do
you think will happen next?

Section 5 Literacy

5.25

Introducing and reinforcing specific vocabulary


This can be done before, during or after an activity and is particularly useful for bilingual
learners. For example, use of the term phoneme while helping a child to write a word,
or using photographs to revise key vocabulary and help in an oral recount of a trip

Helping pupils with activities


When a new activity is introduced to a group, pupils need a lot of support (taking it step
by step) to manage and understand it. Once they know a basic activity such as how to
match pairs of cards in the game Pelmanism, or how to organise a spelling investigation
they will have learnt some principles that they can be gently reminded of when the
same activity is used in a different context.
Pupils need to be taught how to work together collaboratively; this can be done by
demonstrating how to play a game, how to take turns and how to cooperate during role-play.

Assessing progress to feed back to the teacher


The teacher will pass on his or her own assessments of pupils progress so that the TA
can find ways to move them forward along the lines suggested. TAs, in turn, need to
make their own assessment of progress and feed this back to the teacher. In this way the
cycle of assessment, planning, teaching and learning works effectively.

Of course, these are only some of the ways TAs can help in literacy lessons. When working
with pupils, the potential scenarios are endless and TAs, like teachers, have to become
experts at thinking quickly. But the more aware you are of the general principles underlying
your role in the classroom, the easier it is to think on your feet.

5.26

Teaching assistant file

Session 3
Primary National Strategy resources

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 3.1

PPT 3.1

Primary Framework for Literacy and Mathematics


Letters and Sounds

Presentation slide 3.2


Developing Early Writing
PPT 3.2

Presentation slide 3.3


Grammar for Writing
PPT 3.3

Section 5 Literacy

5.27

Presentation slide 3.4

PPT 3.4

Excellence and Enjoyment:


Learning and Teaching for Bilingual Children
in the Primary Years

Presentation slide 3.5

PPT 3.5

Supporting Pupils Learning English as an


Additional Language

Presentation slide 3.6

PPT 3.6

Early Literacy Support


(Revised version available from January 2008)

Presentation slide 3.7

PPT 3.7

5.28

Year 3 Literacy Support for Teachers Working in


Partnership with Teaching Assistants, Sir Kits Quest

Teaching assistant file

Presentation slide 3.8


Further Literacy Support
PPT 3.8

Presentation slide 3.9


Every Child Matters: Change for Children
PPT 3.9

Presentation slide 3.10

PPT 3.10

Speaking, Listening, Learning: Working with Children in Key


Stages 1 and 2, Teaching objectives and classroom activities

Presentation slide 3.11

PPT 3.11

The Independent Review of the Teaching of Early Reading


(Rose Review)

Section 5 Literacy

5.29

Session 4
Early phonics

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 4.1

PPT 4.1

John H Farniscan

Presentation slide 4.2


Phonics is...
PPT 4.2

Phonics =

skills of segmentation
and blending

knowledge of the
alphabetic code

Presentation slide 4.3


The alphabetic code
PPT 4.3

5.30

Consonant Representative words

Consonant Representative words

phoneme

(corresponding letters in bold) phoneme

(corresponding letters in bold)

/b/

baby

/s/

sun, mouse, city, science

/d/

dog

/t/

tap

/f/

field, photo

/v/

van

/g/

game

/w/

was

/h/

hat

/wh/

where (regional)

/j/

judge, giant, barge

/y/

yes

/k/

cook, duck, Chris

/z/

zebra, please, is

/l/

lamb

/th/

thin

/m/

monkey, comb

/ch/

chip, watch

/n/

nut, knife, gnat

/sh/

ship, mission, chef

/p/

paper

/zh/

treasure

/r/

rabbit, wrong

/ng/

ring, sink

Teaching assistant file

Presentation slide 4.4


Pronouncing phonemes
PPT 4.4
1.

2.

ch

3.

qu

sh

th

Presentation slide 4.5


Phonics is...
PPT 4.5

Phonics =

skills of segmentation
and blending

knowledge of the
alphabetic code

Presentation slide 4.6a


Letters and Sounds phase descriptors (1)
PPT 4.6a
Phase
1

Descriptors
Developing, among other skills,
phonological awareness without any
teaching of graphic representations
(though children may of course know
some letters)

Knowledge
Explore and experiment with sounds
and spoken words
Distinguish between different sounds
in the environment and phonemes
Show awareness of rhyme
and alliteration
Begin to orally segment and blend words

Teaching children three related concepts:


- Graphemephoneme correspondences
- Blending

Know that words are constructed from


phonemes and that phonemes are
represented by graphemes
Know a small selection of common
consonants and vowels which they
can blend for reading and segment
for spelling simple CVC words,
eg. sit and tap

- Segmenting

Presentation slide 4.6b


Letters and Sounds phase descriptors (2)
PPT 4.6b
Phase

Descriptors

Knowledge

Teaching the full range of 43 phonemes in


the English language and their most
common representations. This includes the
most common representations of each of
the long vowel phonemes: ee, ai, oa, ie,
and both sounds for oo (as in moon and
book), as well as or, mar, er, ow, oy, air, ear
Consolidating the skills of blending and
segmenting
Starting to build a stock of high
frequency words

Blend and read single-syllable CVC words


Segment and make a phonically plausible
attempt at spelling CVC words
Give the sound when shown the
graphemes learnt in phases 1 and 2
Match the phase 1 and 2 phonemes to
their grapheme

Teaching words containing adjacent


consonants (CVCCs, CCVCs, etc.)
Continuing to focus on blending and
segmenting skills
Increasing the stock of high
frequency words

Blend adjacent consonants in words and


apply this skill when reading unfamiliar
texts, eg. spoon, cried, nest
Segment adjacent consonants in words
and apply this in spelling

Section 5 Literacy

5.31

Presentation slide 4.6c


Letters and Sounds phase descriptors (3)
PPT 4.6c
Descriptors

Knowledge

Teaching children the concept of alternative


representations of long vowel phonemes
already taught and that some graphemes
can be pronounced in more than one way,
eg. the letter g can be both hard as in gate,
and soft as in giant
Teaching children to read phonically
decodable two- and three-syllable words
Increasing the stock of high
frequency words

Use alternative ways of pronouncing and


spelling the graphemes corresponding to
long vowel phonemes, eg. /oe/ o-e, o, oa,
ow, eg. snake
Read phonically decodable two- and
three-syllable words, eg. bleating,
frogspawn, shopkeeper
Spell complex words using phonically
plausible attempts

Teaching children less common


graphemephoneme correspondences
Embedding and consolidating the
learning from previous phases to become
fluent readers and increasingly accurate
spellers

Apply their phonic skills and knowledge to


recognise and spell an increasing number
of complex words
Are secure with less common
graphemephoneme correspondences,
eg. s/zh/
Can recognise phonic irregularities

Presentation slide 4.7


Phoneme count
PPT 4.7

5.32

Phases 1 and 2

Phases 3 and 4

hat

blank

doll

chip

cuff

rush

lick

spoon

Teaching assistant file

Inter-session activity

Activity 4 Phonics (1)


In liaison with the reception or year 1 classroom teacher, work with a group of pupils on
one of the Letters and Sounds phases 1 to 3, or the equivalent in the phonics programme
used in the school/setting.
Note to the classroom teacher
Please ensure that the group chosen for this task is going to benefit from the work. If the
pupils can already segment words into phonemes with ease, they will be bored and make
the TAs job unnecessarily difficult.
Note to the TA
When you have chosen your activities, make sure you are very familiar with the procedure
and have all the equipment to hand before you start the lesson. Keep a notepad to record
any necessary observations about the pupils.
After each lesson make notes on the following aspects of the work with the pupils:
What was the objective of the lesson? For example, use phonic knowledge to write
simple regular words and make phonetically plausible attempts at more complex words.
Or, read more challenging texts which can be decoded using their acquired phonic
knowledge and skills, along with automatic recognition of high frequency words.

Which activities did the pupils appear to enjoy most? Which activities did they show
less enthusiasm for?

Can you explain why one activity was better received than another?
To what extent was it due to:
a) the nature of the activity
b) your approach
c) the point in the lesson at which it happened
d) something else?

When pupils experienced difficulty, which of your explanations or actions did you think
was particularly effective?

When you finished each lesson did you have the knowledge to advise the class teacher
on whether the group should work on that step further or progress to the next step?

Discuss your notes with your class teacher and record any conclusions you arrive at jointly,
which will be helpful to you in the future.

Section 5 Literacy

5.33

Session 5
Review of activities

Course document 5.1


Book 5.1

Support from the teaching assistant in literacy lessons


For each literacy lesson, note down one way in which you have supported the teacher
successfully over the last two weeks.
Use your completed sheet from activity 3 to remind you of new roles/activities you have
undertaken, or ways in which you have improved on previous practice.
Daily discrete teaching of phonics

Whole-class shared reading/writing

Whole-class word/sentence work

Guided reading/writing

Independent/group work

Plenary

5.34

Teaching assistant file

Session 6
Later phonics

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 6.1
Phonics is...
PPT 6.1

Phonics =

skills of segmentation
and blending

knowledge of the
alphabetic code

Presentation slide 6.2a


Letters and Sounds phase descriptors (1)
PPT 6.2a
Phase
1

Descriptors
Developing, among other skills,
phonological awareness without any
teaching of graphic representations
(though children may of course know
some letters)

Knowledge
Explore and experiment with sounds
and spoken words
Distinguish between different sounds
in the environment and phonemes
Show awareness of rhyme
and alliteration
Begin to orally segment and blend words

Teaching children three related concepts:


- Graphemephoneme correspondences
- Blending

Know that words are constructed from


phonemes and that phonemes are
represented by graphemes
Know a small selection of common
consonants and vowels which they
can blend for reading and segment
for spelling simple CVC words,
eg. sit and tap

- Segmenting

Presentation slide 6.2b


Letters and Sounds phase descriptors (2)
PPT 6.2b
Phase

Descriptors

Knowledge

Teaching the full range of 43 phonemes in


the English language and their most
common representations. This includes the
most common representations of each of
the long vowel phonemes: ee, ai, oa, ie,
and both sounds for oo (as in moon and
book), as well as or, mar, er, ow, oy, air, ear
Consolidating the skills of blending and
segmenting
Starting to build a stock of high
frequency words

Blend and read single-syllable CVC words


Segment and make a phonically plausible
attempt at spelling CVC words
Give the sound when shown the
graphemes learnt in phases 1 and 2
Match the phase 1 and 2 phonemes to
their grapheme

Teaching words containing adjacent


consonants (CVCCs, CCVCs, etc.)
Continuing to focus on blending and
segmenting skills
Increasing the stock of high
frequency words

Blend adjacent consonants in words and


apply this skill when reading unfamiliar
texts, eg. spoon, cried, nest
Segment adjacent consonants in words
and apply this in spelling

Section 5 Literacy

5.35

Presentation slide 6.2c


Letters and Sounds phase descriptors (3)
PPT 6.2c
Descriptors

Knowledge

Teaching children the concept of alternative


representations of long vowel phonemes
already taught and that some graphemes
can be pronounced in more than one way,
eg. the letter g can be both hard as in gate,
and soft as in giant
Teaching children to read phonically
decodable two- and three-syllable words
Increasing the stock of high
frequency words

Use alternative ways of pronouncing and


spelling the graphemes corresponding to
long vowel phonemes, eg. /oe/ o-e, o, oa,
ow, eg. snake
Read phonically decodable two- and
three-syllable words, eg. bleating,
frogspawn, shopkeeper
Spell complex words using phonically
plausible attempts

Teaching children less common


graphemephoneme correspondences
Embedding and consolidating the
learning from previous phases to become
fluent readers and increasingly accurate
spellers

Apply their phonic skills and knowledge to


recognise and spell an increasing number
of complex words
Are secure with less common
graphemephoneme correspondences,
eg. s/zh/
Can recognise phonic irregularities

Presentation slide 6.3


Vowel digraphs
PPT 6.3

5.36

train

shout

meat

first

light

dew

late

burn

door

try

boy

road

moon

lay

term

bear

down

field

stole

stairs

sweet

coin

hare

toe

cute

mine

round

Teaching assistant file

spoil
tore

born

Course documents
Course document 6.1
Book 6.1

Recognising vowel sounds


angel

even

find

post

union/blue

work

clown

fair

warn

train
lay
late
toy

Course document 6.2


Book 6.2

The different spellings of phonemes


vowels

representative words

vowels

representative words

/a/

cat

/oo/

look, would, put

/e/

peg, bread

/ar/

cart, fast (regional)

/i/

pig, wanted

/ur/

burn, first, term, heard, work

/o/

log, want

/au/

torn, door, haul, law, call

/u/

plug, love

/ow/

down, shout

/ae/

pain, late, lay

/oi/

coin, boy

/ee/

sweet, meat, field, key

/air/

stair, bear, hare

/ie/

tie, light, mine, try, mind

/ear/

fear, beer, here

/oe/

road, post, stole, toe

/ure/

pure

/ue/

moon, blue, cute, dew, fruit

Section 5 Literacy

5.37

Course document 6.3


Book 6.3

A real treat
Tom was very happy. It was the weekend and he was off to the beach with Mum and Dad,
his puppy and baby Pete.
Help me pack the green bag, said Mum. We need sun cream and lots to eat.
Tom got into his seat in the back of the car and the puppy got on his knee. Pete held his toy
sheep. Off they went. Beep! Beep!
At the end of the street there was a big truck. It had lost a wheel. Oh, no, said Tom. Well
be here for a week!
Dad went to speak to the driver to see if he could help. They put the wheel back on. Then
Dad said, I must hurry. We need to get to the beach.
At last they got to the sea. Tom and Pete had an ice-cream. Mum and Dad had a cup of tea.
The puppy went to sleep under a tree.

Inter-session activity

Activity 5 Phonics (2)


Explain that this activity, to be performed back in school, is to work in liaison with a key stage
1 classroom teacher with a group of pupils on two of the activities in Letters and Sounds
phases 5 and 6, or the equivalent in the phonics programme used in the school/setting.
Tell the TAs that when they have chosen their activities they should make sure they are very
familiar with the procedures and have all the equipment to hand before they start the
lesson. They should keep a notepad to record any appropriate observations about the pupils.
After each lesson, the TAs should make notes on the following aspects of the work with the pupils:
G What was the objective of the lesson? eg. read and spell less common alternative
graphemes including trigraphs
G Which activities did the pupils appear to enjoy most? Which activity did they show less
enthusiasm for?
G Can they explain why one activity was better received than another? To what extent
was it because of:
a) the nature of the activity
b) your approach
c) the point of the lesson in which it happened
d) something else?
G When pupils experienced difficulty, which of the your explanations or actions did you
think particularly effective?
G How are you helping pupils to use the knowledge they acquire in the discrete phonics session
for reading and writing a variety of text types in literacy and other areas of the curriculum?
G Why are games the best way to practise and apply these phonic skills?

5.38

Teaching assistant file

Session 7
Reading The simple view of reading

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 7.1a
The simple view of reading (1)
PPT 7.1a

Key priorities for beginner readers:

Word recognition knowledge and skills through


high-quality phonic work, as defined in the Rose Review
and which is not a strategy so much as a body of
knowledge, skills and understanding that has to be learnt

Language comprehension skills understanding,


interpreting, engaging with and responding to texts
through talking about and engaging with different texts

Presentation slide 7.1b


The simple view of reading (2)

Word recognition

PPT 7.1b

Good language
comprehension, poor
word recognition

Good word recognition,


good language
comprehension

Poor word recognition,


poor language
comprehension

Good word recognition,


poor language
comprehension

Language comprehension

Presentation slide 7.2a


The beginner reader (1)
PPT 7.2a
Promoting enjoyment and language comprehension
For beginner readers, it is important to:
handle books
enjoy stories and rhymes
be able to retell stories and ask questions
be encouraged to talk about books
Use shared, guided and individual reading sessions to enhance learning by:
helping children to develop their abilities to talk about the story/text
explaining why things happen
asking questions and so helping them gain language and reading
comprehension

Section 5 Literacy

5.39

Presentation slide 7.2b


The beginner reader (2)
PPT 7.2b
Daily discrete phonics teaching sessions will be central to word
recognition teaching from reception
It is time-limited most children should be confident readers by the end
of year 2
TAs will work with teachers to aid childrens quick learning by helping
pupils to:

know one grapheme for each of the 43 phonemes


learn how to write each letter, forming it correctly
produce the sounds as purely as possible
frequently revise and practise so that responses are automatic
link graphemes to phonemes

Presentation slide 7.2c


The beginner reader (2), continued
PPT 7.2c
TAs will work with teachers to aid childrens quick learning by helping
pupils to:

know vowels and consonants these should be taught from the start
blend phonemes into words blending and segmenting need to be
taught explicitly so that pupils can decode and encode words.
Segmenting words into phonemes aids understanding of spelling.
understand that spelling is the reverse of blending
learn the 43 phonemes and more complex phonic skills
(see the phonics training part of this training)
establish a store of familiar words

Presentation slide 7.3


Making learning to read successful and fun
PPT 7.3

5.40

Ensure that reading is well planned so language comprehension and word


skills build up systematically and in a meaningful way
Reinforce and build on previous learning to secure childrens progress,
making good use of regular assessments
Link this work to the development of speaking and listening skills
Make sure it is multisensory use visual, auditory and kinaesthetic
activities to enliven learning
Provide an exciting and rich curriculum that engages pupils and makes
learning meaningful
Reinforce and apply phonic/reading and spelling knowledge and skills
across the curriculum and in activities such as shared and guided reading
Assess, monitor and modify teaching so children understand new
knowledge and skills
Follow the guidance in the Primary Frameworks core strands

Teaching assistant file

Presentation slide 7.4a

PPT 7.4a

Understanding, interpreting, engaging and


responding to texts

Pupils ability to understand and appreciate written texts


continues to develop throughout life

By the end of year 2, most pupils will have learnt to read


From year 3 to year 6 they need to develop greater
comprehension by reading to learn

Speaking and listening will enhance comprehension

Presentation slide 7.4b

PPT 7.4b
Consider how TAs and teachers might help pupils to:
retrieve and describe events and ideas from text
deduce, infer and interpret information
use their understanding of words to develop an understanding of
word meanings
explain how writers use language to extend their knowledge and ideas
read independently for purpose, pleasure and meaning
respond imaginatively to texts, using different ways to engage with it
evaluate writers purposes and viewpoints to appreciate the overall
effect of the text
TAs and teachers will encourage many reading activities, including
shared, guided and independent reading, sometimes using ICT

Section 5 Literacy

5.41

Inter-session activity

Activity 6 Strategies to promote reading


This activity is to observe different strategies being used to teach reading. Try to make at least
three observations covering different ages of pupils. You should make notes of the strategies
you observe or use yourself to:
G

prompt language comprehension

help pupils to use their phonic knowledge

encourage pupils to talk about books and texts

stimulate interest and success in reading

encourage reading in a range of subjects

promote the reading of fiction and non-fiction and poetry.

Where possible information should be gathered across a range of subjects.

Session 8
Writing

Presentation slide
Presentation slide 8.1
Teaching writing
PPT 8.1
The writing strands in the Primary Framework are:

Creating and shaping texts


Text structure and organisation
Sentence structure and punctuation
Presentation

All work is underpinned by opportunities for speaking and listening


Opportunities are provided for writing across the curriculum
Writing is taught through a mixture of whole-class shared work,
group and independent work, ending with a plenary session

5.42

Teaching assistant file

Course documents
Course document 8.1
Book 8.1

Guided writing activity


Purpose

Teaching prompts

Pointing out whats important

What I noticed/liked about this was... because


I think the key thing about this sentence is... because

Improving pupils writing

What can we add, to make it more interesting/informative?


What can we leave out/get rid of, to make it
less repetitive?
What other words or phrases could we put
there to make it sound better?

Helping pupils see patterns


and rules

The reason why...


Its useful to know that...
Can you remember what the best bet is when we write
that phoneme at the end of a word?
Look at the wall display to help you remember...
What tends to work best is
The rule/pattern for this is
When else does this happen?

Praising and building confidence

I really like the way you... because...


I really like because
That works well because
Well done for using the wall display
to remind you of

Assessing strengths and


weaknesses, correcting

Which part works best?


Why does it not quite work?
Which is the hardest part to get right?
Read that sentence out loud and check that it makes sense.
Lets have a look at this word. Blend and read the phonemes.
Is that the word you meant to write? What do you need to
do to make it correct?

Talking about language,


using technical terms

I really like the (eg. adjective) you chose because


Try and segment that word into phonemes using your fingers.
How could we improve this (eg. verb)?
Which (eg. punctuation mark) could you use here?

Helping pupils develop


their work

Could we use, say...?


You could try...
How about carrying on by...?

Drawing writing into talk

Tell me how you could write...


So you think that...
What do you think about...?
Say a little more about...

Section 5 Literacy

5.43

Course document 8.2


Book 8.2

Guided writing preparation and report sheet


Date: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Group: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparation
Writing task:

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Major teaching objectives:

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Useful prompts (see course document 8.1):

..................................................................................................

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Report
Notes:
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Self-assessment
What went well?: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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What could I improve on next time?: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.44

Teaching assistant file

Post-module activity

Activity 7 Working with writing groups


For this activity you will need course documents 8.1 and 8.2.
Course document 8.1 is a list of suggested prompts for using when you are supervising pupils
writing. Its only a starting point different writing tasks (and different types of pupils) need
different prompts. But it can help you establish the tone and type of remark that is most
useful to the situation.
Course document 8.2 is your activity sheet a photocopiable guided writing report form, to use:
G

when preparing to work with a group (preparation section)

to help you feed back information to the teacher (notes to be jotted down immediately
after the session)

for self-assessment, to help you build expertise in this area.

Section 5 Literacy

5.45

Section 6

Foundation stage
literacy

Explaining the Early Years Foundation Stage


The term foundation stage covers reception, foundation stage and early years foundation
stage until September 2008 when Early Years Foundation Stage becomes statutory.
The National Strategies and the Sure Start Unit are promoting the use of the Early Years
Foundation Stage from September 2007 and are expecting local authorities, schools and settings
to begin training and planning in 2007 in readiness for its statutory implementation in 2008.
The Early Years Foundation Stage brings together principles and effective practice from
Birth to Three Matters and the Curriculum Guidance for the Foundation Stage together with
elements of the National Standards for Under 8s Day Care and Childminding. From September
2008 all registered settings, including childminders, must comply with the learning and
development and welfare requirements and have regard to the rest of the Early Years
Foundation Stage guidance.
National Strategies briefings to local authorities suggest that they play a key role in ensuring
that, before and after September 2008, all providers and practitioners access appropriate
training and professional development opportunities to enable them to understand the
principles and requirements of the Early Years Foundation Stage and to provide good quality
care and education for children from birth to five.
These changes are reflected in the TDAs foundation stage training materials.

Section 6
Foundation stage literacy

Contents

Pre-module activities
Activity 1
Activity 2

page 6.3
page 6.4

Session 1
Introduction to teaching communication, language and literacy

page 6.14

Session 2
The role of the teaching assistant in helping teachers to teach
communication, language and literacy

page 6.16

Inter-session activity
Activity 3

page 6.25

Session 3
The Early Years Foundation Stage

page 6.29

Session 4
Early phonics

page 6.32

Inter-session activity
Activity 4

page 6.35

Session 5
Review of activities

page 6.36

Session 6
Later phonics

page 6.37

Inter-session activity
Activity 5

page 6.40

Session 7
Reading The simple view of reading

page 6.41

Inter-session activity
Activity 6

Section 6 Foundation stage literacy

page 6.43

6.1

Session 8
Writing development

page 6.43

Post-module activity
Activity 7
Further reading

6.2

Teaching assistant file

page 6.47

Pre-module activities

Activity 1 Background reading


This activity will familiarise you with basic information about the curriculum and the way
communication, language and literacy skills are taught.
1. Read these three summary background sections carefully:
G
G
G

the English National Curriculum


the Early Years Foundation Stage
the Primary Framework for literacy and mathematics.

2. Ask the teacher to show you the Primary Framework (literacy). There is a copy in school
and there are more detailed online materials supporting planning, learning and teaching
and assessment. The online materials can be viewed on the supporting DVD and at
www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/primaryframework. Look through the framework, getting
an overview of the various sections.
3. For early reading look at the early reading section of the Primary Framework to make
note of Rose Review recommendations in particular the simple view of reading and
discrete daily teaching of phonics.
4. Ask the teacher to clarify any questions you have about each section of the framework,
and to show you some examples of medium- and short-term planning, and how they link
into the Primary National Strategy (PNS) objectives. The Primary Framework website
provides links to all PNS resources. See www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/primaryframework
5. Everyone working with pupils in the foundation stage must make sure they are familiar
with the content of the document the Early Years Foundation Stage, including the early
learning goals for communication, language and literacy. Ask the teacher to lend you a
copy and familiarise yourself with the document.
6. Complete the checklist on page 6.10 about the early learning goals for communication,
language and literacy.
Also ask to see the Early Years Foundation Stage Profile, which is used for assessment.
Ask the teacher or literacy coordinator to show you the following PNS publications,
which are recommended for use in reception classes, and ask for a brief explanation of
what they are for:
G
G

Letters and Sounds and/or the equivalent phonics programme used in your school/setting
Developing Early Writing.

You are not expected to read or learn them; you simply need to know of their existence and
what sort of things they contain. You may find yourself using one or both of them in your
work as a TA.

Section 6 Foundation stage literacy

6.3

Activity 2 The literacy session in class


Before beginning the module, you need to be familiar with the basic structure of literacy
sessions and activities. This involves observing at least one session in both key stage 1 and key
stage 2 and a literacy activity in a reception class. If possible, take the opportunity to observe
more than one, as you will benefit greatly from seeing as many different lessons as possible.
1. Show the teacher the literacy observation sheet (see page 6.9) and talk through how to
use it. Ask to observe one key stage 1 and one key stage 2 literacy lesson and a literacy
activity in a reception class.
2. Make a photocopy of the sheet for each lesson you observe, and use it to guide your
observations during the lesson. Fill in the sheet as you watch the lesson, then read it
through and add to it if necessary once the lesson is over.
The observation sheet should be made available for the class teacher to see if he or she
wishes. You may also wish to use the observation sheet to observe an individual pupil during
literacy sessions

Background to the English National Curriculum


The National Curriculum applies to all children in maintained schools. It is organised in key
stages, of which three apply to primary schools:
G

the Early Years Foundation Stage which covers the age range from birth to five and
includes children in the reception year in schools

key stage 1 pupils aged 5 to 7 year groups 1 and 2

key stage 2 pupils aged 7 to 11 year groups 3, 4, 5, 6.

In key stages 1 and 2 it covers ten subjects. Three English, mathematics and science are
core subjects, in which pupils sit national tests at the end of key stages 1 and 2 (end-of-year
national tests). There are also voluntary national tests for other year groups in key stage 2.
For each subject and in key stages 1 and 2:
G

programmes of study set out what pupils should be taught

attainment targets set the level of performance pupils are expected to achieve.

In the primary school from year 1, levels of attainment generally range between level 1 early
in key stage 1 and level 5 at the end of key stage 2.

6.4

Range of levels within which


the great majority of pupils
are expected to work

Expected attainment for the


majority of pupils at the end
of the key stage

Key stage 1

13

Level 2 at age 7

Key stage 2

25

Level 4 at age 11

Teaching assistant file

In the key stage 1 national tests at the end of year 2, most pupils are expected to achieve a
level 2 or higher. In the key stage 2 national tests at the end of year 6 most pupils are
expected to achieve a level 4 or higher.
Details of the programmes of study for all primary subjects can be found in The National
Curriculum Handbook for Primary Teachers in England. There is also a special curriculum
handbook for English English: The National Curriculum for England.
The Primary Framework (literacy) translates the English programme of study and attainment
targets into practical, manageable, long-term teaching plans. These are organised into
strands of learning from reception through to year 6 and link to speaking and listening and
reading and writing.

Background to the Early Years Foundation Stage and early learning goals
The governments ten-year strategy for childcare: Choice for parents, the best start for children
(December 2004) proposed the establishment of a single quality framework for services for
children from birth to age five. The Early Years Foundation Stage is that framework, bringing
together the Curriculum Guidance for the Foundation Stage (3-5 year olds) with
Birth to Three Matters and the National Standards for Daycare. The Early Years Foundation Stage
becomes statutory in 2008 and will be compulsory for all early years providers who have to
register with Ofsted, as well as independent, maintained and non-maintained special schools
with provision for children from the age of three to the end of the academic year in which
they become five.
The Early Years Foundation Stage is a comprehensive framework for learning, development and
care. It is based on four over arching principles which guide the work of all early years
practitioners:
G

A unique child every child is a competent learner from birth who can be resilient,
confident, capable and self assured

Positive relationships children learn to be strong and independent from a base of loving
and secure relationships with parents and/or a key person

Enabling environments the environment plays a key role in supporting and extending
childrens development and learning

Learning and development children develop and learn in different ways and at different
rates and all areas of learning and development are equally important and inter-connected.

The Early Years Foundation Stage organises learning and development in six areas:
G
G
G
G
G
G

personal, social and emotional development


communication, language and literacy
problem solving, reasoning and numeracy
knowledge and understanding of the world
physical development
creative development.

The Early Years Foundation Stage sets out the expectations for most children to reach in these
six areas of learning by the end of reception. These are the early learning goals.

Section 6 Foundation stage literacy

6.5

The early learning goals are reflected in the objectives in the framework for teaching
literacy. By the end of the reception year, some children will have exceeded the goals.
Other children will be working towards some or all of the goals particularly younger
children, those with special educational needs (SEN) and those learning English as an
additional language (EAL).
Teachers and others working with children in nursery and reception classes are required to plan
a curriculum that will help all children to make good progress towards, and where appropriate
beyond, the early learning goals.
The Early Years Foundation Stage provides guidance on effective teaching and learning,
including observation, planning and assessment in the six areas of learning. It gives examples
of children working towards, reaching and going beyond the early learning goals.
It is important to remember that although the Early Years Foundation Stage is separated
into six areas of learning, childrens learning cannot be compartmentalised like this. Children
learn when they are able to make connections between experiences and ideas that they
experience in their setting, in their home and in the wider community. All areas of learning
contribute to the development of childrens communication, language and literacy skills.
The Early Years Foundation Stage profile
The Early Years Foundation Stage Profile provides a way of assessing childrens development
and achievements through teacher observation and is based on the early learning goals.
The early learning goals are arranged in the profile as a set of 13 assessment scales,
each of which has nine points:
G

The first three points are based mainly on the stepping stones in the curriculum guidance.
These are now part of the EYFS areas of learning and development.

The next five points are drawn from the early learning goals themselves and are more or
less in order of difficulty (although some children may achieve a later goal without going
through earlier stages). Most children should achieve at least six scale points on each of
the assessment scales by the end of reception.

The final point in each scale describes a pupil who is working consistently beyond the
level of early learning goals.

It is expected that teachers will fill in the profile for each child periodically throughout the
year. At the end of reception, the completed profile forms the basis for reports to
parents/carers and is shared with the year 1 teacher to ensure continuity and progression as
children make this transition. Each child is given a score (out of nine) for each of the 13
assessment scales.

6.6

Teaching assistant file

Background to literacy in the Primary National Strategy


The Primary Framework was introduced in 2006 and provides a framework of teaching
objectives for each year of the primary school, including guidance for reception classes. These
are organised into 12 strands of learning which link speaking, listening, reading and writing.
The Primary National Strategy is supported through continuing professional development
for teachers. Materials including manuals, teaching ideas and videos are available online or
for schools to order. Training on these materials is often carried out in school, initially led by
the literacy subject manager or other senior staff.
Every local authority has literacy consultants available to help and advise schools in
implementing the strategy. These literacy consultants also report back on examples of
successful teaching and classroom organisation they see in schools. As further resources are
produced, they are able to spread these ideas to other teachers around the country.

The objectives
In general, the daily literacy lessons in key stages 1 and 2 will continue, so that pupils are
taught the knowledge, skills and understanding as set out in the National Curriculum.
The emphasis on carefully planned, purposeful and well-directed teaching and learning remain
at the core of the Primary Framework (literacy). Lessons still need a clear start and end, so that
pupils know what they are learning and can recognise the progress they are making.
The expectation based on the recommendations of the Rose Review is that in reception and
year 1 classes there will be a daily discrete teaching session of phonics for early reading. The
Primary Framework provides guidance materials to support this work. Teachers will be using
a systematic approach to teaching phonics, such as that set out in Letters and Sounds, a key
resource to support their teaching.
The emphasis is on planning, focusing on learning key objectives not coverage. Sequences of
lessons that focus on learning outcomes are exemplified in the framework. Examples of
longer sequences of planning are provided. There is a change in emphasis in the structure of
literacy lessons. A three-part lesson may still be suitable, but teachers can now adapt and
revise the structure so as not to limit the flow of pupils learning and the challenges
provided. Sustaining interest and enjoyment and making links between subjects are central
to this flexibility.

Section 6 Foundation stage literacy

6.7

A clear structure for learning is provided in the Primary Framework (literacy) organised into
12 strands of learning.
Speaking and listening strands
1. Speaking
2. Listening and responding
3. Group discussion and interaction
4. Drama
Reading strands
5. Word recognition, which includes decoding (reading) and encoding (spelling)
6. Word structure and spelling
7. Understanding and interpreting texts
8. Engaging with and responding to texts
Writing strands
9. Creating and shaping texts
10. Text structure and organisation
11. Sentence structure and punctuation
12. Presentation
In reception, the class teacher may choose to cover the elements of communication,
language and literacy within a wide range of activities. In addition to this, a single unit of
time must be allocated to the specific teaching of phonics.

6.8

Teaching assistant file

Literacy observation sheet


Year group observed:

Year 1

Year 2

What sort of text was being studied?

How were children sitting? Could they all see and hear the teachers presentation?

Did they have support from an additional adult? If so, what kinds of support did the adult offer?

Was there any talking time? Did the children use English and/or other languages?

If there was talking time, were children with partners or selected at random?

How were childrens speaking and listening skills promoted?

Did the children answer questions and how did the adult extend their speaking skills?

Note some of the prompts the teacher used to encourage them.

Was there any drama to promote speaking and listening?

What were the main teaching objectives and which strand of learning do they link to?

Note some of the main teaching methods the teacher used.

What kind of activities were children working on?

Section 6 Foundation stage literacy

6.9

Were children learning phonics and if so, how was this organised?

Which teaching objective did the teacher concentrate on?

Were children successful in the session and how do you know?

What strategies did the teacher use to keep them on task?

How did the teacher promote enjoyment and independence?

How was the lesson organised to promote learning?

What strategies had the teacher organised to make children independent?

Were any children unable to look after themselves and the things they were
using independently?

How did the teacher draw childrens learning to a close, so that children understood
how much progress they had made?

Were children confident in talking about what they had learnt?

Were they interested in each others contributions?

6.10

Teaching assistant file

Early learning goals for communication, language and literacy


The National Curriculum for English (key stages 14) defines four major areas of learning:
speaking, listening, reading and writing. Using the initials S, L, R, W, note on the chart below
which aspects(s) of English are involved in attaining each of the early learning goals.
By the end of the Early Years Foundation Stage most children will be able to
enjoy listening to and using spoken and written language, and readily turn to it in their
play and learning
explore and experiment with sounds, words and texts
listen with enjoyment and respond to stories, songs and other music, rhymes and
poems, and make up their own stories, songs, rhymes and poems
use language to imagine and recreate roles and experiences
use talk to organise, sequence and clarify thinking, ideas, feelings and events
sustain attentive listening, responding to what they have heard by relevant
comments, questions or actions
interact with others, negotiating plans and activities and taking turns in conversation
extend their vocabulary, exploring the meanings and sounds of new words
retell narratives in the correct sequence, drawing on the language patterns of stories
speak clearly and audibly with confidence and control and show awareness of the listener,
for example by their use of conventions such as greetings, please and thank you
hear and say the sounds in words in the order in which they occur
link sounds to letters, naming and sounding the letters of the alphabet
read a range of familiar and common words and simple sentences independently
know that print carries meaning and, in English, is read from left to right and top to bottom
show an understanding of the elements of stories, such as main character, sequence of
events and openings, and of how information can be found in non-fiction texts, to be
able to answer questions about where, who, why and how
attempt writing for various purposes using features of different forms such as lists,
stories and instructions
write their own names and other things such as labels and captions and begin to form
simple sentences, sometimes using punctuation
use their phonic knowledge to write simple regular words and make phonetically
plausible attempts at more complex words
use a pencil and hold it effectively to form recognisable letters, most of which are
correctly formed

Section 6 Foundation stage literacy

6.11

Child
observation sheet
Year group:
Additional adult(s) in class:

Yes

No

Gender:
Does the child have additional learning needs, such as SEN, EAL, high ability?

Where did the child sit?

Did the child have support from an additional adult?

Did the additional adult use languages other than English?

Did the child appear involved in the lesson?

Did the child understand the teachers questioning?

6.12

Teaching assistant file

Did the teacher aim particular questions at the child?

If so, how did the child answer the question(s)?

Was the child interested in others contributions?

Was the child clear about the objectives for the session?

What did the child learn during the session?

What did you learn from watching the child?

Section 6 Foundation stage literacy

6.13

Session 1
Introduction to teaching communication, language and literacy

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 1.1a
Aims of the module
PPT 1.1a

To introduce TAs to an overview of the literacy curriculum


and to support new TAs in learning about:
- the Early Years Foundation Stage
- the English National Curriculum
- the Primary Framework
- support for developing early reading
- other published resources that support literacy

Presentation slide 1.1b


Aims of the module (continued)
PPT 1.1b

To help TAs to understand the changes made with the


introduction of the Early Years Foundation Stage and
renewed Primary Framework (literacy), in particular:
- the 12 strands of learning and teaching
- the prime importance of high-quality phonics work in the
reception class
- the simple view of reading
- the importance of actively promoting childrens speaking
and listening skills
- the need for children to learn to read by year 2
- the development of early writing

Presentation slide 1.2


Literacy catch-up packages
PPT 1.2

6.14

Early Literacy Support (ELS), for pupils in year 1


(revised version from January 2008)

Year 3 Literacy Support, Sir Kits Quest


Further Literacy Support (FLS), for pupils in year 5

Teaching assistant file

Presentation slide 1.3


Literacy in the Primary National Strategy
PPT 1.3

A focus on learning key objectives


Carefully planned, purposeful and well directed teaching and learning
remain at the core of the Primary Framework

Emphasis on the teaching of the simple view of reading and daily


discrete teaching of phonics for early reading

Emphasis on sequences of teaching, focusing on learning outcomes

A three-part lesson may still be suitable but teachers can now adapt
and revise to aid pupils learning
Sustaining pupils interest and enjoyment are key
Making links between subjects are central to this flexibility and support.

Presentation slide 1.4


The Primary Framework has a clear structure
PPT 1.4

It is organised into 12 strands of learning:


Speaking and listening strands
1. Speaking
2. Listening and responding
3. Group discussion and interaction
4. Drama

Presentation slide 1.5


Reading strands
PPT 1.5

5. Word recognition, decoding (reading) and encoding (spelling)


6. Word structure and spelling
7. Understanding and interpreting texts
8. Engaging with and responding to texts
The Rose Review refers to the simple view of reading.
Phonic teaching and learning will be central to learning.
Rigorous phonic work begins in the reception class.

Presentation slide 1.6


Writing strands
PPT 1.6

9. Creating and shaping texts


10. Text structure and organisation
11. Sentence structure and punctuation
12. Presentation

Section 6 Foundation stage literacy

6.15

Session 2
The role of the teaching assistant in helping teachers to teach communication,
language and literacy

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 2.1
Supporting the reception teacher during whole-class teaching
PPT 2.1

Drawing in reticent children or looking out for those who demonstrate higher ability
Dropping helpful pointers, eg. I can see something that starts with that sound
Supporting children by nodding, smiling encouragement, etc.
Joining in and making contributions (when appropriate)
Demonstrating for the teacher, eg. how to find a word displayed on the wall
Raising questions or problems so the teacher or children can explain something
Echoing the teacher by quietly repeating or rewording phrases for children who
need extra help

Acting as a partner for a less-able child during talking time, using shared first languages where appropriate

Using supportive props (eg. pictures, objects, flash cards)


Observing childrens responses to the teacher and noting them down to contribute
to assessment information.

Presentation slide 2.2


Behaviour management
PPT 2.2

Sitting alongside a child with challenging behaviour

Dealing with incidents or behaviour that affects the pace of


the lesson or disrupts the learning of others

Focusing a childs attention


Making eye contact
Supporting children who need specific help to participate in
and gain from the lesson

Presentation slide 2.3


Resource management
PPT 2.3

6.16

Preparing, distributing and collecting resources


Helping children use resources
Supporting the effective use of teaching props

Teaching assistant file

Presentation slide 2.4


An extra pair of eyes
PPT 2.4

Observing individual children and noting their


response or reticence

Noting who can and who cant and checking any


assessment information about the children

Assessing progress to feed back to the teacher.


TAs should familiarise themselves with the schools
assessment procedures, especially in relation to
the Early Years Foundation Stage profile

Presentation slide 2.5


Assisting during group and independent activities
PPT 2.5

Small group phonics activity


Guided reading and guided writing
Supporting group discussion
Introducing and reinforcing specific vocabulary
Phonics games and using Letters and Sounds materials
or those resources which the school has purchased

Helping children with activities, eg. supporting role-play or


retelling a story with puppets

Assessing progress to feed back to the teacher and recording


this in a way that best fits the schools assessment systems

Presentation slide 2.6


Whats special about reception? (1)
PPT 2.6

Type of activities often with a particular focus


on speaking and listening during play activities

Use of TA time in communication, language and literacy


sessions either leading an activity with a group of children or
intervening during child-chosen activities for a particular purpose,
eg. extending vocabulary, encouraging conversation

Indoor and outdoor learning facilities to promote all areas of


learning are often provided both outside and inside

Section 6 Foundation stage literacy

6.17

Presentation slide 2.7


Whats special about reception? (2)
PPT 2.7
Some possible answers:
More learning through play, talk and role-play
Emphasis on development of speaking and listening skills
Multisensory activities to capture their interest and sustain motivation
Some group and independent activities are child-initiated, rather than adult-led
Some communication, language and literacy activities take place outside
Communication, language and literacy may be taught throughout the day
as well as in specific sessions
Many key communication, language and literacy objectives are taught
throughout the day through singing, storytelling, role-play and so on
Communication, language and literacy skills are observed and assessed
during child-initiated play, as well as during adult-led activities

Presentation slide 2.8


Developing communication, language and literacy
PPT 2.8

6.18

Sessions may include elements of:


- whole-class shared reading and writing
- whole-class discrete phonic work
- adult-led group and independent work reading and writing
- adult intervention to promote communication, language and
literacy in freely chosen activities
- review of learning with children
All work underpinned by opportunities for speaking and listening
Communication, language and literacy can be taught in all areas
of learning
All progress should be monitored and assessed

Teaching assistant file

Course documents
Course document 2.1
Book 2.1

Some ways of supporting the reception teacher with communication, language


and literacy
During whole-class teaching
G Drawing in reticent children or looking out for those who demonstrate higher ability
G Dropping helpful pointers, eg. I can see something that starts with that sound
G Supporting children by nodding, smiling encouragement, etc.
G Joining in and making contributions (when appropriate)
G Demonstrating for the teacher, eg. how to find a word on the word wall
G Raising questions or problems so the teacher or children can explain something
G Echoing the teacher by quietly repeating or rewording phrases for children who need extra help
G Acting as a partner for less-able children during talking time, using shared first
languages where appropriate
G Using supportive props (eg. pictures, objects, flash cards).
G Observing childrens responses to the teacher and noting them down to contribute
to assessment information.
Behaviour management
G Sitting alongside a child with challenging behaviour
G Focusing a childs attention
G Making eye contact
G Supporting children who need specific help to gain access to the lesson
G Sorting out minor disagreements within groups.
Resource management
Preparing, distributing and collecting resources
G Helping children use resources and showing them where they are stored
G Supporting the effective use of teaching props, eg. changing screens on interactive whiteboards.
G

An extra pair of eyes


G Observing individual children and noting their response or reticence
G Noting who can and who cant
G Comparing notes and giving feedback to the teacher, including any assessments of
individual children.
During group and independent work
G Small group phonics activity
G Guided reading and guided writing
G Supporting group discussion
G Introducing and reinforcing specific vocabulary
G Helping children with activities, eg. playing Pelmanism (matching pairs of words)
G Assessing progress of individuals, perhaps those targeted by the teacher for this
particular session, to feed back to the teacher.

Section 6 Foundation stage literacy

6.19

Course document 2.2


Book 2.2

Some ways of working with children in communication, language and literacy


Scenario A Supporting children who find it difficult to pay attention or have
emotional and social difficulties
The teacher is leading a shared reading session of The Giant Jam Sandwich. As she reads, the
TA chooses children to come forward to identify the supporting props loaf, butter, jam,
and so on. These children will later support recall of the story by making the sandwich. The
children she chooses to take part include a pupil who is growing restless, another who is not
fully engaged in the story, and another who usually lacks the confidence to join in.
Key issues
G

What other reasons might a TA have for her choice of children to take an active part?

.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................

What would your priorities be?

.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................

Do you think childrens learning is enhanced by having relevant materials to support the text?

.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................

Scenario B Role-play is an important strategy that can help young children to listen
and speak in more structured settings
In a phonics session with the whole class, the TA uses a puppet as part of an activity to help
children discriminate initial sounds. Three items are placed on the floor in the middle of the
circle (one starting with s, one starting with p and one starting with another sound).
The teacher introduces the TAs puppet and explains that the puppet is learning to hear the
initial sounds of words sometimes the puppet can do this and sometimes she cant. The
children name all the objects for the puppet, saying the first sound of each word twice to
help the puppet hear the initial phoneme, eg. sssnake.
The teacher asks the puppet, Please can you give me the s. The TA works the puppet and
passes the item starting with p. The teacher asks the children if the puppet has given her
the right item. Then she asks them to help the puppet by identifying the initial sound of
that item. The puppet places the item back in the middle and the request to the puppet is
repeated. This process continues until the puppet has chosen the correct item. The teacher
then asks for another item.

6.20

Teaching assistant file

Key issues
G

How does it help the teacher to have the TA taking that role? What extra teaching
opportunities does it open up for her?

.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................

What kind of advance planning is necessary for the scenario to succeed?

.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................

Scenario C TAs can be in role and this helps children to participate in speaking and
listening activities, including those who are reticent or unwilling to do so in large groups
During independent work a group of children has chosen to play outside in the caf role-play
area. The TA decides to support the child-initiated play by playing the part of a demanding
customer.
She asks for the menu, then realises she has forgotten her glasses and asks to have it read
to her. As the waiter/waitress reads out the menu, she asks questions about various dishes.
She gives her choices and then asks for her order to be read back to her.
As she waits for her meal, she relaxes with her magazine and chats to other customers. After
the meal, she asks for the bill and double-checks the cost of each item before paying.
Key issues
G

What opportunities for literacy teaching and learning did this scenario present?

.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................

What are the advantages of taking this practical approach to literacy skills?

.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................

Section 6 Foundation stage literacy

6.21

Scenario D Supporting children who are learning English as an additional language


It is quite early in the year and the TA is working with Farzana and Soyaib who are new to
the UK and to English. Although their parents read to them often in Urdu, they are used to a
different writing system and print which goes from right to left, rather than left to right.
The TA is using a book that the teacher has already shared with the class. It is a picture story
with no words. She reminds children of the order of the story in the book and of the order
you read a book in English left page, right page, turn over, etc.
She shows children a story-sack bag, and as they go quickly through the book she takes out a
number of objects (clock, drinking mug, apple, toothbrush) which figure in the story. As she
produces each object she encourages children to handle it and say its English name. She asks
questions about the objects what are they for, where might you find them, and so on and
asks children to find them in the pictures. She talks about each items part in the story.
She then asks children to take on the roles of characters in the story, and she herself also
takes on a role. Together they act the story out, using the objects from the bag as props, and
she encourages the characters to talk about what they are doing.
She now asks children to read the book in English, and supports them individually as they
do this. At the end of the session, she reviews with them the progress they have made.
Key issues
G

What opportunities for literacy teaching and learning did this scenario present?

.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................

What are the advantages of a TA working in this way with children who are learning
English as an additional language?

.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................

6.22

Teaching assistant file

Scenario E Developing communication, language and literacy as part of the


childrens personal, social and emotional development
While the children are working in groups during the day, the TA teaches one group to play Picture
bingo using baseboards and cards. She discusses the way these resources are kept and used.
G

Who needs a board? Who has the cards?

What do we cover the squares with?

Is everything kept in the same box?

Where do we get the counters from?

As she explains the rules and plays alongside the children herself, she also talks about taking
turns and the need to listen to each other attentively. At the end of the session she helps
children to pack the resources away carefully.
Key issues
G

This Picture bingo game matched simple pictures on the baseboard to the same
pictures on cards. What aspects of the curriculum could children learn through this
ype of game?

.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................

What are some of the basic skills children need to learn, in order to be able to play and
work independently?

.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................

Course document 2.3


Book 2.3

Jigsaw group report procedure


Make sure there is at least one person in your group who has studied each of the scenarios AE.
Quickly read through scenario A. The member(s) of the group who studied this scenario
should then quickly report to the others on their notes, answering any questions about it.
Take no more than a couple of minutes. Repeat for scenario B, and so on.
You have 15 minutes for this activity.

Section 6 Foundation stage literacy

6.23

Course document 2.4


Book 2.4

Possible TA involvement in supporting communication, language and


literacy development
Literacy activities
and focused lessons
Whole-class shared
reading/writing

Whole-class discrete
phonic work

Adult-led group/
independent work

Adult intervention in
child-chosen activities

Review of learning
with children

6.24

Teaching assistant file

Possible TA involvement

Inter-session activity

Activity 3 The role of the TA in supporting communication, language and literacy


Consider your work and observations in school so far. Use the notes and reflections you
have made in your diary.
Relate this experience to:
G your list of the ways the TA can support the teacher
(a sheet that you can copy is given below)
G

the activities you have undertaken on the first part of the literacy module.

Describe the role you might play in the teaching of literacy in your class.
Strategies
Literacy activities
and focused lessons I have used

Benefits and
Disadvantages
positive outcomes and problems

Points to act
on in future

Whole-class shared
reading/writing

Whole-class discrete
phonic work

Adult-led group/
independent work

Adult intervention in
child-chosen activities

Review of learning
with children

Section 6 Foundation stage literacy

6.25

Supporting the reception teacher during whole-class teaching (shared work)


Even when the teacher is leading the discussion from the front, there are many possible
roles for the additional adult, such as:

6.26

drawing in reticent children


These are the children who are too timid to put up their hand and answer a question.
Examples of how you can do this: I think Jamie has an idea, Kelly has a good
example, Go on, Lisa.

dropping helpful pointers


Starting the ball rolling, such as: I can see something that starts with that sound,
I think we were talking about one of these the other day but avoid leading discussions
too much so children have time to think for themselves.

supporting children
Drawing children in to the lesson, encouraging the less-able and less-confident, such as
by nodding, smiling encouragement, saying Hmmm, making eye contact.

joining in and making contributions


Examples are: joining in songs or choral reading, to encourage the children; making
contributions to keep discussion going when it flags (but being careful not to pre-empt
the children). This can be useful as long as TAs are careful not to interrupt unnecessarily
when the teacher is hoping for responses from children. But sensitively staged
contributions can provide a useful model for the children of how to join in the sort of
content, tone, length and manner of contribution required.

demonstrating for the teacher


Under the guidance of the teacher, demonstrating activities such as how to find a word
on the word wall, or getting a puppet to segment the phonemes in a word

acting as devils advocate in raising questions or problems


This includes raising questions or problems which a child or the teacher can answer,
pretending not to understand so the teacher can go through a step-by-step tuition, or
acting as a character in a book.

echoing the teacher


Repeating or rewording phrases for children who need extra help; for example saying:
Thats right, segment the phonemes on your fingers, See where Mrs Goodwin is
pointing, Remember what youve been told about blending phonemes to read words!.

acting as a partner for a less-able child during talking time


In talking time, children are given a minute or two to generate ideas or discuss or
develop a point to feed back immediately to the class. TAs can help slower or less-able
children to formulate a response, and alert the teacher that theyre able to make a
contribution. Thus the less-able children can be guaranteed a secure and risk-free
opening through which they can contribute to the class.

using supportive props


Supporting the use of teaching props, such as changing screens on interactive
whiteboards, holding up pictures, showing objects.

Teaching assistant file

Behaviour management (shared and group work)


Although the teacher has responsibility for behaviour management, additional adults can
help to prevent and manage possible problems by:
G

sitting alongside a child with challenging behaviour


Perhaps sitting beside restless children to help settle and involve them during shared
time, and to keep attention directed on their task during group/independent time.

focusing a childs attention


Focusing attention on the teacher during shared work by directing inattentive children
to look, answer or apply themselves to questions, saying things such as: Have you seen
the book, Simon? Do you know the answer? Go on, put your hand up!.
During group/independent time, it means focusing childrens attention on the task by
breaking it into small steps, such as by saying: Right, whats the very first thing well
have to do?, Thats good now you can go on to sorting the cards.

making eye contact


In shared work this could be catching a childs eye, smiling and pulling them back into
the lesson, or perhaps holding up a cue card to illustrate the behaviour you want
(eg. a picture of a face in profile with an arrow coming out of the eye, which means
Look at the teacher). It can be helpful to sit at the front rather than the back so your
facial gestures can be seen. Good eye contact with individuals is important in
group/independent time.

supporting children who need specific help to access the lesson


For example, children with visual impairment may need enlarged text on their knee, or
those with hearing impairment may need to be seated in the right place to be able to
hear and participate.

troubleshooting
This could mean sorting out minor disagreements within groups, responding to queries
about tasks, or getting latecomers up to speed.

Resource management (shared and group work)


Interactive teaching often requires a range of resources, so help will be required in the
shared session in:
G

preparing, distributing and collecting resources


Handing out whiteboards, pens and cloths during shared time, so that the lesson moves
briskly and the teacher has more time for teaching.

helping children to use resources


For example, showing them the right grip to use with marker pens, prompting them to
hold up cards so the teacher (or other children) can see them.

supporting the effective use of teaching props


For example, by changing interactive whiteboard screens, reading a part in a play,
working a puppet in a phonic game, operating equipment.

Section 6 Foundation stage literacy

6.27

In group work TAs can help by:


G

ensuring groups have access to the resources required for activities, eg. pencils,
highlighters, paper, appropriate texts

supervising use of equipment, eg. tape recorders (listening centres), the watching of a
schools TV broadcast.

During independent time, children should be encouraged and expected to organise the
resources they need, although they may need help with this in the initial stages.
There are, of course, many other aspects of resource management including tidying up
at the end of the session and so on but these should not be part of your work during
literacy sessions.

An extra pair of eyes (shared and group work)


The TA can be a valuable extra pair of eyes (and ears) for the teacher by:
G

Observing individual children


For this you have to know what to look for and how to record it. Conduct, level of
participation and recording specific responses are the easiest behaviours to observe.
These might be recorded in writing, or using a camera or video camera. It helps to have
an agreed and simple format for written notes, especially if theres little time for postlesson discussion. TAs need to find out what works best in the class(es) they are working
in. It may also be useful for TAs to be familiar with the schools assessment procedures.

Noting who can and who cant


Talking to children, observing them individually and in groups in different activities and
assessing outcomes such as models, paintings, drawings or writing, gives an insight into
what they know, understand and can do, and where they need support. TAs may also
spot potential problems, which the teacher is too busy to notice, such as a child who is
struggling with a topic or behaving in unexpected ways.

Assessing progress to feed back to the teacher


Assessment gives an insight into childrens interests, achievements and possible
difficulties in their learning from which the next steps can be planned. For example, TAs
might give their own perspective on why they think a pupil has failed to achieve an
objective. All this information helps the teacher to plan a balanced curriculum that takes
note of childrens strengths, interests and needs.

Assisting during group and independent work

6.28

Guided reading and guided writing


More information on these will be provided later in the module.

Supporting group discussion


This includes reinforcing speaking and listening skills, for example taking it in turns to
speak, looking at the person who is speaking, keeping hands away from the mouth when
talking. It is sometimes beneficial for TAs to get involved in the discussion themselves,
for example by taking a part in a role-play scenario. Asking children questions can
support their thinking, for example: What do you think will happen next?

Teaching assistant file

Introducing and reinforcing specific vocabulary


This can be done during adult-led or child-initiated activities and is particularly useful for
bilingual learners. For example, use of the term phoneme while helping a child to write a
word; using the terms title, author and blurb when reading with a child in the book corner;
naming plants in the garden; discussing what they saw on their visit to the shop.

Phonics games
It is very important for children to reinforce the phonics knowledge and skills taught in
whole-class sessions during group and individual work, during child-initiated and adult-led
activities, indoors and outside. Some children may need reinforcement of phonic
knowledge/skills at an earlier level. TAs can lead small-group sessions using games from, for
example, Letters and Sounds (practical activities are much more beneficial than worksheets).

Helping children with activities


When a new activity is introduced to a group, children often need a lot of support
(taking it step by step) to manage and understand it. Once they know a basic activity, such
as Pelmanism or a specific phonics game, they will have learnt some principles that they can
be gently reminded of when the same activity is used in a different context.
Children need to be taught how to work together collaboratively and this can be done by
demonstrating how to play a game, how to take turns and how to cooperate during role-play.

Assessing progress to feed back to the teacher


The teacher will pass on their own assessment of childrens progress, so that the TA can find
ways to move them forward, along the lines suggested. TAs, in turn, need to make their own
assessment of progress and feed this back to the teacher. In this way the cycle of assessment,
planning, teaching and learning works effectively.

Of course, these are only some of the ways TAs can help. When working with children, the
potential scenarios are endless and TAs, like teachers, have to become experts at thinking quickly.
But the more aware you are of the general principles underlying your role in the classroom, the
easier it is to think on your feet.

Session 3
The Early Years Foundation Stage

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 3.1
Contents of Curriculum Guidance for the Foundation Stage
PPT 3.1
The foundation stage

Common features
of good practice

Areas of learning

Aims for the


foundation stage

Putting the principles


into practice

Personal, social and


emotional development

Parents as partners

The diverse needs


of children

Communication,
language and literacy

Special educational
needs and disabilities

Mathematical
development

English as an
additional language
Learning and teaching

Knowledge and
understanding of
the world

Play

Physical development
Creative development

Section 6 Foundation stage literacy

6.29

Presentation slide 3.2

PPT 3.2

Elements of the communication, language and literacy


area of learning and early learning goals

Language for communication


Language for thinking
Linking sounds and letters
Reading
Writing
Handwriting

Presentation slide 3.3


Foundation Stage Profile booklet
PPT 3.3

Presentation slide 3.4


Foundation Stage Profile Handbook
PPT 3.4

6.30

Teaching assistant file

Course documents
Book 3.1

Course document 3.1

Early learning goals for communication, language and literacy


The National Curriculum for English (key stages 14) defines four major areas of learning:
speaking, listening, reading and writing. Using the initials S, L, R, W, note on the chart below
which aspect(s) of English are involved in attaining each of the early learning goals.

By the end of the foundation stage most children will be able to


enjoy listening to and using spoken and written language,
and readily turn to it in their play and learning
explore and experiment with sounds, words and texts
listen with enjoyment and respond to stories, songs and other music, rhymes and
poems, and make up their own stories, songs, rhymes and poems
use language to imagine and recreate roles and experiences
use talk to organise, sequence and clarify thinking, ideas, feelings and events
sustain attentive listening, responding to what they have heard by relevant
comments, questions or actions
interact with others, negotiating plans and activities and taking turns in conversation
extend their vocabulary, exploring the meanings and sounds of new words
retell narratives in the correct sequence, drawing on the language patterns of stories
speak clearly and audibly with confidence and control and show awareness of the listener,
for example by their use of conventions such as greetings, please and thank you
hear and say the sounds in words in the order which they occur
link sounds to letters, naming and sounding the letters of the alphabet
read a range of familiar and common words and simple sentences independently
know that print carries meaning and, in English, is read from left to right and top to bottom
show an understanding of the elements of stories, such as main character, sequence of
events and openings, and of how information can be found in non-fiction texts, to be
able to answer questions about where, who, why and how
attempt writing for various purposes using features of different forms such as lists,
stories and instructions
write their own names and other things such as labels and captions and begin to form
simple sentences, sometimes using punctuation
use their phonic knowledge to write simple regular words and make phonetically
plausible attempts at more complex words
use a pencil and hold it effectively to form recognisable letters, most of which are
correctly formed

Section 6 Foundation stage literacy

6.31

Session 4
Early phonics

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 4.1

PPT 4.1

John H Farniscan

Presentation slide 4.2


Phonics is...
PPT 4.2

Phonics =

skills of segmentation
and blending

knowledge of the
alphabetic code

Presentation slide 4.3


The alphabetic code
PPT 4.3

6.32

Consonant Representative words

Consonant Representative words

phoneme

(corresponding letters in bold) phoneme

(corresponding letters in bold)

/b/

baby

/s/

sun, mouse, city, science

/d/

dog

/t/

tap

/f/

field, photo

/v/

van

/g/

game

/w/

was

/h/

hat

/wh/

where (regional)

/j/

judge, giant, barge

/y/

yes

/k/

cook, duck, Chris

/z/

zebra, please, is

/l/

lamb

/th/

thin

/m/

monkey, comb

/ch/

chip, watch

/n/

nut, knife, gnat

/sh/

ship, mission, chef

/p/

paper

/zh/

treasure

/r/

rabbit, wrong

/ng/

ring, sink

Teaching assistant file

Presentation slide 4.4


Pronouncing phonemes
PPT 4.4
1.

2.

ch

3.

qu

sh

th

Presentation slide 4.5


Phonics is...
PPT 4.5

Phonics =

skills of segmentation
and blending

knowledge of the
alphabetic code

Presentation slide 4.6a


Letters and Sounds phase descriptors (1)
PPT 4.6a
Phase
1

Descriptors
Developing, among other skills,
phonological awareness without any
teaching of graphic representations
(though children may of course know
some letters)

Knowledge
Explore and experiment with sounds
and spoken words
Distinguish between different sounds
in the environment and phonemes
Show awareness of rhyme
and alliteration
Begin to orally segment and blend words

Teaching children three related concepts:


- Graphemephoneme correspondences
- Blending
- Segmenting

Section 6 Foundation stage literacy

Know that words are constructed from


phonemes and that phonemes are
represented by graphemes
Know a small selection of common
consonants and vowels which they
can blend for reading and segment
for spelling simple CVC words,
eg. sit and tap

6.33

Presentation slide 4.6b


Letters and Sounds phase descriptors (2)
PPT 4.6b
Phase

Descriptors)

Knowledge

Teaching the full range of 43 phonemes in


the English language and their most common representations. This includes the
most common representations of each of
the long vowel phonemes: ee, ai, oa, ie,
and both sounds for oo (as in moon and
book), as well as or, mar, er, ow, oy, air, ear
Consolidating the skills of blending and
segmenting
Starting to build a stock of high
frequency words

Blend and read single-syllable CVC words


Segment and make a phonically plausible
attempt at spelling CVC words
Give the sound when shown the
graphemes learnt in phases 1 and 2
Match the phase 1 and 2 phonemes to
their grapheme

Teaching words containing adjacent consonants (CVCCs, CCVCs, etc.)


Continuing to focus on blending and segmenting skills
Increasing the stock of high
frequency words

Blend adjacent consonants in words and


apply this skill when reading unfamiliar
texts, eg. spoon, cried, nest
Segment adjacent consonants in words
and apply this in spelling

Presentation slide 4.6c


Letters and Sounds phase descriptors (3)
PPT 4.6c
Descriptors

Knowledge

Teaching children the concept of alternative


representations of long vowel phonemes
already taught and that some graphemes
can be pronounced in more than one way,
eg. the letter g can be both hard as in gate,
and soft as in giant
Teaching children to read phonically
decodable two- and three-syllable words
Increasing the stock of high
frequency words

Use alternative ways of pronouncing and


spelling the graphemes corresponding to
long vowel phonemes, eg. /oe/ o-e, o, oa,
ow, eg. snake
Read phonically decodable two- and
three-syllable words, eg. bleating,
frogspawn, shopkeeper
Spell complex words using phonically
plausible attempts

Teaching children less common


graphemephoneme correspondences
Embedding and consolidating the
learning from previous phases to become
fluent readers and increasingly accurate
spellers

Apply their phonic skills and knowledge to


recognise and spell an increasing number
of complex words
Are secure with less common
graphemephoneme correspondences,
eg. s/zh/
Can recognise phonic irregularities

Presentation slide 4.7


Phoneme count
PPT 4.7

6.34

Phases 1 and 2

Phases 3 and 4

hat

blank

doll

chip

cuff

rush

lick

spoon

Teaching assistant file

Inter-session activity

Activity 4 Phonics (1)


In liaison with the reception teacher, work with a group of children on Letters and Sounds
phases 1 to 3, or the equivalent phonics programme used in the school/setting.
Note to the classroom teacher
Please ensure that the group chosen for this task is going to benefit from the work. If the
children can already segment words into phonemes with ease, they will be bored and make
the TAs job unnecessarily difficult.
Note to the TA
When you have chosen your activities, make sure you are very familiar with the procedure
and have all the equipment to hand before you start the lesson. Keep a notepad to record
any necessary observations about the children.
After each lesson make notes on the following aspects of the work with the children.
G

What was the objective of the lesson, eg. hearing phonemes in initial position?
Learning graphemephoneme correspondences? Oral blending?

Which activities did the children appear to enjoy most?


Which activities did they show less enthusiasm for?

Can you explain why one activity was better received than another?
To what extent was it due to:
a) the nature of the activity
b) your approach
c) the point in the lesson at which it happened
d) something else?

When children experienced difficulty, which of your explanations or actions did you
think were particularly effective?

When you finished each lesson, did you have the knowledge to advise the class teacher
on whether the group should work on that step further or progress to the next step?

Discuss your notes with your class teacher and record any conclusions you arrive at jointly,
which will be helpful to you in the future.

Section 6 Foundation stage literacy

6.35

Session 5
Review of activities

Course documents
Book 5.1

Course document 5.1


Support from the teaching assistant in supporting communication, language and literacy
For each session, note down one way in which you have supported the teacher successfully
over the last two weeks.
Use your completed sheet from activity 3 to remind you of new roles/activities you have
undertaken, or ways in which you have improved on previous practice.
Leading activities to promote reading
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Leading activities to promote writing


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Leading activities to promote speaking and listening


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Involvement in role-play activities


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Intervention in childrens play


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Review of learning with children


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.36

Teaching assistant file

Session 6
Later phonics

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 6.1
Phonics is...
PPT 6.1

Phonics =

skills of segmentation
and blending

knowledge of the
alphabetic code

Presentation slide 6.2a


Letters and Sounds phase descriptors (1)
PPT 6.2a
Phase
1

Descriptors
Developing, among other skills,
phonological awareness without any
teaching of graphic representations
(though children may of course know
some letters)

Knowledge
Explore and experiment with sounds
and spoken words
Distinguish between different sounds
in the environment and phonemes
Show awareness of rhyme
and alliteration
Begin to orally segment and blend words

Teaching children three related concepts:


- Graphemephoneme correspondences
- Blending

Know that words are constructed from


phonemes and that phonemes are
represented by graphemes
Know a small selection of common
consonants and vowels which they
can blend for reading and segment
for spelling simple CVC words,
eg. sit and tap

- Segmenting

Presentation slide 6.2b


Letters and Sounds phase descriptors (2)
PPT 6.2b
Phase

Descriptors

Knowledge

Teaching the full range of 43 phonemes in


the English language and their most
common representations. This includes the
most common representations of each of
the long vowel phonemes: ee, ai, oa, ie,
and both sounds for oo (as in moon and
book), as well as or, mar, er, ow, oy, air, ear
Consolidating the skills of blending and
segmenting
Starting to build a stock of high
frequency words

Blend and read single-syllable CVC words


Segment and make a phonically plausible
attempt at spelling CVC words
Give the sound when shown the
graphemes learnt in phases 1 and 2
Match the phase 1 and 2 phonemes to
their grapheme

Teaching words containing adjacent


consonants (CVCCs, CCVCs, etc.)
Continuing to focus on blending and
segmenting skills
Increasing the stock of high
frequency words

Blend adjacent consonants in words and


apply this skill when reading unfamiliar
texts, eg. spoon, cried, nest
Segment adjacent consonants in words
and apply this in spelling

Section 6 Foundation stage literacy

6.37

Presentation slide 6.2c


Letters and Sounds phase descriptors (3)
PPT 6.2c
Descriptors

Knowledge

Teaching children the concept of alternative


representations of long vowel phonemes
already taught and that some graphemes
can be pronounced in more than one way,
eg. the letter g can be both hard as in gate,
and soft as in giant
Teaching children to read phonically
decodable two- and three-syllable words
Increasing the stock of high
frequency words

Use alternative ways of pronouncing and


spelling the graphemes corresponding to
long vowel phonemes, eg. /oe/ o-e, o, oa,
ow, eg. snake
Read phonically decodable two- and
three-syllable words, eg. bleating,
frogspawn, shopkeeper
Spell complex words using phonically
plausible attempts

Teaching children less common


graphemephoneme correspondences
Embedding and consolidating the
learning from previous phases to
become fluent readers and
increasingly accurate spellers

Apply their phonic skills and knowledge


to recognise and spell an increasing
number of complex words
Are secure with less common
graphemephoneme correspondences,
eg. s/zh/
Can recognise phonic irregularities

Presentation slide 6.3


Vowel digraphs
PPT 6.3

6.38

train

shout

meat

first

light

dew

late

burn

door

try

boy

road

moon

lay

term

bear

down

field

stole

stairs

sweet

coin

hare

toe

cute

mine

round

Teaching assistant file

spoil
tore

born

Course documents
Book 6.1

Course document 6.1

Recognising vowel sounds


angel

even

find

post

union/blue

work

clown

fair

warn

train
lay
late
toy

Course document 6.2


Book 6.2

The different spellings of phonemes


vowels

representative words

vowels

representative words

/a/

cat

/oo/

look, would, put

/e/

peg, bread

/ar/

cart, fast (regional)

/i/

pig, wanted

/ur/

burn, first, term, heard, work

/o/

log, want

/au/

torn, door, haul, law, call

/u/

plug, love

/ow/

down, shout

/ae/

pain, late, lay

/oi/

coin, boy

/ee/

sweet, meat, field, key

/air/

stair, bear, hare

/ie/

tie, light, mine, try, mind

/ear/

fear, beer, here

/oe/

road, post, stole, toe

/ure/

pure

/ue/

moon, blue, cute, dew, fruit

Section 6 Foundation stage literacy

6.39

Inter-session activity

Activity 5 Phonics (2)


This activity is to work in liaison with the reception teacher with a group of children on two
of the activities in Letters and Sounds phases 3 and 4 (or the equivalent phonics programme
used in your school/setting). If there is no group at this stage in reception, the activity
should be performed with year 1.
When you have chosen your activities, you should make sure you are very familiar with the
procedures and have all the equipment to hand before you start the lesson. You should keep
a notepad to record any appropriate observations about the children.
After each lesson you should make notes on the following aspects of the work with the children.
G

What was the objective of the lesson, eg. blending or segmenting CVC or CCVC or CVCC
words? Learning phonemegrapheme correspondences?

Which activities did the children appear to enjoy most? Which activity did they show
less enthusiasm for?

Can you explain why one activity was better received than another? To what extent was
it because of:
a) the nature of the activity
b) your approach
c) the point of the lesson in which it happened
d) something else?

6.40

When children experienced difficulty, which of your explanations or actions did you
think particularly effective?

How are you helping children to use the knowledge they acquire in discrete phonics
sessions for reading and spelling?

Why are games the best way to practise and apply these phonic skills?

Teaching assistant file

Session 7
Reading The simple view of reading

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 7.1a
The simple view of reading (1)
PPT 7.1a

Key priorities for beginner readers:

Language comprehension skills understanding,


interpreting, engaging with and responding to texts
through talking about and engaging with different texts

Word recognition knowledge and skills through


high-quality phonic work, as defined in the Rose Review
and which is not a strategy so much as a body of
knowledge, skills and understanding that has to be learnt

Presentation slide 7.1b


The simple view of reading (2)

Word recognition

PPT 7.1b

Good language
comprehension, poor
word recognition

Good word recognition,


good language
comprehension

Poor word recognition,


poor language
comprehension

Good word recognition,


poor language
comprehension

Language comprehension

Presentation slide 7.2a


The beginner reader (1)
PPT 7.2a
Promoting enjoyment and language comprehension
For beginner readers, it is important to:
handle books
enjoy stories and rhymes
be able to retell stories and ask questions
be encouraged to talk about books
Use shared, guided and individual reading sessions to enhance
learning by:
helping children to develop their abilities to talk about the story/text
explaining why things happen
asking questions and so helping them gain language and reading
comprehension

Section 6 Foundation stage literacy

6.41

Presentation slide 7.2b


The beginner reader (2)
PPT 7.2b
Daily discrete phonic teaching sessions will be central to word
recognition teaching from reception
It is time-limited most children should be reading accurately and with
confidence by the end of year 2
TAs will work with teachers to aid childrens successful learning by
helping children to:

know one grapheme for each of the 43 phonemes


learn how to write each letter, forming it correctly
produce the sounds as purely as possible
frequently revise and practise so that responses are automatic
link graphemes to phonemes

Presentation slide 7.2c


The beginner reader (3)
PPT 7.2c
TAs will work with teachers to aid childrens successful learning by
helping children to:

know vowels and consonants these should be taught from the start
blend phonemes into words blending and segmenting need to be
taught explicitly so that pupils can decode and encode words.
Segmenting words into phonemes aids understanding of spelling.
understand that segmenting for spelling is the reverse of blending
learn one grapheme for each of the 43 spoken sounds in English
(see the phonics training part of this training)
establish a store of familiar words

Presentation slide 7.3


Making learning to read successful and fun
PPT 7.3

Ensure that reading is well planned so language comprehension and word


skills build up systematically and in a meaningful way
Reinforce and build on previous learning to secure childrens progress, making
good use of regular assessments
Link this work to the development of speaking and listening skills
Make sure it is multisensory use visual, auditory and kinaesthetic activities
to enliven learning
Provide an exciting and rich curriculum that engages children and makes
learning really meaningful to them
Reinforce and apply phonic/reading and spelling knowledge and skills across
the curriculum and in activities such as shared and guided reading
Assess, monitor and modify teaching so children understand new knowledge
and skills
Follow the guidance in the Early Years Foundation Stage and Primary
Framework (literacy)

Presentation slide 7.4

PPT 7.4

Understanding, interpreting, engaging and


responding to texts
The ability to understand and appreciate written texts continues to
develop throughout life
Consider how TAs and teachers might help children to:
retrieve and describe events and ideas from text
deduce, infer and interpret information
use their understanding of words to develop an understanding of word meanings
explain how writers use language to extend their knowledge and ideas
read independently for purpose, pleasure and meaning
respond imaginatively to texts using different ways to engage with it
evaluate writers purposes and viewpoints to appreciate the effect
TAs and teachers will encourage many reading activities, including shared,
guided and independent reading, sometimes using ICT.

6.42

Teaching assistant file

Inter-session activity

Activity 6 Strategies to promote reading


This activity is to observe different strategies being used to teach reading.
You should make notes of the strategies you observe or use yourself in school to:
G

stimulate childrens interest in and enjoyment of reading

promote speaking skills and discussions about books

develop new reading skills, particularly phonic knowledge

practice existing reading skills.

Notes should relate to all areas of learning and should include teacher-led activities and
intervention in child-chosen activities.

Session 8
Writing development

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 8.1
Teaching writing
PPT 8.1
Writing strands in the Primary Framework:

Creating and shaping texts


Text structure and organisation
Sentence structure and punctuation
Presentation

Writing should be taught through all areas of learning and underpinned


by opportunities for speaking and listening.
Writing is taught through a mixture of whole-class shared work,
adult-led group and independent work and freely chosen activities.

Presentation slide 8.2


Developing handwriting skills
PPT 8.2
1. Activities to develop hand control:
jigsaws, glueing, threading, painting
using pens or pencils for drawing, tracing, colouring

2. Learning to form letter-shapes (large-scale):


skywriting the letters in the air
using a large brush and bucket of water to paint a wall
writing with a stick or finger in a sand tray
writing big letters with chalk on the playground
writing with big pens at an easel

3. Learning to write letter-shapes on paper:


holding the pencil correctly
spacing letters and words
getting correct sizes: tall letters, short letters, etc.

Section 6 Foundation stage literacy

6.43

Course documents
Course document 8.1
Letter formation

Book 8.1

Letters and Sounds: Principles and Practice of high Quality Phonics, Primary National Strategy

6.44

Teaching assistant file

Course document 8.2


Book 8.2

Writing development checklist


Child 1

Child 2

Child 3

Random scribble

Scribble that
looks like writing

Individual shapes that


look like letters

Some real letters used randomly


(especially letters from own name)

Letters and shapes written from


left to right across page

Individual letters used to represent


words (usually initial sounds)

More than one letter used to


represent a word (usually
significant consonant sounds)
Some CVC words and tricky
words spelt correctly

Simple regular words and some


tricky words usually spelt correctly

Select children to focus on. By looking at their unaided writing, work out roughly where you
think each fits and write the date in the box. When you see the children move into another
stage, write the date on the checklist. You can help them to move on by the sorts of prompts
you give, but dont push them too quickly. Course document 8.3 provides some possible
prompts. Different prompts will apply in different situations and stage.

Section 6 Foundation stage literacy

6.45

Course document 8.3


Book 8.3

Prompts for use with children who are writing


Purpose

Teaching prompts

Pointing out whats important

Do you remember what the teacher asked you to remember today?


Remember to say your sentence out loud before you try and write
it down
Let me show you how to hold the pencil

Improving childrens writing

What do we have to remember to put at the end of a sentence?


Read that sentence out loud and check that it makes sense
Lets have a look at this word. Blend and read the phonemes. Is that the
word you meant to write? What do you need to do to make it correct?
What sound can you hear at the beginning of that word?
Use the alphabet frieze to help you write that letter
Shall we add a label/caption to your picture?

Helping children see spelling


patterns and rules

Look at the words in that list they are all underneath each other,
going down the page

Praising and building


confidence

I really like the way you... because...


I really like... because...
Well done for using the wall display to remind you of

Talking about writing, using


technical terms

Well done for putting a full stop at the end of your sentence

Helping children develop


their work

Could we use, say...?

Try and segment that word into phonemes using your fingers

Could you try...?


How about...?
What happened next?

6.46

Teaching assistant file

Post-module activity

Activity 7 Writing development


You will need course documents 8.2 and 8.3 for this activity.
Select three children to focus on.
Write their names in the boxes over the three columns at the top of the checklist in course
document 8.2. By looking carefully at their unaided writing, work out roughly where you
think each fits and write the date in the appropriate box.
The chart is not definitive, but will act as a useful rough guide. You may want to make extra
notes about childrens writing.
Keep an eye on your three children and when you see them move into another stage, write
the date on the checklist. You can help them to move on by the sort of prompts you give
when you are working with them, but dont push them to move on too quickly.
Course document 8.3 provides some possible prompts to use with children who are writing.
Different prompts will be appropriate in different situations, with different children and at
different stages in the year.

Further reading
Get hold of a copy of Developing Early Writing (DfES 0055/2001; you can get one for
yourself if you ring 0845 60 222 60), read it and use it for reference when working in the
reception class.
Also recommended are the Primary Framework (literacy) end-of-year objectives for children
in the reception year (writing, strands 912), and at the back of the framework are
overviews of learning which give useful descriptions of learners in each year group.

Section 6 Foundation stage literacy

6.47

6.48

Teaching assistant file

Section 7

Foundation stage
mathematics

Explaining the Early Years Foundation Stage


The term foundation stage covers reception, foundation stage and early years foundation
stage until September 2008 when Early Years Foundation Stage becomes statutory.
The National Strategies and the Sure Start Unit are promoting the use of the Early Years
Foundation Stage from September 2007 and are expecting local authorities, schools and settings
to begin training and planning in 2007 in readiness for its statutory implementation in 2008.
The Early Years Foundation Stage brings together principles and effective practice from
Birth to Three Matters and the Curriculum Guidance for the Foundation Stage together with
elements of the National Standards for Under 8s Day Care and Childminding. From September
2008 all registered settings, including childminders, must comply with the learning and
development and welfare requirements and have regard to the rest of the Early Years
Foundation Stage guidance.
National Strategies briefings to local authorities suggest that they play a key role in ensuring
that, before and after September 2008, all providers and practitioners access appropriate
training and professional development opportunities to enable them to understand the
principles and requirements of the Early Years Foundation Stage and to provide good quality
care and education for children from birth to five.
These changes are reflected in the TDAs foundation stage training materials.

Section 7
Foundation stage mathematics

Contents
Pre-module activity

page 7.2

Inter-session activities

page 7.4

Session 1

page 7.5

Key features of mathematics within the Primary National Strategy

Session 2

page 7.8

Working with an Early Years Foundation Stage class

Session 3

page 7.11

Language and mathematics

Session 4

page 7.14

Approaches to counting and calculation

Session 5

page 7.16

The role of the TA in the daily mathematics experience part 1

Session 6

page 7.18

The role of the TA in the daily mathematics experience part 2

Section 7 Foundation stage mathematics

7.1

Pre-module activity

You should prepare for the module by completing the pre-module activity below. Bring any notes
or reflections with you. No-one will ask to see these but the activity will be followed up during
the module. It is recommended that you discuss any issues and ideas raised with your mentor, so
that you can gain a wider understanding of your role in primary mathematics lessons.
Course document PM1
Book PM1

Observing a daily mathematics lesson


Make arrangements to observe at least one complete daily mathematics lesson. This could be
with a year group or class in which you are currently working. However, if you are working in
a nursery or reception class in the Early Years Foundation Stage you should choose another
year group as there will be a foundation stage observation later in the module.
The training materials have been written on the assumption that you have seen a complete
lesson. Lesson observations are an integral part of the module, which aims to prepare TAs to
work across the whole primary age-range, from foundation stage to year 6.
A form is provided for you to complete during your observations. The questions will help to
focus your attention on aspects of the lesson that will be useful in training sessions. Study
the form before you begin the observation and make notes on it while you are in the
classroom. Read your notes through immediately after the observation and add any other
thoughts that occur to you. This should take you no longer than 10 minutes.
As soon as possible after each observation, spend about 15 to 20 minutes with your mentor
talking through what you have seen, using your notes on the activity sheet as a guide.
The discussion is essential and much more important than the filling-in of the sheet. You
should also ask your mentor any questions that arise from what you have seen in the lesson.

Activity 1 (pre-module) Observation of a daily mathematics lesson


Name of TA:
This observation was done of a year

class

Number of children in the class:


The oral and mental activity
Rehearsing and sharpening knowledge and skills
What is this part of the lesson about?
How many children answer questions?
Do they answer quickly and confidently?
Do you think they are enjoying this part of the lesson?
Say what tells you whether they do or not.
7.2

Teaching assistant file

Is there another adult in the room?


If so, what does he/she do during this part of the lesson?
The main part of the lesson
Some teaching and practice activities on a particular mathematical topic
Does the teacher teach the whole class altogether?
If so, for how long? How does he/she involve the children?
How much work do children do as a whole class/in groups/on their own?
How does the teacher organise this?
Do you think all the children understand what they have to do?
How can you tell?
What does the teacher do while the children are carrying out their tasks?
Are children able to undertake the task; do any find the task too difficult or too easy?
If so, what do they do? How does the teacher respond?
Do any children finish early?
If so, what do they do?
Is there another adult in the room?
If so, what does he/she do during this part of the lesson?
The review of learning
Reinforcing the learning that has taken place in the lesson
What does the teacher do in this part of the lesson?
How does he/she involve the children?
Is there another adult in the room?
If so what does he/she do during this part of the lesson?
After the lesson
What have you learned from watching this lesson?
List some key points you have observed and any questions to discuss with the teacher.

Section 7 Foundation stage mathematics

7.3

Inter-session activities

Activity 2 (post-session) Planning


Ask two teachers with whom you work to show you their lesson plans for mathematics
lessons. Ask them to help you trace back the learning objective to the appropriate strand
and year group in the renewed framework for teaching mathematics.

Activity 3 (post-session) Mental and oral starter


Observe a mental and oral starter in any year group. In Early Years Foundation Stage this
may involve all the children or be a group activity; it will probably include some counting.
Make notes, in no more than half a page, so that you can describe accurately to a colleague
what went on.
Comment on:
G

what the content was

what the teacher did

how the children responded.

Whether boys responded differently from girls.

You will need this for session 5 of your training.

Activity 4 (post-session) Feedback notes


In session 3 we talked about TAs writing brief feedback notes for the teacher. Choose an
occasion when you are working with a small group of children. They may be playing a
number game, carrying out a practical task or engaged in self-directed play for example, in
water or sand where you can draw out the mathematics, such as counting and estimating.
You will need to ask the teacher for the objectives of the lesson. After your time with the
group, write a set of bullet points, no more than a few lines, to give to the teacher outlining
what children can do and what difficulties they have.
Afterwards ask the teacher or your mentor to go through your notes with you. Decide together
which points were the important ones and whether anything else would have been helpful.
Your tutor will make reference to this activity in session 6.

7.4

Teaching assistant file

Session 1
Key features of mathematics within the Primary National Strategy

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 1.1
Playing board for the game Crooked Rules
PPT 1.1
Hundreds

Tens

Ones

Player A

Player B

Player C

Player D

Presentation slide 1.2

PPT 1.2

Key features of mathematics within


the Primary National Strategy
The strategy involves:
1. A structured, daily mathematics lesson of 4560 minutes, depending
on the childrens ages. There is usually a different structure to teaching
in the Early Years Foundation Stage
2. An emphasis on mental calculation with oral and mental work in
each lesson
3. Direct interactive teaching of the whole class, with as many children as
possible taking part
4. Group work in which children in three or four groups work at different
levels on the same topic
5. Regular activities for children to do out of class and at home
6. The renewed Primary Framework offers teachers guidance on planning and
teaching to help all children to learn mathematics and make good progress

Section 7 Foundation stage mathematics

7.5

Course documents

Course document 1.1


Book 1.1

Crooked Rules
This game is designed to help pupils appreciate the value of each digit in a three-digit
number. It is often played in years 3 and 4. A very important teaching objective for year 3 is
to order whole numbers up to 1,000. To do this successfully pupils need to understand what
each digit represents. The game is suitable for up to four players. The winner is the player
who ends up with the smallest number. Players need a playing board with columns for
hundreds, tens and ones.
Hundreds

Tens

Ones

Player A
Player B
Player C
Player D

Rules
G Take turns
G Roll the dice
G Write the number in an unfilled space, in your own row or in another players row
G Carry on until all the spaces are filled
G The winner is the player with the smallest number.
Useful questions to ask players include:
G Which is the best place to put a small digit?
G Which is the best place to put a large digit?
G What did you do if you were about to make a number larger than that of one of
your opponents?
G Did you enjoy playing the game? Why?

7.6

Teaching assistant file

Course document 1.2


Book 1.2

Change Places
This is a game to help children recognise numerals and count to 10 quickly.
Arrange up to 10 children to sit in a large circle. In the centre, put a pack of well-shuffled
cards, numbered to correspond to the number of children. Invite a child to take the top card
from the pile. The child looks at the number and, starting with their neighbour, counts the
children as far as that number. They then change places with the child sitting in that
position. For example, if the card is 4, the player counts from 1 to 4 and changes places with
the fourth child along. The second player then picks a card and does the same. Whether the
children count clockwise or anticlockwise does not matter as long as they always start with
the child sitting next to them.
The game continues until all the cards have been used.

Section 7 Foundation stage mathematics

7.7

Session 2
Working with an Early Years Foundation Stage class

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 2.1
Teaching an Early Years Foundation Stage class
PPT 2.1

Emphasis on practical, active, imaginative and enjoyable activities


Children are given many opportunities to develop their speaking and
listening skills
Include problem solving in a practical context
The environment, daily routines and activities will be planned to give
children opportunities for mathematical learning

Children will be given opportunities to practise and talk about their developing
understanding in a broad range of contexts both indoors and outdoors

Teachers put greater emphasis on using stories, songs, rhymes and finger
games to help with counting

Mathematics is not taught in isolation, but as part of a broad, rich curriculum

Children in Early Years Foundation Stage classes need a balance of


adult-led and children-initiated learning, both outdoors and inside

Presentation slide 2.2

PPT 2.2

The daily mathematics activity in the Early Years


Foundation Stage

An activity with a group or the whole class, often


involving counting, songs or stories

Adult-led activities for smaller groups of children,


focusing on the main topic of the day or week

Play activities, initiated by either the teacher or the


children themselves

Review of learning with the whole class when the


activities have ended, not necessarily every day

Presentation slide 2.3

PPT 2.3

Video clip: working with children in the


Early Years Foundation Stage
1. How do the TAs involve the children?
2. What sort of questions do they ask?
3. Do they help children to work and play together in any way?
4. How do they develop mathematical vocabulary?
5. How successful are they in helping the children learn
new skills?
6. What else could they do to help the children with
their learning?

7.8

Teaching assistant file

Presentation slide 2.4


Working with individuals and small groups
PPT 2.4

Get children talking about what they are doing


Help them to understand what they are doing
Help them to work and play together
Familiarise them with the rules of mathematical games
Help them to develop, learn and use new mathematical language
Help them to use mathematical resources
Ask them open questions to get them thinking
Observe, talk and listen to them to find out what they have learned
Encourage and celebrate success

Presentation slide 2.5


Ten Nice Things
PPT 2.5
Player As objects

Section 7 Foundation stage mathematics

Player Bs objects

7.9

Course document

Course document 2.1


Book 2.1

Ten Nice Things


This game is designed to help children in the Early Years Foundation Stage to count quickly,
accurately and with confidence. It supports one of the Early Years Foundation Stage early
learning goals: count reliably up to 10 everyday objects.
Each player needs 10 small objects. It is important to ensure that these are appealing to children
so that they want to join in. The game doesnt work very well using just counters or cubes.
Ten Nice Things

Player As objects

Player Bs objects

Instructions
Give each player 10 small, appealing objects. It is helpful to include some similar objects,
counting dinosaurs or play people in each players allocation. Children often want to try to
collect a set of like objects as the game progresses. Throw a dice (with numerals or spots up
to 6). The first player is allowed to take that number of objects from the second player. The
second player then has a turn. The game can proceed for as long as you like. The aim is for a
player to end up with a set of objects that particularly appeals to them.
As a variation, player A has to give away to player B the number of items specified by the
number on the dice.

7.10

Teaching assistant file

Session 3
Language and mathematics

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 3.1
Helping children to use correct mathematical language (1)
PPT 3.1

Encourage children to talk about what they are doing or what they
have done, and to listen to each other

Use mathematical language with children and encourage them to


use it as well

Value childrens own spontaneous mathematical language, such


as if they say Mines a pointy one to describe an angle

Offer more precise ways of saying the same thing, such as


replacing Its a round with Its a circle when replying to a child

Presentation slide 3.2


Helping children to use correct mathematical language (2)
PPT 3.2

Model language by describing what children are doing as you work


alongside them

Extend what children have said in different words; for example: So


youve shared these out has everyone got the same number now?

Set up activities that encourage children to describe and explain what


they encounter; for example: Say what you can feel in the feely bag

Encourage children to compare one thing with another; for example:


How are the two shapes different?

Use stories, songs and rhymes


Use child-initiated learning as a context for developing
mathematical language

Presentation slide 3.3


Taking part in role-play (1)
PPT 3.3
To ensure that children understand that mathematics is an enjoyable
and useful tool for solving practical problems that arise during
child-initiated activities, TAs could model the following play situations:

Paying for an object in a shop using coins or notes,


or by writing a cheque

Weighing fruit and vegetables in a greengrocers shop, ringing


each price into a till and telling the customer how much the items
will cost altogether

Looking for a bus number and then buying a bus ticket


Looking up a telephone number and dialling it
Reading a clock in a home corner and saying what may happen
at the time shown

Section 7 Foundation stage mathematics

7.11

Presentation slide 3.4


Taking part in role-play (2)
PPT 3.4

Also:
Measuring for curtains, wallpaper or shelves in the
home corner
Weighing out ingredients for cooking
Weighing a baby in a clinic, reading the dial and
recording the measurement
Counting out the right number of plates, knives and
forks to lay the table in the home corner

Presentation slide 3.5


Notes for the teacher
PPT 3.5

Learning objective for the lesson:

Begin to relate addition to combining two groups of objects

Feedback notes:

Hassan can count on from the first group of cubes

Asha counts each group of cubes separately but cant get


to the total number yet

Gemma and Jack know that you should count how many
cubes there are altogether

Presentation slide 3.6


Open and closed questions
PPT 3.6
Closed questions

7.12

Open questions

What is this shape called?

What can you tell me about


this shape?

Which one has straight edges?

What can you say about the


edges of this shape?

How many corners has this one?

And the corners?

Which is round?

How are these two shapes


different?

Teaching assistant file

Presentation slide 3.7


When children have difficulties
PPT 3.7

If children are having difficulties, you could ask:

What have you done so far?


What do you think you need to do next?
Have you done anything like this before?
Is there anything you could use to help you?

Presentation slide 3.8


Challenging questions to ask
PPT 3.8

If children are having difficulties, you could ask:

How many cubes do you think are in that tub?


Are there enough biscuits for all of us?
Why do the cylinders roll better than the cubes?

Section 7 Foundation stage mathematics

7.13

Session 4
Approaches to counting and calculation

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 4.1
How would you tackle these calculations?
PPT 4.1

23 9
19p + 18p + 21p + 25p + 22p
4358 + 843 + 276

Presentation slide 4.2


Counting and recognising numbers
PPT 4.2

Say and use the number names in order in familiar contexts


such as number rhymes, songs, stories, counting games
and activities (first to 5, then 10, then 20 and beyond)

Count reliably up to 10 everyday objects (first to 5, then to


10, then beyond) giving just one number name to each
object. Recognise small numbers without counting

Recognise numerals 1 to 9, then 0 and 10, then beyond 10

Presentation slide 4.3


Counting skills (1)
PPT 4.3

7.14

Knowing the number names in order


Synchronising saying words and pointing
Keeping track of objects counted
Recognising that the number associated
with the last object touched is the total

Teaching assistant file

Presentation slide 4.4


Counting skills (2)
PPT 4.4

Recognising small numbers of objects without having


to count them

Counting things you cannot move or touch or see, or


objects that move around

Counting objects of very different sizes

Counting out a number of objects from a larger set,


knowing when to stop counting

Recognising that if a group of objects already counted


is rearranged then the number of them stays the same

Course document

Course document 4.1


Book 4.1

Alphabetland
The new number names are: A, B, C, D...
You must not translate these number names into the number names one, two, three,
four... which are banned.
Answer the following H questions:
A. How many fingers do you have on one hand (including thumbs)?
B. How many fingers do you have on both hands?
C. C + D =
D. B + E =
E. K - B =
F. E + E =
G. G - D =
H. E + F =

Section 7 Foundation stage mathematics

7.15

Session 5
The role of the TA in the daily mathematics experience part 1

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 5.1
The daily mathematics activity
PPT 5.1

Whole-class/group activity
Oral work and mental calculation for the whole class to rehearse and
sharpen skills
Main part of the lesson
Interactive teaching input and child activities including work as a whole
class, in groups, in pairs or as individuals which for Early Years
Foundation Stage may be group activities over the morning or day
Review and assessment of childrens learning
All children involved
Clearing up any misunderstandings and identifying progress
Summarising the key learning points and what children should
remember and discuss
Identifying progress
Next steps

Presentation slide 5.2


Language and mathematics
PPT 5.2

Children talking and listening to each other and adults


Adults listening to childrens responses
Different kinds of questioning

Presentation slide 5.3


The role of the TA in the whole-class/group activity (1)
PPT 5.3

Being responsible for a small group of children to ensure


they take part in the lesson by:

7.16

encouraging them to join in counting activities


encouraging them to concentrate and take part
having a smaller version of the resource used by the teacher
helping children to use resources such as fan cards

Teaching assistant file

Presentation slide 5.4


The role of the TA in the whole-class/group activity (2)
PPT 5.4

Also:

repeating discreetly questions the teacher asks


and helping children find an answer

encouraging those who lack confidence and are


reluctant to join in

alerting the teacher if a child has an answer

if asked, working with a small group of children

observing children and making notes about their


responses to questions

Course document
Course document 5.1
Book 5.1

Five Little Speckled Frogs


Five little speckled frogs
Sat on a speckled log,
Eating the most delicious grubs.
Yum! Yum!
One jumped into the pool
Where it was nice and cool,
Then there were four green speckled frogs.
Glub! Glub!
Four little speckled frogs etc

Section 7 Foundation stage mathematics

7.17

Session 6
The role of the TA in the daily mathematics experience part 2

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 6.1
The role of the TA in the video
PPT 6.1

How did Angela support the children?


What sort of questions did she use to encourage the
children to think and work things out?
What opportunities are there for the children to apply
what they are learning?
Why is it important for the TA to be involved in planning
and review with the teacher?
Why are the links between assessment, planning and
learning so important?
How did they keep the focus on learning in a
play-based environment?

Presentation slide 6.2


Working with a group
PPT 6.2

How would you support children as they learn


the key words?

How would your role be different if you were


supporting children in their self-chosen play
activities around the classroom?

Presentation slide 6.3


The TAs role
PPT 6.3
when working with a group:

Modelling how to use the key words


Encouraging children to say the key words together as a group
Encouraging children to demonstrate that they know what the words mean
Reinforcing social skills such as taking turns and listening to one another

when children are engaged in self-chosen activities:

7.18

Playing alongside them, providing a running commentary on their actions


and where possible modelling the key words

Making sure they use correct vocabulary

Teaching assistant file

Presentation slide 6.4


Giving feedback
PPT 6.4

You could:

mention any misunderstandings children had in


relation to the work

state how far the children got with the activity


list what they found easy and/or hard
mention a child who has done particularly well or
who has found the work particularly difficult

Course documents

Course document 6.1


Book 6.1

TeacherTA link sheet


Lesson in foundation stage
Learning objective(s)
G

Know the number before/after a given number

Find one more or one less than a given number less than 10 (key objective)

Begin to relate addition/subtraction to counting on/back.

Activities
With your group the activities are as follows:
1. Ask the five children to pretend to be five speckled frogs on the log
2. Ask a child to roll the dice with one more and one less on. Each time a child rolls the
dice, ask the others what they should do. So if the dice shows one more, ask what you
should do to get one more frog on the log
3. If children cope well with this, change some of the ones on the dice to twos so that
some sides read two more and two less
4. Repeat the activity.
Resources
A dice with 1 more and 1 less
Things to notice
1. Do the children understand one more and one less?
2. Do they count all the children when adding one more frog or taking one away, or do
they just say the next or previous number?
Brief feedback from the TA in note form

Section 7 Foundation stage mathematics

7.19

Further information about the lesson


Main part of the lesson
When directly teaching all the children the teacher will:
G

point to a number on the number line and ask the children to hold up the correct
number of fingers, then ask them to hold up the number of fingers for the number after

repeat, asking the children to hold up the correct number of fingers for the number before

point to a number and ask the children to hold up the right number of fingers and then
one more finger; ask a child to point to this new number on the number line; point out
that one more is the number after; repeat with one less.

Review and assessment of learning


Questioning by the teacher:
1. Roll a dice and ask children to count the spots and to say how many spots there would
be if we added one more. When we add one more spot, do we have to count all the
spots on the dice again? Reinforce that when we add one more, we get the next number
on the number line
2. Close your eyes and imagine two frogs on a log. One more comes along. Show me with
your fingers how many frogs there are now. Repeat with one more and less.

7.20

Teaching assistant file

Course document 6.2


Book 6.2

Number songs and rhymes


Sometimes a group of children will finish a task the teacher has set more quickly than
expected. Use this time to practise songs or rhymes which feature numbers, such as:
Five Currant Buns
Five currant buns in a bakers shop,
Round and fat with sugar on the top.
Along came a girl with a penny one day,
Bought a currant bun and took it right away.
Four currant buns in a bakers shop etc
You could act this out with five children pretending to be buns and another one being the
person who buys one. Encourage all the children to use their fingers to count as they sing
or chant. Alternatively, they could hold up number cards.
Six Little Snails
Six little snails
Lived in a tree.
The wind blew hard
And down came three.
How many were left?
Three little snails
Lived in a tree.
The wind blew hard
And down came three.
How many were left?
The children can indicate the numbers with their fingers, putting down three each time.
You can make up variations, for example:
Ten little snails lived in a shoe,
The wind blew hard and out came two.
Once I Caught a Fish Alive
One, two, three, four, five,
Once I caught a fish alive.
Six, seven, eight, nine, ten,
Then I let it go again.
Why did you let it go?
Because it bit my finger so.
Which finger did it bite?
This little finger on the right.
We are indebted to BEAM Education for allowing us to use and adapt material for this section
from their publication Assisting Numeracy: a handbook for classroom assistants by Ruth Aplin.

Section 7 Foundation stage mathematics

7.21

Section 8

Mathematics

Section 8
Mathematics

Contents
Pre-module activities

page 8.2

Inter-session activities

page 8.4

Session 1

page 8.5

Key features of mathematics within the Primary National Strategy

Session 2

page 8.7

Language and mathematics

Session 3

page 8.11

Approaches to calculation

Session 4

page 8.13

The role of the TA in the daily mathematics lesson part 1

Session 5

page 8.20

The role of the TA in the daily mathematics lesson part 2

Session 6

page 8.26

Working in the Early Years Foundation Stage

Section 8 Mathematics

8.1

Pre-module activities

The pre-module preparation consists of a range of activities. You should bring any notes or
reflections with you. No-one will ask to see these but activities will be followed up during the
module. It is recommended that you discuss any issues and ideas raised with your mentor, so
that you can gain a wider understanding of your role in primary mathematics lessons.
Course document PM1
Book PM1

Observing a daily mathematics lesson


Make arrangements to observe at least one complete daily mathematics lesson. This could
be with a year group or class in which you are currently working. However, if you are
working in a foundation stage class you should choose another year group as there will be a
foundation stage observation later in the module.
The training materials have been written on the assumption that you have seen a complete
lesson. Lesson observations are an integral part of the module, which aims to prepare TAs to
work across the whole primary age-range, from foundation stage to year 6.
A form is provided for you to complete during your observations. The questions will help to
focus your attention on aspects of the lesson that will be useful in training sessions. Study
the form before you begin the observation and make notes on it while you are in the
classroom. Read your notes through immediately after the observation and add any other
thoughts that occur to you. This should take you no longer than 10 minutes.
As soon as possible after each observation, spend about 15 to 20 minutes with your mentor
talking through what you have seen, using your notes on the activity sheet as a guide.
The discussion is essential and much more important than the filling-in of the sheet. You
should also ask your mentor any questions that arise from what you have seen in the lesson.
Activity 1 (pre-session) Observation of a daily mathematics lesson
Name of TA:
This observation was done of a year

class

Number of pupils in the class:


The oral and mental activity
Rehearsing and sharpening knowledge and skills
What is this part of the lesson about?
How many pupils answer questions?
Do they answer quickly and confidently?
Do you think they are enjoying this part of the lesson?

8.2

Teaching assistant file

Say what tells you whether they do or not.


Is there another adult in the room?
If so, what does he/she do during this part of the lesson?
The main part of the lesson
Some teaching and practice activities on a particular mathematical topic
Does the teacher teach the whole class altogether?
If so, for how long? How does he/she involve the pupils?
How much work do pupils do as a whole class/in groups/on their own?
How does the teacher organise this?
Do you think all the pupils understand what they have to do?
How can you tell?
What does the teacher do while the pupils are carrying out their tasks?
Are pupils able to undertake the task? Do any pupils find the task too difficult or too easy?
If so, what do they do? How does the teacher respond?
Do any pupils finish early?
If so, what do they do?
Is there another adult in the room?
If so, what does he/she do during this part of the lesson?
The review of learning
Reinforcing the learning that has taken place in the lesson
What does the teacher do in this part of the lesson?
How does he/she involve the pupils?
Is there another adult in the room?
If so what does he/she do during this part of the lesson?
After the lesson
What have you learned from watching this lesson?
List some key points you have observed and any questions to discuss with the teacher.

Section 8 Mathematics

8.3

Inter-session activities

Activity 4 (post-session) Planning


Ask two teachers with whom you work to show you what their planning looks like for
mathematics lessons. Ask them to help you trace back the learning objective to the
appropriate strand and year group in the renewed framework for teaching mathematics.

Activity 5 (post-session) Oral and mental activities


Observe an oral and mental activity in any year group. Make notes, in no more than half a
page, so that you can describe accurately to a colleague what went on. Comment on:
G

what the content was

what the teacher did

how pupils responded.

You will need to have notes on this observation for session 4 of this module.

Activity 6 (post-session) Observation in the Early Years Foundation Stage


Activity 6 is an observation of an Early Years Foundation Stage class. If you work in a junior
or middle school you should ask your mentor to help you make arrangements to visit a
reception class in a nearby infant or first school.
There is a form to fill out during and immediately after the observation. Reread the
instructions for the pre-module observation activity (activity 1) before you begin.

Activity 7 (post-session) Feedback notes


In session 2 we talked about TAs writing brief feedback notes for the teacher. Choose an
occasion when you are working with a small group of pupils. They may be playing a number
game, carrying out practice exercises or solving word problems. You will need to ask the
teacher for the objectives of the lesson. After your time with the group, write a set of bullet
points, no more than a few lines, to give to the teacher, outlining what the pupils can do
and what difficulties they have.
Afterwards ask the teacher or your mentor to go through your notes with you. Decide
together which points were the important ones and whether anything else would have
been helpful.Your tutor will make reference to this activity in session 5.

8.4

Teaching assistant file

Session 1
Key features of mathematics within the Primary National Strategy

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 1.1
Playing board for the game Crooked Rules
PPT 1.1
Hundreds

Tens

Ones

Player A

Player B

Player C

Player D

Presentation slide 1.2

PPT 1.2

Key features of mathematics within the


Primary National Strategy
The strategy involves:
1. A structured, daily mathematics lesson of 4560 minutes, depending on
the pupils ages
2. An emphasis on mental calculation with oral and mental work in each lesson
3. Direct, interactive teaching of the whole class, with as many pupils as
possible taking part
4. Group work in which pupils in three or four groups work at different levels
on the same topic
5. Regular activities for pupils to do out of class and at home
6. The Primary Framework offers teachers guidance on planning and
teaching to help all children to learn mathematics and make good
progress.

Presentation slide 1.3


Teaching assistants tasks
PPT 1.3

Planning the lesson with the teacher


Assessing pupils progress and difficulties
Making learning resources and classroom displays
Getting the class ready to begin work
Giving out learning materials
Helping pupils with correct vocabulary

Section 8 Mathematics

8.5

Presentation slide 1.4


Teaching assistants activities
PPT 1.4

Helping pupils use mental, informal or formal methods


of calculation
Learning new mathematics themselves
Helping pupils read and understand what is needed
Asking pupils questions to probe and secure their learning
Encouraging pupils in their efforts
Helping pupils see the links with other learning

Course document
Book 1.1

Course document 1.1


Crooked Rules
This game is designed to help pupils appreciate the value of each digit in a three-digit
number. It is often played in years 3 and 4. A very important learning objective for year 3 is
to read, write and order whole numbers to at least 1,000 and position them on a number
line. To do this successfully pupils need to understand what each digit represents. The game
is suitable for up to four players. The winner is the player who ends up with the smallest
number. Players need a playing board with columns for hundreds, tens and ones.
Hundreds

Tens

Ones

Player A
Player B
Player C
Player D

Rules
G Take turns
G Roll the dice
G Write the number in an unfilled space, in your own row or in another players row
G Carry on until all the spaces are filled
G The winner is the player with the smallest number.
Useful questions to ask players include:
Read aloud each of the three-digit numbers; can you order them for me on a number line?
G Which is the best place to put a small digit?
G Which is the best place to put a large digit?
G What did you do if you were about to make a number larger than that of one of
your opponents?
G Did you enjoy playing the game? Why?
G

8.6

Teaching assistant file

Session 2
Language and mathematics

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 2.1
Work out the total
PPT 2.1

Presentation slide 2.2


Work out the total
PPT 2.2

Presentation slide 2.3


Notes for the teacher
PPT 2.3

Learning objectives for the lesson (year 1, block B, unit 2)

Describe simple patterns and relationships involving


numbers or shapes; decide whether examples satisfy
given conditions

Feedback notes:
All can use numbers or shapes to make patterns of their own
All can describe their pattern so that others can make it
Rupee and Paul can tell each other how to continue
their patterns

Section 8 Mathematics

8.7

Presentation slide 2.4


Maries sum
PPT 2.4

This is the calculation Marie was asked to do:


+ 47 = 100
She wrote:

63 + 47 = 100

Presentation slide 2.5


Ellies problem
PPT 2.5

In your purse you have lots of 5p, 10p and 20p coins.
How could you pay for some fruit costing 45p?

Course documents
Course document 2.1
Book 2.1

Counting shapes

Work out the total


These are the explanations three pupils gave when they were asked how they found the
total number of shapes in the box above.
I knew 4 add 5 was 9; I doubled 9 and got 18 and then I added 1.
I added the one circle to the nine squares and got 10; I added the five triangles to the four
rectangles and that made nine; then I added the nine to the 10 and got 19.
I added the five triangles and the four rectangles and that made nine; I added the one circle
and that made 10 and then I added the nine squares and that made 19.

8.8

Teaching assistant file

Course document 2.2


Book 2.2

Maries sum
This is the calculation Marie was asked to do:
+ 47 = 100
She wrote:
63 + 47 = 100
Instead of telling Marie she was wrong, the TA asked: How did you work that out?
Marie explained: I think the answer is 63 because I need 3 to add to 7 to make 10, and 40
and 60 make 100. She then thought and said: That must be wrong because that totals
110. So it must be 53. 3 and 7 make 10. 50 and 40 make 90. 90 and 10 equal 100.
G

G
G
G
G

Why is it better to ask pupils for explanations rather than saying, Thats wrong,
how did you do it?
Do you think Marie would have noticed her mistake without giving the explanation?
What does her explanation tell you about her thinking?
Is it likely that her explanation would have helped other pupils who also made the error?
What information about Maries learning in mathematics would you feed back to the teacher?

Course document 2.3


Book 2.3

Open and closed questions


Look at the questions. The answers follow them but they have been jumbled. Working in
pairs, see if you can match the questions to the answers.
Questions
1. What is 4 add 7?
2. 12 is the answer, what is the question?
3. Is 28 odd or even?
4. Tell me some odd numbers between 10 and 30
5. Abdi spent 7p and Jo spent 10p. How much less did Abdi spend?
6. Jo spent 3p more than Abdi. What might Jo and Abdi have each spent?
7. What does 36 divided by 9 equal?
8. Tell me some factors of 36
Answers (jumbled)
a) even
b) 10p and 7p, 6p and 3p, 13p and 10p, 95p and 92p ...
c) 11
d) 15, 27, 19, 23 ...
e) 4
f) 6 + 6, 3 + 3 + 6, 7 + 5, 20 8, 3 x 4
g) 3p
h) 12 and 3, 4 and 9, 18 and 2

Q3
Q6
Q1
Q4
Q7
Q2
Q5
Q8

In your pairs, consider these questions:


G Which of the questions will encourage pupils to talk about their methods and solutions?
G Is it appropriate to use open questioning with all children?
Section 8 Mathematics

8.9

Course document 2.4


Book 2.4

Ellies problem
In your purse you have lots of 5p, 10p and 20p coins. How could you pay for some fruit
costing 45p?
Compare your questions with these examples:
G

What are you being asked to do?

Imagine the coins in your purse. What different amounts of money could you make?

Could you make 1?

What about 44p?

Can you think of something that costs 45p?

How many 10p coins are worth 20p?

How could you make 40p? Does this help you make 45p? Can you think of another way?

Is there any equipment that would help?

How are you going to record what you are doing?

How can you record it so you will know if you have already used those coins, perhaps in
a different order?

Course document 2.5


Book 2.5

Fall in the Water


The purpose of the game is to support the year 2 objectives in the renewed framework for
teaching mathematics that focus on mental calculation strategies for addition and encourage
rapid recall of addition facts. It also encourages pupils to discriminate between options.
Rules

8.10

Each player starts with a score of 0 and keeps a written record of his or her score

Players take turns to roll two dice

The player who has rolled the dice chooses one of the numbers, adds it to their
current score and writes down the new score

These numbers are in the water: 10, 20 and 30. A player who reaches a total of one of
these numbers falls in the water and nothing is added to his or her score. For example, a
player with a current score of 26 rolls double 4. The player has no choice but to add on
4, which would make a total score of 30. The player falls in the water and his or her
score remains at 26

The winner is the first player to reach a target score, for example, of 45.

Teaching assistant file

Session 3
Approaches to calculation

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 3.1
How would you tackle these calculations?
PPT 3.1

23 9
127 x 6
4358 + 843 + 276
98 6

Presentation slide 3.2


Considering how you did the calculations
PPT 3.2

How did you work out each calculation?


Who did it another way?
Can you think of another way?
Which is the easiest way?
What did you jot down to help you? How did this help and
how might you encourage pupils to use jottings?

Presentation slide 3.3


Comparing methods
PPT 3.3

Were you surprised by any of the methods others used?

Did having to explain your method help you in any way?

Were you taught to use any of these methods at school?


Why do you think you use them now?
Did you use the same method for both steps in the additions?
If not, why not?

Did hearing another persons method help you in any way?

Section 8 Mathematics

8.11

Presentation slide 3.4

PPT 3.4

How would you tackle these calculations?


Working out totals
(a) 5 + 8 + 5
(b) 4 + 7 + 8 + 6 + 3
(c) 24 + 17 + 16 + 12 + 33
(d) 2.54 + 2.67 + 1.46

Presentation slide 3.5


Vertical and horizontal recording
PPT 3.5
365
99
___
365 99

8.12

Teaching assistant file

Session 4
The role of the TA in the daily mathematics lesson part 1

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 4.1
The three-part lesson
PPT 4.1

Oral and mental activity


Oral and mental work for the whole class to rehearse and
sharpen skills

Main part of the lesson


Interactive teaching input and pupils activities including work
as a whole class, in groups, in pairs or individually

Review of learning
All pupils involved
Clear up any misunderstandings and identify progress
Summarise and reinforce the key learning points and what
pupils should remember and discuss next steps

Presentation slide 4.2


Language and mathematics
PPT 4.2

Pupils talking and listening to each other and adults


Adults listening to pupils responses
Different kinds of questioning

Presentation slide 4.3


Considering the role of the TA in the video
PPT 4.3

How was the girl encouraged to test her answers on the TA?
Why is it important that the girl is encouraged to do this?
What is the best seating position for the TA during whole-class
interactive mental and oral activities? Why?
The TA encourages the girl to use the fraction wall.
What problem do you think she might have?
How does the fraction wall help?
Do you know of any other resources that could be used?
How could the TA have helped the two pupils before the
Follow Me card activity began?
How do you know the TA used these activities for assessment
for learning purposes?

Section 8 Mathematics

8.13

Presentation slide 4.4


The role of the TA in the oral and mental activity (1)
PPT 4.4
Being responsible for a small group of pupils to ensure they
take part in the lesson by:

encouraging them to join in counting activities


encouraging them to sit still and take part
getting them to repeat in a whisper what they hear
having a smaller version of the resource used by the teacher
helping pupils to use resources such as fan cards

Presentation slide 4.5


The role of the TA in the oral and mental activity (2)
PPT 4.5
Being responsible for a small group of pupils to ensure
they take part in the lesson by:

repeating discreetly questions the teacher asks and


helping the pupils find an answer
alerting the teacher if a pupil has an answer
asking questions that will help pupils to think when
they are discussing in pairs
observing pupils and making notes about their
responses to questions

Course documents
Course document 4.1
Book 4.1

Follow Me
This is a game that classes sometimes play in the oral and mental session at the beginning of
the daily mathematics lesson. It is a simple idea that teachers can use at different levels with
different year groups. This game focuses on rapid recall of number facts and the effective use
of mental calculation strategies for addition and subtraction.
Each player has a card. The leader starts off by asking the question on their card. The player who
has the answer calls it out and reads out the question on their card, and so on. The cards form a
loop, so each person has a turn. The game finishes when the leaders number comes up again.
Putting the cards in sequence at this stage is a useful check and gives a visual explanation. (It can
also be adapted to be played as a group activity.) These sample cards are pitched around year 2.

8.14

I have 16.

I have 35.

Who has 4 more?

Who has 6 more?

Teaching assistant file

I have 30.

I have 51.

Who has 6 less?

Who has 4 less?

I have 17.

I have 47.

Who has 5 more?

Who has 5 more?

I have 11.

I have 32.

Who has 8 less?

Who has 7 less?

I have 20.

I have 33.

Who has 10 more?

Who has 30 more?

Section 8 Mathematics

8.15

8.16

I have 24.

I have 56.

Who has 7 less?

Who has 9 more?

I have 22.

I have 52.

Who has half


this number?

Who has 20 less?

I have 3.

I have 25.

Who has 9 more?

Who has 8 more?

I have 12.

I have 63.

Who has half


this number?

Who has 7 less?

Teaching assistant file

I have 7.

I have 65.

Who has 14 more?

Who has 7 more?

I have 15.

I have 72.

Who has 20 more?

Who has 8 more?

I have 41.

I have 40.

Who has 10 more?

Who has 3 less?

I have 6.

I have 77.

Who has 1 more?

Who has 7 less?

Section 8 Mathematics

8.17

I have 21.

I have 60.

Who has 6 less?

Who has 5 less?

I have 37.

I have 80.

Who has 40 more?

Who has half


this number?

I have 70.

I have 55.

Who has 10 less?

Who has 9 less?

I have 46.
Who has 30 less?

8.18

Teaching assistant file

Course document 4.2


Book 4.2

Four in a Row
Four in a Row is a game that older pupils (years 5 and 6) often enjoy. The purpose of the
game is to encourage them to handle numbers quickly, confidently and accurately...within
a time limit.
The game uses a 7 x 6 grid filled in randomly with the numbers 1 to 42. Alternatively, four
dice can be used to generate the numbers. The players are divided into two teams, and each
team is allocated a colour.
Teams take turns to make one of the numbers on the grid using each of the digits
1, 2, 3 and 4 once and any of the operations +, , x and . For example, 34 + 2 1 = 35.
Or 14 2 3 = 4
Teams should take turns to make one of the numbers. Once a number is made, it is
crossed out in that teams colour. The winning team is the first to get four squares in
a line, horizontally, vertically or diagonally.

Section 8 Mathematics

8.19

Session 5
The role of the TA in the daily mathematics lesson part 2

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 5.1
Role of the TA in the video
PPT 5.1

What are the main differences in the way the TA supports pupils during whole-class interactive teaching and
during group work?

Why is it important for the TA to be present during the


direct teaching that takes place before the group work?

How do the teacher and TA help pupils when they have


difficulties without simply telling them what to do?

What advantage does the TA have over the teacher


while she is involved in direct teaching?

Presentation slide 5.2


Working with a group
PPT 5.2

How would you support a group of pupils in playing a


game like Fall in the Water?

How would your role differ if pupils were carrying out


a practice exercise or solving mathematical word
problems rather than playing a game?

What kind of feedback do you think you might give?

Presentation slide 5.3


The TAs role when working with a group (1)
PPT 5.3
When pupils are playing a game:

8.20

make sure they all understand the instructions

encourage them to work out and consider carefully any options available
to them in the game

note for the teacher any number facts the pupils find hard to remember
and any observations about pupils who have found the task difficult or
who have been particularly successful

reinforce social skills such as taking turns and not interrupting others
encourage pupils to describe the mental strategies they used and
help them to refine these, using jottings on the empty number line
where necessary

Teaching assistant file

Presentation slide 5.4


The TAs role when working with a group (2)
PPT 5.4
When pupils are carrying out practice exercises or solving word problems:

ensure they understand what they have to do and then monitor that they are
performing the task correctly

ask questions or give them clues when they are stuck but dont let them
become too dependent on adult help

help to keep them on task and remind them how much time they have to
complete the exercise

help them to learn, read and use mathematical words and terms new to them
make sure that they check answers for reasonableness
encourage them to tell you how they tackled certain examples
note what pupils have learned or any mathematics they need more help
with so you can share it with the teacher

Presentation slide 5.5


Giving feedback
PPT 5.5

You could:

mention any misunderstandings pupils had in


relation to the work

state how far pupils got with the activity

list what they found easy and/or hard


mention a pupil who has done particularly well or
who has found the work particularly difficult
discuss support and next steps in learning with
the teacher

Section 8 Mathematics

8.21

Course documents
Course document 5.1
Book 5.1

TeacherTA link sheet


Lesson with a year 2 class
Framework objective(s)
Use patterns of similar calculations
Purpose
To use known facts (pairs of numbers that total 10) to recognise what needs to be added to
any two-digit number to make a tens number (multiple of 10). For example: I know 3 + 7 =
10 so I can work out that if I have 13 I need 7 to make 20.
Vocabulary
add, plus, sum, total, altogether, count on from, score, how many more to make...?, multiple of
Activities
Play Fall in the Water
Resources
Vocabulary flash cards
Instructions for the game Fall in the Water, two dice, hundred-square, pencil and paper
Things to notice
1. Do pupils know pairs of numbers totalling 10?
2. Can they use this knowledge to work out what they need to make multiples of 10,
eg. 20, 30, 40...?
3. Do they add one more or two more in their heads?
4. Do they use their fingers to add on? If they do, do they need to?
Brief feedback from the TA in note form

Further information about the lesson


Main part of the lesson
During the direct teaching a hundred-square will be used to illustrate:
6
10,
16
20,
26
30...
+4
+4
+4
Review of learning
Questioning by the teacher:
1. Playing Fall in the Water: Question the group on the ways in which they added up their scores
and worked out which number from the two dice to choose to avoid falling in the water.
2. Ask: How does knowing number bonds to 10 help them with this sort of calculation:
22 +
= 30?
3. Ask: How does this knowledge help with 23 +

8.22

Teaching assistant file

= 50?

Course document 5.2


Book 5.2

Short activities: some examples


Sometimes a group of pupils will finish a task the teacher has set more quickly than
expected. You may need to provide short activities for such pupils. Here are some possibilities.
Number of the day
Choose a number that is suitable for the age and attainment level of the pupils you are
working with. Write the number on a large sheet of paper. Ask pupils to give you facts about
that number. You can write these on the piece of paper around the number, for example:
4 more than 10, even, double 7, 6 less than 20

14
14 + 86 =100
Answers of the day
Choose a number that is suitable for the age and attainment level of the pupils you are working
with. Ask pupils to give questions which would have this number as the answer. For example:

19
G
G
G
G
G
G

What is 20 1?
What is half of 38?
What is 9 more than 10?
What is 2 x 9 + 1?
What is 2 more than 17?
What are three 5s and 4 more?

What do you know about numbers?


This is an activity used in year 2 and above. Take six number cards in the
range 0 to 9 and arrange them, face up, in a grid. For example:

Section 8 Mathematics

8.23

Ask questions along the following lines:


G Which is the smallest/largest number on the grid?
G Which numbers are even?
G Which numbers will give a total of 10?
G What is the total of the top line?
G What is the difference between the total of the top line and the total of the bottom line?
G What is the difference between the two odd numbers?
G What is the total of all the even numbers?
G What is double the total of all the numbers?
You can make the game more difficult by using cards numbered between 0 and 99 or by
extending the grid to 3 x 3.
Short activities suitable for foundation stage
Practise songs or rhymes that feature numbers, such as Five Currant Buns.
Five currant buns in a bakers shop,
Round and fat with sugar on the top.
Along came a girl with a penny one day,
Bought a currant bun and took it right away.
Four currant buns in a bakers shop, etc.
You could act this out with five pupils pretending to be buns and another pupil being the
person who buys one. Encourage pupils to use their fingers to count as they sing or chant.
Alternatively, they could hold up number cards.
Short activities suitable for years 1 and 2
Pairs to 10:
This is a good way to practise pairs of numbers that make 10,
for example, 8 + 2, 7 + 3, 9 + 1, 0 + 10
Choose a number, such as 4, and say: I say 4, you say
The group should respond with 6
Making 10p:

Ask: How many different ways can you make 10p using 1p, 2p, and
5p coins? Some pupils will need coins in front of them.
You can also use target numbers other than 10, particularly
numbers 11 to 20, and change the activity to one of finding pairs
with a difference of 7.

Making totals:

8.24

Teaching assistant file

Ask: How could you make 12p using 1p, 2p and 5p coins?

Short activities suitable for years 3 and 4


Counting activity:
Ask pupils to count in fives from 1 to 51.
Ask them to tell you some of the numbers they dont use
Pairs to 30:

Ask the group to suggest number pairs that make 30,


for example, 20 + 10, 19 + 11
Now tell them that you will give them a number, such as 16, and they
must respond with the number that makes 30: I say 16, you say

.Short activities suitable for years 5 and 6


Count in 20s:
Count in 20s to 1,000 and back again. Ask:
How many 20s are there in 100? (Answer: 5)
How many 20s are there in 200? (Answer: 10)
How many 20s are there in 500? (Answer: 25)
How many 20s are there in 580? (Answer: 29)
Making 100:

Say to pupils: Add any three numbers between 20 and 50 to make


100. You cant use the same number twice and you must use three
numbers. Ask pupils who volunteer to record their sum on the
board or on a large piece of paper. Ask other pupils to check.

We are indebted to BEAM Education for allowing us to use and adapt material for this section from their publication
Assisting numeracy: a handbook for classroom assistants by Ruth Aplin.

Section 8 Mathematics

8.25

Session 6
Working in the Early Years Foundation Stage

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 6.1
Teaching in the Early Years Foundation Stage (1)
PPT 6.1

Emphasis on practical, active, imaginative and


enjoyable activities

Pupils are given many opportunities to develop their speaking


and listening skills and to use mathematical language during
play activities

The environment, daily routines and activities will be planned


to give pupils opportunities for mathematical learning

Pupils will be given opportunities to practise and talk about


their developing understanding in a broad range of contexts

Presentation slide 6.2


Teaching in the Early Years Foundation Stage (2)
PPT 6.2

Teachers put greater emphasis on using stories, songs,


rhymes and finger games to help with counting

Mathematical activities will be planned for both indoors


and outdoors

Pupils are encouraged to explore problems, to make patterns


and to match and count together

Teachers plan from Curriculum Guidance for the Foundation


Stage and the objectives in the framework for teaching
mathematics, which are in line with the early learning goals
for the Early Years Foundation Stage

Presentation slide 6.3

PPT 6.3

8.26

Example of the daily mathematics experience at


Early Years Foundation Stage

An activity with a group or all of the pupils, often involving


some counting, songs or stories

Adult-led activities for smaller groups of pupils, focusing on


the main topic of the day or week

Play activities, initiated either by the teacher or by the pupils


themselves

Review of learning with the whole class when the activities


have ended, not necessarily every day

Teaching assistant file

Presentation slide 6.4

PPT 6.4

Video clip: working with pupils in the


Early Years Foundation Stage
1. How do the TAs involve the pupils?
2. What sort of questions do they ask?
3. Do they help the pupils to work and play together
in any way?
4. How do they develop mathematical vocabulary?
5. How successful are they in helping the pupils learn
new skills?
6. What else could they do to help the pupils with
their learning?

Presentation slide 6.5


Working with individuals and small groups
PPT 6.5

Get children talking about what they are doing


Help them understand what they are doing
Help them work and play together
Familiarise them with the rules of mathematical games
Help them develop, learn and use new mathematical language
Help them use mathematical resources
Ask them open questions to get them thinking
Observe and talk to them to find out what they have learned

Presentation slide 6.6


Ten Nice Things
PPT 6.6
Player As objects

Section 8 Mathematics

Player Bs objects

8.27

Course document
Course document 6.1
Book 6.1

Ten Nice Things


This game is designed to help pupils in the Early Years Foundation Stage to count quickly,
accurately and with confidence. It supports one of the Early Years Foundation Stage learning
goals: count reliably up to 10 everyday objects.
Each player needs 10 small objects. It is important to ensure that these are appealing to pupils so
that they want to join in. The game doesnt work very well using just counters or cubes.
Ten Nice Things
Player As objects

Player Bs objects

Instructions
Give each player 10 small, appealing objects. It is helpful to include some similar objects,
counting dinosaurs or play people in each players allocation. Pupils often want to try
to collect a set of like objects as the game progresses. Throw a dice (with numerals or spots
up to 6). The first player is allowed to take that number of objects from the second player.
The second player then has a turn. The game can proceed for as long as you like. The aim is
for a player to end up with a set of objects that particularly appeals to them.
Ask pupils to count the objects out aloud as they take them from their partner and get each
player to identify how many objects they have in their collection. Encourage pupils to use
the vocabulary more than and less than and to compare the two sets of objects each
player has. If a player has too few objects left for their partner to take, discuss how many
more they would need to have to make that total. Ask what if? questions during the game:
What if your partner rolled a 5 on the dice; do you have enough objects for them to take?
How many would you have left?
As a variation, player A has to give away to player B the number of items specified by the
number on the dice.

8.28

Teaching assistant file

Section 9

Understanding how
children learn

Section 9
Understanding how children learn

Contents
Session 1

page 9.2

Introduction to how children learn

Session 2

page 9.5

Aspects of learning in a problem-solving context

Session 3

page 9.7

Aspects of learning in a classroom context

Session 4

page 9.9

Conclusions and further action

Recommended further reading

Section 9 Understanding how children learn

page 9.11

9.1

Session 1 Introduction to how children learn

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 1.1

Birth to three matters


PPT 1.1

Sure Start, 2003, Birth to three matters: a framework to support children in their earliest years,
DfES. Copies can be obtained by calling the order line on 0845 6022260 and quoting
reference BIRTH, or writing to DfES Publications, PO Box 5050, Annesley, Nottingham,
NG15 0DJ or by e-mail to dfes@prolog.uk.com or online (www.surestart.gov.uk)
Presentation slide 1.2

Early learning of skills at home


PPT 1.2

Think about a memory of learning a skill at


home as early in your life as you can
remember
Skills such as walking, dressing yourself or
using implements
Make a brief note of what you remember of the
experience and share it with a person sitting
near you

Presentation slide 1.3

Early learning of skills at school


PPT 1.3

Think about your earliest memory of learning


a skill at school

Skills such as finding a place to sit, getting a


drink or managing your food/toilet needs,
reading some words or making a model
Make a brief note of what you remember of
the experience and share it with a person
sitting near you

9.2

Teaching assistant file

Presentation slide 1.4

Learning skills as an adult


PPT 1.4

Think about a skill you have learnt recently


such as how to operate a new gadget like a
mobile phone, an MP3 player, a piece of kitchen
equipment, a power tool or a digital camera
Make a brief note about how you tackled this
and share the points with a group of people
sitting near you

Presentation slide 1.5

Visual, auditory and kinaesthetic learning


PPT 1.5

Each individual learner has a preferred style:

Visual

seeing

Auditory

listening

Kinaesthetic

doing or moving

Section 9 Understanding how children learn

9.3

Course document

Course document 1.1


Book 1.1

Visual, auditory and kinaesthetic learning


Each learner has a preferred style: visual (seeing), auditory (hearing) or kinaesthetic
(doing or moving).
Visual
Learning through looking and using our visual memory is a powerful approach. Recognising
patterns and visualising past and present situations enables us to understand and operate
effectively in the world around us.
Auditory
Learning through listening to and discriminating the sounds we hear around us is a powerful
tool in building our concepts and expressing our needs and responses.
Researchers and educators are increasingly underlining the importance of oral language.
The DfES has produced materials for key stages 1 and 2 on speaking and listening
Speaking, listening, learning: working with children in key stages 1 and 2 (DfES 0623-2003G;
available for download at www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/primary/publications). Materials for
the foundation stage and early years, entitled Communicating matters, were made available
to local authorities in summer 2005.
Kinaesthetic
All young children use active exploration to learn about their surroundings, and neurological
research is demonstrating close links between brain development and movement. This
learning style needs careful planning and provision to enable pupils to move in a secure, yet
stimulating, environment.
We use all these styles to some degree, but at different stages in our learning we will use
one style more than another.
It is important to recognise that each style is a valid and effective way of learning. When
supporting pupils to become effective learners, we need to allow them the opportunity to
use their preferred approach, while developing a broad repertoire of styles.

9.4

Teaching assistant file

Session 2 Aspects of learning in a problem-solving context

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 2.1

Observing 4- and 5-year-olds


PPT 2.1

Do the pupils appear to understand the task?


Are they confident in the way they approach
the task?

How do pupils work together?


Do they all tackle the task in the same way?

Presentation slide 2.2

Some key aspects of the learning observed


PPT 2.2

To be active in learning, pupils need to feel


confident and competent

Pupils build on what they already know


and can do

Pupils learn by doing, by talking and


by watching

Learning is a social activity

Presentation slide 2.3

Observing 6- and 7-year-olds


PPT 2.3

Do pupils appear to understand the task?


Are they confident in the way they approach
the task?

How do pupils work together?


Do they all tackle the task in the same way?

Section 9 Understanding how children learn

9.5

Presentation slide 2.4

Some key aspects of the learning observed


PPT 2.4

Individual pupils approach learning in


different ways

Pupils develop through what interests them


Pupils learn from working together
Pupils use language to build their learning

Presentation slide 2.5

Observing 10- and 11-year-olds


PPT 2.5

Do pupils appear to understand the task?


Are they confident in the way they approach
the task?

How do pupils work together?


Do they all tackle the task in the same way?

Presentation slide 2.6

Some key aspects of learning observed


PPT 2.6

Pupils have different approaches to learning


Pupils learn from tackling a task together and
develop a range of approaches

Some pupils are active, some pupils support


and some watch others and then add their
suggestions
Pupils make links between previous and new
concepts to build or scaffold their learning

9.6

Teaching assistant file

Session 3 Aspects of learning in a classroom context

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 3.1

Assessment for learning


PPT 3.1

The main method we use to understand a pupils


individual learning is through observation
the daily routines of all staff who
work with pupils
It is helpful if brief, factual notes can be made during
observation for sharing later
These observation notes, together with evidence of
work produced, can then be used to form judgements
about how the pupils learning is progressing and
what they need to learn next
This is termed formative assessment or assessment
for learning

This forms part of

Presentation slide 3.2

Some key aspects of the learning observed


PPT 3.2

Learning is an active process


Each pupil is unique, having their own
experiences, skills, understanding, knowledge
and preferred approaches to learning
Language plays a key role in learning

Presentation slide 3.3

Some key aspects of the learning observed


PPT 3.3

Some pupils can work more independently


than others

Adults enable progress with learning by


observing an individual pupils progress and
supporting their next step

Section 9 Understanding how children learn

9.7

Presentation slide 3.4

Some key aspects of the discussion


PPT 3.4

The teacher and TA are working as a classroom


team to benefit pupils learning

It is important to find a few moments to share


observations of pupils learning, orally or
through notes

Presentation slide 3.5

Some key aspects of the learning observed


PPT 3.5

Pupils learning is supported through


developing their skills in using resources
and processing information
Tasks need to be broken down and adult
input given at key intervals to assess pupils
understanding and support their progress
in learning

Presentation slide 3.6

Some key aspects of the learning observed


PPT 3.6

Learning is consolidated when it is applied in


a variety of contexts

A game format allows practice and repetition


while preserving motivation and engagement

Pupils need to feel confident that they can


make mistakes without criticism

9.8

Teaching assistant file

Session 4 Conclusions and further action

Presentation slide
Presentation slide 4.1

PPT 4.1

Matching assessments and planning to


observed learning needs
Match any learning task to the observed
learning needs of an individual learner

Identify barriers that prevent pupils learning to


their full potential

Respect all learners


Have high expectations for each pupil

Section 9 Understanding how children learn

9.9

Course document

Course document 4.1


Book 4.1

Matching assessments and planning to observed learning needs


An important concept is that of matching any learning task to the learning needs of an
individual learner. This is important if the adult is to identify any barriers that are preventing
a pupil learning to their potential.
A Russian psychologist called Lev Vygotsky stressed the importance of social contexts for
learning and the role of language.
Vygotsky said that adults play a vital role by providing challenging tasks that interest and
engage the learner but which are achievable. He called this match of task to learner the
zone of proximal development or what a pupil can do today with help, tomorrow they will
be able to do independently.
We know about the general patterns of how learning develops but there is a complex
interplay of a pupils current skills, knowledge and understanding with their interest and
self-confidence in taking their learning forwards. Adults need to respect all learners and
have high expectations of each individual.
As adults working with pupils, we are all engaged in understanding how children learn in
order to plan more effective provision and support.

9.10

Teaching assistant file

Recommended further reading

Further reading and reference


G

Alfrey, Claire, 2003, Understanding childrens learning a text for teaching assistants,
David Fulton Publishers
This book:
develops the theoretical knowledge needed to enhance work in the classroom
encourages readers to reflect on their own practice
includes tasks, questions, summaries and reading lists

Bruce, Tina, 2004, Developing learning in early childhood, Paul Chapman Publishing
Drawing on traditional approaches as well as recent research and theories, Tina Bruce
demonstrates the need for a balance between the biological and socio-cultural aspects
of the development of learning

QCA, 2000, Curriculum guidance for the foundation stage (ref. QCA/00/587)
Available free from QCA Publications, tel: 01787 884444 or online at www.qca.org.uk

DfES, 2003, Excellence and enjoyment: a strategy for primary schools


(ref. DfES/0377/2003)
Available free from DfES publications, tel: 0845 602 2260 or online at
www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/primary/publications

Section 9 Understanding how children learn

9.11

Section 10

ICT

Section 10
ICT

Contents
Pre-module activity

page 10.2

Session 1

page 10.4

How ICT can support teaching and learning

Session 2

page 10.14

Safety and security with ICT

Post-module activity

Section 10 ICT

page 10.25

10.1

Pre-module activity

Case study
Read the following case study, which appeared in a recent government document as an
example of good practice. It is fictional but will give you an idea of the potential of ICT to
improve teaching and learning in primary schools. The module will help you to understand
why and how early years settings and schools are working towards this kind of practice and
how you can support teachers and pupils when they are using ICT across the curriculum.
When reading the case study, consider how your school compares to the one featured.
Make a note of any areas of good practice that are unfamiliar to you. Bring your notes to
the training session and tick off items as they are dealt with in the course of the session.
After the training, you should discuss any remaining issues with your mentor, to decide how
best they can be addressed.

A day in the life of Kirsty (key stage 2)


Kirsty is hurrying her breakfast because she wants to e-mail her account of Barnaby bears
visit to the cinema to her teacher before she leaves for school. Barnaby Bear is the class
mascot. He accompanies pupils in year 5 on lots of exciting trips. He also has his own palm
computer and this is what Kirsty took home with her at the weekend to write her story.
Kirstys teacher has also been busily working at home. She has been preparing activities for
the daily mathematics lesson using software that she can project using the whiteboard and
projector in the shared study bay.
It's literacy first lesson and Kirsty's teacher invites her to share her account of Barnaby
Bear's cinema trip with the rest of the class. She opens her saved file and the writing is
projected for all the class to see. The teacher invites pupils to read the text with Kirsty.
They then use the softwares highlighting facility to prompt and focus discussion of the
language and style she has used. Kirsty has written the story in the present tense and so the
teacher copies the story to another document and she and the other pupils help her rewrite
it in the past tense.
The new copy is saved and stored in Kirsty's work area on the class computer so that she
can continue to develop it, in collaboration with a response partner, during her independent
working time. Later she will be able to e-mail the file to her home and share the finished
work with her parents.
In guided reading time, she and her group work with the teacher on reading an interactive
ICT text, using laptops. Next lesson is mathematics. The teacher is working on fractions and
decimal equivalents with the class. She has prepared a number of different exercises for
pupils in advance and she loads up the first screen which displays shapes with different
fractional parts coloured and projects it onto the electronic whiteboard. She then reveals
some written fractions and asks pupils, in turn, to come out and match the written fraction

10.2

Teaching assistant file

to the correct shape. Kirsty is asked to match 3/5 and she correctly matches it to the
rectangle with three sections out of five coloured.
Next, the teacher uses her overhead calculator and asks pupils to remind her how she can
calculate the decimal equivalent of 3/5 using the calculator. She then displays her second
prepared screen with other fractional parts shown. Pupils are challenged to find and match
their decimal equivalents, using their calculators where necessary.
After lunch, Kirsty's group is working on their ICT project. They are putting together a
proposal for improvements to the junior playground and have decided they need to gather
opinions of pupils from each year group before they develop their proposal further. They
have already designed a questionnaire and posted it on the school intranet for each class to
complete, but they have also asked for two pupils from each class to be interviewed about
their views. They carefully plan their questions and word-process them so they wont forget
what they want to ask. With the help of the schools ICT technician they set up a digital
video camera in a quiet part of the library and interview the pupils. On reflection, they think
some of the ideas that pupils put forward are really interesting and they think their
playground proposal will be better as a multi-media presentation rather than a printed
document. They upload the video interviews onto the computer and begin to edit them.
Last lesson of the day is science. Pupils have been studying the earth, sun and moon and
have spent some time talking about gravity and the effect it has on earth. As an extension
activity, the teacher asks Kirsty's group to investigate the effect of gravity on the other
planets in the solar system. They discuss each planet in turn and try to predict whether they
would weigh more or less on each of the planets. They make a note of their predictions
before logging on to the NASA Kids internet site where they are able to enter their mass
on earth and have the online calculator work out how much they will weigh on each of the
other planets. At the end of the lesson, the teacher asks Kirsty to demonstrate to the rest of
the class what her group has been doing. Kirsty talks about her work and she demonstrates
how the calculator works using the mass of one of the other pupils to make the calculation.
For homework, Kirsty decides to use the NASA Kids site to research what conditions would
be like if she were an astronaut visiting each of the planets in the solar system. She wordprocesses her Captain's Log and e-mails it to her folder on the school intranet so she can
continue working on it at school the next day.
Meanwhile, Kirsty's teacher is preparing an electronic text that the class will use in
tomorrow's literacy lesson. She bases this on an idea gained from an online discussion
she had last week with other primary teachers in the area. This had been mediated by
the local authority.
Kirsty returns home. Her dad helps with her project on the earth, sun and moon. He locates
suitable websites and gives Kirsty advice on manipulating images and sequencing them to
music to make her presentation more creative. Kirstys dad likes working with her as he finds
this motivating for both him and his daughter. They transfer computer skills (usually Kirsty
to her dad!) and this activity encourages Kirstys dad to e-mail her school and go on a
secure area of the schools website to track his daughters progress.

Section 10 ICT

10.3

Session 1 How ICT can support teaching and learning

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 1.1

The governments vision


PPT 1.1

My vision is one where schools are confidently,


successfully and routinely exploiting ICT By doing
so they will be delivering an education that equips
learners for life in the Information Age of the
21st century.
ICT can make a significant contribution to teaching
and learning at all stages and across all areas of the
curriculum. ICT should be embedded in all our
education institutions and in the teaching that takes
place there.
Rt Hon. Charles Clarke MP, former secretary of state
for education and skills, June 2003

Presentation slide 1.2

Why are we using ICT?


PPT 1.2

Extending the learning experience


Extending learning
Enriching the curriculum
Expanding learning horizons
Helping with assessment

Presentation slide 1.3

ICT in the foundation stage


PPT 1.3

Stepping stones
Yellow show an interest in ICT
Blue know how to operate simple equipment
Green complete a simple program on the
computer and/or perform simple
functions on ICT apparatus
Early learning goal
Find out about and identify the uses of everyday
technology, and use ICT and programmable
toys to support their learning

10.4

Teaching assistant file

Presentation slide 1.4

What is ICT in the foundation stage?


PPT 1.4

Activity centres
Musical keyboards
Play telephones and
tape recorders
Mobile telephones
Radio-controlled toys
Talking toys
TV and video
Washing machines

Fax machines
Photocopiers
Cameras
Programmable toys
Electronic tills
Microwaves
Interactive whiteboard
Walkie-talkies

Presentation slide 1.5

PPT 1.5

Teaching and learning with ICT at key


stages 1 and 2

ICT as a subject
ICT in subjects
ICT as a teaching and learning tool

Presentation slide 1.6

The national curriculum for ICT


PPT 1.6

Presentation slide 1.7

The strands of the ICT national curriculum


PPT 1.7

Finding things out using ICT to find, store,


retrieve, prepare and interpret information

Developing ideas and making things happen


using ICT to model real or imaginary things,
places and events and to control devices and
detect physical changes
Exchanging and sharing information using ICT
to communicate effectively in words, pictures
and sound
Reviewing, modifying and evaluating work as
it progresses

Section 10 ICT

10.5

Presentation slide 1.8

Progression in ICT Finding things out


PPT 1.8

At key stage 1 pupils will learn how to:


gather information from a variety of ICT sources,
eg. databases, CD-ROMs, DVD, videos

enter and store information in a variety of

forms,
eg. saving work, storing information in databases

retrieve information that has been stored, eg. loading


saved work, using a CD-ROM
At key stage 2 pupils will learn how to:
talk about what information they need and how they
can find and use it, eg. searching the internet or
using a CD-ROM or DVD

prepare information that will be developed using ICT


selecting suitable sources, finding information,
classifying it and checking it for accuracy

interpret information to check that it is relevant and


reasonable and to think about what might happen if
there were any errors or omissions

Presentation slide 1.9a

The QCA scheme of work


PPT 1.9a

Is optional
Includes the breadth of
the national curriculum
for ICT
Includes teaching
strategies
Illustrates the
programmes of study
for ICT in KS1 and KS2
translated into a
practical plan

Presentation slide 1.9b

The QCA scheme of work


PPT 1.9b

Includes appropriate
progression from year
1 to year 6
Divides the teaching of
ICT into appropriate units
Integrates the
knowledge, skills and
understanding into
subject contexts
www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/
schemes2/it

10.6

Teaching assistant file

Presentation slide 1.10

Hardware
PPT 1.10

Colour printers
Scanners or digital stills or video cameras
with associated software

Multimedia computers including desktop


computers, portables and personal digital
assistants (PDAs)
Floor turtle or robot
Control interface with associated switches,
sensors, buzzers, lights and motors
Digital microscopes (every school received these
as part of Science Year)

Presentation slide 1.11

Software
PPT 1.11

Software that allows pupils


to move and match words
and pictures; word banks;
What You See Is What You
Get (WYSIWIG) word
processors
Paint and object-based
drawing software
Clip art files on familiar
topics
Simple music composition
programs or means of
recording and editing
sounds
Simple multimedia authoring
programs including
presentation software
Graphing programs capable
of drawing pictograms,
bar charts, pie charts and
line graphs

Flat file and branching


databases
Simple spreadsheets
Turtle graphics programs
that include the use of
repeats and procedures
Control programs that
include sensing
Simulations
A range of CD-ROM
or DVD titles including
buttons for navigation,
hypertext links and the
facility to search using
key words, indexes
and menus
E-mail and access to
the internet

Presentation slide 1.12

Features of an interactive whiteboard


PPT 1.12

Everyone can write on it and changes can be


saved this gives shared ownership

High visual impact, creating a theatrical effect


in the classroom

Facilitates better class management the


teacher can be at the front, facing the class

Makes a wide range of resources instantly


available

Presentations and displays can be annotated


by teacher and pupils

Engages pupils, getting them moving and


participating this improves behaviour

Facilitates concept mapping items can be


moved easily around the screen

Supports discussion (on topic) and learning from


other pupils

Motivating, because both teachers and children


enjoy using it

Section 10 ICT

10.7

Presentation slide 1.13

Types of interaction
PPT 1.13

Teacher/TApupil
Pupilpupil
Pupilresource

Presentation slide 1.14

The 4 Ps
PPT 1.14

Policy
Planning
Practice
Proof

10.8

Teaching assistant file

Course documents

Course document 1.1


Book 1.1

Progression
Finding things out
At key stage 1 pupils will learn how to:
G

gather information from a variety of ICT sources, eg. databases, CD-ROMs, DVD, videos

enter and store information in a variety of forms, eg. saving work, storing information
in databases

retrieve information that has been stored, eg. loading saved work, using a CD-ROM.

At key stage 2 pupils will learn how to:


G

talk about what information they need and how they can find and use it, eg. searching
the internet or using a CD-ROM or DVD

prepare information that will be developed using ICT selecting suitable sources, finding
information, classifying it and checking it for accuracy

interpret information to check that it is relevant and reasonable and to think about what
might happen if there were any errors or omissions.

Developing ideas and making things happen


At key stage 1 pupils will learn how to:
G

use text, tables, images and sound to develop their ideas

select from and add to information they have retrieved for particular purposes

plan and give instructions to make things happen, eg. programming a floor turtle

try things out and explore what happens in real and imaginary situations, eg. trying out
different colours on an image, using an adventure game or simulation.

At key stage 2 pupils will learn how to:


G

develop and refine ideas by bringing together, organising and reorganising text, tables,
images and sound as appropriate, eg. in desktop publishing or multimedia presentations

Section 10 ICT

10.9

create, test, improve and refine sequences of instructions to make things happen and to
monitor events and respond to them, eg. monitoring changes in temperature, detecting
light levels and turning on a light

use simulations and explore models in order to answer What if? questions, to
investigate and evaluate the effect of changing values and to identify patterns and
relationships, eg. simulation software, spreadsheet models.

Exchanging and sharing information


At key stage 1 pupils will learn how to:
G

share their ideas by presenting information in a variety of forms, eg. text, images,
tables, sounds

present their completed work effectively, eg. for public display.

At key stage 2 pupils will learn how to:


G

share and exchange information in a variety of forms, including e-mail

be sensitive to the needs of the audience and to think carefully about the content and
quality when communicating information, eg. work for presentation to other pupils,
publishing on the internet.

Retrieving, modifying and evaluating work as it progresses


At key stage 1 pupils will learn how to:
G

review what they have done to help them develop their ideas

describe the effects of their actions

talk about what they might change in future work.

At key stage 2 pupils will learn how to:

10.10

review what they and others have done to help them develop their ideas

describe and talk about the effectiveness of their work with ICT, comparing it with other
methods and considering its effect on others, eg. the impact made by a desk-top
published newsletter or poster

talk about how they could improve future work.

Teaching assistant file

Course document 1.2


Book 1.2

Types of interaction case study


In a mathematics lesson, the teacher aims to develop pupils ability to estimate angles.
She draws a circle on the electronic whiteboard and divides this with two straight lines.
She invites a pupil to the board to label 90 (recapping prior learning) and asks the class
to calculate how many degrees there are in the whole circle. The teacher then removes the
90 label and adds another radius to the circle in a different colour. She asks the pupils to
estimate the size of the new angle and invites them to explain to the class why their
estimate is sensible. When all the pupils have a basic understanding the teacher loads
software which tests the ability to estimate angles, giving feedback clues such as too
large/too small. The class uses this as a team game with teams vying to get the most
correct answers. While they work the TA sits with one of the teams, supporting pupils who
might find the activity more difficult and those who may not feel confident to participate.

Section 10 ICT

10.11

Course document 1.3


Book 1.3

Floor robot and pirate map


Learning intentions
G

To say and use number names in order

To count reliably

To use mathematical and everyday language to describe position and direction

To use developing mathematical ideas and methods to solve practical problems

To instruct a programmable toy

To use a programmable toy to support their learning

Individual targets this activity could meet


G

To work in a group and wait for a turn

To listen to instructions and respond appropriately

To count using one-to-one correspondence

To enter a sequence of two instructions

To predict with increasing accuracy

Prior learning/ICT skills


G

To know the robot buttons and their actions

To press buttons in a particular sequence

Resources

10.12

Floor robot (in this example, Pixie)

Home-made pirate map

Teaching assistant file

Course document 1.4


Book 1.4

Objectives
G

To investigate a range of texts from different cultures, considering patterns of


relationships, social customs, attitudes and beliefs (term 3, text 1)

To relate relationships, attitudes and beliefs found in books to own experience

Prior learning
Before this lesson, pupils had:
G

accessed the willow pattern story through the module on the website (www.tuned-in.org).
They were aware that the story has changed over the centuries, especially since the
pattern was adopted in Britain. Pupils had also had read to them The owl service,
by Alan Garner, to provide another story linked to this theme and range

explored websites to locate, access, compare and collate information.

Before the sequence in the video


The teacher reminded pupils of the story from the tuned-in module, displaying it with the
accompanying music for whole-class viewing and listening. The class discussed how each of
the main characters acted, what their feelings were and whether their actions were
avoidable. Pupils were then asked to work in groups or pairs investigating different versions
of the story and poems about the willow pattern that they could find on any of the
websites given to them by the teacher. The teacher asked them to find out whether there
were differing events in the different versions and whether any of the characters were
treated more or less favourably. She asked pupils to make notes of the differences they
found in the different versions, and to be ready to explain and give evidence of these to the
rest of the class in the plenary.

Section 10 ICT

10.13

Session 2 Safety and security with ICT

Presentation slides
Presentation slide 2.1

ICT tools that improve security


PPT 2.1

Firewall and virus protection


Software filters
Accredited ISPs
Awareness of wireless technology issues
Policy on using personal devices
Internet safety

Presentation slide 2.2

Risks to pupils
PPT 2.2

Exposure to threat of physical danger


and abuse

A new arena for intimidation and bullying


Misuse of resources
Access to inappropriate material

Presentation slide 2.3

www.gridclub.com
PPT 2.3

10.14

Teaching assistant file

Presentation slide 2.4

Plenary and post-module task


PPT 2.4

Self-evaluation and skills audit


Personal action plan
Post-module task

Section 10 ICT

10.15

Course documents

Course document 2.1


Book 2.1

Data Protection Act 1998


Information held by schools on children and adults can only be used for specific purposes.
The Act requires schools to notify the office of the information commissioner of:
G

the purposes for which the school holds personal data

what data it holds

the source of the data

to whom the data is disclosed

to which countries the data might be transferred.

Individuals have the right under the Act to access information about themselves held on
computer files and some paper files.
Freedom of Information Act 2000
This Act provides the public with the right to gain access to recorded information held by
public bodies such as schools. All schools are expected to produce a publication scheme
that outlines their publicly available information (it should be noted that there are a number
of exemptions).
Copyright and software licensing
Copyright is part of a set of legal rights and regulations defined in the Copyright, Designs
and Patents Act 1988. These rights are called intellectual property rights (IPR).
Schools should be aware that all electronic materials, including digital images, computer
programs and text, are covered by IPR. IPR also applies to electronic materials accessed
through such formats as CD-ROMs and web pages.
When using electronic material in another context, such as printing copies of an image or
worksheet for classroom use, the copyright situation should be ascertained. Absence of
copyright information or the fact that a particular type of use is not mentioned does not
constitute permission.

10.16

Teaching assistant file

Course document 2.2


Book 2.2

Case study
While working in a homework club on computers, you see a pupil from year 6 putting
together a project on a celebrity for the school magazine. He is searching the internet,
cutting and pasting sections of text. You ask him to show you what he has done so far.
He has done a lot of work, illustrating the text he has found with images, video clips and
music that he has found on the internet.
What are the issues that you would need to raise with the pupil or his teacher?
Would the issues be different if the magazine was to be published on the school website?

Course document 2.3


Book 2.3

Superhighway safety safe use of the internet


A National Childrens Home survey, conducted in 2002, found that one in four children in
the UK is bullied or threatened via their mobile phone or online. In 2004 ChildLine reported
a significant rise in the number of children being counselled about bullying, with many
saying that new technologies, such as text messaging and e-mail, were a factor. This 21st
century technique, known as online bullying, e-bullying or cyberbullying, is defined as:
the use of information and communication technologies such as email, [mobile]
phone and text messages, instant messages, defamatory personal websites and
defamatory personal polling websites, to support deliberate, repeated, and hostile
behaviour by an individual or a group, that is intended to harm others.
Bill Belsey www.cyberbullying.ca
What is online bullying?
Children and young people are keen adopters of new technologies, but this can also leave
them open to the threat of online bullying. An awareness of the issues and knowledge of
methods for dealing with online bullying can help reduce the risks.
Bullying by text message
Bullying by text message has become an unfortunate and unpleasant by-product of the
convenience that SMS (short message service) offers. Texting is more casual than a phone
call and messages can be sent and received at times when other communication is not
convenient. It is also perceived as being more anonymous, particularly if the message is sent
via a website.

Section 10 ICT

10.17

Text messages are sometimes sent to embarrass, threaten or bully. This can be particularly
upsetting as the message can arrive when the receiver least expects it. Additionally, if the
persons number is not listed in the receivers address book then the receiver will not
necessarily know who has sent the message. Children should be advised to be careful about
giving out their mobile phone number, and ask that those who have their number never pass
it on if only known and trusted friends know the number, it is less likely to be abused in
this way.
If being bullied by text message, children should immediately seek help from a teacher,
parent or carer. They should not respond to the messages, but should keep a detailed diary
recording information such as the content of the message, the date, time and caller ID or
whether the number was withheld or not available. If space permits, the messages should also
be stored on the phone in case they are needed later as evidence. Abuse in the form of
bullying should be reported to the mobile phone company who can take certain steps to try
to resolve the situation, and in some instances it may also be necessary to involve the police.
In some cases it may be necessary, or easier, to change the mobile phone number or to
purchase a new phone.
Bullying by e-mail
Like bullying by text message, e-mail provides a reasonably anonymous method of
communication which bullies have seized upon to harass their victims.
If being bullied by e-mail, children should not respond to the messages but should seek help
from a teacher, parent or carer. Likewise if they receive an e-mail message from an unknown
sender, they should exercise caution over opening it or ask an adult for assistance. Dont
delete the message but keep it as evidence of bullying.
If the e-mail is sent from a personal e-mail account, the abuse should be reported to the
senders e-mail service provider. Many e-mail programs also provide facilities to block e-mail
from certain senders.
If the bullying e-mails continue, and the e-mail address of the sender is not obvious, then it
may be possible to track the address using special software. Your e-mail service provider
may be able to offer assistance in doing this.
In certain cases, it may be easier to change your e-mail address, and exercise caution over
who this new address is given to.
Bullying within chat rooms or by instant messaging
Aside from the general risks of using chat rooms and instant messaging (IM) services, these
services are also used by people who bully.

10.18

Teaching assistant file

Chat is a way of communicating with numerous people at the same time by typing messages
which immediately appear onscreen in a virtual meeting place, known as a chat room. Chat
rooms have an element of anonymity so children may often have the confidence to say
things online which they would not say face to face. While this can be a positive thing for
some children, it can also lead to bullying. Groups are often formed in chat rooms, just as
they would be in school, and can be used as a way of excluding or harassing others.
Children should be encouraged to always use moderated chat rooms, and to never give out
personal information while chatting. If bullying does occur, they should not respond to
messages but should leave the chat room and seek advice from a teacher, parent or carer.
If using a moderated chat room, the system moderators should also be informed, giving as
much detail as possible, so that they can take appropriate action.
IM is a form of online chat but is private between two or more people. The system works on
the basis of buddy lists, where chat can only take place with those on your list. Children
should only add people to their buddy list that they know, and reject requests from others
to join their list. Although this effectively reduces the risk of being bullied by IM, abuse is
still possible.
If a child is bullied or harassed by IM, the service provider should be informed and given the
nickname or ID, date, time and details of the problem. The service provider will then take
appropriate action which could involve a warning or disconnection from the IM service. If a
child has experienced bullying in this way, it might also be worth re-registering for instant
messaging with a new user ID.
Bullying by websites
Although less common, bullying via websites is now becoming an issue. Such bullying
generally takes the form of websites that mock, torment, harass or are otherwise offensive,
often aimed at an individual or group of people.
If a child discovers a bullying website referring to them, they should immediately seek help
from a teacher, parent or carer. Pages should be copied and printed from the website for
evidence, and the internet service provider (ISP) responsible for hosting the site should be
contacted immediately. The ISP can take steps to find out who posted the site and request
that it is removed. Many ISPs outline their procedures for dealing with reported abuse in an
acceptable use policy (AUP) which can be found on their website.
Additionally, many websites and forums services now provide facilities for visitors to create
online votes and polls, which have been used by those who bully to humiliate and embarrass
their fellow pupils. Again, any misuse of such services should be reported to a teacher,
parent or carer who should then take steps to contact the hosting website and request the
removal of the poll.

Section 10 ICT

10.19

Strategies for preventing online bullying


Awareness of general internet safety practices can help to reduce the risk of online bullying
and generally ensure that children remain safe when online or using any technology. The
following hints and tips are adapted from those provided by www.cyberbullying.ca, and
could be used as a basis for discussion with pupils.

10.20

Keep personal information private


Personal information should be kept private at all times. This includes details such as
name, address, e-mail address, home and mobile phone numbers, school name,
membership of clubs, and information on family and friends. If others dont have access
to this information, they are less likely to be able to abuse it

Dont believe everything you read


Just because someone online tells you that they are 15 doesnt mean they are telling
the truth. Even adults cant tell when a male online pretends to be a female or a 50year-old pretends to be a 15-year-old

Use netiquette
Be polite to others online as you would offline. If someone treats you rudely or is mean,
you should not respond. Chances are that they will see that they are having no effect,
and stop the abusive messages. If not, and the abusive messages continue, seek help
from a teacher, parent or carer

Never send messages when angry


Wait until you have calmed down and had time to think. Do your best to make sure that
your messages are calmly and factually written. You will usually later regret sending an
angry message, otherwise known as a flame, to someone. Once youve sent a message,
its extremely difficult to undo the damage that such flames can cause

Never open a message from someone you dont know


Delete strange e-mails or text messages from people you dont know. If in doubt, seek
advice from a teacher, parent or carer

If it doesnt look or feel right, it probably isnt


Trust your instincts. If you ever see anything on the internet, or receive an e-mail or text
message, that makes you feel uncomfortable, switch off the computer or phone and
seek advice from a teacher, parent or carer

You dont have to be always on turn off, disconnect, unplug


Give yourself a break. Dont stay online for too long. Spend time with your family and
friends offline

Dont reply to messages from cyberbullies


Even though you may really want to reply, this is exactly what cyberbullies want. They
want to know that theyve got you worried and upset. Dont give them that pleasure

Protect yourself
Never arrange to meet someone you have met online

Teaching assistant file

Dont keep bullying to yourself


You are not alone! Tell an adult you know and trust. They can help you combat
the cyberbully

Developing school policies


Schools should develop policies and good practice for dealing with cases of online bullying
in the same way that they would deal with any other cases of bullying.
Anti-bullying statements should also be incorporated in an acceptable use policy (AUP).
Effective education and awareness of the issues, for pupils and staff alike, can also help to
reduce the risks and provide an open culture where bullying of this nature can be freely
reported and discussed.

Sources of further information and advice


Anti-Bullying Network
Established by the Scottish Executive, the Anti-Bullying Network exists so that teachers,
parents and young people can share ideas about how bullying can be tackled. Although the
Network primarily deals with enquiries from within Scotland, the resources within the site
are freely available to all.
www.antibullying.net
Be safe online
Internet safety website which also provides information on bullying by e-mail, over the
internet and by text messaging.
www.besafeonline.org
Bullying online
An online help and advice service for combating all forms of bullying. It contains sections for
teachers, parents and pupils, and has specific information on staying safe in cyberspace,
mobile phone bullying, and abusive e-mails and websites.
www.bullying.co.uk
ChildLine
The ChildLine website provides general information on bullying, including information sheets
for teachers and professionals working with young people.
www.childline.org.uk
Childnet International
Childnet International is a childrens charity committed to helping to make the internet a
safe place for children. Their website provides some useful information and resources.
www.childnet-int.org
www.cyberbullying.ca Always On? Always Aware!
This website is wholly concerned with the issues of cyberbullying. Although Canadian in
origin, it provides useful examples, guidance and advice on combating online bullying
wherever it occurs.
www.cyberbullying.ca

Section 10 ICT

10.21

Dont suffer in silence


This website supports the DfES anti-bullying campaign. It provides access to an anti-bullying
pack for schools that gives guidance on dealing with bullying by text messages.
www.dfes.gov.uk/bullying
Internet super heroes
Marvel super heroes such as Spiderman and The Incredible Hulk have joined forces with
WiredSafety.org to teach children and young people about safe, private and responsible
surfing. The site includes a large section on cyberbullying, flaming and cyberstalking, with
additional information for parents and teachers.
www.internetsuperheroes.org/cyberbullying
Kidscape
The Kidscape website is a general bullying resource, with specific information on
cyberbullying aimed at children and young people.
www.kidscape.org.uk
NCH the childrens charity
NCHs Net Smart rules equip children and young people to stay streetwise in cyberspace.
The website also has an internet safety FAQ for parents and carers.
www.nch.org.uk/information
School bully online
The website of the UK National Bullying Advice Line, which provides information on bullying
by mobile phone, with content specifically aimed at children.
www.bullyonline.org/schoolbully/mobile.htm
Stoptextbully.com
The NCHs website on text bullying aims to help young people, parents/carers and teachers
in dealing with this problem.
www.stoptextbully.com

Course document 2.4


Book 2.4

Case study
A child tells you that she is getting unpleasant text messages on her mobile phone.
She does not know who is sending them but they are making her very upset.
What should you do?

10.22

Teaching assistant file

Course document 2.5


Book 2.5

My ICT action plan

Name:

School:

Date:

What I know I can do now/already

What I do not know how to do but would like to know

What I would like to learn next

When I would like to do this by

Section 10 ICT

10.23

What I will need to help me do this

How I will know that I have been successful

Course document 2.6


Book 2.6

Useful websites

10.24

Curriculum guidance for the foundation stage can be found at:


www.qca.org.uk/223.html

The ICT national curriculum programmes of study for key stages 1 and 2 can be found
at: www.nc.uk.net

The QCA scheme of work for ICT can be found at:


www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/schemes2/it

Advice on how to embed ICT across the curriculum can be found at:
http://schools.becta.org.uk (click on Learning and teaching, Primary)

Bectas New2computers can be found at:


http://schools.becta.org.uk/new2computers

The interactive disclosure exercise used in the module, and other similar exercises that
can be used with pupils in different year groups across the primary school, can be
found at:
www.mape.org.uk (click on Classroom activities, then Discloze in the Discloze menu)

Teaching assistant file

The video examples used in the module and other video examples across the curriculum
from the foundation stage to year 6 can be found at:
http://samples.embc.org.uk/primary

The Becta publication Data protection and security: a summary for LEAs and schools can
be found at:
www.becta.org.uk (click on About Becta, then Publications)

Gridclub and Cybercaf can be found at:


www.gridclub.com

Information to help you audit your ICT skills can be found at:
http://smarteducation.canterbury.ac.uk (click on ICT skills & support, then ICT audit
tools) or http://ecs.lewisham.gov.uk/talent/pricor/resources/ict_skillsaudit.doc

Post-module activity

When back in school, observe a lesson in which a more experienced TA is supporting a


pupil/pupils using ICT. Think about the support that is provided. Consider how well the
support given helps the pupil/pupils learn. Discuss this with your mentor and suggest ways
in which you feel the learning and support could be improved or developed further.

Section 10 ICT

10.25

Publications: t 0845 6060 323 e publications@tda.gov.uk

www.tda.gov.uk
TDA0288/05.07/BEL

TDA 2007

Primary induction

Training and Development Agency for Schools


151 Buckingham Palace Road, London, SW1W 9SZ
TDA switchboard: t 0870 4960 123

Primary induction

Teaching assistant file

The TDA is committed to providing accessible


information. To request this item in another
language or format, contact TDA corporate
communications at the address below or
e-mail: corporatecomms@tda.gov.uk
Please tell us what you require and we will
consider with you how to meet your needs.

Role and context


Promoting positive behaviour
Inclusion
Literacy
Foundation stage literacy
Foundation stage mathematics
Mathematics
Understanding how children learn
ICT

Updated 2007

Teaching
assistant file