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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1.

Background

Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of

knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits. Education holds the important role to

produce Indonesian human resources, like as individu or as society because education

can improve and develop the quality of human resources. Improving the quality of

education deserve serious attention and careful. Therefore, various attempts have been

made to improve the quality of education. One is the developmentof research in the

field of education, especially in the teaching-learning process (Sanjaya 2006:1-2).

Education is expected to produce human resources highly skilled, including critical

thinking, logical, creative, and willingness to work together effective that can be

developed through education of physics.

National education according to law No. 20, 2003, serves to develop the

ability and character development and civilization of the nation's dignity in the minds

of the people. To that end, education aims to develop students' potentials to become a

man of faith, and fear of God Almighty, the noble character, healthy, knowledgeable,

skilled, creative, independent, and become citizens of a democratic and responsible

( Mulyasa, 2013:20)

Physics as a science is one of the subjects related to nature so demanding in

learning the necessary investigations in the form of an experiment on such

knowledge.The science and its applications are part of daily life to make our life

better and therefore the development of an individuals understanding of science and

its applications is one of the objectives of science instruction. Learning physics in

schools is still dominated by the activities of teachers. In the sense of active teachers

to teach and learners passive in learning (Hamid, 2011). Therefore, to develop a field

of physics necessary supporting infrastructure such as laboratory equipment and

instruments sufficient material physics experiments, the library is sufficient to develop

the basic thinking of students, and other learning support at school. Until now most

schools will have to clean that purpose. However, the learning outcomes of students

in studying physics has not shown success and satisfaction.

Learning outcomes are also associated with student life perspective. A fact

that when the children were young, their world is full of questions. In various facets

of life, they get the idea that being an adult means left the world questioning to enter

the world know the answer. Schools tend to encourage the movement of question to

answer because success by simply placing the correct answer blank or mark the

correct response. Question in school tend to have one correct answer and questions

that no response is rare. Therefore, if we want to know how to learn is more important

than knowing all the answers, then we must realize that a good question is more

important than the right answer. Teaching students to question and ask questions of

quality is more important than the truth of the answers they could provide. According

to Nasution (2000: 94) in Wahyuni and Siswanto, 2010), The lesson will be

interesting and successful, when linked with experiences in which they can see, feel,

give, do, try, think, and so forth. In this case the learning approach used in schools are

less precise.

Observations has been conducted by researchers on students of SMAN 2

Lintong Nihuta, there are some problems that are found in physics learning.

Perspective physics students will be unfavorable. Learning physics is often a

frightening specter for them, filled with formulas, interesting but difficult to

understand the study, there are even some opinion reveals that physics is only for

scientists. Furthermore, the way of teaching physics teacher in the classroom tends to

take notes and work on the problems.

Monotonous teaching methods is the reason why the study of physics be

learning less interesting for students. Moreover, when given a problem most students

do not get to read about and determine what formula is used. Hence develop

assumptions on students that physics is suitable only be learned by those who want to

be a scientist or a physicist more details. At the time of teaching and learning

activities take place, the activity of students in working on the problems of physics

given by the teacher is still lacking, although still capitalized, see the notes and only

some students were active. Another case when the teacher asked the students if the

material presented is understandable, students only silence in other words no student

is given a definite answer. Additionally, when a time the teacher gave a

demonstration, students were also less active in its implementation. It shows students

just received the knowledge of the teacher without the initiative to find their own.

Furthermore, from the results of tests conducted by teachers of physics, it is known

that the results of student learning about the material of static Fluid has not reached

the expected target. Information about the physics student learning outcomes obtained

from interviews, the average value for 3 years in a row has not reached the minimum

completeness criteria. From this it appears that student learning outcomes are still low

in physics.

Problem-based learning model is an instructional model that presents a

contextual problem that stimulate learners to learn. In classes that implement

problem-based learning, students work in teams to solve real-world problems . So,

student able to solve the problem and get the knowledge and important concept by

their selves ( L. A Kharida, A. Rusilowati, K. Pratiknyo, 2009).

Problem based learning aims improve students ability to work in a team,

showing their coordinated abilities to access information and turn it into viable

knowledge ( Ibrahim Bilgin, Erdal Sinocak, Mustafa Sozbilir, 2009). PBL will happen

with meaningful learning. Learners who learn to solve a problem then they will apply

the knowledge possessed or sought to know the necessary knowledge. Learning can

be more meaningful and can be expanded when students are dealing with a situation

in which the concept is applied. PBL can improve critical thinking skills, foster

initiatives learners in work, internal motivation to learn, and can develop interpersonal

relationships in the working group. In the fact shows students are less able to relate

the information that has been obtained from the teacher with information that will be

studied and related to everyday life. This relates to the lack of practice over theory

learned and laboratory use are not effective in schools.

Based on the explanation above, the researcher want to do a research with the

title The Effect of Problem Based Learning Model on Students Achievement on

Static Fluid topic at year XI of SMA Negeri 2 Lintong Nihuta Academic Year

2015/2016

Based on the background of the problem, problem can be identified as

follows::

1. Teaching and learning process is still teacher-centered.

2. Students assume the physics is a difficult subject and less attractive

3. Students only received the knowledge of the teacher without the initiative to find

her own

4. Lack of practice over theory learned and laboratory use are less effective in

schools

5. Low student learning outcomes.

1.3 Problem Limitation

In order to keep this research become more focused and directed, the

researcher limit the problem as following:

1. The subjects studied are students of SMA Negeri 2 Lintong Nihuta grade X

Academic Year 2015/2016.

2. The learning model used is a problem based learning model on the experimental

class and conventional learning on the control class.

3. The material that will be taught is static fluid topic.

1.4 Problem Formulation

The problem formulation of this research are:

1. How does the

Academic Year 2015/2016?

2. How does the students learning outcomes of students after teaching use the

teaching model of problem based learning in static fluid topic in class X SMAN 2

Lintong Nihuta Academic Year 2015/2016?

3. Is the students learning outcomes as a result of the influence of problem based

learning model better than conventional learning in static fluid topic in Class X

SMAN 2 Lintong Nihuta Academic Year 2015/2016?

1.5. Research Objectives

Based on the formulation of the problem, the objectives to be obtained in this

study are:

1. To know the learning outcomes of students after teaching use problem based

learning in static fluid topic in class X SMAN 2 Lintong Nihuta Academic Year

2015/2016.

2. To know the learning outcomes of students after teaching use conventional learning

in static fluid in class X SMAN 2 Lintong Nihuta the Academic Year 2015/2016.

3. To know the student learning outcomes as a result of the influence learning model

of problem-based learning is better than conventional learning in static fluid in

semester class X SMAN 2 Lintong Nihuta Academic Year 2015/2016.

1.6. Benefits of Research

This research is expected to be useful as follows:

1. For researcher, adding the in the future to improve student learning outcomes

using problem based learning.

2. For the teacher, as an alternative material to use use learning model

in the

and learning model on using problem based learning.

CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1.1 Learning Defenitions

Learning is defined as the modification or strengthening of behavior through

experiencing.learning is a process, an activity and not a result orgoal. learn not only

remember, but broader than that,the experience. Mastery of learning outcomes is not

aresult ofthe exercise, but ratherchanges inbehavior(Oemar Hamalik, 2013).

Learning isthe mostbasicactivitiesof the whole processof educationin schools.

This is becausein the learning process, the success or failure of achieving the goals of

Definition of learningoften mentionedby expertsin educational psychology, each of

which expertsgivedifferent restrictionsonlearning, oralsothat there are variationsin the

way ofexplainingand definingthe meaning oflearning. According toSkinnerin(Sutikno,

2013: 3) defines learningasa processof adaptationor adjustmentbehaviorprogressively.

AccordingSadiman, learning isa complex processthathappens to everyoneandlasts a

lifetime,

sincehewas

babyupto

the

gravelater.

result ofexperienceor practicethat isamplified. Learningis the resultofinteraction

betweenstimulusand response.In Khairani (2013:4)Muhibbin (2006) argues that

learning is the stage for change throughout the relatively sedentary behavior as a

result of experience and interaction in an environment that involves cognitive

processes.A personis considered to havelearnedsomethingifhecan showbehavioral

changes. According tothis theoryin learningwhat is important isthat theshape ofthe

inputandoutputofstimulusin the form ofa response. Stimulusiswhat the teacherto the

students, while thereactionor responsein the form ofstudent responsesto the

stimulusprovided bythe teacher. The process thatoccursbetween thestimulusand

responseis importantto notebecause it is notobservableandcan not be measured,

whichcan be observedis the stimulusand response, thereforewhat is givenby the

teacher(stimulus)

andwhat

is

receivedby

the

students(response)

mustbe

observedandmeasured.

Reviewed in general, the goal of learning by Khairani ( 2013:12) there are

nine types:

1. Studyaims to increase knowledgein various fieldsof science

2. Studyaimstoimprove theskillorprowess

3. Studyaims to developandimprove thethinking abilityof student

fromthinkingthatConvergen,

bediverging,

lateral,

natureonlyaccept

whichis

and

morewidely

4. Study aims prompts changesinsideinclude abehavior.

5. Studyaimed to changehabits, frombad togood.

remember,

open,creative,

disrespectful be reverence, hate into compassion, and so forth.

7. Study aims to change negative thought patterns and unproductive,

into a positive mindset, creative, and productive.

8. Study also aims to change the mental attitude pessimistic, easily

discouraged, complaining, be the one to be optimistic,

tenacious,persevering without complaining. this can occurwhen

learningis

directedto

amend

theintention

ofthestudywasthat

liver becomes sincere.

9. Studyaimstomodify, buildanddevelop thepersonality, character and

characterthat harmthemselves and others, intothe personality,

characterandcharacters

thathave

multiplebenefits

for

myselfandothers.

Many teachersfind itdifficultto answer the questionposed to himabout

whetherteachingisdonesuccessfully, andwhat is the evidence? Toanswer that

question,it must first bedeterminedwhat thesuccess criteriaof teaching, and then setthe

toolto increaselearning successappropriately. A performance goal reflects a valuing of

ability and normatively high outcomes. With a mastery goal, importance is attached to

developing new skills. The process of learning itself is valued, and the attainment of

mastery is seen as dependent on effort (Ames & Archer 1998). Learning

outcomesarepatterns

ofactions,values,

sense

ofunderstanding,attitudes,

a. Verbalinformationthatrevealsthe capabilities ofknowledgein the form

oflanguage,

both

verbal

respondspecifically.Theabilitydoes

and

written.

notrequire

ability

to

manipulation

intellectual skills consist of the ability to categorize, analytical

capabilities - synthesis fact the concept and develop scientific

principles. intellectual skills is the ability to perform cognitive

activity

is

distinctive.Cognitive

strategiesthatskillchannelingand

concepts andrulesto solvethe problem.Motor skillsisthe ability to

performa series ofphysicalmovementsin the affairsandcoordination, to

realize a physicalmovementautomatism.

c. Attitudeis the abilityto accept orrejectthe objectbased on the

assessmentof the object.the attitudeof the abilityto internalizevalues.

attitudeis

the

abilityto

makethese

values

asa

standardof

abilities,

affectiveandpsychomotor.

domainsisknowledge(memory),

cognitive

comprehension(understanding,

(describing, defining a relationship), synthesis(organizing, planning,

forming,

new

buildings,

andevaluation(judging).

affectivedomainisreceiving(acceptance),

responding,

organization,

characterization.

psychomotordomainincludesinitiatory,

pre-routine,

andrountinized.Psychomotoralso

includesproductive

techniques,

whileaccording

valuing,

skills,

physical,

social,

managerial,

andintellectual.

tothe

results

oflearningLindgrencoversskills,

Activitiesundertaken by studentsin the learning processis one of theimportant

factorsthataffectstudent learning outcomes. Because the principle of learning is done.

Do to change behavior, so do the activities. There is no learning if there is no activity.

That is why the activity is a principle or principles that are very important in teaching

and learning interactions. Frobel in (Sardiman, 2009: 96) states that "learning is in

need of activities to think and act".Montessoriin(Sardiman, 2009:96) assertsthat"the

moreactivityin

the

formation

beingeducatorsprovideguidanceandplanall

ofthe

the

child's

activitieswill

ownselfis,

bedonebystudents".

observations,

the

investigationhimself,

withhis

own

work,withthe

Based onsome of theviews of expertsonthat, in learning activitiesstudents

mustactivelydo. In learningare indispensableactivity. Withoutactivity, the learning

processcan

not

take

placeproperly.

Insidethere

are

several

principlesof

activityis dominatedby the teacher; wasthe view ofmodernpsychology, activitywas

dominatedby

students.PaulB.Diedrichin(Sardiman,

2009:101)

lists

1. visualactivities,whichinclude, for example, reading, taking pictures,

demonstrations,experiments, andthe work of others.

2. Oralactivities,such as: states, formulating, ask

questions,

giveadvice,opinions,conductinterviews, anddiscussionsinterruptions.

3. Listeningactivities, for examplelistening to: description,

4. conversations, discussions,music, andspeech.

5. Writingactivities,such

aswriting

stories,essays,

reports,

questionnaires, andcopying.

6. Drawingactivities,for

example:

drawing,graphics,

maps,

anddiagrams.

7. Motoractivities, which included, among others, to experiment, to

makethe construction, repairmodels, playing, gardening and farming.

8. Mental activities, for instance: respond, remember, solve problems,

analyze, look at the relationship, and make decisions.

9. Emotional activities, such as, for example, be interested, bored,

happy, excited, passionate, courageous, calm, and nervous.

StrategiesbyKemp(1995) isalearning activity thatmust be doneso thatthe

teacher and studentlearning objectivescan be achieved effectivelyandefficiently.

Similarto his opinionKemp, DickandCareyalsomention thatthelearning strategyisa set

ofinstructionalmaterialsand proceduresareusedtogetherto causelearning outcomesof

10

of

learningcertainly

neededthe

modelsof

teachingthatis

deemedcapable

of

difficulties.The modelis definedas a conceptual frameworkthat is usedas a guidelinein

conducting. Whilelearningisall efforts madeby teachers(educators) for a process

oflearningon students(Sutikno, 2013: 31).The learning modelisa whole series

ofpresentation ofteaching materialscoveringall aspectsbefore, while, and afterlearning

thatthe teacher andall therelated facilitiesare used directlyorindirectlyin the learning

process(Istarani, 2012:1). According Soekanto, et al in (Trianto, 2013: 22) points out

the purpose of the learning model is a conceptual framework that describes a

systematic procedure in organizing learning experiences to achieve specific learning

objectives, and serves as a guideline for the designers of learning and teaching in plan

learning activities.Beforedetermining thelearning model thatwillbe usedin the learning

activities, there areseveralthings you should considerin selectingteachersaccording

Rusman(2012: 133), namely:

1.

2.

3.

4.

considerationsrelated tomaterialsorlearning materials

considerationofthe angleof learners.

Otherconsiderationsthat arenon-technical.

2.2.1 Defenition and Characteristic of Problem Based Learning

According Tan(2003) problem-based learningis an

learningforthestudents'ability

to

innovationin

thinkPBLtrulyoptimizedwork

testing, anddevelopthe capacity to thinkon an on going basis. Duch, Groh, dan Alen,

described the methods used in PBL and the specific skills developed, including the

ability to think critically, analyze and solve complex, real-world problems, to find,

evaluate, and use appropriate learning resources; to work cooperatively, to

demonstrate effective communication skills, and to use content knowledge and

intellectual skills to become continual leaners (John, 2006:12).

The method usedand thespecific skills thatare developedthrough theProblem

Based Learningisincludingthe abilityto thinkcritically, analyze andsolve it, solve the

problemsthat occur ineveryday life, discover, evaluate, cooperate, indicating effective

communication

skills,

anduse

their

knowledge

andintellectual

skillstobe

11

approach that empowers and skills to develop a viable solution to a defined problem

(Jhon, 2006:12), According toArends, "teaching is based onthe problemisalearning

approachwherestudents work onauthenticproblemswith a view toconstructtheir own

knowledge, developinquiryand critical thinking skills, develop independenceandselfconfidence"(Trianto, 2010:92).

Problem-based learning is based on the premise that puzzling and ill-defined

problem situations will arouse students curiosity and thus engage them in inquiry.

Designing appropriate problem situations or planning ways to facilitate the planning

process is a critical planning task for teachers. Some developers of problem-based

instruction believe that students should have a big hand in defining the problem to be

studied, because this process will foster ownership of the problem (Krajcik &

Czerniak, 2007). Others, however, believe teachers should help students refine

preselected problems that emanate from the schools curricula and for which the

teacher

has

sufficient

materials

and

equipment

(Arends,

2001:405).

and tools, some of which are located in the classroom, others in the school library or

computer lab, and still others outside the school.Getting resources organized

andplanning the logistics of student investigations are major planning tasks for

PBL teachers. Trianto (2009:93) state that

based learning as follows:

a. Asking

questionsorproblems.

open

organizearoundprinciplesorspecificacademic

learning

teachingorganizedaroundquestions

bothsociallyimportantand

skills,

itto

problem-based

andproblems

thatare

personallymeaningfultostudents.

andallow fora wide range ofsolutionsforthe situation.

b. Focusing

onlinkages

betweendisciplines.

Althoughlearningbyproblemmay

becentered

onspecific

beinvestigatedhasbeenreallynoticeablethatin the solution, students

reviewthe issue frommanysubjects.

c. Authenticinvestigation.problem-based

learning

requires

12

hypotheses, and make predictions, collect and analyze information,

conduct experiments (if needed), making reference, and formulating

conclusions. the method of investigation used, depending on the

problem being studied.

d. Produceandshow it off.problem-based learning requires students

toproducecertain productsin the form ofreal workorartifactsin the

showthat describesorrepresents aform ofsettlement ofthe problemsthey

found.

e. collaboration.characterizedby

aproblem-based

learning

students

cooperate

to

providethe

motivationto

continuallyengage

incomplextasksand

increaseopportunitiesforsharedinquiryanddialogueandtodevelopsocial

skillsand thinking skills.

Learningsyntaxprovidespracticalstepsthat must be doneby teachers and

studentsin an activity. on teachingbased onproblemconsistsoffivemajor stepsthat

beginwiththe teacherintroducing studentswithaproblemsituationand endswith the

presentationandanalysis

ofstudent

work.AccordingIbrahim(2003:

15),

in

ofthe teacherin the classroomPBLare as follows:

1) Pose a problemororientstudentstoauthenticproblems, namely

the problem ofreal lifeday to day;

2) Facilitating/guidinginvestigations,

for

example

to

observeorperform experiments;

3) Facilitatestudentdialogue; and

4) Supportstudent learning.

Table 2.1. Syntax for Problem Based Learning according to Arends.

Phase

Phase 1:

Teacher Behavior

a. Teacher

goes

theLesson,

over

the

objectives

of

13

Orient students to

the problem.

b. Describesimportantlogisticalrequirements,

c. and motivates students toengage in problemsolving activity.

Phase 2:

Organize students

b. study tasks related to the problem.

for study.

Phase 3:

Assist independent

and group

Investiga

a. Teacher

encourages

students

gatherappropriate

to

information,

conductexperiments,

and

search

for

explanations

and solutions.

tion.

Phase 4:

Teacher assists students in planning and preparing

and

appropriate artifacts such as reports, videos, and

present

artifacts

models, and helps them share their work with others.

and exhibits.

Develop

Phase 5:

Teacher helps students to reflect on their inves

and

tigations and the processes they used.

evaluate the

problem- solving

Analyze

process.

(Arends,2009)

2.2.3. Conventional Learning

Conventional teaching methodsaretraditional learning methodsor collectively,

thelecture method, becausesince the firstof this methodhas beenused as a meansof oral

communicationbetween

teachers

andstudentsin

the

learning

processand

traditional (or conventional) teaching methods are teachercentered and include the use

of lectures and discussions while the problem solving element is presented by and/or

discussed with the instructor; the syllabus, the teaching materials and the student

assessments are determined by the tutor and transmitted to students in various

lectures. In theconventional methodof teaching historyis markedwith lectures,

accompanied

by

an

explanationas

well

asthe

division

of

tasksand

teacher's explanationsin classand perform tasksifteachersprovidepractice questionsto

14

answer method, discussion method, a methodof assignment.

According Sanjaya (2008) the conventional teaching is theoritical and

abstract, actions and behaviors of teachers based on factors outside themselves, such

individuals do something because of fear of punishment or to obtain good grades from

teachers. The teachers is a determine of learning process, the learning takes places in

the classroom and success is only measured by the test.Othermethodsareoften used

inconventional methods, among others, isexpository. Thisexpositorymethodssuch as

lectures,

wherelearning

activitiescenteredon

the

teacher

asa

conduit

of

materialandsample questionswithquestions and answers. Learnersdo notjustlistenand

take notes.Teacherstogetherlearnerspracticecompletingexercisesandthe studentsaskif

you do notunderstand. Teachers cancheck out thework ofthe studentsindividually,

explainagainto the studentsindividuallyorclassical.

In physics, fluid is defined as a substance that can flow. for instance in daily

life consists of solid, liquid and gas. Well, the term fluid includes liquids and gases,

because liquid such as water or gas substance such as air can flow. Solids such as

stone or metal can not flow so it can not be classified in a fluid.

2.3.1. Density and Specific Gravity

Density is the ratio of mass to volume of the substance. Mathematically

written:

( 2.1 )

m = mass (kg)

v = volume (m3)

15

the homogeneous solid. Iron or ice cubes, for example, have the same density in every

part. In contrast to the fluid, for example the atmosphere or water. In the Earth's

atmosphere, the higher the atmosphere from the surface Earth, its density is getting

smaller while for seawater, for example, increasing the density increases.Density of a

homogeneous fluid may depend on environmental factors such as temperature and

pressure.

Table 2.3. Density of Substance

Substance

Density (kg/m3)

Liquid

Water

1,00 x 103

Seawater

1,03 x 103

Blood

1,06 x 103

Gasoline

0,68 x 103

Mercury

13,6 x 103

Solid

Ice

0,92 x 103

Aluminium

2,70 x 103

7,8 x 103

Gold

19,3 x 103

Glass

Wood

Copper

8,9 x 103

Tin

11,3 x 103

Bone

Gas

Air

1,293

Helium

0,1786

Hydrogen

0,08994

16

Water vapor

0,6

(100o c)

substance at a temperature of 0 C and a pressure 1ATM (aka atm = atmospheric

pressure unit).

Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of

water. Density of a substance can be obtained by dividing the density to 103 kg / m3

(density of water). Density has no dimension. If the density of an object is smaller

than the density of water, then the object will float. The density of objects floating

smaller than 1. Conversely, if the density of an object is greater than the density of

water, the density is greater than 1. For this case the object will sink.

In physics, Pressure is defined as force per unit area, where the force direction

perpendicular to the surface area. Mathematically, the pressure can be expressed by

the following equation:

17

P= =

(2.2)

Where:

P= pressure (N/m2)

F= Force (N)

A= Area Wide (m2)

W= m.g

m= p.v

V= A.h

When the fluid is in a state of calm, fluid exerts a force that is perpendicular to

the entire surface of the contacts. For example, we review the water is in the glass;

every part of the water exerts a force in the direction perpendicular to the glass wall.

so every part of the water exerts a force perpendicular to each unit area of the

container they occupy, in this case the glass. Likewise, the water in the bathtub or

swimming pool water. This is one of the important properties of the fluid static. Force

per unit area is known as pressure.

How the influence of the depth (or heights) to the pressure? whether the

pressure of seawater at a depth of 10 meters is equal to the pressure of seawater at a

depth of 100 meters, for example? Review the water pressure in a container as shown

in FIG. Liquid column height is h and cross section A. How is the water pressure at

the bottom of the container? Description: w is the weight of water, h = height of the

water column in a cylindrical container, A = surface area and P is the pressure.

18

=

= m=

(2.3)

W = mg = hAg

(2.4)

r = density

m = mass

g = gravity acceleration

V = hA = volume of liquid column (h = high, A = area) If we enter into the equation of

pressure, it will be obtained:

P= =

P=

P = pa +

(2.5)

(2.6)

(2.7)

where:

Pa = Atmosfir Pressure

gh = hydrostatic pressure

In the Figure 2.1 is not portrayed Pa, but in reality, if the container containing

the open water on the surface of the water works also atmospheric pressure, which is

directed downwards. Depending on the surface of the container is open to an extent. If

the surface of the container opens upward like in the picture above, the direction is

19

downward atmospheric pressure. Based on the above equation, it appears that the

pressure is proportional to the density and the depth of the liquid (the acceleration of

gravity is worth anyway). If the depth of the liquid substance growing, then the

pressure will also increase. Remember that the liquid is almost not compressed due to

the weight of the fluid above it, so that the density of the fluid is constant on every

surface. If the altitude difference is very large (for the deep sea), the mass of a few

different types. But if an altitude difference is not too big, basically the same density

of the liquid (or the difference is very small so it gets ignored). Use the above

equation to calculate the difference in pressure on each different depths.

Dp = rgDh

(2.8)

Where:

Dp = Pressure Difference

Dh = Height Difference

2.3.2.1. Atmospheric Pressure (Air Pressure)

As each fluid, the pressure of Earth's atmosphere also changes with depth (or

heights). But the pressure of Earth's atmosphere is rather different from the liquid.

Changes in the density of the liquid is very small for the difference is not very great

depths, so the density of the liquid being equal. This differs from the density of

Earth's atmosphere. The density of the earth's atmosphere varies substantially to the

height. The density of the air at different heights so that we can not calculate the

atmospheric pressure using the equation that has been passed over. Moreover there is

no clear boundary of the atmosphere where h can be measured. Atmospheric pressure

also varies with the weather. If so, how do we know the size of air pressure? to

determine the atmospheric pressure, we perform measurements. Evangelista Torricelli

(1608-1647), disciple of Galileo, create a method on how to measure atmospheric

pressure in 1643 using a mercury barometer handiwork. Barometer in the form of a

long glass tube, where the tube is filled mercury. Well, the glass tubes containing

mercury were reversed in a dish that has also been filled mercury.

20

When the glass tubes containing mercury behind it at the lower end of the tube

(in the image located at the top) is not filled with mercury, it was merely the mercury

vapor pressure is very small thus ignored (p2 = 0). On the surface of the mercury

inside the plate there is atmospheric pressure, which is directed to the bottom

(atmospheric mercury that are pressing on the plate). The atmospheric pressure

disprove a column of mercury that are in glass pipe. In the figure, denoted by po

atmospheric pressure. The amount of atmospheric pressure can be calculated using the

equation:

(2.9)

Based on the results of measurements, the average atmospheric pressure at sea

level is 1,013 x 105 N / m2. The amount of atmospheric pressure at sea level is used

to define the units of other pressures, namely atm (atmosphere). So 1 atm = 1.013 x

21

105 N / m2 = 101.3 kPa (kPa = kilo pascal). Another pressure unit is bar (often used

in meteorology). 1 bar = 1.00 x 105 N / m2 = 100 kPa. Measurements using a

principle that has been shown by Torricelli above. High mercury column that is used

is 76 cm (the atmospheric pressure can only withstand a column of mercury is high

only reached 76.0 cm), where the temperature mercury is used appropriately 0 C and

the magnitude of the gravitational acceleration of 9.8 m / s2. the density of mercury at

these conditions was 13.6 x 103 kg / m3.

On the subject of pressure on the fluid, each fluid always put pressure on all

the objects that come into contact with it. The water we enter into a glass will put

pressure on the glass walls. Pascal principle states that the pressure exerted on the

fluid in a closed place will be forwarded equal to every part of the fluid and the walls

of the container. Mathematically it can be written as follows:

p entry = p exit

F / A entry = F / A exit

where:

P = pressure

F = Force

A = Area

22

Said entry represents a given pressure, represents the pressure while the exit

out is forwarded. Guided by the principle of Pascal, humans have produced some

tools, whether simple or sophisticated to help simplify life. Some of these include

Hydraulic Jack, Hydraulic Lifts, Hydraulic Brake.

Floating

The direction of the buoyant force is upward, the direction of the lift

force that we give these stones to stone or any object that is raised in the water

feels lighter.

Where:

F spring = spring force, w = gravity stone, F1 = force exerted fluid at the top of the

rock, F2 = the force applied fluid at the bottom of the stone,

F floating = buoyant force.

F buoyancy is the total force given the fluid in the rock (F floating = F2-F1).

Directions buoyant force (F buoyant) to the top, because the force exerted on the

bottom of the stone fluid (F2) is greater than the force given the fluid at the top of the

23

rock (F1). This is because the fluid pressure at the bottom is greater than the fluid

pressure at the top of the rock.

Objects inserted into a fluid such as water, for example, has a smaller weight

than when the object is not within the fluid.

In the picture above, it appears an object floating in the water. Fluid that is

beneath the object has a greater pressure than the fluid located in the upper body. This

is because the fluid which is under the object has a depth that is greater than the fluid

which is above objects (h2 > h1).

The amount of fluid pressure at depth h2 is:

P2

(2.10)

F2 = P2 A = gh2A

(2.11)

P1

F1 = P1 A = gh1A

(2.12)

24

F2 = force exerted by the fluid on the bottom body, F1 = force exerted by the

fluid in the upper body, A = surface area of objects. The difference between F2 and

F1 is the total force provided by fluid in the body, which we are familiar with the term

buoyant force. The magnitude of the buoyant force is:

F buoyancy = F2 F1

F buoyancy = (gh2A) - (gh1A)

F buoyancy =gA (h2- h1)

F buoyancy = FgAh

F buoyancy = FgV

(2.13)

where :

F = Fluid density

g = gravity

V = the volume of objects that exist in a fluid

because:

Then the equation stating the magnitude of the buoyant force (Floating) above we can

write into:

F buoyant =

m = V

F buoyant =

(2.14)

F buoyant = WF

(2.15)

mFg = wF = weight of the fluid that has the same volume as the volume of the

submerged object. Based on the above equation, we can say that the buoyant force on

an object equals the weight of the displaced fluid. Remember that what is meant by

fluid displaced here is the volume of fluid equal to the volume of the object is

immersed in a fluid. In the picture above, using the illustration in which all parts of

the object immersed in a fluid (water).

25

If the object is inserted into the fluid, floating, in which part of the

submerged object is only partially the displaced fluid volume = volume of the

26

submerged body parts in the fluid. No matter how the shape of the object and the

object, all will experience the same thing. It is works of Archimedes (287-212 BC),

who is now down to us and is better known by the nickname "Archimedes principle".

Archimedes' principle states that:

When an object wholly or partially immersed in a liquid, the liquid will

provide an upward force (buoyancy force) on the body, in which the magnitude of the

upward force (buoyancy force) equal to the weight of liquid displaced.

You can prove Archimedes' principle by experimenting. Incorporate water into

a container. Keep up the overflowing bucket completely filled up with water. After

that, simply input an object into the water. Once inserted into the body of water, then

some of the water will be spilled. The volume of water that spilled = volume of the

object is immersed in the water. If all parts of the body immersed in water, the volume

of water that spilled = volume of the object. But if the object is only immersed in part,

the volume of water that spilled = volume of parts object submerged in water The

magnitude of the buoyancy given by the water on the body = weight of water is

spilled (heavy water was spilled = w = m water g = density of water x volume of

water that spilled x acceleration of gravity). The volume of water that spilled =

volume of the object is immersed in water.

2.3.5. Tension Surface

Surface tension is a force caused by an object that works on the surface of the

liquid along the surface that touches it. liquid surface tension caused by the forces

acting on the liquid. The surface tension can be defined as the force at the surface of

the liquid per unit length. Mathematically, a large surface tension for objects that have

one surface can be written in the following equation:

(2.16)

F = surface force (N)

L = Long surfaces (m)

27

The surface tension associated with events that are called cohesion (attractive

forces between like molecules) and adhesion (attractive forces between the molecules

do not like). Look at the paper clip above which is above water and not sink despite

having a density greater than the density of water. In most liquids, each molecule is

pulled equally in all directions by its neighboring liquid molecules, resulting in a net

force of zero. The molecules at the surface does not have other molecules on all sides

and therefore are drawn into. This creates some internal pressure and forcing the

liquid to the surface of the contraction to the area around.

The surface tension was responsible for the shape of liquid droplets. Although

easily deformed, water droplets tend to be drawn into a spherical shape by the

cohesive strength of the surface layer. In the absence of other forces, including

gravity, almost all of the liquid drops would be a perfect round shape. The round

shape minimizes "wall tension" required of the surface layer in accordance with the

law of Laplace.

28

A piece of wire is bent to form the letter U. On the legs of the wire in a wire

pairs such that it can be shifted. When the wire is dipped in a solution of soap and lift

back, then the second wire will be drawn up (wire should be light). In order for a

second wire does not move up, you have to hold it with force towards the bottom. If

the second wire length l and a soap solution touching two surfaces, the surface tension

of the soap worked throughout 2l. The surface tension () in this case is defined as the

ratio between the surface tension force (F) and the surface length (2l) where the work

force. Mathematically it can be written as follows.

(2.17)

In general, the value of the surface tension of the liquid is reduced by an increase in

temperature.

2.3.6. Capillarity

Capillarity is the event of a rise or fall of liquid in the capillary tube (narrow

pipe). Capillarity is affected by the force of cohesion and adhesion between the liquid

by capillary walls. Because within the capillary adhesion force between the water and

glass particles is greater than the cohesive forces between the particles of water, then

the water will rise in the capillary. Instead mercury tends to fall within the capillary, if

the force of cohesion is greater than the force of adhesion. The increase or decrease of

liquid at the capillary tube due to the surface tension () are working on a

circumferential contiguity of liquid in a pipe.

Figure 2.8.

29

(a) if the contact angle less than 90 degrees, the surface of the liquid in the

capillary tube will rise. (b) if the contact angle greater than 90 degrees, the surface of

the liquid within the capillary is going down.

Symptoms capillarity widely used in everyday life. For example, rising

through the wick kerosene stove, sucking water by plants (rising water from the roots

to the leaves through the xylem in the stem) and events sucking water by blotting

paper or cloth. Besides favorable capillarity symptoms there is also a disadvantage,

for example when it rained, water would be creeping up through the pores of the wall

so that it becomes damp. Damp walls is not good for health.

2.3.7. Viscosity

Viscosity is a measure of viscosity of the fluid that states the size of the

friction in the fluid. Liquid viscosity can be determined quantitatively with a quantity

called the coefficient of viscosity (). International unit for viscosity coefficient is Ns

/ m2 or Pascal seconds (Pa s). When an object moves with a speed v in a viscous fluid

whose viscosity coefficient , the object will experience a frictional force of fluid Fs =

k v , where k is a constant that depends on the shape of geometric objects.

Based on laboratory calculations, in 1845, Sir George Stokes showed that for

objects that form a sphere with a geometric value of k = 6 r. When the k value is

inserted into the equation, then the equation is obtained as follows:

Fs =

The above equation became known as Stokes' law.

(2.18)

30

Where:Fs

The concept ofsuccess or failureof studentsin mastering thesubject mattercan

not be separatedfromhowtheycan learn the materialwell andalso the abilityof

teachersin teachingthem. For thatteachers shouldusestrategies or modelsof appropriate

learningfor learningmore productiveand meaningful. The conceptual frameworkwill

be describedin this studydistinguishedin the form ofsecond-class treatmentina

population sample.

Oneweakness ofthestudyundertaken by theteachersis the lack ofeffort to

developstudents'ability

to

think.

Duringthislearning

amodel of learningthat students havethe ability to thinkand able to solveproblems on

their own, independent learnersandperformersin real life.Control of classroom

teaching is done in a conventional manner which is dominated by lectures, question

and answer, notes, and work on the problems. It makes it less attractive learning and

students feel intimidated in learning activities that feel unable to learn well. And in the

experimental class used learning methods problem based learning can be used as a

tool to approach the students with the surrounding environment because in this

learning method students are trained to look for problems that exist in the form of

working groups and they have to present the results of group discussion in the form of

a report.

On learning based on problem students are required to solve the problems

presented by digging as much information, then analyze and find solutions to existing

problems. Learning by problems orient students to the matter, multidisciplinary,

requiring the cooperation, and produce work. If thestatistical analysisshows the

resultsof students inthe experimental classis better thanstudent learning outcomes

ingradecontrol, it can be saidproblem based learningcanaffect student learning

outcomes.

31

Based on conceptual framework above, the hypothesis of this study is the

students learning outcomes in using problem based learning model greater than

conventional learning in Static Fluid topic for class XI SMA Negeri 2 Lintong Nihuta,

Academic Year 2015/2016.

32

CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHOD

3.1.1. Research Location

The research conducted in SMA N.2 Lintong Nihuta grade XI semester II that

were active in the Academic Year 2015/2016, on Jln.Dolok Sanggul Siborong

borong.

3.1.2. Research Time

The time of this research is adjusted suitable with the schedule allocated in the

senior high school when the target materials of static fluid are being taught and at the

same time, the research is conducted without interference the students and the

teachers activity in the selected school.

3.2. Research Population and Research Sample

3.2.1. Research Population

The populations of this rsearch are all students in grade XI of science program

in SMA Negeri 2 Lintong Nihuta, that consist of 8 classes with the student average is

20 students every class.

3.2.2. Research Sample

The research sampleconsistedoftwoclasses thatrepresent the populationby

havingthe

same

characteristics.

Samplingin

researchdrawn

at

randomby

students20 studentsandwere treatedusing themethods of learningProblem Based

Learning(PBL)

andas

acontrol

classisthe

classXIwith

thenumber

of20

33

The variables in this research, there are two kinds, namely the independent

variable and the dependent variable. The independent variable is a variable that can be

manipulated or can be used as a type of treatment, while the dependent variable is the

result of a result of the influence of the independent variables. In this study can be

explained that:

1).

As

the

independent

variable(treatment),

the

learning

methodProblem

2).

As

the

dependent

variable,

namely

thestudent

learning

outcomeS

againststaticfluidmaterial.

3.4.1 Research Type

This research is aquasiexperimental(quasi-experimental) research thatis

intended todetermine whether there isa resultofsomething that isimposed onthe

subject ofthe students. This study aimed todetermine whether or notthe influence

ofthe learning modelProblem Based Learning(PBL) onstudent learning outcomes.

3.4.2. Research Design

The study involvedtwoclasses, namelythe experimental classandcontrol class,

wheretwo classesare givendifferent treatment. Given theexperimental classteaching

methodsProblem

givenconventional

Based

Learning(PBL),

learning

models.

while

To

the

the

control

determinestudent

classwas

learning

thatis givenbeforetreatment(T1) is calledpre-test andtestafter treatment(T2) called

post-test. According Sukardi (2012 : 103-107) The design ofthis study as follows :

34

Class

Experiment

Control

Explanation:

Pre-test

T1

Treatment

X1

Post-test

T2

T1

X2

T2

T1

: Pre - Test

T2

: Post test

X1

X2

: Conventional Method

The steps of this Research procedures follows:

1. Preparation step include,

Arrange the research schedule according to the schedule at the schedule at the

school

Prepare data collection equipments

Choose population and take the sample

Working together with the teachers.

Implementing the learning,

For experiment class, researcher teach using problem based learning model.

For control class, researcher teach using conventional learning.

Give post-test for experiment and control class,

4. Conclude the research result.

35

Begin

Population

Sample

Experiment class

Control class

Pre-tes

Experiment class

Control

class

Conventional

learning

Problem Based

Learning

Post- test

Data

Tabulation

Data Analysis

conclution

Finish

36

The instrument usedtocollectdata fromstudents' learningisstudentachievement

teston the subject ofstaticfluid, whichconsistsof15multiple choicequestions inthe form

of thefive options(a, b, c, dande). Before the instrument is used, the instrument is

tested firstly. The data that will be analyzed from the results are difficulity level of

questions items, the different index of items, the validity of the items, and reliability

of the instrument.

Table 3.2. The Specipication learning outcomes test in static fluid topic

Nb

Material

1.

Density

2.

Pressure

3.

Pascal Principle

4.

Archimedes Principle

Total

Cognitive

C1

C2

1

1

1

Amount

C3

1

1

C4

1

1

C5

1

C6

1

1

1

2

2

4

1

3

1

2

4

5

1

5

15

Description:

C1 : Remembering

C2 : Understanding

C3 : Applying

C4 : Analyzing

C5 : Evaluating

C6 : Creating

donetoobtaindata collection toolthat isvalid, reliable, and canbe justified scientifically.

3.6.1.Instrument of Students Learning Activity

The instrument usedto measurestudent activityisobservation. Thisinstrumentis

used

torecord

theactivity

ofstudents

duringthe

learning

takes

place.

conductedto

determine

thestudent

activityduringlearning.

Thebenefitsof

learning activity is aimed to observe all the students activitas long as follow the

teaching and learning process.

Table 3.3. Students learning activity assesment

37

Nb

.

1.

Indicator

Assesment

Orient the

aspect

Oral activity

problem

Descriptor

Scoring

a. Show the

problem not

seriously

b. Show the

exactly problem

c. Show the right

problem

seriously

2.

Formulate the

Writing activity

hypothesis

3.

Identify the

Motor activity

problem

(make

construction)

4.

Analyzed the

Motor activity

problem

(experiment)

a. Formulate the

hypothesis

unseriously

b. Formulate the

hypothesis

c. Formulate the

hypothesis

completely

a. Identify the

problem

unseriously

b. Identify the

problem

c. Identify the

problem

compitely

a. Analyzed the

Problem

unseriously

b. Analyzed the

problem but not

complite

c. Analyzed

the

problem

5.

Solve the

Oral activity

problem

(presentation)

complitely

a. Solve the

problem

wrong

b. Solve the

problem

c. Solve the

problem

but

38

6.

Present the

Writing activity

conclusion

complitely

a. Present the

result but wrong

b. Present the

result

c. Present the

correct result

each student is converted into a form value using the following formula:

value =

100

To determine the criteria of students learning activity assesment, so use the following

criteria:

Value in number

Explanation

80-100

Very Active

60-79

Active

40-59

Active Enough

0-40

Less

Table 3.4 Criteria Assesmentof students Learning Activity

Validity is a measure that indicates the levels of validity or validity of

something instruments. An instrument is valid or invalid have high validity.

Conversely, the less valid instrument means having a low validity. An instrument is

39

valid if it can reveal the data of the variables studied properly. High-low validity of

the instrument indicates the extent to which the data collected does not deviate from

the description of the description in question (Arikunto, 2012: 79)

3.7. Data Analysis Techniques

The steps in the data analysis techniques are:

3.7.1. Determine Average Value

To determine the average of value of each sample group used the formula:

x

Description:

x

n

= Mean of Value

i

= Amount of Sample ( student)

To perform the standard deviation formula used is :

S2 =

where:

S2

= Standard deviation

X2

Aims to determinewhether the samplecame froma homogenouspopulation.

AccordingSudjana

(2005:

249),

totestthe

homogeneity

S12

F 2

S2

ofthe

population

40

Where: S12

S 22

The test criteria are received Ho: the data come from a homogeneus

population if Fcount<Ftable obtained from the distribution lis F with = 0,1.

Here is a real level for testing.

3.7.4. Normality Test

Normality test is used to determine the population from which the sample

came from. Normality test is used to determine whether the samples were taken from

normally distributed population or not. AccordingSudjana(2005: 466) stepsare as follows:

a.

using the formula:

Zi

xi x

S

b.

S =Standard deviation

Z =RawNumbers

Xi= Thestudent exams

Forrawnumbersare

calculatedby

usingthe

standard

normal

F ( Z i ) P(Z Z i ) .

c.

Z i ifthis proportionis expressedby S ( Z i ) , then:

thequantity Z 1 , Z 2 ,........, Z n Z

n

Calculates the difference F ( Z i ) S ( Z i ) then determine theabsoluteprice.

Taken the greatestprice between the differencethe absolute prices.the

S (Z i )

d.

e.

thelist L critical value to the test Liliefors. Criteria for the test are:

IfLCount<Ltable sample isnormally distributed.

IfLcount

>Ltable

sample

isnotnormally

distributed.

Ftable F1 ( smalllesrt varians -1, bigggest varians - 1)

41

3.7.5.1. Pre-test ability (two tail test)

T tests wereused to determine thetwopartiessimilarityinitial abilityof

studentsin both groupsof samples. The hypothesistestedin the form:

Ho : 1 2

similarity of ability

Ha : 1 2 : Experiment class and contol class have not same

similarity of ability

1 = the average value of the experimental class

hypothesis use differenttest with formula :

t

x1 x 2

1

1

S

n1 n 2

(Sudjana, 2005:239)

S2

n1 1 S12 n2 1 S 22

n1 n2 2

Where:

x1

n2 =

S2 =

t = value of t calculation

with the criteria is:

Ho accept if

1

1

2

t t

1

1

2

where

1

1

2

42

tcalculate compare with ttable get from t table list to = 0,05 and independent degree

dk n1 n 2 2 , so have the same initial ability of student.

Ha accept if tcalculate>ttable (ttable get from distribution t list for = 0,05), it is mean

have not same initial ability of student.

3.7.5.2. Post-Test Ability Test

T test two parts used to knowing the influence of problem based learning

modelon students achievement.

The form of hypothesis will be test is:

H0 :

1 2

Ha :

1 2

If distribution normal data have the variance homogen so the hypothesis in the

research use t test with the formula is(Sudjana 2005:239):

x1 x 2

t

S

S2

1

1 with:

n1 n 2

n1 1 S12 n2 1 S 22

n1 n2 2

Ho accept if t < t

independent degree (dk) =

t-

where

with

for

another value of t Ho not accept, so learning outcomes using problem based learning

model greater than conventional learning.

43

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