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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1.1.

Background
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of

knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits. Education holds the important role to
produce Indonesian human resources, like as individu or as society because education
can improve and develop the quality of human resources. Improving the quality of
education deserve serious attention and careful. Therefore, various attempts have been
made to improve the quality of education. One is the developmentof research in the
field of education, especially in the teaching-learning process (Sanjaya 2006:1-2).
Education is expected to produce human resources highly skilled, including critical
thinking, logical, creative, and willingness to work together effective that can be
developed through education of physics.
National education according to law No. 20, 2003, serves to develop the
ability and character development and civilization of the nation's dignity in the minds
of the people. To that end, education aims to develop students' potentials to become a
man of faith, and fear of God Almighty, the noble character, healthy, knowledgeable,
skilled, creative, independent, and become citizens of a democratic and responsible
( Mulyasa, 2013:20)
Physics as a science is one of the subjects related to nature so demanding in
learning the necessary investigations in the form of an experiment on such
knowledge.The science and its applications are part of daily life to make our life
better and therefore the development of an individuals understanding of science and
its applications is one of the objectives of science instruction. Learning physics in
schools is still dominated by the activities of teachers. In the sense of active teachers
to teach and learners passive in learning (Hamid, 2011). Therefore, to develop a field
of physics necessary supporting infrastructure such as laboratory equipment and
instruments sufficient material physics experiments, the library is sufficient to develop
the basic thinking of students, and other learning support at school. Until now most
schools will have to clean that purpose. However, the learning outcomes of students
in studying physics has not shown success and satisfaction.

Learning outcomes are also associated with student life perspective. A fact
that when the children were young, their world is full of questions. In various facets
of life, they get the idea that being an adult means left the world questioning to enter
the world know the answer. Schools tend to encourage the movement of question to
answer because success by simply placing the correct answer blank or mark the
correct response. Question in school tend to have one correct answer and questions
that no response is rare. Therefore, if we want to know how to learn is more important
than knowing all the answers, then we must realize that a good question is more
important than the right answer. Teaching students to question and ask questions of
quality is more important than the truth of the answers they could provide. According
to Nasution (2000: 94) in Wahyuni and Siswanto, 2010), The lesson will be
interesting and successful, when linked with experiences in which they can see, feel,
give, do, try, think, and so forth. In this case the learning approach used in schools are
less precise.
Observations has been conducted by researchers on students of SMAN 2
Lintong Nihuta, there are some problems that are found in physics learning.
Perspective physics students will be unfavorable. Learning physics is often a
frightening specter for them, filled with formulas, interesting but difficult to
understand the study, there are even some opinion reveals that physics is only for
scientists. Furthermore, the way of teaching physics teacher in the classroom tends to
take notes and work on the problems.
Monotonous teaching methods is the reason why the study of physics be
learning less interesting for students. Moreover, when given a problem most students
do not get to read about and determine what formula is used. Hence develop
assumptions on students that physics is suitable only be learned by those who want to
be a scientist or a physicist more details. At the time of teaching and learning
activities take place, the activity of students in working on the problems of physics
given by the teacher is still lacking, although still capitalized, see the notes and only
some students were active. Another case when the teacher asked the students if the
material presented is understandable, students only silence in other words no student
is given a definite answer. Additionally, when a time the teacher gave a
demonstration, students were also less active in its implementation. It shows students
just received the knowledge of the teacher without the initiative to find their own.
Furthermore, from the results of tests conducted by teachers of physics, it is known

that the results of student learning about the material of static Fluid has not reached
the expected target. Information about the physics student learning outcomes obtained
from interviews, the average value for 3 years in a row has not reached the minimum
completeness criteria. From this it appears that student learning outcomes are still low
in physics.
Problem-based learning model is an instructional model that presents a
contextual problem that stimulate learners to learn. In classes that implement
problem-based learning, students work in teams to solve real-world problems . So,
student able to solve the problem and get the knowledge and important concept by
their selves ( L. A Kharida, A. Rusilowati, K. Pratiknyo, 2009).
Problem based learning aims improve students ability to work in a team,
showing their coordinated abilities to access information and turn it into viable
knowledge ( Ibrahim Bilgin, Erdal Sinocak, Mustafa Sozbilir, 2009). PBL will happen
with meaningful learning. Learners who learn to solve a problem then they will apply
the knowledge possessed or sought to know the necessary knowledge. Learning can
be more meaningful and can be expanded when students are dealing with a situation
in which the concept is applied. PBL can improve critical thinking skills, foster
initiatives learners in work, internal motivation to learn, and can develop interpersonal
relationships in the working group. In the fact shows students are less able to relate
the information that has been obtained from the teacher with information that will be
studied and related to everyday life. This relates to the lack of practice over theory
learned and laboratory use are not effective in schools.
Based on the explanation above, the researcher want to do a research with the
title The Effect of Problem Based Learning Model on Students Achievement on
Static Fluid topic at year XI of SMA Negeri 2 Lintong Nihuta Academic Year
2015/2016

1.2 Problem Identification


Based on the background of the problem, problem can be identified as
follows::
1. Teaching and learning process is still teacher-centered.
2. Students assume the physics is a difficult subject and less attractive

3. Students only received the knowledge of the teacher without the initiative to find
her own
4. Lack of practice over theory learned and laboratory use are less effective in
schools
5. Low student learning outcomes.
1.3 Problem Limitation
In order to keep this research become more focused and directed, the
researcher limit the problem as following:
1. The subjects studied are students of SMA Negeri 2 Lintong Nihuta grade X
Academic Year 2015/2016.
2. The learning model used is a problem based learning model on the experimental
class and conventional learning on the control class.
3. The material that will be taught is static fluid topic.
1.4 Problem Formulation
The problem formulation of this research are:
1. How does the

students learning outcomes of students after teaching use

conventional learning in static fluid topic class X in SMAN 2 Lintong Nihuta


Academic Year 2015/2016?
2. How does the students learning outcomes of students after teaching use the
teaching model of problem based learning in static fluid topic in class X SMAN 2
Lintong Nihuta Academic Year 2015/2016?
3. Is the students learning outcomes as a result of the influence of problem based
learning model better than conventional learning in static fluid topic in Class X
SMAN 2 Lintong Nihuta Academic Year 2015/2016?
1.5. Research Objectives
Based on the formulation of the problem, the objectives to be obtained in this
study are:
1. To know the learning outcomes of students after teaching use problem based
learning in static fluid topic in class X SMAN 2 Lintong Nihuta Academic Year
2015/2016.

2. To know the learning outcomes of students after teaching use conventional learning
in static fluid in class X SMAN 2 Lintong Nihuta the Academic Year 2015/2016.
3. To know the student learning outcomes as a result of the influence learning model
of problem-based learning is better than conventional learning in static fluid in
semester class X SMAN 2 Lintong Nihuta Academic Year 2015/2016.
1.6. Benefits of Research
This research is expected to be useful as follows:
1. For researcher, adding the in the future to improve student learning outcomes
using problem based learning.
2. For the teacher, as an alternative material to use use learning model

in the

classroom for improving student learning outcomes, and to developing teaching


and learning model on using problem based learning.

CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Theoritical Framework


2.1.1 Learning Defenitions
Learning is defined as the modification or strengthening of behavior through
experiencing.learning is a process, an activity and not a result orgoal. learn not only
remember, but broader than that,the experience. Mastery of learning outcomes is not
aresult ofthe exercise, but ratherchanges inbehavior(Oemar Hamalik, 2013).
Learning isthe mostbasicactivitiesof the whole processof educationin schools.
This is becausein the learning process, the success or failure of achieving the goals of

education depends on the learning process experienced by students as learners.


Definition of learningoften mentionedby expertsin educational psychology, each of
which expertsgivedifferent restrictionsonlearning, oralsothat there are variationsin the
way ofexplainingand definingthe meaning oflearning. According toSkinnerin(Sutikno,
2013: 3) defines learningasa processof adaptationor adjustmentbehaviorprogressively.
AccordingSadiman, learning isa complex processthathappens to everyoneandlasts a
lifetime,

sincehewas

babyupto

the

gravelater.

Learning isa relatively permanent changein behaviororpotentialbehavioras a


result ofexperienceor practicethat isamplified. Learningis the resultofinteraction
betweenstimulusand response.In Khairani (2013:4)Muhibbin (2006) argues that
learning is the stage for change throughout the relatively sedentary behavior as a
result of experience and interaction in an environment that involves cognitive
processes.A personis considered to havelearnedsomethingifhecan showbehavioral
changes. According tothis theoryin learningwhat is important isthat theshape ofthe
inputandoutputofstimulusin the form ofa response. Stimulusiswhat the teacherto the
students, while thereactionor responsein the form ofstudent responsesto the
stimulusprovided bythe teacher. The process thatoccursbetween thestimulusand
responseis importantto notebecause it is notobservableandcan not be measured,
whichcan be observedis the stimulusand response, thereforewhat is givenby the
teacher(stimulus)

andwhat

is

receivedby

the

students(response)

mustbe

observedandmeasured.

2.1.2. Learning purposes


Reviewed in general, the goal of learning by Khairani ( 2013:12) there are
nine types:
1. Studyaims to increase knowledgein various fieldsof science
2. Studyaimstoimprove theskillorprowess
3. Studyaims to developandimprove thethinking abilityof student
fromthinkingthatConvergen,
bediverging,

lateral,

natureonlyaccept

whichis

and

morewidely

innovativecreative, dare tothink it odd, unusual.


4. Study aims prompts changesinsideinclude abehavior.
5. Studyaimed to changehabits, frombad togood.

remember,
open,creative,

6. Study aims to change attitudes from negative to positive,


disrespectful be reverence, hate into compassion, and so forth.
7. Study aims to change negative thought patterns and unproductive,
into a positive mindset, creative, and productive.
8. Study also aims to change the mental attitude pessimistic, easily
discouraged, complaining, be the one to be optimistic,
tenacious,persevering without complaining. this can occurwhen
learningis

directedto

amend

theintention

ofthestudywasthat

learningand workare part ofreligious activities, and as a result, the


liver becomes sincere.
9. Studyaimstomodify, buildanddevelop thepersonality, character and
characterthat harmthemselves and others, intothe personality,
characterandcharacters

thathave

multiplebenefits

for

myselfandothers.

2.1.3. Learning Achievement


Many teachersfind itdifficultto answer the questionposed to himabout
whetherteachingisdonesuccessfully, andwhat is the evidence? Toanswer that
question,it must first bedeterminedwhat thesuccess criteriaof teaching, and then setthe
toolto increaselearning successappropriately. A performance goal reflects a valuing of
ability and normatively high outcomes. With a mastery goal, importance is attached to
developing new skills. The process of learning itself is valued, and the attainment of
mastery is seen as dependent on effort (Ames & Archer 1998). Learning
outcomesarepatterns

ofactions,values,

sense

ofunderstanding,attitudes,

appreciationandskills. Gagnereferthinking, learning outcomes include:


a. Verbalinformationthatrevealsthe capabilities ofknowledgein the form
oflanguage,

both

verbal

respondspecifically.Theabilitydoes

and

written.
notrequire

ofsymbols, problem solving andapplication of the rules.

ability

to

manipulation

b. Intellectual skills is the ability to present concepts and symbols.


intellectual skills consist of the ability to categorize, analytical
capabilities - synthesis fact the concept and develop scientific
principles. intellectual skills is the ability to perform cognitive
activity

is

distinctive.Cognitive

strategiesthatskillchannelingand

directinghis owncognitiveactivity. Thesecapabilitiesinclude the useof


concepts andrulesto solvethe problem.Motor skillsisthe ability to
performa series ofphysicalmovementsin the affairsandcoordination, to
realize a physicalmovementautomatism.
c. Attitudeis the abilityto accept orrejectthe objectbased on the
assessmentof the object.the attitudeof the abilityto internalizevalues.
attitudeis

the

abilityto

makethese

values

asa

standardof

behavior.according toBloom, learning outcomes includecognitive


abilities,

affectiveandpsychomotor.

domainsisknowledge(memory),

cognitive

comprehension(understanding,

explaining, summarizing, for example), application(apply),analysis


(describing, defining a relationship), synthesis(organizing, planning,
forming,

new

buildings,

andevaluation(judging).

affectivedomainisreceiving(acceptance),

responding,

organization,

characterization.

psychomotordomainincludesinitiatory,

pre-routine,

andrountinized.Psychomotoralso

includesproductive

techniques,
whileaccording

valuing,

skills,

physical,

social,

managerial,

andintellectual.

tothe

results

oflearningLindgrencoversskills,

information, understanding,andattitudes (suprijono,2009:5).

2.1.4. Learning Activity


Activitiesundertaken by studentsin the learning processis one of theimportant
factorsthataffectstudent learning outcomes. Because the principle of learning is done.
Do to change behavior, so do the activities. There is no learning if there is no activity.
That is why the activity is a principle or principles that are very important in teaching
and learning interactions. Frobel in (Sardiman, 2009: 96) states that "learning is in
need of activities to think and act".Montessoriin(Sardiman, 2009:96) assertsthat"the

moreactivityin

the

formation

beingeducatorsprovideguidanceandplanall

ofthe
the

child's

activitieswill

ownselfis,

bedonebystudents".

Rousseau(Sardiman, 2009:96) explains that"all knowledge is obtained byits own


observations,

the

investigationhimself,

withhis

own

work,withthe

facilitythatcreateditself, both spiritually andtechnically".


Based onsome of theviews of expertsonthat, in learning activitiesstudents
mustactivelydo. In learningare indispensableactivity. Withoutactivity, the learning
processcan

not

take

placeproperly.

Insidethere

are

several

principlesof

learningactivitiesorientedview ofpsychology. In the view ofthe science oflonglife,


activityis dominatedby the teacher; wasthe view ofmodernpsychology, activitywas
dominatedby

students.PaulB.Diedrichin(Sardiman,

2009:101)

lists

thatcontain177kinds ofstudent activities, among others, can be classifiedas follows:


1. visualactivities,whichinclude, for example, reading, taking pictures,
demonstrations,experiments, andthe work of others.
2. Oralactivities,such as: states, formulating, ask

questions,

giveadvice,opinions,conductinterviews, anddiscussionsinterruptions.
3. Listeningactivities, for examplelistening to: description,
4. conversations, discussions,music, andspeech.
5. Writingactivities,such
aswriting
stories,essays,
reports,
questionnaires, andcopying.
6. Drawingactivities,for
example:

drawing,graphics,

maps,

anddiagrams.
7. Motoractivities, which included, among others, to experiment, to
makethe construction, repairmodels, playing, gardening and farming.
8. Mental activities, for instance: respond, remember, solve problems,
analyze, look at the relationship, and make decisions.
9. Emotional activities, such as, for example, be interested, bored,
happy, excited, passionate, courageous, calm, and nervous.

2.1.5. Learning model


StrategiesbyKemp(1995) isalearning activity thatmust be doneso thatthe
teacher and studentlearning objectivescan be achieved effectivelyandefficiently.
Similarto his opinionKemp, DickandCareyalsomention thatthelearning strategyisa set
ofinstructionalmaterialsand proceduresareusedtogetherto causelearning outcomesof

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students (Rusman,2012:132). Toovercomethe various problemsinthe implementation


of

learningcertainly

neededthe

modelsof

teachingthatis

deemedcapable

of

overcomingthe difficultiesteacherscarry outthe task of teachingand learners learning


difficulties.The modelis definedas a conceptual frameworkthat is usedas a guidelinein
conducting. Whilelearningisall efforts madeby teachers(educators) for a process
oflearningon students(Sutikno, 2013: 31).The learning modelisa whole series
ofpresentation ofteaching materialscoveringall aspectsbefore, while, and afterlearning
thatthe teacher andall therelated facilitiesare used directlyorindirectlyin the learning
process(Istarani, 2012:1). According Soekanto, et al in (Trianto, 2013: 22) points out
the purpose of the learning model is a conceptual framework that describes a
systematic procedure in organizing learning experiences to achieve specific learning
objectives, and serves as a guideline for the designers of learning and teaching in plan
learning activities.Beforedetermining thelearning model thatwillbe usedin the learning
activities, there areseveralthings you should considerin selectingteachersaccording
Rusman(2012: 133), namely:
1.
2.
3.
4.

consideration to thegoals to be achieved.


considerationsrelated tomaterialsorlearning materials
considerationofthe angleof learners.
Otherconsiderationsthat arenon-technical.

2.2. Problem Based Learning


2.2.1 Defenition and Characteristic of Problem Based Learning
According Tan(2003) problem-based learningis an
learningforthestudents'ability

to

innovationin

thinkPBLtrulyoptimizedwork

processesthroughsystematicgroup or team, so that studentscan empower, honing,


testing, anddevelopthe capacity to thinkon an on going basis. Duch, Groh, dan Alen,
described the methods used in PBL and the specific skills developed, including the
ability to think critically, analyze and solve complex, real-world problems, to find,
evaluate, and use appropriate learning resources; to work cooperatively, to
demonstrate effective communication skills, and to use content knowledge and
intellectual skills to become continual leaners (John, 2006:12).
The method usedand thespecific skills thatare developedthrough theProblem
Based Learningisincludingthe abilityto thinkcritically, analyze andsolve it, solve the
problemsthat occur ineveryday life, discover, evaluate, cooperate, indicating effective
communication

skills,

anduse

their

knowledge

andintellectual

skillstobe

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acontinuouslearner. PBL is an instructional (and curricular) leaner-centered


approach that empowers and skills to develop a viable solution to a defined problem
(Jhon, 2006:12), According toArends, "teaching is based onthe problemisalearning
approachwherestudents work onauthenticproblemswith a view toconstructtheir own
knowledge, developinquiryand critical thinking skills, develop independenceandselfconfidence"(Trianto, 2010:92).
Problem-based learning is based on the premise that puzzling and ill-defined
problem situations will arouse students curiosity and thus engage them in inquiry.
Designing appropriate problem situations or planning ways to facilitate the planning
process is a critical planning task for teachers. Some developers of problem-based
instruction believe that students should have a big hand in defining the problem to be
studied, because this process will foster ownership of the problem (Krajcik &
Czerniak, 2007). Others, however, believe teachers should help students refine
preselected problems that emanate from the schools curricula and for which the
teacher

has

sufficient

materials

and

equipment

(Arends,

2001:405).

Problem-based learning encourages students to work with a variety of materials


and tools, some of which are located in the classroom, others in the school library or
computer lab, and still others outside the school.Getting resources organized
andplanning the logistics of student investigations are major planning tasks for
PBL teachers. Trianto (2009:93) state that
based learning as follows:
a. Asking

the specific characteristicsof problem

questionsorproblems.

open

organizearoundprinciplesorspecificacademic
learning

teachingorganizedaroundquestions

bothsociallyimportantand

skills,

itto
problem-based

andproblems

thatare

personallymeaningfultostudents.

Theyproposean authenticreal-life situations, avoidingsimple answers,


andallow fora wide range ofsolutionsforthe situation.
b. Focusing
onlinkages
betweendisciplines.
Althoughlearningbyproblemmay

becentered

onspecific

subjects(science, mathematics, andsocial sciences), the problem to


beinvestigatedhasbeenreallynoticeablethatin the solution, students
reviewthe issue frommanysubjects.
c. Authenticinvestigation.problem-based

learning

requires

studentsundertakean investigationtofind a solution toa realauthenticto

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real problems. they must analyze and define problems, develop


hypotheses, and make predictions, collect and analyze information,
conduct experiments (if needed), making reference, and formulating
conclusions. the method of investigation used, depending on the
problem being studied.
d. Produceandshow it off.problem-based learning requires students
toproducecertain productsin the form ofreal workorartifactsin the
showthat describesorrepresents aform ofsettlement ofthe problemsthey
found.
e. collaboration.characterizedby

aproblem-based

learning

students

whocooperatewith each other, mostoftenin pairsorin small groups.


cooperate

to

providethe

motivationto

continuallyengage

incomplextasksand
increaseopportunitiesforsharedinquiryanddialogueandtodevelopsocial
skillsand thinking skills.

2.2.2. Syntax for Problem Based Learning


Learningsyntaxprovidespracticalstepsthat must be doneby teachers and
studentsin an activity. on teachingbased onproblemconsistsoffivemajor stepsthat
beginwiththe teacherintroducing studentswithaproblemsituationand endswith the
presentationandanalysis

ofstudent

work.AccordingIbrahim(2003:

15),

in

thePBLclassroom, the teacher's roleis different from thetraditional classroom.Role


ofthe teacherin the classroomPBLare as follows:
1) Pose a problemororientstudentstoauthenticproblems, namely
the problem ofreal lifeday to day;
2) Facilitating/guidinginvestigations,

for

example

to

observeorperform experiments;
3) Facilitatestudentdialogue; and
4) Supportstudent learning.
Table 2.1. Syntax for Problem Based Learning according to Arends.
Phase
Phase 1:

Teacher Behavior
a. Teacher

goes

theLesson,

over

the

objectives

of

13

Orient students to
the problem.

b. Describesimportantlogisticalrequirements,
c. and motivates students toengage in problemsolving activity.

Phase 2:
Organize students

a. Teacher helps students define and organize


b. study tasks related to the problem.

for study.
Phase 3:
Assist independent
and group
Investiga

a. Teacher

encourages

students

gatherappropriate

to

information,

conductexperiments,

and

search

for

explanations
and solutions.

tion.

Phase 4:
Teacher assists students in planning and preparing
and
appropriate artifacts such as reports, videos, and
present
artifacts
models, and helps them share their work with others.
and exhibits.
Develop

Phase 5:
Teacher helps students to reflect on their inves
and
tigations and the processes they used.
evaluate the
problem- solving
Analyze

process.
(Arends,2009)
2.2.3. Conventional Learning
Conventional teaching methodsaretraditional learning methodsor collectively,
thelecture method, becausesince the firstof this methodhas beenused as a meansof oral
communicationbetween

teachers

andstudentsin

the

learning

processand

learning.According (Cottel & Millis, 1993) in Maria and Athanasios (2013)The


traditional (or conventional) teaching methods are teachercentered and include the use
of lectures and discussions while the problem solving element is presented by and/or
discussed with the instructor; the syllabus, the teaching materials and the student
assessments are determined by the tutor and transmitted to students in various
lectures. In theconventional methodof teaching historyis markedwith lectures,
accompanied

by

an

explanationas

well

asthe

division

of

tasksand

exercises.Learningonthe conventional method, learnersmore time listening tothe


teacher's explanationsin classand perform tasksifteachersprovidepractice questionsto

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students. Whichis often usedinconventional learningmethodsincludelectures, question


answer method, discussion method, a methodof assignment.
According Sanjaya (2008) the conventional teaching is theoritical and
abstract, actions and behaviors of teachers based on factors outside themselves, such
individuals do something because of fear of punishment or to obtain good grades from
teachers. The teachers is a determine of learning process, the learning takes places in
the classroom and success is only measured by the test.Othermethodsareoften used
inconventional methods, among others, isexpository. Thisexpositorymethodssuch as
lectures,

wherelearning

activitiescenteredon

the

teacher

asa

conduit

of

information(teaching materials). Hespokeat thebeginning of the lesson, describethe


materialandsample questionswithquestions and answers. Learnersdo notjustlistenand
take notes.Teacherstogetherlearnerspracticecompletingexercisesandthe studentsaskif
you do notunderstand. Teachers cancheck out thework ofthe studentsindividually,
explainagainto the studentsindividuallyorclassical.

2.3. Static Fluid


In physics, fluid is defined as a substance that can flow. for instance in daily
life consists of solid, liquid and gas. Well, the term fluid includes liquids and gases,
because liquid such as water or gas substance such as air can flow. Solids such as
stone or metal can not flow so it can not be classified in a fluid.
2.3.1. Density and Specific Gravity
Density is the ratio of mass to volume of the substance. Mathematically
written:

( 2.1 )

where : p = density (Kg/m3)


m = mass (kg)
v = volume (m3)

15

Density of the homogeneous fluid is essentially different from the density of


the homogeneous solid. Iron or ice cubes, for example, have the same density in every
part. In contrast to the fluid, for example the atmosphere or water. In the Earth's
atmosphere, the higher the atmosphere from the surface Earth, its density is getting
smaller while for seawater, for example, increasing the density increases.Density of a
homogeneous fluid may depend on environmental factors such as temperature and
pressure.
Table 2.3. Density of Substance
Substance

Density (kg/m3)

Liquid
Water

1,00 x 103

Seawater

1,03 x 103

Blood

1,06 x 103

Gasoline

0,68 x 103

Mercury

13,6 x 103

Solid
Ice

0,92 x 103

Aluminium

2,70 x 103

Iron & steel

7,8 x 103

Gold

19,3 x 103

Glass

2,4 - 2,8 x 103

Wood

0,3 - 0,9 x 103

Copper

8,9 x 103

Tin

11,3 x 103

Bone

1,7 - 2.0 x 103

Gas
Air

1,293

Helium

0,1786

Hydrogen

0,08994

16

Water vapor

0,6

(100o c)

The density of a substance expressed in the above table is the density of a


substance at a temperature of 0 C and a pressure 1ATM (aka atm = atmospheric
pressure unit).
Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of
water. Density of a substance can be obtained by dividing the density to 103 kg / m3
(density of water). Density has no dimension. If the density of an object is smaller
than the density of water, then the object will float. The density of objects floating
smaller than 1. Conversely, if the density of an object is greater than the density of
water, the density is greater than 1. For this case the object will sink.

2.3.2. Pressure on Fluid


In physics, Pressure is defined as force per unit area, where the force direction
perpendicular to the surface area. Mathematically, the pressure can be expressed by
the following equation:

17

P= =

(2.2)

Where:

P= pressure (N/m2)
F= Force (N)
A= Area Wide (m2)
W= m.g
m= p.v
V= A.h

When the fluid is in a state of calm, fluid exerts a force that is perpendicular to
the entire surface of the contacts. For example, we review the water is in the glass;
every part of the water exerts a force in the direction perpendicular to the glass wall.
so every part of the water exerts a force perpendicular to each unit area of the
container they occupy, in this case the glass. Likewise, the water in the bathtub or
swimming pool water. This is one of the important properties of the fluid static. Force
per unit area is known as pressure.
How the influence of the depth (or heights) to the pressure? whether the
pressure of seawater at a depth of 10 meters is equal to the pressure of seawater at a
depth of 100 meters, for example? Review the water pressure in a container as shown
in FIG. Liquid column height is h and cross section A. How is the water pressure at
the bottom of the container? Description: w is the weight of water, h = height of the
water column in a cylindrical container, A = surface area and P is the pressure.

Figure 2.1. Hydrostatic Pressure

18

The mass of the liquid column is:


=

= m=

(2.3)

The weight of the liquid column is:


W = mg = hAg

(2.4)

Where:w = weight force


r = density
m = mass
g = gravity acceleration
V = hA = volume of liquid column (h = high, A = area) If we enter into the equation of
pressure, it will be obtained:
P= =

P=

( first equation, closed container)

P = pa +

(second equation, open container)

(2.5)
(2.6)
(2.7)

where:
Pa = Atmosfir Pressure
gh = hydrostatic pressure
In the Figure 2.1 is not portrayed Pa, but in reality, if the container containing
the open water on the surface of the water works also atmospheric pressure, which is
directed downwards. Depending on the surface of the container is open to an extent. If
the surface of the container opens upward like in the picture above, the direction is

19

downward atmospheric pressure. Based on the above equation, it appears that the
pressure is proportional to the density and the depth of the liquid (the acceleration of
gravity is worth anyway). If the depth of the liquid substance growing, then the
pressure will also increase. Remember that the liquid is almost not compressed due to
the weight of the fluid above it, so that the density of the fluid is constant on every
surface. If the altitude difference is very large (for the deep sea), the mass of a few
different types. But if an altitude difference is not too big, basically the same density
of the liquid (or the difference is very small so it gets ignored). Use the above
equation to calculate the difference in pressure on each different depths.
Dp = rgDh

(2.8)

Where:
Dp = Pressure Difference
Dh = Height Difference
2.3.2.1. Atmospheric Pressure (Air Pressure)
As each fluid, the pressure of Earth's atmosphere also changes with depth (or
heights). But the pressure of Earth's atmosphere is rather different from the liquid.
Changes in the density of the liquid is very small for the difference is not very great
depths, so the density of the liquid being equal. This differs from the density of
Earth's atmosphere. The density of the earth's atmosphere varies substantially to the
height. The density of the air at different heights so that we can not calculate the
atmospheric pressure using the equation that has been passed over. Moreover there is
no clear boundary of the atmosphere where h can be measured. Atmospheric pressure
also varies with the weather. If so, how do we know the size of air pressure? to
determine the atmospheric pressure, we perform measurements. Evangelista Torricelli
(1608-1647), disciple of Galileo, create a method on how to measure atmospheric
pressure in 1643 using a mercury barometer handiwork. Barometer in the form of a
long glass tube, where the tube is filled mercury. Well, the glass tubes containing
mercury were reversed in a dish that has also been filled mercury.

20

Figure 2.2. Pressure Measurement


When the glass tubes containing mercury behind it at the lower end of the tube
(in the image located at the top) is not filled with mercury, it was merely the mercury
vapor pressure is very small thus ignored (p2 = 0). On the surface of the mercury
inside the plate there is atmospheric pressure, which is directed to the bottom
(atmospheric mercury that are pressing on the plate). The atmospheric pressure
disprove a column of mercury that are in glass pipe. In the figure, denoted by po
atmospheric pressure. The amount of atmospheric pressure can be calculated using the
equation:

(2.9)
Based on the results of measurements, the average atmospheric pressure at sea
level is 1,013 x 105 N / m2. The amount of atmospheric pressure at sea level is used
to define the units of other pressures, namely atm (atmosphere). So 1 atm = 1.013 x

21

105 N / m2 = 101.3 kPa (kPa = kilo pascal). Another pressure unit is bar (often used
in meteorology). 1 bar = 1.00 x 105 N / m2 = 100 kPa. Measurements using a
principle that has been shown by Torricelli above. High mercury column that is used
is 76 cm (the atmospheric pressure can only withstand a column of mercury is high
only reached 76.0 cm), where the temperature mercury is used appropriately 0 C and
the magnitude of the gravitational acceleration of 9.8 m / s2. the density of mercury at
these conditions was 13.6 x 103 kg / m3.

2.3.3. Pascal Principle


On the subject of pressure on the fluid, each fluid always put pressure on all
the objects that come into contact with it. The water we enter into a glass will put
pressure on the glass walls. Pascal principle states that the pressure exerted on the
fluid in a closed place will be forwarded equal to every part of the fluid and the walls
of the container. Mathematically it can be written as follows:
p entry = p exit
F / A entry = F / A exit
where:
P = pressure
F = Force
A = Area

22

Said entry represents a given pressure, represents the pressure while the exit
out is forwarded. Guided by the principle of Pascal, humans have produced some
tools, whether simple or sophisticated to help simplify life. Some of these include
Hydraulic Jack, Hydraulic Lifts, Hydraulic Brake.

2.3.4. Archimedes Principle

Floating
The direction of the buoyant force is upward, the direction of the lift
force that we give these stones to stone or any object that is raised in the water
feels lighter.

Figure 2.3. Measurement of body weight


Where:
F spring = spring force, w = gravity stone, F1 = force exerted fluid at the top of the
rock, F2 = the force applied fluid at the bottom of the stone,
F floating = buoyant force.
F buoyancy is the total force given the fluid in the rock (F floating = F2-F1).
Directions buoyant force (F buoyant) to the top, because the force exerted on the
bottom of the stone fluid (F2) is greater than the force given the fluid at the top of the

23

rock (F1). This is because the fluid pressure at the bottom is greater than the fluid
pressure at the top of the rock.
Objects inserted into a fluid such as water, for example, has a smaller weight
than when the object is not within the fluid.

Figure 2.4. Suspending body


In the picture above, it appears an object floating in the water. Fluid that is
beneath the object has a greater pressure than the fluid located in the upper body. This
is because the fluid which is under the object has a depth that is greater than the fluid
which is above objects (h2 > h1).
The amount of fluid pressure at depth h2 is:

P2

(2.10)

F2 = P2 A = gh2A

(2.11)

The amount of fluid pressure at depth h1 is:

P1
F1 = P1 A = gh1A

(2.12)

24

F2 = force exerted by the fluid on the bottom body, F1 = force exerted by the
fluid in the upper body, A = surface area of objects. The difference between F2 and
F1 is the total force provided by fluid in the body, which we are familiar with the term
buoyant force. The magnitude of the buoyant force is:
F buoyancy = F2 F1
F buoyancy = (gh2A) - (gh1A)
F buoyancy =gA (h2- h1)
F buoyancy = FgAh
F buoyancy = FgV

(2.13)

where :
F = Fluid density
g = gravity
V = the volume of objects that exist in a fluid
because:

Then the equation stating the magnitude of the buoyant force (Floating) above we can
write into:
F buoyant =
m = V
F buoyant =

(2.14)

F buoyant = WF

(2.15)

mFg = wF = weight of the fluid that has the same volume as the volume of the
submerged object. Based on the above equation, we can say that the buoyant force on
an object equals the weight of the displaced fluid. Remember that what is meant by
fluid displaced here is the volume of fluid equal to the volume of the object is
immersed in a fluid. In the picture above, using the illustration in which all parts of
the object immersed in a fluid (water).

25

If expressed in the image it will look as follows:

volume of the object is immersed in a fluid

the volume of fluid displaced

Figure 2.5. volume of fluid and object


If the object is inserted into the fluid, floating, in which part of the
submerged object is only partially the displaced fluid volume = volume of the

26

submerged body parts in the fluid. No matter how the shape of the object and the
object, all will experience the same thing. It is works of Archimedes (287-212 BC),
who is now down to us and is better known by the nickname "Archimedes principle".
Archimedes' principle states that:
When an object wholly or partially immersed in a liquid, the liquid will
provide an upward force (buoyancy force) on the body, in which the magnitude of the
upward force (buoyancy force) equal to the weight of liquid displaced.
You can prove Archimedes' principle by experimenting. Incorporate water into
a container. Keep up the overflowing bucket completely filled up with water. After
that, simply input an object into the water. Once inserted into the body of water, then
some of the water will be spilled. The volume of water that spilled = volume of the
object is immersed in the water. If all parts of the body immersed in water, the volume
of water that spilled = volume of the object. But if the object is only immersed in part,
the volume of water that spilled = volume of parts object submerged in water The
magnitude of the buoyancy given by the water on the body = weight of water is
spilled (heavy water was spilled = w = m water g = density of water x volume of
water that spilled x acceleration of gravity). The volume of water that spilled =
volume of the object is immersed in water.
2.3.5. Tension Surface
Surface tension is a force caused by an object that works on the surface of the
liquid along the surface that touches it. liquid surface tension caused by the forces
acting on the liquid. The surface tension can be defined as the force at the surface of
the liquid per unit length. Mathematically, a large surface tension for objects that have
one surface can be written in the following equation:

(2.16)

Where: = surface tension (N/m)


F = surface force (N)
L = Long surfaces (m)

27

Figure 2.6 example of tension surface


The surface tension associated with events that are called cohesion (attractive
forces between like molecules) and adhesion (attractive forces between the molecules
do not like). Look at the paper clip above which is above water and not sink despite
having a density greater than the density of water. In most liquids, each molecule is
pulled equally in all directions by its neighboring liquid molecules, resulting in a net
force of zero. The molecules at the surface does not have other molecules on all sides
and therefore are drawn into. This creates some internal pressure and forcing the
liquid to the surface of the contraction to the area around.

The surface tension was responsible for the shape of liquid droplets. Although
easily deformed, water droplets tend to be drawn into a spherical shape by the
cohesive strength of the surface layer. In the absence of other forces, including
gravity, almost all of the liquid drops would be a perfect round shape. The round
shape minimizes "wall tension" required of the surface layer in accordance with the
law of Laplace.

28

Figure 2.7. Surface Tension Evidence


A piece of wire is bent to form the letter U. On the legs of the wire in a wire
pairs such that it can be shifted. When the wire is dipped in a solution of soap and lift
back, then the second wire will be drawn up (wire should be light). In order for a
second wire does not move up, you have to hold it with force towards the bottom. If
the second wire length l and a soap solution touching two surfaces, the surface tension
of the soap worked throughout 2l. The surface tension () in this case is defined as the
ratio between the surface tension force (F) and the surface length (2l) where the work
force. Mathematically it can be written as follows.
(2.17)

In general, the value of the surface tension of the liquid is reduced by an increase in
temperature.
2.3.6. Capillarity
Capillarity is the event of a rise or fall of liquid in the capillary tube (narrow
pipe). Capillarity is affected by the force of cohesion and adhesion between the liquid
by capillary walls. Because within the capillary adhesion force between the water and
glass particles is greater than the cohesive forces between the particles of water, then
the water will rise in the capillary. Instead mercury tends to fall within the capillary, if
the force of cohesion is greater than the force of adhesion. The increase or decrease of
liquid at the capillary tube due to the surface tension () are working on a
circumferential contiguity of liquid in a pipe.

Figure 2.8.

29

(a) if the contact angle less than 90 degrees, the surface of the liquid in the
capillary tube will rise. (b) if the contact angle greater than 90 degrees, the surface of
the liquid within the capillary is going down.
Symptoms capillarity widely used in everyday life. For example, rising
through the wick kerosene stove, sucking water by plants (rising water from the roots
to the leaves through the xylem in the stem) and events sucking water by blotting
paper or cloth. Besides favorable capillarity symptoms there is also a disadvantage,
for example when it rained, water would be creeping up through the pores of the wall
so that it becomes damp. Damp walls is not good for health.
2.3.7. Viscosity
Viscosity is a measure of viscosity of the fluid that states the size of the
friction in the fluid. Liquid viscosity can be determined quantitatively with a quantity
called the coefficient of viscosity (). International unit for viscosity coefficient is Ns
/ m2 or Pascal seconds (Pa s). When an object moves with a speed v in a viscous fluid
whose viscosity coefficient , the object will experience a frictional force of fluid Fs =
k v , where k is a constant that depends on the shape of geometric objects.

Figure 2.9. The forces acting on an object moving in a fluid


Based on laboratory calculations, in 1845, Sir George Stokes showed that for
objects that form a sphere with a geometric value of k = 6 r. When the k value is
inserted into the equation, then the equation is obtained as follows:
Fs =
The above equation became known as Stokes' law.

(2.18)

30

Where:Fs

: Stokes frictional force (N)

: coefficient of fluid viscosity (Pa s)

: radius of the sphere (m)

: speed of the ball (m / s)

2.4. Conceptual Framework


The concept ofsuccess or failureof studentsin mastering thesubject mattercan
not be separatedfromhowtheycan learn the materialwell andalso the abilityof
teachersin teachingthem. For thatteachers shouldusestrategies or modelsof appropriate
learningfor learningmore productiveand meaningful. The conceptual frameworkwill
be describedin this studydistinguishedin the form ofsecond-class treatmentina
population sample.
Oneweakness ofthestudyundertaken by theteachersis the lack ofeffort to
developstudents'ability

to

think.

Duringthislearning

modelcommonlyappliedisfocusedteacher asresourcesin large numbers. So we need


amodel of learningthat students havethe ability to thinkand able to solveproblems on
their own, independent learnersandperformersin real life.Control of classroom
teaching is done in a conventional manner which is dominated by lectures, question
and answer, notes, and work on the problems. It makes it less attractive learning and
students feel intimidated in learning activities that feel unable to learn well. And in the
experimental class used learning methods problem based learning can be used as a
tool to approach the students with the surrounding environment because in this
learning method students are trained to look for problems that exist in the form of
working groups and they have to present the results of group discussion in the form of
a report.
On learning based on problem students are required to solve the problems
presented by digging as much information, then analyze and find solutions to existing
problems. Learning by problems orient students to the matter, multidisciplinary,
requiring the cooperation, and produce work. If thestatistical analysisshows the
resultsof students inthe experimental classis better thanstudent learning outcomes
ingradecontrol, it can be saidproblem based learningcanaffect student learning
outcomes.

31

2.5. Research Hypothesis


Based on conceptual framework above, the hypothesis of this study is the
students learning outcomes in using problem based learning model greater than
conventional learning in Static Fluid topic for class XI SMA Negeri 2 Lintong Nihuta,
Academic Year 2015/2016.

32

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHOD

3.1. Research Location and Research Time


3.1.1. Research Location
The research conducted in SMA N.2 Lintong Nihuta grade XI semester II that
were active in the Academic Year 2015/2016, on Jln.Dolok Sanggul Siborong
borong.
3.1.2. Research Time
The time of this research is adjusted suitable with the schedule allocated in the
senior high school when the target materials of static fluid are being taught and at the
same time, the research is conducted without interference the students and the
teachers activity in the selected school.
3.2. Research Population and Research Sample
3.2.1. Research Population
The populations of this rsearch are all students in grade XI of science program
in SMA Negeri 2 Lintong Nihuta, that consist of 8 classes with the student average is
20 students every class.
3.2.2. Research Sample
The research sampleconsistedoftwoclasses thatrepresent the populationby
havingthe

same

characteristics.

Samplingin

researchdrawn

at

randomby

usingclusterrandom sampling. Asan experimental classClassXIisthe numberof


students20 studentsandwere treatedusing themethods of learningProblem Based
Learning(PBL)

andas

acontrol

classisthe

studentsandwere treatedusingconventional method.

classXIwith

thenumber

of20

33

3.3 Research Variables


The variables in this research, there are two kinds, namely the independent
variable and the dependent variable. The independent variable is a variable that can be
manipulated or can be used as a type of treatment, while the dependent variable is the
result of a result of the influence of the independent variables. In this study can be
explained that:
1).

As

the

independent

variable(treatment),

the

learning

methodProblem

Based Learning(PBL) andconventional learning.


2).

As

the

dependent

variable,

namely

thestudent

learning

outcomeS

againststaticfluidmaterial.

3.4. Research Type and Research Design


3.4.1 Research Type
This research is aquasiexperimental(quasi-experimental) research thatis
intended todetermine whether there isa resultofsomething that isimposed onthe
subject ofthe students. This study aimed todetermine whether or notthe influence
ofthe learning modelProblem Based Learning(PBL) onstudent learning outcomes.
3.4.2. Research Design
The study involvedtwoclasses, namelythe experimental classandcontrol class,
wheretwo classesare givendifferent treatment. Given theexperimental classteaching
methodsProblem
givenconventional

Based

Learning(PBL),

learning

models.

while
To

the

the

control

determinestudent

classwas
learning

outcomesobtainedwiththetwo treatments, thestudents were giventhe testtwicea test


thatis givenbeforetreatment(T1) is calledpre-test andtestafter treatment(T2) called
post-test. According Sukardi (2012 : 103-107) The design ofthis study as follows :

34

Tabel 3.1 The design of the research


Class
Experiment
Control
Explanation:

Pre-test
T1

Treatment
X1

Post-test
T2

T1

X2

T2

T1

: Pre - Test

T2

: Post test

X1

: Problem Based Learning Model

X2

: Conventional Method

3.5. Research Procedure


The steps of this Research procedures follows:
1. Preparation step include,

Prepare the research lissence letter


Arrange the research schedule according to the schedule at the schedule at the

school
Prepare data collection equipments
Choose population and take the sample
Working together with the teachers.

2. Implementation Step Include,

Give pre-test and post-test to control class and experiment class


Implementing the learning,
For experiment class, researcher teach using problem based learning model.
For control class, researcher teach using conventional learning.
Give post-test for experiment and control class,

3. Data processing and data analysis,


4. Conclude the research result.

35

So, the research design is shown as figure below:


Begin
Population
Sample

Experiment class

Control class

Pre-tes

Normality and Homogeneity

Experiment class

Control
class
Conventional
learning

Problem Based
Learning

Post- test
Data
Tabulation
Data Analysis
conclution
Finish

Figure 3.1. Scheme of Research Design

36

3.6. Research Instrument


The instrument usedtocollectdata fromstudents' learningisstudentachievement
teston the subject ofstaticfluid, whichconsistsof15multiple choicequestions inthe form
of thefive options(a, b, c, dande). Before the instrument is used, the instrument is
tested firstly. The data that will be analyzed from the results are difficulity level of
questions items, the different index of items, the validity of the items, and reliability
of the instrument.
Table 3.2. The Specipication learning outcomes test in static fluid topic
Nb

Material

1.
Density
2.
Pressure
3.
Pascal Principle
4.
Archimedes Principle
Total

Cognitive
C1
C2
1
1
1

Amount
C3
1
1

C4
1
1

C5
1

C6
1
1

1
2

2
4

1
3

1
2

4
5
1
5
15

Description:
C1 : Remembering

C2 : Understanding

C3 : Applying

C4 : Analyzing

C5 : Evaluating

C6 : Creating

After preparingthe test, the next step istestingthe test.The test is


donetoobtaindata collection toolthat isvalid, reliable, and canbe justified scientifically.
3.6.1.Instrument of Students Learning Activity
The instrument usedto measurestudent activityisobservation. Thisinstrumentis
used

torecord

theactivity

ofstudents

duringthe

learning

takes

place.

Observationsarereferred to inthisresearchis the observation ofthe subject ofa study


conductedto

determine

thestudent

activityduringlearning.

Thebenefitsof

obtainingfeedbackinformationof teachersinteaching and learning activities. Students


learning activity is aimed to observe all the students activitas long as follow the
teaching and learning process.
Table 3.3. Students learning activity assesment

37

Nb
.
1.

Indicator

Assesment

Orient the

aspect
Oral activity

problem

Descriptor

Scoring

a. Show the
problem not
seriously
b. Show the
exactly problem
c. Show the right
problem
seriously

2.

Formulate the

Writing activity

hypothesis

3.

Identify the

Motor activity

problem

(make
construction)

4.

Analyzed the

Motor activity

problem

(experiment)

a. Formulate the
hypothesis
unseriously
b. Formulate the
hypothesis
c. Formulate the
hypothesis
completely
a. Identify the
problem
unseriously
b. Identify the
problem
c. Identify the
problem
compitely
a. Analyzed the
Problem
unseriously
b. Analyzed the
problem but not
complite
c. Analyzed

the

problem
5.

Solve the

Oral activity

problem

(presentation)

complitely
a. Solve the
problem
wrong
b. Solve the
problem
c. Solve the
problem

but

38

6.

Present the

Writing activity

conclusion

complitely
a. Present the
result but wrong
b. Present the
result
c. Present the
correct result

Assesment criteria For each description is 1. Furthermore, the total score of


each student is converted into a form value using the following formula:
value =

100

To determine the criteria of students learning activity assesment, so use the following
criteria:

Value in number
Explanation
80-100
Very Active
60-79
Active
40-59
Active Enough
0-40
Less
Table 3.4 Criteria Assesmentof students Learning Activity

3.6.2. Validity Test


Validity is a measure that indicates the levels of validity or validity of
something instruments. An instrument is valid or invalid have high validity.
Conversely, the less valid instrument means having a low validity. An instrument is

39

said to be valid if it is able to measure what is desired. An instrument is said to be


valid if it can reveal the data of the variables studied properly. High-low validity of
the instrument indicates the extent to which the data collected does not deviate from
the description of the description in question (Arikunto, 2012: 79)
3.7. Data Analysis Techniques
The steps in the data analysis techniques are:
3.7.1. Determine Average Value
To determine the average of value of each sample group used the formula:
x

Description:

(Sudjana, 2005 : 67)

x
n

= Mean of Value
i

= Amount of the value


= Amount of Sample ( student)

3.7.2. Determine The Deviation Standard


To perform the standard deviation formula used is :
S2 =
where:
S2

= Standard deviation

= The number of the students

X2

= Sum of squares of each value

= number of test participants

3.7.3. Determine The Homogenity Test


Aims to determinewhether the samplecame froma homogenouspopulation.
AccordingSudjana

(2005:

249),

totestthe

homogeneity

datausedvarianceequality test, according to the formula:

S12
F 2
S2

ofthe

population

40

Where: S12

= biggest varians of data

S 22

= smallest varians of data

The test criteria are received Ho: the data come from a homogeneus
population if Fcount<Ftable obtained from the distribution lis F with = 0,1.
Here is a real level for testing.
3.7.4. Normality Test
Normality test is used to determine the population from which the sample
came from. Normality test is used to determine whether the samples were taken from
normally distributed population or not. AccordingSudjana(2005: 466) stepsare as follows:
a.

ObservationsX1, X2, .....Xnbe used asrawnumbersZ1, Z2, .................Zn


using the formula:
Zi

xi x
S

with: x =Averagevalueof student learning outcomes

b.

S =Standard deviation
Z =RawNumbers
Xi= Thestudent exams
Forrawnumbersare
calculatedby

usingthe

standard

normal

distributionlistandthe calculatedthe odds bythe formula:


F ( Z i ) P(Z Z i ) .

c.

Next calculate theproportion Z 1 , Z 2 ,..............Z n Z is less than orequal to


Z i ifthis proportionis expressedby S ( Z i ) , then:

thequantity Z 1 , Z 2 ,........, Z n Z
n
Calculates the difference F ( Z i ) S ( Z i ) then determine theabsoluteprice.
Taken the greatestprice between the differencethe absolute prices.the
S (Z i )

d.
e.

priceLcount next on the significant level of = 0,05 from L table price on


thelist L critical value to the test Liliefors. Criteria for the test are:
IfLCount<Ltable sample isnormally distributed.

IfLcount
>Ltable
sample
isnotnormally
distributed.
Ftable F1 ( smalllesrt varians -1, bigggest varians - 1)

3.7.5. Hypothesis Test

41

Hypothesis test calculate with 2 kinds are:


3.7.5.1. Pre-test ability (two tail test)
T tests wereused to determine thetwopartiessimilarityinitial abilityof
studentsin both groupsof samples. The hypothesistestedin the form:
Ho : 1 2

: Experiment class and control class have same

similarity of ability
Ha : 1 2 : Experiment class and contol class have not same
similarity of ability
1 = the average value of the experimental class

2 = the average value of the control class

if research data have normal distribution and homogenity so to test of


hypothesis use differenttest with formula :
t

x1 x 2
1
1
S

n1 n 2

(Sudjana, 2005:239)

with S is combination deviation standard can calculate with the formula :

S2

n1 1 S12 n2 1 S 22
n1 n2 2

Where:
x1

= The average value of learning outcomes in the experiment class.

x 2 = The average value of learning outcomes in control class.

n1 = Total experiment class sample


n2 =

Total control class sample

S2 =

Varians two of classes

t = value of t calculation
with the criteria is:
Ho accept if

1
1
2

t t

1
1
2

where

1
1
2

we get from t list with

dk n1 n 2 2 and probability (1- ). To another value of t Ho rejected. value of

42

tcalculate compare with ttable get from t table list to = 0,05 and independent degree
dk n1 n 2 2 , so have the same initial ability of student.

Ha accept if tcalculate>ttable (ttable get from distribution t list for = 0,05), it is mean
have not same initial ability of student.
3.7.5.2. Post-Test Ability Test
T test two parts used to knowing the influence of problem based learning
modelon students achievement.
The form of hypothesis will be test is:
H0 :

1 2

: Learning outcomes using

problem based learning model less

than conventional learning.


Ha :

1 2

: Learning outcomes using problem based learning model greater

than conventional learning.


If distribution normal data have the variance homogen so the hypothesis in the
research use t test with the formula is(Sudjana 2005:239):
x1 x 2

t
S

S2

1
1 with:

n1 n 2

n1 1 S12 n2 1 S 22
n1 n2 2

with test criteria is:

Ho accept if t < t
independent degree (dk) =

t-

where

get from distribution table t with

and the probability

with

for

another value of t Ho not accept, so learning outcomes using problem based learning
model greater than conventional learning.

43