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PP3090 CAUSAL ANALYSIS

Purpose
To analyse defects and problems relating to quality in a systematic manner and
to initiate corrective as well as preventive measures with a view to
avoid/minimise recurrence of the problems in future phases/projects.

Scope
This procedure will be followed for analysing the problems and defects reported
in the project. It will be performed at the end of major verification and validation
activities, or at such intervals as determined by the PL at Project Start Up and
documented in the Project Plan.

Responsibilities
Activity

Responsibility

For problems
Analyse and prioritise problems

PL

Conduct causal analysis

PL

Record causal analysis findings

PL

Initiate corrective action

PL

Monitor implementation

PL

Record changes

PL, Project Team

Raise Problem Reports on iQMS

PL

For Defects
Analyze and prioritise defect causes

DP Prime

Conduct Causal Analysis

DP Prime

Record Causal Analysis findings

DP Prime

Consolidate Causal Analysis at centre

DP PO

Initiate Preventive actions

PL, DP Prime

Monitor Implementation

PL

Input
Non-conformance Report
DP Plan
Review Report

PF3030A

Defect Log

PF3030B

Problem Report (including customer complaints)

PF3070A

Customer Complaints and escalations

PF1170

CSS Dissatisfiers

PF1160

Metric Reports

SGP1160

Risks, Changes in risks

Procedure
Causal Analysis at the project level

All defects (e.g., those found in Peer Reviews and Testing, defects reported
by the customer and end-user, defects identified through quantitative
analysis) and problems identified during the project life cycle (e.g., those in
PMR and Audit that require corrective action, Process Capability issues,
customer dissatisfiers/complaints etc. ) will be prioritized. While prioritising,
consideration may be given to the following:

Frequency of occurrence

Impact on quality, cost and schedule

Source of the defect or problem

Any other factors.

Causes of high priority defects and problems will be investigated and


recorded in the Defect Log, Review Report, Change Request (CR) or
Problem Report (PR). High priority defects are those that are, in the opinion
of the Project Management, repetitive in nature and have a significant impact
on the project schedule, costs and product quality. Causes may include one
or more of the following:
-

Inadequate inputs

Inadequate standards

Inadequate skills

Inadequate training

Inadequate documentation

Inadequate communication

Inapplicable/Inappropriate methodology or process

Inadequacy of tool.

Inherited defects

These will be summarised and recorded in the Causal Analysis Report on a


monthly basis and sent to the DP PO. Refer to Appendix A on guidelines for
attributing defect causes to the defects found during review of work items.
The project may identify secondary causes for each of the causes given
below to arrive at the root causes

After analysing the causes of problems, appropriate corrective action will be


identified and recorded in the Corrective Action Report (which may be part of
the Causal Analysis Report). The time period by which the corrective action
is to be implemented will also be recorded.

If the cause is at the project level, the PL will initiate the corrective action to
prevent the recurrence of problems. If the cause is beyond the project level,
the PL will prepare a Problem Report and send it to the group concerned for
taking corrective action.

If the corrective action at the project level requires changes to project


environment or project specific procedures, such changes will be
implemented.

At the end of major verification and validation activities or at any other


frequency as determined by the PL, the effectiveness of corrective actions
will be evaluated and recorded.

Causal Analysis at centre Level


The Defect Prevention (DP) Prime identified for the projects prepares the
Causal Analysis report and sends it to the DP Process Owner of the Delivery
Centre.

The DP PO consolidates defect data for the centre and does a causal
analysis of the defects. Major causes of defects and their corrective and
preventive actions are discussed and disseminated in the centre.

For causal analysis using centre level data such as NCRs, customer
complaints, work ahead, concession, refer to the procedure QAP1040 in
QAG Procedures Manual (TCS- iQMS -054)

Causal Analysis for Defects

The causal analysis may be performed using one or more of the following
techniques:
Brainstorming
Pareto Analysis
Nominal Group Technique (NGT)
Ishikawa/Fishbone Analysis
For further details regarding the various techniques, refer to Appendix E.

The project must have a DP plan, which is as per the checklist.

Output
Causal Analysis Report
Problem Report
Change Request, if required

PF3070A