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To analyse defects and problems relating to quality in a systematic manner and
to initiate corrective as well as preventive measures with a view to
avoid/minimise recurrence of the problems in future phases/projects.

This procedure will be followed for analysing the problems and defects reported
in the project. It will be performed at the end of major verification and validation
activities, or at such intervals as determined by the PL at Project Start Up and
documented in the Project Plan.



For problems
Analyse and prioritise problems


Conduct causal analysis


Record causal analysis findings


Initiate corrective action


Monitor implementation


Record changes

PL, Project Team

Raise Problem Reports on iQMS


For Defects
Analyze and prioritise defect causes

DP Prime

Conduct Causal Analysis

DP Prime

Record Causal Analysis findings

DP Prime

Consolidate Causal Analysis at centre


Initiate Preventive actions

PL, DP Prime

Monitor Implementation


Non-conformance Report
DP Plan
Review Report


Defect Log


Problem Report (including customer complaints)


Customer Complaints and escalations


CSS Dissatisfiers


Metric Reports


Risks, Changes in risks

Causal Analysis at the project level

All defects (e.g., those found in Peer Reviews and Testing, defects reported
by the customer and end-user, defects identified through quantitative
analysis) and problems identified during the project life cycle (e.g., those in
PMR and Audit that require corrective action, Process Capability issues,
customer dissatisfiers/complaints etc. ) will be prioritized. While prioritising,
consideration may be given to the following:

Frequency of occurrence

Impact on quality, cost and schedule

Source of the defect or problem

Any other factors.

Causes of high priority defects and problems will be investigated and

recorded in the Defect Log, Review Report, Change Request (CR) or
Problem Report (PR). High priority defects are those that are, in the opinion
of the Project Management, repetitive in nature and have a significant impact
on the project schedule, costs and product quality. Causes may include one
or more of the following:

Inadequate inputs

Inadequate standards

Inadequate skills

Inadequate training

Inadequate documentation

Inadequate communication

Inapplicable/Inappropriate methodology or process

Inadequacy of tool.

Inherited defects

These will be summarised and recorded in the Causal Analysis Report on a

monthly basis and sent to the DP PO. Refer to Appendix A on guidelines for
attributing defect causes to the defects found during review of work items.
The project may identify secondary causes for each of the causes given
below to arrive at the root causes

After analysing the causes of problems, appropriate corrective action will be

identified and recorded in the Corrective Action Report (which may be part of
the Causal Analysis Report). The time period by which the corrective action
is to be implemented will also be recorded.

If the cause is at the project level, the PL will initiate the corrective action to
prevent the recurrence of problems. If the cause is beyond the project level,
the PL will prepare a Problem Report and send it to the group concerned for
taking corrective action.

If the corrective action at the project level requires changes to project

environment or project specific procedures, such changes will be

At the end of major verification and validation activities or at any other

frequency as determined by the PL, the effectiveness of corrective actions
will be evaluated and recorded.

Causal Analysis at centre Level

The Defect Prevention (DP) Prime identified for the projects prepares the
Causal Analysis report and sends it to the DP Process Owner of the Delivery

The DP PO consolidates defect data for the centre and does a causal
analysis of the defects. Major causes of defects and their corrective and
preventive actions are discussed and disseminated in the centre.

For causal analysis using centre level data such as NCRs, customer
complaints, work ahead, concession, refer to the procedure QAP1040 in
QAG Procedures Manual (TCS- iQMS -054)

Causal Analysis for Defects

The causal analysis may be performed using one or more of the following
Pareto Analysis
Nominal Group Technique (NGT)
Ishikawa/Fishbone Analysis
For further details regarding the various techniques, refer to Appendix E.

The project must have a DP plan, which is as per the checklist.

Causal Analysis Report
Problem Report
Change Request, if required