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Effective marketing requires insight into consumers’ mind. It ensures that the right
product are conceived, produced & offered to the right consumer in the right way.

What influence consumer behavior: - There are 3 factors that influence consumer
1. Cultural factors: - Culture: It is the fundamental determinant of a person’s want &
behavior. Ex. - American child > Material comfort, achieve & success, freedom,
activity, external comfort, individualism, youthfulness AND Indian middle class
child, Respect & care the elders, Honesty, integrity, hard work, achievements &
success, sacrifice etc.
Sub-culture: Each culture consists of smaller sub-culture that provides more specific
identification & socialization for their members. Subcultures include nationalities,
religious, racial group and demographic region. Multicultural marketing came from this
Social life: All of the human societies have any social life. Social classes have several
characteristics. First one social class differs in dress, speech pattern, and many other
characteristics. Second one, persons are perceived as occupying inferior or superior
positions according to social classes. Third, social classes indicated by a cluster of
variable for example, occupation, income, wealth, education & value system etc. And
fourth one individual can move up and down the social-class ladder during the lifetime.
Social classes show distinct product & brand preferences in many areas including
clothing, home furnishing, leisure activities and automobiles. For example
KELLOGG INDIA: Kellogg cornflakes: Indian consumer use hot milk {firstly failed.}
GE FINANCIAL: Hispanic community (from Spain): 2 years research, Spanish language
call center, launches web-site, tapped bilingual agents in key cities to sell GE product.

2. Social factors: - Reference group: A person’s reference consists of all the group that
have a direct (face to face) or indirect influence on his/her attitude and behavior.
There are 3 type of Reference group (a.) Membership group: Groups having a direct
influence on person. Some membership groups are primary group such as family,
friend, neighbors, colleagues, etc. People also belong to secondary group like
religious, professional and trade unions etc. (b.) Aspirational groups: People are also
influence by groups they do not belong & hopes to belong. (c.) Dissociative group:
These are those whose values or behavior an individual rejects.
Family: The family is the imp. Consumer buying organization. In society and family
members constitute the most influential primary reference group? Family members
influence buying decisions. In the traditional joint family grand parents. Nuclear
family husband & wife both. Children & teenagers are targeted by internet.

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The Porvogue Website is targeted at the youth market.

A person participates in many groups – Family, clubs, and organization etc. The persons’
position in each group can be defined in terms personal roles & status.
ROLES: A role consists of the activities a person is expected to perform.
STATUS: Each role carries a status.
People choose product that reflect & communicate their roles & actual status in the
society. For ex.-

Mercedes, BMW etc.

3. Personal factors: - A buyer’s decision also influence by personal characteristics,

Age & stage in life cycle: People buy different goods and services over a life time.
Marketers should also consider life events like marriage, childbirth, illness, divorce,
widowhood etc. as giving rise to new needs. Ex.-
BANK OF AMERICA (BOA): Client manager : for help the person’s help
Occupation & economic circumstances: Blue caller workers: Work clothe, work shoes,
lunchboxes. President: Dress suit, air travel, country club membership. Economic
circumstances: Spendable income (level, stability, time pattern), saving, assets, debts,
borrowing power etc.
Personality & self-concept: Each person has personality characteristics that influence his
or her buying behavior. Personality: Self-confidence, dominance, sociability, autonomy,
adaptability etc. Personality is a useful variable to analyzing customer brand & choice.
Self-concept: 1. Actual self-concept: - How one views oneself? 2. Ideal self-concept: -
How one would like to view oneself? 3. Others’ self-concept: - How one thinks other see
Lifestyle & values: - Lifestyle: It is a persons’ pattern of living in the world as expressed
in activities, interests & opinions.
People from the same subculture, social class & occupation may lead quite different life
style. Consumer decisions are also influenced by core values, the belief systems that
underlie consumer attitudes & behaviors.

Key psychological process: -

Motivation: A motive is a need that is sufficient pressing to drive the person to act.
Three of the best known theories of human motivation: -
• FREUD’S Theory: - Sigmund Freud assumed that the psychological shaping people’s
behavior is largely unconscious and that a person can’t fully understand his or her own
motivation. A technique is called ‘laddering’ can be used to trace a person’s motivation
from the stated instrumental ones to the more terminal ones. Then the marketer can decide
at what level to develop the message & appeal.
• MASLOW’S ’Theory: - Abraham Maslow sought to explain ‘why people are driven by
particular need at particular time. Why does one person spend considerable time & energy
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on personal safety?’ This theory helps marketers understand how various products fit into
the plans, goals & lives of consumers.
• HERZBERG’S Theory: - Fredrick Herzberg developed a two factor theory that tells between
‘Dissatisfiers’ (factor that cause dissatisfaction) & ‘Satisfier’ (factor that cause satisfaction). The
absence of ‘Dissatisfiers’ is not enough; ‘Satisfier’ must be present to motivate a purchase. Ex.-

A Computer without warranty is dissatisfier and with warranty is satisfier or motivator.

This theory has two implications. First, seller should do their best to avoid dissatisfiers & second,
the sellers should identify the major satisfier or motivator of purchase in the market & supply them.

Perception: A motivated person is ready to act. Perception is the process by which

individual selects, organizes & interprets information inputs to create a meaningful picture
of the world. Perception not only depends on the physical stimuli but also on the stimuli’s
relation to the surrounding field and on conditions within the individuals.
In marketing, perceptions are more important than the reality. It will affect consumer’s
actual behavior. It has three processes:
• Selective attention: It means that marketer have to work hard to attract the
consumer’s notice. People like following types of stimuli:
1. That relate to a current need (Which thing want to buy that ad’s attract consumer.)
2. That they anticipate (Radios in the computer stores.) 3.
Whose deviation are large in the relation to the normal size of stimuli (5 Rs. off or
100 Rs. off)

• Selective distortion: It is the tendency to interpret inf. in a way that will fit our
preconceptions. It can work to the advantage of marketers with strong brand when
consumers distort neutral brand inferior to the it is more positive.

• Selective retention: People will fail to register much inf. to which they are exposed
in memory but will tend to retain inf. that supports their attitudes & beliefs Because
of selective retention. It means we are like to remember goods points about a product
which we like & forgot good points about the competitors.

Buying decision
- Inf. search
-Evaluation of
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-Post purchase

Marketing Other stimuli -Motivation
stimuli -Perception
-Product & -Economic -Learning
services -Tech. -Memory
- Price -Political
-Distribution - Cultural
Communicati- Consumer
on Characteristics
Purchase decision
-Social -Product choice
- Personal -Brand choice
-Dealer choice
-Purchase amt.
-Payment method


Learning: Learning involves change in an individual behavior arising from experience.

Learning is produce through the interplay of drives, cues & reinforcement.
A drive is a strong internal stimulus impelling action. Cues are minor stimuli that
determine when, where & how a person responds. For Ex.-

Dell computers : computer good : printer also good (Hypothetical thinking)

Learning theory teaches marketer that they can build demand for a product by using
motivating cues & providing +ve reinforcement.

Memory: Long term memory & Short term memory.

Memory process:
1. Encoding: It refers to that how & where inf. gets into memory Form contents and
situations of the market or consumer.
2. Retrieval: It refers to how information gets into the mind.

Buying decision process: It is a five stage model:

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Problem Information Evaluation Purchase Post

Recognition search of decision purchase
alternatives behavior

Five stage model of consumer buying process

Problem recognition: The buying process starts from the problem recognition. The can
be triggered by the internal or external stimuli. For ex –

A London’s Restaurant: HOT NOW: Sign that hot food everytime.

Marketers need to identify the circumstances that trigger a particular need by gathering
inf. from a no. of consumer.

Information search: - We can search the inf. from various path :

• Personal: Family, Friends, neighbor etc.
• Commercial: Advertising, Web-sites, Salesperson, Dealers, Display.
• Public: Mass media, Consumer rating orgn.
• Experimental: Handling, examining, using the product.

Evaluation of alternatives: No single process is used by all consumers or by one

consumer in all buying situation.
Some basic concepts will help us understand consumer evaluation process: First, the
consumer is trying to satisfy need. Second, the consumer is looking for certain benefits
from the product solution & third one consumer sees each product like a need satisfier.
Now the question is that what things reflect evaluation.

• Beliefs & attitudes: Through experience & learning, people acquire beliefs &
attitudes. These influence buying behavior. A belief is a thought that a person hold
about something. And an attitude is person’s enduring favorable or nonfavorable
evaluation, emotion feeling, Action tendency towards some action & idea.
• Expectancy value model: Which brand consumer like he expect that the satisfaction
of that particular brand which he/she like. for ex. –

SONY Computer (like): Purchase: Satisfy: again buy SONY product.

Purchase decision: In the decision making to purchase a product from market the
consumer has five sub-decisions: Brand, Dealer, Quantity, Timing and payment method.

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Attitudes Unanticipated
of others situational factor


Evaluation of

Steps between evaluation of alternatives and a purchase decision

A consumer’s decision to modify, postpone, or avoid a purchase decision is heavily

influenced by risks, they are following
• Functional risk: The product does not perform up to expectation.
• Physical Risk: The product’s negative affect on the consumer’s or other’s health.
• Financial risk: The product is not worth the price which paid.
• Social risk: The product results in embarrassment from others.
• Psychological risk: The product affects the mental well-being of the user.
• Time risk: The failure of the product in an opportunity cost of finding another
satisfactory product. (The TATA’s Lakhtakia car)

Post purchase behavior: After the purchase the consumer might experience about the
marketing strategies. Marketing communication should supply beliefs & evaluations that
support the consumer’s choice & help him or her feel good about the brand.
• Post purchase satisfaction: Satisfaction is a function of the closeness between
expectation & the product performance.
• Post purchase action: It depends on the consumer’s satisfaction. If he/she
• Post purchase use & disposal: marketers should also monitor how buyers use &
dispose of the product.

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Colou Sunshi
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Healthy DOLE Female

Fresh- Contem
ness -porary

Pinea- Innov-
pple ative

Escape Useful

Hypothetical dole mental map

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