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Index

CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1

PAGE NO.
INTRODUCTION
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER 3

INDUSTRY PROFILE & COMPANY PROFILE

CHAPTER 4

THEORETICAL FRAME WORK

CHAPTER 5

DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION

CHAPTER 6

FINDINGS & SUGGESTIONS

CHAPTER 7

CONCLUSION & BIBLIOGRAPHY

ANNEXURE

QUESTIONNAIRE

CHAPTER -1
INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

MOTIVATION
In the organizational setting the word Motivation is used to describe the drive that impels an
individual to work. A truly motivated person is one who wants to work. Both employees and
employers are interested in understanding motivation if employees know what strengthens and
what weakens their motivation, they can often perform more effectively to find more satisfaction
in their job. Employers want to know what motivates their employees so that they can get them
to work harder.
When people speak of motivation or ask about the motives of person, they are really asking
Why the person acts, or why the person acts the way he does .The concept of motivation
implies that people choose the path of action they follow.
When behavioral scientists use the word motivation, they think of its something steaming from
within the person technically, the term motivation has its origin in the Latin word mover which
means to move. Thus the word motivation stands for movement. One can get a donkey to
move by using a carrot or a stick; with people one can use incentives, or threats or reprimands.
However, these only have a limited effect. These work for a while and then need to be repeated,
increased or reinforced to secure further movement.
If a manager truly understands his subordinates motivation, he can channel their inner state
towards command goals, i.e., goals, shared by both the individual and the organization. It is a
well known fact that human being have great potential but they do not use it fully , when
motivation is absent .Motivation factor are those which make people give more than a fair days
work and that is usually only about sixty-five percent of a persons capacity .Obviously , every
manager should be releasing hundred percent of an individuals to maximize performance for
achieving organizational goals and at the same to enable the individual to develop his potential
and gain satisfaction. Thus every manager should have both interest and concern about how to
enable people to perform task willingly and to the best of their ability.

At one time, employees were considered just another input into the production of goods and
services. What perhaps changed this way of thinking about employees was research, referred to
as the Hawthorne Studies, conducted by Elton Mayo from 1924 to 1932 (Dickson, 1973). This
study found employees are not motivated solely by money and employee behavior is linked to
their attitudes (Dickson, 1973). The Hawthorne Studies began the human relations approach to
management, whereby the needs and motivation of employees become the primary focus of
managers (Bedeian, 1993).
WHAT IS MOTIVATION?
A basic principle is that the performance of an individual depends on his or her ability backed by
motivation. Stated algebraically the principle is:
Performance =f (ability motivation)
Ability refers to the skill and competence of the person to complete a given task. However,
ability alone is not enough. The persons desire to accomplish the task is also necessary.
Organizations become successful when employees have abilities and desire to accomplish given
task.

IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION:
Probably, no concept of HRM receives as much attention of academicians, researchers and
practicing managers motivation. The increased attention towards motivation is justified by
several reasons
1. Motivated employees are always looking for better ways to do a job. This statement can apply
to corporate strategists and to production workers. It is the responsibility of managers to make
employees look for better ways of doing their jobs.
2. A motivated employee generally is more quality oriented. This is true whether we are talking
about a top manager spending extra time on data gathering and analysis for a report or a clerk
taking extra care when filing important document.

3. Highly motivated worker are more productive than apathetic worker .The high productivity of
Japanese worker and the fever worker are needed to produce an automobile in Japan than
elsewhere is well known. An appreciation of the nature of motivation is highly useful manager.
4. Every organization requires human resources in addition to financial and physical resources
for it to function .Three behavioral dimensions of HR are significant to organizations (i) people
must be attracted not only to join the organizations but also to remain it (ii) people must perform
he tasks for which they are hired and must do so in a dependable manner and (iii) people must go
beyond this dependable role per performance and engage in some form of creative,
spontantaneous, and innovative behavior at work.
5. Motivation as a concept represents a highly complex phenomenon that affects. and is affected
by .a multitude of factors in the organizational milieu .an understanding of the topic of
motivation is thus essential in order to comprehend more fully the effects of variations in other
reaction as they relate to the performance, satisfaction, and so forth .
6. Why increasing attention is paid towards motivation can be found in the present and future
technology required for production, as technology increases in complexity, machines tend to
become necessary, yet insufficient, vehicles of effective and efficient operation .Consider the
example of the highly technology-based space programmed in our country.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


The objective of this study is to investigate the importance of different motivational factors to the
employees and their practices in the organization. The survey strives to find those factors, which
motivates each person, so that the management could use them to enhance the performance of its
employees.
1. To study the current motivational level of the employees.
2. To study the effect of job promotions on employees.
3. To design a new motivational scheme for the employees in Sumega Technologies.
4. To establish the relationship between motivation and employee performance.
5. To provide the practical suggestion for the improvement of organizations performance.
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SCOPE OF THE STUDY:


The purpose of this study was to describe the importance of certain factors in motivating
employees at. Specifically, the study sought to describe the ranked importance of the following
motivating factors: (a) interesting work, (b) good wages, (c) full appreciation of work done, (d)
job security, (e) good working conditions, (f) promotions and growth in the organization, (g)
stress factor in the job, (h) rewards given to employees, (i) opportunity to interact with others and
(j) personal satisfaction.
NEED OF THE STUDY:
The study is intended to evaluate motivation of employees in the organization. A good
motivational program procedure is essential to achieve goal of the organization. If efficient
motivational programmes of employees are made not only in this particular organization but also
any other organization; the organizations can achieve the efficiency also to develop a good
organizational culture.
Motivation has variety of effects. These effects may be seen in the context of an individuals
physical and mental health, productivity, absenteeism and turnover. Employee delight has to be
managed in more than one way. This helps in retaining and nurturing the true believers who
can deliver value to the organization. Proliferating and nurturing the number of true
believers is the challenge for future and present HR managers.
This means innovation and creativity. It also means a change in the gear for HR polices and
practices. The faster the organizations nurture their employees, the more successful they will be.
The challenge before HR managers today is to delight their employees and nurture their
creativity to keep them a bloom.
This study helps the researcher to realize the importance of effective employee motivation. This
research study examines types and levels of employee motivational programmes and also
discusses management ideas that can be utilized to innovate employee motivation. It helps to
provide insights to support future research regarding strategic guidance for organizations that are
both providing and using reward/recognition programs.
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LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY:


Study is limited to selected group from the main stream of the organization.
Sample size is limited.
Problems with the confidential information.
Study includes collection of data from both primary as well as secondary data sources.
There is a high chance of sampling error.
The first important drawback is the duration of the training period is only for 45 days.
Some of the respondents are unwilling to respond the questionnaire.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY.
Introduction
This chapter deals with the methods and tools the researcher uses in data collection and analysis.
It describes the research design that was used by the researcher, data sources and collection tools,
processing, analyzing and the challenges that the researcher faced.
Research design & Strategy
The researcher used a case study strategy which was Sumega Technologies and an explanatory
research design because it sought to explain why there were still low levels of employee
performance despite the many ways put in place by the management of Sumega Technologies to
motivate its employees.
Sampling methods & techniques
The study employed stratified random sampling and simple random sampling techniques..

Stratified random sampling refers to a process of dividing a population into smaller


groups known as strata basing on the members shared attributes. This was done by
grouping the employees according to management levels.

Simple random sampling was also applied. This refers to a process of selecting a group
of subjects (a sample) for study from a larger group (population). This was intended to
select respondents since each stratum was assumed to contain employees with related
knowledge on the topic under study.

Sample design
Random sampling and purposive sampling techniques were employed.

Random sampling technique is a process of selecting a sample that allows all members
of the group or population to have an equal and independent chance of being selected for
the sample. Random sampling technique was employed when selecting the employees at
operational level. This was done to avoid bias.
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Purposive sampling technique refers to a process whereby the researcher selects a


sample based on experience or knowledge of the group to be sampled. Purposive method
was applied when selecting management staffs because there was need to specifically get
information from those members of staff who deal directly in administrative duties.

Sources of data
The researcher used both primary and secondary data sources.
Primary data source
This refers to raw facts collected or generated in a given research for the first time. This data was
generated from the sample population by use of the questionnaire.
Secondary data source
This method involves sourcing for already processed information. Data was got by reviewing
relevant text books, journals, news papers, records of Sumega Technologies and other published
materials about the research topic.
Data collection methods & instruments
The researcher used questionnaire as an instrument of data collection.
Questionnaire
A questionnaire is a list of questions drafted by the researcher to be filled by the respondent. This
was the basic tool the researcher used in data collection. The questionnaire contained both close
ended and open ended structured questions and the variables therein were measured using likert
scaling technique. The reason for use of this method was that it minimized bias.

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

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Introduction
This chapter shows what other scholars have written about motivation and organizational
performance.
Balunywa, T. (2005) defines motivation as the inducement of a desired behavior with in
subordinates with a view of channeling their efforts and activity to achieve an organizations
goals. He adds that its an internal drive to satisfy an unsatisfied need in an organization and is
also known as an incentive action.
Traditionally, motivation has been defined by the two dimensions that comprise it namely, energy
and direction (Deci, 1980; Deci & Ryan, 1985; Roberts, 1992). The energy dimension of
motivation is the driving force behind someones effort and persistence during engagement in a
particular activity. Direction of motivation determines the area or field of interest in which that
effort is projected. Both are necessary elements of a complete motivational act. Energy without
direction has no purpose, and direction without energy results in a state of motivation.
Beyond defining motivation, however, researchers have also categorized various types of
motivation, based on whether the motivational states are internally or externally derived. These
two global motivational states are called intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (Deci, 2000) theorized
about both intrinsic and extrinsic motivational states and about correlates of those states.
2.2

Motivation practices

Many different scholars have agreed and disagreed on the ways employees should be motivated.
Some of them assert that in order to motivate an individual, a financial benefit has to be foregone
by the motivator whereas others believe that money is not a true motivator hence both financial
and nonfinancial incentives are considered in the discussion below;
According to Cole (1998), financial incentives are rewards/payments that employees get in
consideration of their contribution towards the organization. He adds that these are payments for
labor as a factor of production.

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Wages and Salaries


Lindner (1995) notes that, though monetary methods of motivation have little value, many firms
still use money as a major incentive. She adds that wages are normally paid per hour worked and
workers receive money at the end of the week and overtime paid for any additional hours worked
for whereas salaries are based on a years work and are paid at the end of each month.
Piece rate
According to Lun Chien-Chung (2003) piece rate is the paying of a worker per item produced in
a certain period of time. He asserts that this increases speed of work and therefore productivity.
This is in agreement with the earlier revelations made by Taylor (1993) who notes that though
the employees will care less about the quality of their work, their sped improves with the piece
rate practice of motivation.
Fringe benefits
According to Doellgast (2006) fringe benefits are often known as perks and are items an
employee receives in addition to their normal wage and/or salary. These include company cars,
health insurance, free meals, education e.t.c. he asserts that these encourage loyalty to the
company such employees may stay longer with the company.
Performance related pay
This is paid to those employees who meet certain targets. The targets are often evaluated and
reviewed in regular appraisals with managers. According to Higgins (1994) this system is
increasingly being used by organizations world wide because it reduces the amount of time spent
on industrial relations and he therefore recommends its use. However, Doellgast (2006)
discourages the use of this practice of motivation. He asserts that it can be very difficult to
measure employee performance more especially those in the service industry and that the
practice does not promote teamwork.

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Bonuses
Marler (2000) indicated that when your employees function as a team, you ought to think like a
coach; reward the whole group for a job well done. He says this will boost morale both
personally and collectively. He adds that employee incentive programs such as small bonuses
serve to better the morale of an individual employee and that of a group as a whole by making
them more satisfied.
This is in agreement with Likerts (2004) study which concluded that since everybody wants to
feel appreciated and special for the work done, they can therefore be motivated by appreciating
them and making them feel special. He adds that the more satisfied the employee is, the better
he/she will perform.
Mwanje (2000) believes that non-financial incentives are the most important motivators of
human behavior in terms of the needs of human beings. He refers non-financial incentives to
non-monetary ways of rewarding employees. They are opportunities that help employees in the
accomplishments of the set goals. They include;
Training opportunities
Hammer (2000) asserts that an individual will be motivated to do something if they have the
mental ability and skills to accomplish it. He writes that when employees are trained, they get the
knowledge of hoe to deconstruct tasks and challenges and thereby feel less intimidated by their
jobs/tasks.
Herzberg (1998) agrees to Hammers assertion. He adds that training makes the employee earn
confidence to do a job thereby improving their attitude hence motivation.
Job rotation
Fowler (2001) revealed that when an employee does one kind of job week-in week-out, they will
always get de-motivated to carry on with their work more especially when the work is not very
challenging. She suggested that employees need to be rotated around the organization to meet
new challenging tasks in order to keep their minds busy and feel like they are doing something
for the organization.
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However, Clifton (2002) disagrees with these revelations. He asserts that job rotation does not
actually lead to motivation of the employee; it just helps the employees not to get bored with
their work. In other words it helps the employers to maintain a certain level of motivation in
employees.
Communication style
Managers need to be clear when talking to their employees and let them know that their opinion
or views are important in building a viable company. Strong communications skills are necessary
when assigning tasks to the employees so that the tasks are clearly defined and understood.
Marie (2000) asserts that the managers ought to communicate to their subordinates in such a way
that the subordinates feel like they are not forced to do a particular task. Jean (2002) agrees and
asserts that managers should develop an inclusive approach to decision making if at all they are
to increase their employee motivation levels.

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CHAPTER 3
INDUSTRY PROFILE
COMPANY PROFILE

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INDUSTRY PROFILE:
Information technology, and the hardware and software associated with the IT industry, are an
integral part of nearly every major global industry.Information technology, and the hardware and
software associated with the IT industry, are an integral part of nearly every major global
industry.
The information technology (IT) industry has become of the most robust industries in the world.
IT, more than any other industry or economic facet, has an increased productivity, particularly in
the developed world, and therefore is a key driver of global economic growth. Economies of
scale and insatiable demand from both consumers and enterprises characterize this rapidly
growing sector.
The Information Technology Association of America (ITAA) explains 'information technology'
as encompassing all possible aspects of information systems based on computers.
Both software development and the hardware involved in the IT industry include everything
from computer systems, to the design, implementation, study and development of IT and
management systems.
Owing to its easy accessibility and the wide range of IT products available, the demand for IT
services has increased substantially over the years. The IT sector has emerged as a major global
source of both growth and employment.
Features of the IT Industry at a Glance:

Economies of scale for the information technology industry are high. The marginal cost
of each unit of additional software or hardware is insignificant compared to the value

addition that results from it.


Unlike other common industries, the IT industry is knowledge-based.
Efficient utilization of skilled labor forces in the IT sector can help an economy achieve a

rapid pace of economic growth.


The IT industry helps many other sectors in the growth process of the economy including
the services and manufacturing sectors.

The role of the IT Industry


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The IT industry can serve as a medium of e-governance, as it assures easy accessibility to


information. The use of information technology in the service sector improves operational
efficiency and adds to transparency. It also serves as a medium of skill formation.
Domain of the IT Industry
A wide variety of services come under the domain of the information technology industry. Some
of these services are as follows:

Systems architecture

Database design and development

Networking

Application development

Testing

Documentation

Maintenance and hosting

Operational support

Security services

Introduction
India is the world's largest sourcing destination for the information technology (IT) industry,
accounting for approximately 67 per cent of the US$ 124-130 billion market. The industry
employs about 10 million workforces. More importantly, the industry has led the economic
transformation of the country and altered the perception of India in the global economy. India's
cost competitiveness in providing IT services, which is approximately 3-4 times cheaper than the
US, continues to be the mainstay of its Unique Selling Proposition (USP) in the global sourcing
market. However, India is also gaining prominence in terms of intellectual capital with several
global IT firms setting up their innovation centres in India.

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The IT industry has also created significant demand in the Indian education sector, especially for
engineering and computer science. The Indian IT and ITeS industry is divided into four major
segments IT services, Business Process Management (BPM), software products and
engineering services, and hardware.
The IT-BPM sector which is currently valued at US$ 143 billion is expected to grow at a
Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 8.3 per cent year-on-year to US$ 143 billion for
2015-16. The sector is expected to contribute 9.5 per cent of Indias Gross Domestic Product
(GDP) and more than 45 per cent in total services export in 2015-16.
Market Size
The Indian IT sector is expected to grow at a rate of 12-14 per cent for FY2016 in constant
currency terms. The sector is also expected triple its current annual revenue to reach US$ 350
billion by FY 2025, as per National Association of Software and Services Companies
(NASSCOM).
India, the fourth largest base for new businesses in the world and home to over 3,100 tech startups, is set to increase its base to 11,500 tech start-ups by 2020, as per a report by NASSCOM
and Zinnov Management Consulting Pvt Ltd.
Indias internet economy is expected to touch Rs 10 trillion (US$ 146.72 billion) by 2018,
accounting for 5 per cent of the countrys GDP, according to a report by the Boston Consulting
Group (BCG) and Internet and Mobile Association of India (IAMAI). Indias internet user base
reached over 350 million by June 2015, the third largest in the world, while the number of social
media users grew to 143 million by April 2015 and smartphones grew to 160 million.
Public cloud services revenue in India is expected to reach US$ 838 million in 2015, growing by
33 per cent year-on-year (y-o-y), as per a report by Gartner Inc. In yet another Gartner report, the
public cloud market alone in the country was estimated to treble to US$ 1.9 billion by 2018 from
US$ 638 million in 2014. Increased penetration of internet (including in rural areas) and rapid
emergence of e-commerce are the main drivers for continued growth of data centre co-location
and hosting market in India.

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Investments
Indian IT's core competencies and strengths have attracted significant investments from major
countries. The computer software and hardware sector in India attracted cumulative Foreign
Direct Investment (FDI) inflows worth US$ 20.42 billion between April 2000 and December
2015, according to data released by the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP).
Indian start-ups are expected to receive funding worth US$ 5 billion by the end of 2015, a 125
per cent increase in a year, according to a report by IT Industry association NASSCOM.
The Private Equity (PE) deals increased the number of Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A)
especially in the e-commerce space in 2014. The IT space, including e-commerce, witnessed 240
deals worth US$ 3.8 billion in 2014, as per data from Dealogic.
India also saw a ten-fold increase in the venture funding that went into internet companies in
2014 as compared to 2013. More than 800 internet start-ups got funding in 2014 as compared to
200 in 2012, said Rajan Anandan, Managing Director, Google India Pvt Ltd and Chairman,
IAMA.
About 554 start-ups received funding this year compared to 342 during last year. Seed and
venture capital funds made investments worth US$ 3.4 billion this year, three times the
investment made last year. VC funding to the IT & ITes sector amounted to 55 per cent of total
VC funding made this year.
Most large technology companies looking to expand have so far focused primarily on bigger
enterprises, but a report from market research firm Zinnov highlighted that the small and
medium businesses will present a lucrative opportunity worth US$ 11.6 billion in 2015, which is
expected to grow to US$ 25.8 billion in 2020. Moreover, India has nearly 51 million such
businesses of which 12 million have a high degree of technology influence and are looking to
adopt newer IT products, as per the report.
Some of the major developments in the Indian IT and ITeS sector are as follows:

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PurpleTalk Inc, a US based mobile solutions company, has invested US$ 1 million in
Nukkad Shops, a Hyderabad based uber-local commerce platform that helps
neighbourhood retail stores take their businesses online through a mobile app.

KartRocket, a Delhi based e-commerce enabler has completed its US$ 8 million funding
round by raising US$ 2 million from a Japanese investor, which will be used to enhance
Kraftly, a mobile-first online-to-offline marketplace targeting small sellers, individuals
and home-based entrepreneurs in India in product categories such as apparel and
accessories.

JustRide, a self-drive car rental aggregator, has raised US$ 400,000 in pre-series A round
of funding from a group of angel investors, including Redcliffe Capitals Mr Dheeraj
Jain, which will be used to enhance its technology.

Mumbai-based baby care and kids products e-tailer, Hopscotch.in, has raised US$ 13
million in a Series C round of funding from Facebook co-founder Mr Eduardo Saverin,
which will help the firm in growth and expansion of its technology platform.

MoMark Services, a mobile based customer engagement platform for small and medium
businesses, has raised US$ 600,000 from YourNest Angel Fund and LNB Group, to scale
up its product offerings and talent acquisition.

Shouut, a social discovery app by Giant Tech Labs Pvt Ltd, which helps consumers
discover deals, buy event tickets or redeem coupons, has raised US$ 500,000 in angel
funding from a high net-worth individual angel investor based in India.

Apple Inc. plans to set up its first technology development centre outside the US in
Hyderabad with an investment of US$ 25 million, which is expected to create 4,500 jobs,
as per Mr Jayesh Ranjan, Secretary, IT for the state of Telangana.

Xpressbees, an e-commerce logistics firm operated by Busybees Logistics Solutions


Private Limited, has raised US$ 12.5 million in a Series A funding, led by its existing
investors SAIF Partners, IDG Ventures, Vertex Ventures and Valiant Capital, which will
be used to strengthen technology initiatives and processes of the firm.

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Housejoy, an online home services provider, has raised Rs 150 crore (US$ 22 million) in
a Series B round of funding led by Amazon, and which also includes new investors such
as Vertex Ventures, Qualcomm and Ru-Net Technology Partners.

Global PE firm Blackstone Group has acquired a minority stake in an Indian travel,
transportation and logistics software firm, IBS Software, for US$ 170 million, by buying
the stake from General Atlantic and few other shareholders.

Indias top-tier IT company, Infosys Ltd, has bought a minority stake worth US$ 3
million in Whoop, which is a US-based start-up that makes activity trackers worn by
athletes.

Microsoft Ventures is planning to incubate 500 start-ups in India in the next five years
with a vision to create a viable and profitable business out of the booming start-up sector
in India.

National Association of Software and Services Companies (NASSCOM) plans to open


four more tech start-up incubation centres in different parts of India, in addition to
existing three, in support of Government of Indias Start-up India initiative.

Nasscom Foundation, a non-profit organisation which is a part of Nasscom, has partnered


with SAP India to establish 25 National Digital Literacy Mission (NDLM) centres in 12
cities across India, as a part of Government of India's Digital India initiative.

Infosys, Indias second largest Information Technology services company has acquired
US-based Noah Consulting, a provider of advanced information management consulting
services for the oil and gas industry.

US-based Callidus Software Inc, cloud-based sales, marketing, learning and customer
experience solutions provider, has opened its centre in Hyderabad and also launched its
The Lead to Money suite in Indian markets.

Wipro Ventures, Wipros US$ 100 million corporate venture arm, plans to invest in earlystage Venture Capital (VC) funds based in the US to pursue a strategy of
investing/partnering country-focussed VCs.
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A recent study by research firm International Data Corporation (IDC) suggests that India
may soon be able to catch up with the global technology trends that have disrupted
enterprises, industry and the way consumers behave and transact.

Reliance is building a 650,000 square feet (sq ft) data centre in Indiaits 10th data centre
in the countrywith a combined capacity of about 1 million sq ft and an overall
investment of US$ 200 million.

Intel Corp plans to invest about US$ 62 million in 16 technology companies, working on
wearable, data analytics and the Internet of Things (IoT), in 2015 through its investment
arm Intel Capital. The Indian IoT industry is expected be worth US$ 15 billion and to
connect 28 billion devices to the internet by 2020.

Indian e-commerce industry is expected to grow at a CAGR of 35 per cent to reach US$
100 billion size in the next five years, as per a study by AssochamPricewaterhouseCoopers.

Government Initiatives
Some of the major initiatives taken by the government to promote IT and ITeS sector in India are
as follows:

Mr Ravi Shakar Prasad, Minister of Communication and Information Technology,


announced plan to increase the number of common service centres or e-Seva centres to
250,000 from 150,000 currently to enable village level entrepreneurs to interact with
national experts for guidance, besides serving as a e-services distribution point.

The Railway Ministry plans to give a digital push to the India Railways by introducing
bar-coded tickets, Global Positioning System (GPS) based information systems inside
coaches, integration of all facilities dealing with ticketing issues, Wi-Fi facilities at the
stations, super-fast long-route train service for unreserved passengers among other
developments, which will help to increase the passenger traffic.

The e-Tourist Visa (e-TV) scheme has been extended to 37 more countries thereby taking
the total count of countries under the scheme to 150 countries.
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Department of Electronics & Information Technology and M/s Canbank Venture Capital
Fund Ltd plan to launch an Electronics Development Fund (EDF), which will be a 'Fund
of Funds' to invest in 'Daughter Funds' which would provide risk capital to companies
developing new technologies in the area of electronics, nano-electronics and Information
Technology (IT).

The Human Resource Development (HRD) Ministry has entered into a partnership with
private companies, including Tata Motors Ltd, Tata Consultancy Services Ltd and realestate firm Hubtown Ltd, to open three Indian Institutes of Information Technology
(IIITs), through public-private partnership (PPP), at Nagpur, Ranchi and Pune.

Government of India is planning to develop five incubation centres for 'Internet of


Things' (IoT) start-ups, as a part of Prime Minister Mr Narendra Modi's Digital India and
Startup India campaign, with at least two centres to be set up in rural areas to develop
solutions for smart agriculture.

According to research firm Gartner Inc, the Indian government is expected to increase its
spending on information technology (IT) products and services by 5.2 per cent to US$
6.88 billion in FY 2015-16.

The Government of India has launched the Digital India program to provide several
government services to the people using IT and to integrate the government departments
and the people of India. The adoption of key technologies across sectors spurred by the
'Digital India Initiative' could help boost India's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by US$
550 billion to US$ 1 trillion by 2025, as per research firm McKinsey.

India and the US have agreed to jointly explore opportunities for collaboration on
implementing India's ambitious Rs 1.13 trillion (US$ 16.58 billion) Digital India
Initiative. The two sides also agreed to hold the US-India Information and
Communication Technology (ICT) Working Group in India later this year.

The Government of Telangana has begun construction of a technology incubator in


Hyderabaddubbed T-Hubto reposition the city as a technology destination. The state
government is initially investing Rs 35 crore (US$ 5.14 million) to set up a 60,000 sq ft
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space, labelled the largest start-up incubator in the county, at the campus of International
Institute of Information Technology-Hyderabad (IIIT-H). Once completed, the project is
proposed to be the worlds biggest start-up incubator housing 1,000 start-ups.

INDIA'S GROWING MARKET SIZE


Indias technology and BPM sector (including hardware) is estimated to have generated US$
146 billion in revenue during FY15 compared to US$ 118 billion in FY14, implying a growth
rate of 23.72 per cent
The contribution of the IT sector to Indias GDP rose to approximately 9.5 per cent in FY15
from 1.2 per cent in FY98
The top six firms contribute around 36 per cent to the total industry revenue, indicating the
market is fairly competitive, with TCS being the leader accounting for about 10.1 per cent

COMPANY PROFILE
A team of young and dynamic computer professionals sowed the seed of Sumega Technologies
and turned it into a respected Information Technology (IT) company providing quality and costeffective solutions to its clients. Sumega Technologies offers IT solutions under one roof to its
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clients worldwide across a board range of platforms encompassing both current and emerging
technologies.
We offer high quality; reliable, scalable software and web solutions that enable our customers do
business more effectively. Our integration and post development support assure hassle free
synchronization and maintenance.
Our team has extensive knowledge in all our core business units. Our vision is a relaxed, clientfocused and professional approach; to cater for the increasing interest in human resource within
organizations ensuring customers receive first-rate service as they implement the solutions we
offer.
We provide transcription services to a wide variety of clients. It utilizes state-of-the art
equipment and procedures to provide fast, accurate and secure transcription to our clients. Using
these tools, we are able to provide quality service to our clients.
Through efficient solutions for our customers, we carve pioneering ways to increase efficiency
and rapidity, within the enterprise and across all of its suppliers, partners and customers.
Consulting Services
Sumega Technologies has the strategic vision, management, recruiting infrastructure, and most
importantly, hundreds of experienced technology consultants. Technology staffing requirements
at Fortune 1000 and mid-market organizations are in a state of flux. Systems development,
network architecture, and communications standards are changing on a daily basis. Furthermore,
in a volatile economy, the challenge to find qualified consultants needed to meet deadlines, only
becomes more difficult.

Anticipating Client Demand


At Apps Technologies, recruiting the consultants your organization needs, begins even before
you talk to us. It starts with our stringent recruiting and screening process. We monitor trends in
the information technology industry to predict client demand for consultants with specific
technical capabilities. Apps Technologies is constantly looking for candidates with business
25

experience that match their technical expertise. All of our consultants have engineering degrees
and at least three years of relevant work experience. By maintaining a large talent-pool that
reflects industry trends, we are able to meet even the most extreme demands of our clients. This
also gives us the ability to fulfill your requirements without long lead times.
To ensure that we recruit the consultants that your company needs today, next month and the year
after, Apps Technologies strives to keep the communication channels wide open. In addition to
scheduled status meetings, we constantly monitor project developments and consultant activities,
enabling us to quickly respond to any micro or macro changes at your company. In an economy
as dynamic as this one, your organization cannot afford to be limited by the reaction time of your
staffing partner.
Consultant Management
There are several consultant management techniques to ensure the highest quality services for
your company.
We have the ability to build in compensation incentives for consultants, based upon their
contribution to specific project goals and milestones.
We conduct regular and spot employee appraisals, which compare actual status to performance
targets and employees benchmarks suggested by the clients.
We conduct regular and spot employee appraisals, which compare actual status to performance
targets and employees benchmarks suggested by the clients.
We encourage completion of customer satisfaction surveys that ensure that the SVAM consultant
meets your expectations.

26

Out Sourcing
Across industries, companies are realizing the strategic advantages of business process
outsourcing (BPO). By engaging a partner that assumes responsibility for management of noncore business processes, companies can dramatically improve costs, increase efficiency and cut
cycle times.
Outsourcing non-core activities to gain competitive advantage have now become an essential
tool of any business to survive. As the industry matures, "core activity" is undergoing a change
already. The industry is maturing making virtual organizations, where HR, Finance, IT,
operations, marketing and in some instances, even idea generation is being outsourced.
Ultimately, BPO services enable you to focus more time and money on what matters most: your
core
business.
But not all BPO providers are created equal. To succeed, you need a partner that offers a
disciplined approach with a total commitment to quality, customer service, communication, and
transparency.
Those are key strengths of some of the reasons our clients turn to us time and again.
follows a proven model for moving business processes from your team to our team. But we dont
simply implement processes. We also optimize themtapping into our teams business
experience and technical expertise to wring out inefficiency and cost.
Because of world-class custom software development capabilities, we routinely build and
enhance tools to streamline and automate processes. Working with, your organization can slash
costs without compromising quality. In fact, you may find that we actually improve it.
With every client, we provide open lines of communication with full visibility into what were
doing, and how. Stays in constant contact through daily and weekly progress reports, weekly
teleconferences with your dedicated team, web- and VPN-based shared project management
tools, and instant messaging. Philosophy is simple: to keep you informed at all times. This level
of transparency gives you absolute confidence that were delivering as promisedmeeting or
exceeding your business requirements.
The basic advantages of outsourcing product development are

Diversified expertise
Getting together different resources to work with.

Reduce cost of development.

27

Break product roadmaps, and above all

Increase efficiency by focusing on new competencies.

Software Development
Sumega Technologies provides IT Solutions that help business make a listing Impact on our
customers profitability.
Sumega Technologies is into Information Technology Solutions- We offer the skills Of a
conglomerate of techniques with decade experience to provide you complete IT Solutions.
A team of young and dynamic computer professionals sowed the seed of Sumega Technologies
and nurtured it into a respected Information Technology (IT) company providing quality and
cost-effective solutions to its clients. Sumega Technologies offers IT solutions under one roof to
its clients worldwide across a board range of platforms encompassing both current and emerging
technologies.
We offer high quality; reliable, scalable software and web solutions that enable our customers do
business more effectively. Our integration and post development support assure hassle free
synchronization and maintenance.
Our team has extensive knowledge in all our core business units. Our vision is a relaxed , clientfocused and professional approach; to cater for the increasing interest in human resource within
organizations ensuring customers receive first-rate service as they implement the solutions we
offer.
We provide transcription services to a wide variety of clients. It utilizes state-of-the art
equipment and procedures to provide fast, accurate and secure transcription to our clients. Using
these tools, we are able to provide quality service to our clients.
Through efficient solutions for our customers, we carve pioneering ways to increase efficiency
and rapidity, within the enterprise and across all of its suppliers, partners and customers.

28

Training Services
Sumega Techs excellent record for training is due to its unique training methodology, as well as
innovative, in-house course programs.
Working as partners in progress with our clients is an important distinction that sets us apart. Our
capability in our course design allows for custom-designed programs to suit specific training
needs. Course are individually conceived after a through analysis of the needs of the customers
as well as the enterprise.
From pre-process training to Floor coaching, as well ad Up-training and Onsite Refresher
training, Sumega Tech works in tandem with the client at every stage.
For more information, please use the links below.
Pre Process Training.
Voice and Accent Training.
Floor coaching.
Refresher Training.
Faculty
Training Methodology :
The training program is modular and customized in line with customer-specific business needs.
Some of the parameters considered for course design:
Orientation Survey vs. tech support
Emphasis Whether voice intensive
Caller Profile Corporate vs. Individual
Geographical Market US, UK, Australia and more
Specialist trainers Phonetics, native accent trainers
Customized training programs are based on client inputs such as.
Relevant and contextual information.
Call recordings.
Product/service details.
29

Customer profile
Call scripts.
Company policies.
Specific glossary.
Call evaluation parameters.
Training Pre - Process Training :
Before candidates get on to the floor, Sumega Tech ensures they are groomed and Ready for a
successful start.
The training covers:
English skills
Accent neutralization
Communication skills
Cross culture training.
Some of the main focus areas of the training:.
Attitude Barriers where inputs are given on the right attitude to succeed, stress management
time management and team building. Along with quality awareness, attitudinal training enhances
and contributes to the adjustment and functioning of trainees.
Phonetics and Language English usage, fluency, clarity, appropriate pronunciation and
sentence structure that are most appropriate for the need functions are taught. Idioms, phrases,
figures of speech and phraseology are covered. Correct articulation, comprehension and
conversation in English are given special focus. Written skills such as e-mail, summary of call
details, reports, etc. are also part of the course.
Culture Trainees are exposed to the foreign way of life this includes government, social and
business etiquette, holidays, music, sports, history sessions and weather, etc. A clear
understanding of the native customer, culture, lifestyle and sociopolitical structure serves to help
trainees identify the customer and respond accordingly.
Customer Service and Communication Skills Understanding the customer, appreciating
customer value, according him/her the rightful place and the correct treatment of customers are

30

just a few of the topics that are interspersed with case studies and are creatively presented to
trainees.
Call recordings of simulated situations are played back to trainees and are supporting factors for
reviews and feedback. They provide motivation for higher levels of progress.
Training Voice and Accent Training :
Sumega Tech unmatched specialization is Voice and Accent training.
Realizing the immense value of being familiar with the various international accents, in order to
respond effectively, Sumega Tech engages the respective expatriates for authentic speech and
accent training. This is probably the most significant strength of Sumega Tech.
Accent- Exposure to the characteristics of foreign accents, guidance through audio and theory
lessons, comprehension of various accents, enhancement and neutralization of ones own accent
through stringent practices, etc. all help traines acquire the required speech skills. Each trainee is
handled individually, as each trainee has his or her own unique way of speaking.
Training Floor Coaching :
Our association with clients does not end once pre-process training comes to an end. With Floor
Coaching, Sumega Tech helps clients archive higher productivity.
Floor coaching involves the Sumega Tech faculty being present onsite along with the candidates,
auditing calls and mentoring them with immediate feedback.
This is recommended for the first 2 3 weeks, for about an hour each day. Over a specified
period, results are evaluated against progress made between the pre and post-mentoring period.
Training Refresher Training :
Refresher or Up training is a vital and useful activity carried out by Sumega Tech.
When client requirements change, such as when customer service needs to be Provided for a new
product or when the geographic market changes, Sumega Tech Is ready to impart training with
the new perspective.
Sumega Tech has often conducted onside refresher with great success.
31

Training Faculty :
Our faculty is the primary reason for our position as the Number 1 Training Organization.
Multi national , multi-cultural, and drawn from diverse disciplines and experiences, all trainers
have the special qualifications demanded by Sumega Tech.
For example, 5 years of experience teaching English; is having been a domicile of the relevant
country for at least 5 years for cultures training; and the required customer service industry
background for Customer Service.
Every trainer is required to attend an orientation program to ensure consistency in the training
approach. On-floor observation by trainers results in a better appreciation of the various aspects
of personnel functions and customer issues. This gives Sumega Tech faculty that extra edge in
Knowledge-based training.
Team provides the consultants (for Contract or Permanent Positions) with expertise in:

Application development and support

Business analysis

Content management

Data warehousing and analysis

Database design, administration, and maintenance

business and Web applications

Management consulting

Network design, implementation, administration, and support

Operating systems support

Project management

Project outsourcing

Software installation and implementation


32

Software quality assurance and testing

Systems integration and conversions

Technical writing and documentation

CHAPTER- 4
THEORETICAL FRAME WORK

33

Motivational Theories.
The Hierarchy of Needs Theory
The hierarchy of needs theory advanced by (Maslow 1943) contends that human motives
develop in a sequence according to the five levels of needs; physiological needs, security and
safety needs, affiliation, esteem and need for self actualization. He emphasized that when one set
of needs is satisfied, it ceases to be a motivator.
Steinmetz (1983) discusses three main types of subordinates: ascendant, indifferent and
ambivalent that all react and interact uniquely and must be treated, managed and motivated
accordingly. An effective leader must understand how to manage all characters and more
importantly the manager must utilize avenues that allow room for employees to work, grow and
find answers independently.
The Hygiene Theory.
Fredrick Hertz (1959), the two-factor theory also known as the hygiene theory, where he referred
to satisfiers as motivators, dissatisfiers as hygiene factors. He found out that motivators were
related to job experience and dissatisfies related to environmental conditions. These are classified
in the table below.
Table 1: Motivation satisfiers and dis-satisfiers.
Motivators(satisfiers)

Maintenance factor (dis-satisfier)

Challenging work

Status

Achievement

Interpersonal relations

Growth of the job

Quality supervision

Responsibility

Company policy

Advancement

Working condition

Recognition

Salary

Source: Fredrick Herzberg (1959).The Motivation to Work.

34

Dis-satisfier factors do not motivate people but they must be present in an organization to avoid
dissatisfaction. The job content factors are the real motivators since they provide a sense of
satisfaction.
The Expectancy Theory
Victor H (1964) advanced the expectancy theory. He contends that people will be motivated to
do things to attain a goal if they believe in the worth of that goal and if they can perceive that
what they do will help them in achieving it. The theory contends that motivational force is a
function of the value of money to a person multiplied by his subjective estimate that equitable
amount will be forth coming should he perform in a desired way.
The Equity Theory
It was developed by Stacy J. Adams (1967) and it refers to san individuals subjective judgment
about the fairness of the rewards she receives relative to inputs such as effort, experience and
education, in comparison with the rewards of others who fall under the same group. If the
relation is not equal, then inequality shall be perceived and will reduce the morale of the affected
employee.
As a researcher, I have noted with concern that its important for employees to balance between
intrinsic and extrinsic types of motivation as they deal with employees and that one should first
find out what particular motivation practice will motivate a given employee as advanced by
Maslow, A. (1943) in the Hierarchy of needs theory.
Employee Performance
Employee performance is a term typical to the Human Resource field where employee
performance can refer to the ability of employees to achieve organizational goals more
effectively and efficiently. It involves all aspects which directly or indirectly affect and relate to
the work of the employees. For performance to be effective, employers should recognize the
regiment desires and needs of the employees. According to Koontz, H. (1988) Ways in which
employee performance can be increased include; proper incentive systems which may be
financial or nonfinancial. Financial incentives include; salaries, allowances, overtime payment,
bonus and wages, while non financial incentives include; promotion, medical allowance,
35

training, transport, subsidized housing and meals. This should be after identifying the needs and
desires of employees that can be satisfied hence increased performance.
Factors affecting employee performance
Goal Clarity
Willmot (2007) asserts that people must have in mind a clear picture of any end or goal they are
to achieve. If this picture does not exist, they cannot tell if they are making progress or when
they have completed the task or assignment, let alone if it has been completed properly.
Knight (2008) agrees and adds that keeping the end in view has been sage advice for almost two
thousand years. The time a manager spends in developing, communicating and clarifying the
goals or ends to be achieved is time well spent.
Repertoire
Nickols (2003) writes that to achieve a goal, the people working toward it must possess a
suitable, flexible repertoire. They must be able to engage in whatever behaviors are necessary to
obtain that goal despite changing circumstances and environmental disturbances. In some cases,
this will involve carrying out a routine that has been specified in advance by someone else. In
other cases, it will require figuring out on the spot an appropriate course of action. He
concludes that in many situations, the end to be achieved will remain constant but the conditions
under which it is to attained will vary. Therefore, employees need to posses a suitable and
flexible repertoire.
Knowledge of Structures
According to Fred (2003), figuring out what to do in a particular situation requires knowledge of
the structure of that situation. People must understand the elements that make up the situation,
how those elements are connected to one another and the relationships that exist between and
among these elements. This knowledge of the structure of the situation allows people to say how
the actions they take will lead to the result they seek. It also allows them to say, for a given
result, the actions that will lead to it. Absent this knowledge, action is little more than a shot in
the dark and achieving desired results depends mainly on luck or intuition.
36

Sara (2004) agreed and added that employees can only perform to the best of their knowledge
and therefore those with good knowledge about the structures will perform better.
Feedback
Gerhart (2004) wrote that without information about actual conditions in relation to intended
goals or results, no one can perform to standard. Such information is known as feedback. It
informs progress, enables corrections and, eventually, signals attainment of the objective. For
most hard tasks (i.e., tasks involving tangible products or other immediate and readily measured
effects of ones actions), feedback is generally available without much effort on any-ones part.
We are aware of our actions and their effects. But, for soft tasks (i.e., tasks where the effects of
our actions are not tangible, immediate nor readily measured), the feedback loop is essentially
open. This is especially true when the main effects of a persons actions are the reactions of other
people. Therefore, lack of good feedback leads to lack of correction and hence poor performance.
Mental Models
Sara (2004) asserts that absent feedback, people have no choice except to act in ways that are
consistent with internally-held views or mental models of what is appropriate or what should
work instead of externally-based information about what is and isnt actually working. For this
reason, it is worthwhile spending time working with people to identify the mental models they
currently use in situations where feedback isnt readily available. In some cases, this will surface
mental models that are inappropriate or inadequate. In other cases, it might surface mental
models that are superior to those held by most people. This means that employee performance
does not only depend on the information provided to the employees but also to their mental
models.
Motivation
Kathleen (2004) asserts that it is one thing to be capable of doing something; it is something else
altogether to want to do it. Setting aside the issue of coercion, people generally want to do things
for two basic reasons: (1) it serves some purpose of their own or (2) it serves someone elses
purpose and theyve accepted something in return for doing whatever it is that someone else
wants done. Self-satisfaction and incentives; these are the two great motivators.
37

Environment
In his studies on performance, Rynes (2004) found out that performance might not occur if the
environmental conditions are so unsuitable as to present insurmountable barriers to performance.
He writes that Most of us can successfully drive our cars on windy days but none of us can drive
through a tornado. In less dramatic terms, missing tools and equipment, competing priorities, a
repressive climate and other factors can interfere with our ability to perform as expected,
regardless of our motives or our repertoire, the presence or absence of feedback and the quality
of the mental models that guide our thinking and actions. In short, the task environment must
support the desired performance; at the very least, it must be manageable.
Technology
According to Samuel (2010), technology is primary tool that can be used to boost employee
performance. Ha writes that improvement in technology accompanied by training of the
employees can significantly increase their levels of performance because it reduces the stress that
comes with doing the job manually.
Abilities, training and experience
Scott (2000) defined ability as the capacity to learn and perform the tasks required. He revealed
that a good mixture of ability, training and experience is the root cause best performances. He
asserts that best performing employees at least have two of the three factors.

Work-Home Balance
Berman (2001) wrote that as much as an employer may not want to be affected by the personal
life of his employees, personal problems can sometimes affect employee performance. Managers
need to be sensitive to employee personal problems, and be prepared to discuss the issues with
employees when necessary. If an employee requires time off to deal with a personal problem,
then granting that time off will help to show all of your employees that the company values its
employees.
38

As a researcher, I strongly support the above factors that affect employee performance as valid
even in the present situation hence employees should take them serious and find out how to
mitigate their effects to have improved employee performance.
The relationship between motivation and employee performance
According to Steers (1999), employee motivation is the process of enabling or authorizing an
individual to think, behave take action, control work and decision making in an autonomous way.
A number of studies have examined the relationship between motivation and performance,
Koestner (1999) wrote that if motivation is crucial for initiating behavior, then performance
exists at the opposite end of the spectrum and is defined as the outcome of a motivated act.
Posti, C. (2005) says that people need motivation just as pieces of equipment need fuel and
operators. This is highly demanded to ensure that they are always at their optimum working
condition. In turn, this will absolutely lead to optimum productivity. People are one of the most
important assets in business. They have unlimited potential to contribute in the achievement of
objectives. Their aggregate productivity propels the operations of the company. It dictates the
overall performance, which creates an attractive corporate culture.
According to Dems, K. (2010). The value of human resource productivity is a managerial
concern. Employee motivation is the classic response on this matter. This has been utilized for
ages by many different entities, small- and large-scale businesses alike. It fosters mutual growth
in an employer-employee relationship. Indeed, motivation increases productivity.
In their study Wood, Kakebeeke, Debowski, and Frese (2000) examined the role of active
exploration in an adult training program. Their results indicated that participants who were
trained to actively explore the environment during training had higher intrinsic motivation levels,
as well as higher performance on transfer tasks.
In agreement Cooper, Clasen, Silva-Jalonen, and Butler (1999) found that intrinsic motivation
was associated with higher levels of creativity-based performance for an in-basket work task.
The in-basket technique is an employment screening task in which an applicant is asked to
complete a set of paperwork that would be representative of his/her actual work tasks.

39

Amodt (1999) and Graen (1999) also found that intrinsic motivation in employees was related to
higher levels of creative performance, as rated by work supervisors. However, Fang (1997)
reported that, although intrinsic motivation was related to innovative performance, it was not
related to other work outcomes.
According to Hersey (1996). Motivation is concerned with human behavior. It is the inner
striving condition described as wishes, desires, drives or moves, human psychological
characteristics, which includes the factors that cause channel and sustain human behavior.
Therefore motivation deals with what makes people active. It`s the influence force that gives rise
to behavior involving creating conditions in which employees want to work and are willing to
accept responsibility.
According to Waterman (1982). Motivation is the degree of effort an employee exerts to
accomplish a task, it shows an excitement about work. From the managers point of view, person
who is motivated has such characteristics as hardworking, sustaining a pace of hard work, self
directed behavior towards important organizational goals. Motivation is the key to performance
improvement. There is a saying that saying that you can take a horse to the well to drink water
but you cannot force it to drink, it will drink if only it is thirsty-so with people. They will do
what they want to do or otherwise motivated to do. Whether it is to excel on the workshop floor
or in the ivory tower, they must be motivated or driven to it, either by themselves or through
external stimulus.
According to Heneman,R.L. (1992)Differences in institutional arrangements contribute to the
feasibility and effectiveness of various monetary incentives, as do differences in employees
preferences for specific incentives. Therefore, companies are wise to study these issues before
implementing changes to existing incentive plans. This is especially pertinent for service
organizations, where financial reinforcements tend to produce a stronger effect on task
performance than non-financial rewards used alone. Even stronger results are seen with a
composite approach. For example, one meta-analysis of 72 field studies found that monetary
incentives improved task performance by 23%, social recognition improved task performance by
17% and feedback elicited a 10% improvement18. Simultaneously combining all three types of
reinforcements improved performance by 45%.

40

Putting in consideration Milkovich,G.T(1991) presentation that team-based or small-group


incentives are defined as rewards whereby a portion of individual pay is contingent on
measurable group performance. In general, its effectiveness is dependent on the characteristics of
the reward system, the organization, the team and the individual team members. Here again,
studying this issue via employee surveys or interviews can be useful. But generally speaking,
research suggests that equally divided small-group incentives sustain high levels of productivity
and satisfaction for group members, and that small group incentives are at least as effective as
individual incentives with groups of two to twelve people. Qualitative, quantitative and survey
research studies of alternative pay systems such as profit-sharing or gain-sharing plans are even
more consistent in their findings. These incentive programs include various pay-for-performance
approaches that link financial rewards for employees to improvements in the performance of the
work unit20. Research reveals that these types of incentive systems are associated in practice
and in employer and employee minds with both higher productivity and improvements in
organizational performance.
Other factors
Table 2: Key Performance Indicators (KPI)
3.High Competence but low

1.High Competence, high

behaviors

behaviors

4.Low competence, low

2.Low competence but high

behaviors

behavior

Source: Adapted from: Jamie Resker, (2007) Employee Performance Indicators.


Using the above diagram, Resker, J.(2007) explains more about employee performance
indicators as seen below;
High Job Competence and High Behaviors
Employees in the far upper right hand corner represent our A players. Exhibiting an ideal
combination of high Job Competence and high Behaviors, these contributors set a good example
41

for other employees, mentor others and are predominantly self-managed. Still, we need to make
sure they receive the message that we appreciate their contributions, value having them as part of
our team and check for continued engagement. Our research indicates approximately 10% of
employees fall into this category.
Lower Job Competence and Mid to High Behaviors
Employees in this quadrant tend to fit one of two categories: New employees with high
behaviors who are enthusiastic, eager to learn and are making steady progress towards gaining
new skills, fulfilling job responsibilities and meeting goals. Close supervision, continuous
direction and feedback are required.
Employees who have received support to learn the skills required mastering the job
responsibilities and meeting goals yet lacking the aptitude to absorb and apply the required skills.
Job responsibilities and goals are only partially completed which results in essential job tasks
going unmet and/or falling to the manager or more capable employees in the Upper Right hand
corner.
Low Behaviors and Low Job Competence
If we were giving out letter grades, the performance for employees in this space would receive
an F. Our research indicates that approximately 3 10% of employees reside in this area. One
would assume that organizations would take swift action to eliminate these chronic
underperformers, yet for a myriad of reasons we allow them to stay at their current performance
levels. Why? There are many excuses: this person used to be a valuable employee but has slipped
over the years; The employee is doing as much as he/she can- they have got a lot going on in
their persona lives; a culture that sends a we dont care message etc. Our view is to help them
out or help them out (figure out a way to improve their performance, or create an exit strategy).
Not only do we sacrifice on our financial investment in such employees, but they also reflect
poorly on the organization as a whole.

Challenges of Motivation
Corporate culture
42

Corporate, organization and department culture all flows from the top down. The written and
unwritten rules, policies and philosophy of a manager or the organization all eventually find their
way into the attitudes and performance of almost everyone in the organization. One of the critical
things to remember when dealing with people is: you get the behavior you reward. If the culture
directly or indirectly rewards a certain type of attitude or behavior, you are, by your actions or
inactions, probably reaffirming that these are acceptable. If you want to change behavior, you
must first evaluate the culture that is in place that may be rewarding the type of behavior you are
getting but don't necessarily want.
Communication style
Rumors, hearsay, memos, emails, meetings, individual counseling sessions and bulletin boards
all have one thing in common - they communicate information - some more effectively and
timely than others. If communication in an organization is all top-down, you can be assured that
you are not in touch with the realities of your organization, the marketplace, your customers or
suppliers.
Organization direction
One of the biggest challenges managers face today is effectively communicating corporate
direction with clarity and consistency to all employees who have a right and need to know. Most
organizations do a poor job of this at best. One way to find out what your people believe is to
conduct an anonymous survey of attitudes, perceptions and opinions.
Decision making
Many managers make decisions that other employees will either have to implement or that will
affect them. If these decisions are made without bottom-up feedback, you can guarantee that the
outcome of the decisions will be less than desired or expected.

Feedback mechanisms

43

Employees want to know how they are doing - whether poorly or well. Failure to give them the
feedback they need is to keep them in the dark regarding the assessment of their performance and
how and where they need to improve.
Conclusion
This chapter has generally explored motivation and its practices, employee performance and the
relationship between motivation and employee performance. From the above literature, I can
conclude that motivation can really have an impact on the level of employee performance as
confirmed by Wood (2000) and Koestner (1999) and the clear link between motivation and
employee performance help us to investigate the validity of various aspects in relation to
Kampala City Council. However it can also be concluded that no clear scholar has come out to
examine the impact of motivation on employee performance hence the relevance of this research.

Motivational Strategies at SUMEGA TECHNOLOGIES.


"Motivation" is a Latin word, meaning, "to move". Human motives are internalized goals within
individuals. It may be defined as those forces that cause people to behave in certain ways. It
encompasses all those pressures and influences that trigger, channel and sustain human behavior.
managers,

by definition are required to work with and through people and hence must have an

understanding of the forces that motivate people, they are there to manage. People are complex
and uniquely different. What motivates one person may not necessary motivate another. Most
successful managers have learned to understand the concept of human motivation and are able to
use that understanding to achieve higher standards of subordinate work performance.
Motivation is the process of channeling a person's inner drives so that he can accomplish
the goals of the organization. It seeks to know the incentives for work and tries to find out the
ways and means whereby their realization can be helped and encouraged.
Nature and Characteristics of Motivation: Psychologists generally agree that all behavior is motivated, and that people have reasons for
doing the things they do or behave in the manner that they do. Motivating is the work a manager
44

performs to inspire, encourage and impel people to get the job done, that is the functional and
operational dimension of motivation.
Motivation is an internal feeling: Motivation is a psychological phenomenon that generates in
the mind of an individual the feeling that he lacks certain things and needs those things.
Motivation is a force within an individual that drives him to behave in a certain way.
Motivation is related to needs: Needs are deficiencies, which are created whenever there is a
physiological or psychological imbalance. In order to motivate a person, we have to understand
his needs that call for satisfaction.
Motivation produces goal-directed behaviour: Goals are anything, which will alleviate a need
and reduce a drives where individuals behavior is directed towards that goal.
Motivation can be either positive or negative: Positive or incentive motivation is generally
based on reward. According to Flippo- Positive motivation is a process of attempting to influence
others to do your will through the possibility of gain or reward".
Negative or fear motivation is based on force and fear. Fear causes persons to act in a certain
way because they are afraid of the consequences if they don't perform their duty well.
Types of Motivation: If a manager wants to get work done by his employees, he may either hold out a promise of a
reward (positive motivation) or he may install fear (negative motivation). Both these types are
widely used by managers.
Positive or Incentive Motivation: This type of motivation is generally based on reward. A
positive motivation involves the possibility of increased motive satisfaction. According to Flippo
- "Positive motivation is a process of attempting to influence others to do your will through the
possibility of gain or reward". Incentive motivation is the "pull" mechanism. The receipt of
awards, due recognition and praise for work-well done, definitely lead to good team spirit, cooperation and a feeling of happiness.
The Positive Motivation include:

Delegation of authority and responsibility


45

Praise and credit for work done

Wages and Salaries

Appreciation

A sincere interest in subordinates as individuals

Negative or Fear Motivation: This type of motivation is based on force and fear. Fear causes
persons to act in a certain way because they fear the consequences. Negative motivation involves
the possibility of decreased motive satisfaction. It is a "push" mechanism.
The imposition of punishment frequently results in frustration among those punished, leading to
the development of maladaptive behavior. It also creates a hostile state of mind and an
unfavorable attitude to the job. However, there is no management, which has not used the
negative motivation at some time or the other.
The three key elements in motivation are intensity, direction, and persistence. Intensity is
concerned with how hard a person tries. This is the element most of us focus on when we talk
about motivation. However, high intensity is unlikely to lead to favorable job-performance
outcomes unless the effort is channeled in a direction that benefits the organization. Therefore,
we have to consider the quality of effort as well as its intensity. Effort that is directed towards,
and consistent with, the organizations goal is the kind of goal we should be seeking. Finally,
motivation has a persistence dimension. This is a measure of how long a person can maintain his
or her effort. Motivated individuals stay with a task long enough to achieve their goals.

46

CHAPTER- 5
DATA ANALYSIS
&
INTERPRETATION

47

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATIONS


1) Which type of incentives motivates you more?
a) Monetary incentives b)Non-financial incentives c) Both

Particulars

No.

of Percentage

Respondents
Monetary incentives

15

30

Non-financial incentives

18

Both

26

52

Total

50

100

INTERPRETATION:
The table shows that 52% of the respondents are expressing that both financial and non-financial
incentives will equally motivate them, 18% are expressing non-financial incentives motivates
and 30% respondents says we only motivated through monetary incentives only.

2) What factor De-motives you at work place?


48

a)
b)
c)

Job profile
Company policy
Work environment

Particulars

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Job profile

14

28

Company policy

16

32

Work environment

20

40

Total

50

100

INTERPRETATION:
The table shows that 40% of the respondents are de-motives with work environment and 32%
with company policy and 28% of the respondents are de-motives with job profile. From this it
can be concluded that work environment and company policy are de-motives at work place.
3. How far you are satisfied with the incentives provided by the organizations?
a) Highly satisfied
b) Satisfied c) Neutral d) Dissatisfied e) Highly dissatisfied
Particulars

No. of Respondents
49

Percentage

Highly satisfied

18

36

Satisfied

29

58

Neutral

Dissatisfied

Highly dissatisfied

Total

50

100

INTERPRETATION:
The table shows that 36% of the respondents are highly satisfied and 58% of the respondents are
satisfied with incentives provided by the organization so we can conclude most of the employees
are satisfied with the incentives provided by the organization.

a)

4. Does your Job improve your skills and abilities?


Yes b) No c) Never
Particulars

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Yes

32

64

No

10

20

Never

16
50

Total

50

100

INTERPRETATION:
64% of the respondents are agreed that their job improves their skills and abilities and 20% of
the respondents agreed that their skills and abilities are not improves. It can be conclude that
their job improves their skills and abilities.

5.
a)
b)
c)

Do you think that the incentives and other benefits will influence your performance?
Influence
Does not influence
No opinion

Particulars

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Influence

32

64

Does not influence

12

24

51

No opinion

12

Total

50

100

INTERPRETATION:
The table shows that 64% of the respondents those incentives and other benefits will influence
their performance,24% respondents says they are not influence their performance and 12%
respondents did not say any opinion.

6. Management is really interested in motivating the employees?


a) Agree
b) Disagree
c) Neutral
Particulars

No. of respondents

Percentage

Agree

25

50

Disagree

18

36
52

Neutral

14

total

50

100

INTERPRETATION:
From the above table 50% of the employees are agreed that the management is really interested
in motivating the employees and 36% of the employees are disagreed and 14% are neutral.So it
can be concluded that management is really interested in motivate the employees in organization.
7. Does the management involve you in the decision making which are connected to your
department?
a) YES
b) No
c) Occasionally
Particulars

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Yes

47

94

No

Occasionally

TOTAL

50

100

53

INTERPRETATION:
The table shows 94% of the respondents agree that they the management involves them in
decision making which are connected their department.
8. Do you enthusiastic about your work?
a) Always
b) Sometimes
c) Never
Particulars

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Always

15

30

Sometimes

30

60

Never

10

TOTAL

50

100

54

INTERPRETATION:
From the above table, we can conclude that 60% of the respondents agreed that they feel
enthusiastic some times in their work.

9. Are you encouraged to come up with new and better ways of doing things?
a) Strongly agree b) agree c) Neutral

d) Disagree

e) Strongly disagree

Particulars

No. of Respondents

Strongly agree

20

40

agree

10

20

Neutral

12

24

Disagree

16

Strongly disagree

TOTAL

50

100

55

Percentage

INTERPRETATION:
From the above table we can conclude that 40% of the employees agreed that they are
encouraging to come up with new and better ways of doing things.
10. Have you been promoted at work in the last six months?
a ) Yes
b) No
Particulars

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Yes

18

36

No

32

64

Total

50

100

56

INTERPRETATION:
The table shows that 64% of the employees are not promoted from the last six months and 36%
of the employees are promoted. From this we can conclude that most of the employees are not
promoted.

11. Are you adequately recognized for your good work?


a)

Agree

b)

Disagree

c)

neutral

Particulars

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Agree

28

56

Disagree

10

20

Neutral

12

24

Total

50

100

57

INTERPRETATION:
The figure shows that 56% of the employees agreed that they are recognized for good work and
20% are disagreed and 24% respondents are neutral. So it can conclude that most of the
employees recognized by their good work.

12. Rank the following factors which motivates you the most?
(Rank 1, 2, 3, 4 respectively)
No.

Factors

Salary increase

Promotion

Leave

Motivational talks

`reorganization

Particulars

Rank

No. of Respondents
58

Percentage

Salary increase

21

42

Promotion

15

30

Leave

Motivational talks

10

recognization

12

Total

50

100

INTERPRETATION:
The table shows that 42% of the respondents are responding that the increase in salary will
motivate them the most.

59

13. Have you been nominated for training & development programmers for the last 6 months?
a) Yes
b) No

Particulars

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Yes

30

60

No

20

40

Total

50

100

INTERPRETATION:
The table shows that 60% of the respondents are expressing that they are nominated for training
and development programme in the organization for the last 6 months.

14. Does the management provide continuous feed back in solving work related problems?
60

a) Strongly Agree

b) Agree

c) Neutral

d) Disagree e) Strongly Disagree

Particulars

Number of Respondents

Percentage

Strongly agree

14

28

Agree

16

32

Neutral

18

Disagree

10

Strongly Disagree

12

TOTAL

50

100

INTERPRETATION:
The table shows that 28% of respondents strongly agreed and 32% agree that they are getting
feedback from management and 20% are neutral and 10% are disagree that they are not getting
feedback from the management.
15. Overall are you satisfied with your job?
a) Yes
b) No
61

Particulars

Number of Respondents

Percentage

Yes

28

56

No

22

44

TOTAL

50

100

INTERPRETATION:
The figure shows that 56% of the respondents are satisfied with their job and only 44% of the
respondents agreed that they are not satisfied with their job.It can be concluded that most of the
respondents are satisfied with their job.

62

CHAPTER- 6
FINDINGS & SUGGESTIONS

63

FINDINGSThe findings of the study are follows

The employees are really motivated by the management.

The employees are satisfied with the present incentive plan of the company
Most of the workers agreed that the company is eager in recognizing and acknowledging
their work.

The study reveals that there is a good relationship exists among employees.

Majority of the employees agreed that there job security to their present job.

The company is providing good safety measures for ensuring the employees safety.

From the study it is clear that most of employees agrees to the fact that performance

Appraisal activities and support from the co-workers in helpful to get motivated.

The study reveals that increase in the salary will motivates the employees more.

The incentives and other benefits will influence the performance of the employees

From the above table, we can conclude that 60% of the respondents agreed that they feel

enthusiastic some times in their work.

From the above table we can conclude that 40% of the employees agreed that they are

encouraging to come up with new and better ways of doing things.

The table shows that 64% of the employees are not promoted from the last six months

and 36% of the employees are promoted. From this we can conclude that most of the employees
are not promoted

56% of the employees agreed that they are recognized for good work and 20% are
disagreed and 24% respondents are neutral. So it can conclude that most of the
employees recognized by their good work.

42% of the respondents are responding that the increase in salary will motivate them the

most.

60% of the respondents are expressing that they are nominated for training and

development programme in the organization for the last 6 months.

64

T 28% of respondents strongly agreed and 32% agree that they are getting feedback from

management and 20% are neutral and 10% are disagree that they are not getting feedback from
the management.
SUGGESTIONS
The suggestions for the findings from the study are follows

Most of the employees agree that the performance appraisal activities are helpful to
get motivated, so the company should try to improve performance appraisal system,
so that they can improve their performance.

Non financial plans should also be implemented; it can improve the productivity level of
the employees.

Organization should give importance to communication between employees and


gain co-ordination through it.

Skills of the employees should be appreciated.

Better carrier development opportunities should be given to the employees for their
improvement

If the centralized system of management is changed to a decentralized one, then there


would be active and committed participation of staff for the success of the organization.

Greater recognition to be given to the employees for the work they do.

It was opinioned that the management needs to take steps to improve the coordination
between the employees and the various departments.

The management must try to appreciate the employees for the work they do and give
some monetary rewards to the employees.

Irrespective of the cadre, the management must take care of all its employees welfare.

Training should be given to employees to cope up with the new technical advances.

Steps may be taken to biases and individual difference in the organization.

65

Providing opportunities for the employees to think and innovate new ideas can help
organizational prospects.

Active participation from the accounts department can enhance their performance

66

CHAPTER- 7
CONCLUSION
&
BIBLIOGRAPHY

67

CONCLUSION
The study concludes that, the motivational program procedure in

Sumega Technologies, is

found effective but not highly effective. The study on employee motivation highlighted so many
factors which will help to motivate the employees. The study was conducted among 50
employees and collected information through structured questionnaire. The Study helped to
findings, which were related with employee motivational, programs which are provided in the
organization.
The performance appraisal activities really play a major role in motivating the employees
of the organization. It is a major factor that makes an employee feels good in his work and results
in his satisfaction too. The organization can still concentrate on specific areas which are evolved
from this study in order to make the motivational programs more effective. Only if the
employees are properly motivated- they work well and only if they work well the organization is
going to benefit out it. Steps should be taken to improve the motivational programs procedure in
the future. The suggestions of this report may help in this direction.

68

BIBLIOGRAPHY
BOOKS REFFERED

Wayne F. Cascio 2006, Managing Human Resources, TMH.

Aswathappa, 2006, Human Resource Management, 4th edition, TMH

K.Aswathappa,

2006,

Organizational

Behaviour-

Text,

Cases

and

games,

Himalaya Publishing House

Curtis w. cook and Phillip L.Hunsaker, 2006, Management and Organizational


Behaviour, Macgraw-Hill Irwin

Jyothi P. and DN Venkatesh-2006, Human Resource Management, Oxford University


press.

HRM Review July 2010. by Dr.G C NAG Adjunct Professor, IBS Mumbai

WEB REFERENCES:

www.google.com

www. motivationnaukrihub.com

www. humanresources.about.com

69

ANNEXURE

70

Motivation Questionnaire
STAFF QUESTIONNAIR

Name: _______________________ DOB: ___________ Designation: ____________


Address: ______________________________________________________________
Educational Qualification: ________________________ Marital Status: __________
Department: ___________________________________ Date of Joining: _________
1. Which Type Of Incentives Motivate You More?
a) Monetary Incentives
b) Non- Financial Incentives
c) Both

2. What factor de-motivates you at work place?


a) Job profile
b) Company policy
c) Work environment
3.How far you are satisfied with the incentives provided by the organisation.?
a) Highly satisfied
b) satisfied
c) neutral
4. Does your job improve your skills and abilities?
a) Yes
b) No
c) Never

5. Do you think that the incentives and other benefits will influence your performance?
a) Influence
71

b) Does not influence


c) No opinion
6. Management is really interested in motivating the employees?
a) Agree
b) Disagree
c) Neutral

7. Does the management involve you in the decision making which are connected to your
department?
a) Yes
b) No
c) Occasionally
8. Do you enthusiastic about your work?
a) Always
b) Sometimes
c) Never
9. Are you encouraged to come up with new and better ways of doing things?
a) Strongly agree
b) Agree
c) Neutral
d) Disagree
e) Strongly disagree
72

10. Have you been promoted at work in the last six months?
a) Yes
b) No

11. Are you adequately recognized for your good work?


a) Agree
b) Disagree
c) Neutral

12. Rank the following factors which motivates you the most?
(Rank 1, 2, 3, 4 respectively)
No.

Factors

Rank

Salary increase

Promotion

Leave

Motivational talks

`reorganization

13. Have you been nominated for training & development programmes for the last 6 months?
a) Yes
b) No

73

14. Does the management provide continuous feed back in solving work related problems?
a) Strongly Agree
b) Agree
c) Neutral
d) Disagree
e) Strongly Disagree

15. Overall are you satisfied with your job?


a) Yes
b) No

74