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UNIVERSIDAD DE HUELVA

1. Introduction

OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS

2. Description

3. Ttor. Operat.

4. Ttor. Biasing

5. Ttor. Amplif.

6. Examples.

TECNOLOGA ELECTRNICA Y AUTOMTICA

OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS

T.E.A.

Amplification

OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER (OP-AMP.)


Essentially an operational amplifier is a voltage amplifier with
floating input (differential). The output voltage is referenced to
ground. The open-loop gain "A" is very high. The input resistance is
very high too, and its output resistance is very low.

Real Model

Ideal Model:
A
Rin
Ro 0

V1 = A Va = A (V+ - V-)

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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS

T.E.A.

OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER

In the Ideal Model of an Operational Amplifier is assumed that the external circuits do not affect the operation. It is a voltage source
controlled by voltage.

In a real amplifier, the ratio Vo/Vs is affected by the value of Rs and RL.

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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS

T.E.A.

OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER: BASIC CONCEPT OF FEEDBACK


Consider the following amplifier with: Ri ; Ro=0:

VV+

V-

VO

VO

+
-

Va=V+ - V-

A Va

V+

Analyzing the following circuit:

R1

R1
+
-

Vi

VO

+
-

Vi

Va
+

VO
+
-

A Va

Vo
= A ; A = Open-loop gain, which has a high dependence on factors such as temperature and the particular device
Vi

used. The amplifier output is also subject to these factors which are undesirable: it can be corrected by the use of
feedback.
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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS

T.E.A.

OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER: BASIC CONCEPT OF FEEDBACK


Conceptually, feed back is to make the output of a system dependent on itself, along with the input. In the above
example configuration, if we introduce a resistor R2 as follows:

R2

R2
R1

R1
+
-

Vi

VO

+
-

Vi

Va

V-

+ V
+

VO
+
-

A Va

R1

R2
R1
R2
Va = V+ V = 0
VO +
Vi Vo = AVa =
Vo
Vi
R
+
R
R
+
R
R
+
R
R
+
R
1

2
1
2
1
2
1
2
Vo
V
R
A
R
R
= 2
= 2 (Closed-loop Gain) If A then o 2
Vi
R1 1 + R2 + A
R1
Vi
R1
R1
CONCLUSION: The feedback, together with a high open loop gain provides independent closed loop gain of
the basic amplifier parameters.
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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS

T.E.A.

OP-AMP: IDEAL MODEL FEATURES

V-

Ro
Va

V+

V-

VO
Rin

+
-

A Va

Va=V+ - V-

VO

V+

+
-

A Va

R in ; R o 0 ; A
1. Infinite input resistance zero current in each input terminal.
2. Zero output resistance the output voltage is not affected by external loads.
3. The output voltage is proportional to the difference of the input voltages:
Vo = A Va = A (V+ - V-)
4. Proportionality constant very large (essentially infinite): A

Note: The model described is a linear description. Is not set any restrictions on
the output voltage, but it is clear that this should be limited to a finite range
(non-linear Op-Amp model).

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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS

T.E.A.

OP-AMP: IDEAL NON-LINEAR MODEL

There are 2 operation zones: LINEAR ZONE and NON-LINEAR ZONE.


LINEAR ZONE: The output voltage remains in the range [Vs-, Vs+]: -Vs- Vo Vs+

Va = (Vo/A) <<1
NON-LINEAR ZONE: The output voltage tends to get out of range (-Vs-, Vs+) (but obviously can not leave this
range for physical reasons). The input voltage Va is independent of the output voltaje.

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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS

T.E.A.

OP-AMP: LINEAR OPERATION ZONE


Positive and Negative Feedback should be differentiated.

To operate in linear region should be provided negative feedback (negative feedback should be greater than
the positive feedback).

- With Positive Feedback:

V+ =

Vo
; V = Vi Vo = A( V+ V ) : If Vo increases or decreases, it will continue until
2

the opamp is saturated. No stability in the linear region.


- With Negative Feedback:

V =

Vo
; V+ = Vi Vo = A( V+ V ) : Vo variations are compensated by V-. This causes
2

the amplifier to operate stably in the linear region.

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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS

T.E.A.

OP-AMP: LINEAR OPERATION ZONE


VIRTUAL GROUND MODEL:

- The voltages at the input terminals are equal (V+ = V-).


Vo
Vs+

A : Va =

Vo
0 V+ = VA

Va = V+ - V-Vs-

- The output voltage Vo is a set value within the range (-Vs- , +Vs+).
- The current at the input terminals is zero (I+ = I-=0).

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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS

T.E.A.

OP-AMP: LINEAR OPERATION ZONE


INVERTING OP-AMP CONFIGURATION:
We want to determine the voltage gain Vo/Vi in the following figure. To do this, we assume that the Op-Amp operates
in linear zone and therefore, the output voltage Vo is a value set within the range (-Vs- , +Vs+).

Method 1:
OP-AMP MODEL: Va = 0 ; I2 = I1
KVL: -Vi + R1 I1 = 0 ; -Vo R2 I2 = 0

I1 =
Method 2: V + = 0 ; V =

Vi
R2
; Vo = R 2 I 2 =
Vi
R1
R1

V
R
R2
R1
Vi +
Vo ; V + = V o = 2
R1 + R 2
R1 + R 2
Vi
R1

Remarks:
The closed-loop gain is negative and is selectable via the R2/R1.
The result is valid only if Vo remains within the range (-Vs- , +Vs+)..
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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS

T.E.A.

OP-AMP: LINEAR OPERATION ZONE


Examples: 1.- Exercise: determine the closed-loop gain.

I S = I1 = I 2 + I 3
Is =

I1 = I 2 + I 3

As Is = I1 Vo ' =

Vi 0
0 Vo'
Vo'
Vo' Vo
; I1 =
; I2 =
; I3 =
R1
R2
R3
R4

Vo ' Vo ' Vo ' Vo


=
+

R 2 R3
R4

R2
Vi
R1

Vo
1
1
1
= Vo '
+
+
R4
R 2 R3 R 4

Vo
R 2R 4 1
1
1
=
+
+
= -1020
Vi
R1 R 2 R 3 R 4

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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS

T.E.A.

OP-AMP: LINEAR OPERATION ZONE


Examples: 2.- Integrator

IR =

Vi
R

IC = C

dVC
dt

Vc ( t ) = Vc ( 0 ) +

1
C

0 Ic ( t ) dt

I C = I R y VC = Vo

Vo = VC (0)

1 t
Vidt
RC 0

Examples: 3.- Differentiator

IC = C

V
dVi
= If = o
dt
R

Vo = RC

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dVi( t )
dt

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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS

T.E.A.

OP-AMP: LINEAR OPERATION ZONE


Examples: 4.- Weighted adder (negative weights).

IF

RF
IF =

V1
V2

Vn

R1
R2

I1
-

k =1

k =1

VO

I2

In

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Ik = Rk

Vo = R F I F

+
Rn

Vo =

R F Vk

k =1

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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS

T.E.A.

OP-AMP: LINEAR OPERATION ZONE


NON-INVERTING OP-AMP CONFIGURATION:

R2
V =

R1
-

R1
R1 + R 2

V o ; V+ = Vi

V = V+

VO

+
+
-

Vi

Vo R 2

= 1 +
Vi R 1

Remarks:
The closed-loop gain is positive, is greater than unity, and is selectable via the R2/R1.
The result is valid only if Vo remains within the range (-Vs- , +Vs+).

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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS

T.E.A.

OP-AMP: LINEAR OPERATION ZONE


DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER (SUBTRACTOR): If we introduce two signal by the input terminals (V1 and V2)
we obtain an output voltage that is proportional to the difference of the two input signals.
Working with conductances: Gi = 1/Ri (i =1, 2, 3, 4)

V = V1

G1
G2
+ Vo
G1 + G 2
G1 + G 2

V + = V2

G3
G3 + G4

G2

1
+

G1
G1
+

V1 +
V = V Vo =
V2
G
G2

1+ 4

G3
We note that for the particular case of G1/G2 = G3/G4, is obtained:

Vo =

R2
[V2 V1 ]
R1

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G
1

Vo

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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS

T.E.A.

OP-AMP: LINEAR OPERATION ZONE


m

GENERALIZED ADDER : Vo =

j=1

K +j V j+

K i Vi
i =1

V =

i =1

Vi

G i

+ V0

G 0 + G F + G i

GF

G 0 + G F + G i
i

i
m

G +j

j=1

G 0+ + G +j

V + = Vj+

V+ = V

V0 =

V j+
j =1

G +j
GF

1+

G 0
GF

G 0+
GF

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G i
GF

G +j

(
n

i =1

Vi

G i

)G

GF

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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS

T.E.A.

OP-AMP: LINEAR OPERATION ZONE


GENERALIZED ADDER :
m G+
n
G +j
G0
Gi G0+
Gi
j
+
If :1 +
+
=
+
V0 =
V j Vi
GF
G
G
G
G
i
j
j =1
i =1 GF
F
F
F
F

V0 = K V K V
j =1

+
j

+
j

i =1


i i

+
j

with : K =

G +j
GF

Gi
K =
GF

G 0
G 0+

The values of Ro y Ro are set to enforce 1 +


+ Ki =
+ K +j according to following criteria:
GF i
GF
j
+

If: 1 +

K i

If: 1 +
i

<

K +j

G 0+

G 0
=0 y
= K +j 1 K i
GF
j
i

G 0

G 0+
=0 y
= 1 + K i K +j
GF
i
j

K i

>
j

K +j

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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS

T.E.A.

OP-AMP: LINEAR OPERATION ZONE


GENERALIZED ADDER : EXAMPLE.- Design a circuit to Vo = 3 V1 + 2 V2 7 V3
m

1.- We identify the weights:

V0 =

j =1

K +j Vj+

i =1

2.- We evaluate and compare 1 + K i con


i

As

K i Vi

K +j :
j

K1+

G1+
G +2
G1
+

=
= 3 , K2 =
= 2 ; K1 =
=7
GF
GF
GF

1 + K i = 1 + 7 = 8 ;
i

K +j = 3 + 2 = 5 .
j

1 + K i > K +j
i

G 0 = 0 y

G 0+
GF

= 1 + K i K +j = 8 5 = 3
i

3.- we assign a value to RF to obtain the values of the other resistors.


If RF = 15 K:

G1+
R
= 3 R 1+ = F = 5K
GF
3

G 2+
R
;
= 2 R 2+ = F = 7.5K
GF
2

G o+
G1
RF
R

= 7 R1 =
= 2.1K ;
= 3 R o+ = F = 5K
GF
7
GF
3
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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS

T.E.A.

OP-AMP: LINEAR OPERATION ZONE


INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIERS :

Hihg value of CMRR.


Isignificant resistance mismatch errors.
Ajustable gain (G) by an external resistor (RG).
General expression:

V0 = G(V+ V ) + Vcommon

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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS

T.E.A.

OP-AMP: NON-LINEAR OPERATION ZONE


The output voltage tends to get out
of range (-Vs-, Vs+) (but obviously
can not leave this range for
physical reasons).
In this zone, the input voltage Va is
independent of the output and
becomes non-zero ( V V + ).

Vo
Vs+

Va = V+ - V-Vs-

Non-lineal Zone (Ideal Model):


The previously studied structures operating in nonlinear region when the
output voltage tends to go beyond the limits of saturation (-Vs-, Vs+):

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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS

T.E.A.

OP-AMP: NON-LINEAR OPERATION ZONE


COMPARATOR:
- When the op-amp operates without feedback, with the input directly connected
operational amplifier works in nonlinear area.
+

to the input terminals, the


Vo

V = Vi ; V = E
If Vi > E Va > 0 Vo = +VS +
-

Vs+

If Vi < E Va < 0 Vo = VS
Va = V+ - V-Vs-

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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS

T.E.A.

OP-AMP: NON-LINEAR OPERATION ZONE

COMPARATOR WITH HYSTERESIS: SCHMITT TRIGGER

R2
R1 + R2

Vn = Vsat
Vp = Vsat

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