1. Introduction
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
2. Description
3. Ttor. Operat.
4. Ttor. Biasing
5. Ttor. Amplif.
6. Examples.
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
T.E.A.
Amplification
Real Model
Ideal Model:
A
Rin
Ro 0
V1 = A Va = A (V+  V)
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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
T.E.A.
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER
In the Ideal Model of an Operational Amplifier is assumed that the external circuits do not affect the operation. It is a voltage source
controlled by voltage.
In a real amplifier, the ratio Vo/Vs is affected by the value of Rs and RL.
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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
T.E.A.
VV+
V
VO
VO
+

Va=V+  V
A Va
V+
R1
R1
+

Vi
VO
+

Vi
Va
+
VO
+

A Va
Vo
= A ; A = Openloop gain, which has a high dependence on factors such as temperature and the particular device
Vi
used. The amplifier output is also subject to these factors which are undesirable: it can be corrected by the use of
feedback.
 Departamento de Ingeniera Electrnica, Sistemas Informticos y Automtica
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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
T.E.A.
R2
R2
R1
R1
+

Vi
VO
+

Vi
Va
V
+ V
+
VO
+

A Va
R1
R2
R1
R2
Va = V+ V = 0
VO +
Vi Vo = AVa =
Vo
Vi
R
+
R
R
+
R
R
+
R
R
+
R
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
Vo
V
R
A
R
R
= 2
= 2 (Closedloop Gain) If A then o 2
Vi
R1 1 + R2 + A
R1
Vi
R1
R1
CONCLUSION: The feedback, together with a high open loop gain provides independent closed loop gain of
the basic amplifier parameters.
 Departamento de Ingeniera Electrnica, Sistemas Informticos y Automtica
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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
T.E.A.
V
Ro
Va
V+
V
VO
Rin
+

A Va
Va=V+  V
VO
V+
+

A Va
R in ; R o 0 ; A
1. Infinite input resistance zero current in each input terminal.
2. Zero output resistance the output voltage is not affected by external loads.
3. The output voltage is proportional to the difference of the input voltages:
Vo = A Va = A (V+  V)
4. Proportionality constant very large (essentially infinite): A
Note: The model described is a linear description. Is not set any restrictions on
the output voltage, but it is clear that this should be limited to a finite range
(nonlinear OpAmp model).
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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
T.E.A.
Va = (Vo/A) <<1
NONLINEAR ZONE: The output voltage tends to get out of range (Vs, Vs+) (but obviously can not leave this
range for physical reasons). The input voltage Va is independent of the output voltaje.
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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
T.E.A.
To operate in linear region should be provided negative feedback (negative feedback should be greater than
the positive feedback).
V+ =
Vo
; V = Vi Vo = A( V+ V ) : If Vo increases or decreases, it will continue until
2
V =
Vo
; V+ = Vi Vo = A( V+ V ) : Vo variations are compensated by V. This causes
2
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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
T.E.A.
A : Va =
Vo
0 V+ = VA
Va = V+  VVs
 The output voltage Vo is a set value within the range (Vs , +Vs+).
 The current at the input terminals is zero (I+ = I=0).
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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
T.E.A.
Method 1:
OPAMP MODEL: Va = 0 ; I2 = I1
KVL: Vi + R1 I1 = 0 ; Vo R2 I2 = 0
I1 =
Method 2: V + = 0 ; V =
Vi
R2
; Vo = R 2 I 2 =
Vi
R1
R1
V
R
R2
R1
Vi +
Vo ; V + = V o = 2
R1 + R 2
R1 + R 2
Vi
R1
Remarks:
The closedloop gain is negative and is selectable via the R2/R1.
The result is valid only if Vo remains within the range (Vs , +Vs+)..
 Departamento de Ingeniera Electrnica, Sistemas Informticos y Automtica
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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
T.E.A.
I S = I1 = I 2 + I 3
Is =
I1 = I 2 + I 3
As Is = I1 Vo ' =
Vi 0
0 Vo'
Vo'
Vo' Vo
; I1 =
; I2 =
; I3 =
R1
R2
R3
R4
R 2 R3
R4
R2
Vi
R1
Vo
1
1
1
= Vo '
+
+
R4
R 2 R3 R 4
Vo
R 2R 4 1
1
1
=
+
+
= 1020
Vi
R1 R 2 R 3 R 4
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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
T.E.A.
IR =
Vi
R
IC = C
dVC
dt
Vc ( t ) = Vc ( 0 ) +
1
C
0 Ic ( t ) dt
I C = I R y VC = Vo
Vo = VC (0)
1 t
Vidt
RC 0
IC = C
V
dVi
= If = o
dt
R
Vo = RC
dVi( t )
dt
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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
T.E.A.
IF
RF
IF =
V1
V2
Vn
R1
R2
I1

k =1
k =1
VO
I2
In
Ik = Rk
Vo = R F I F
+
Rn
Vo =
R F Vk
k =1
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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
T.E.A.
R2
V =
R1

R1
R1 + R 2
V o ; V+ = Vi
V = V+
VO
+
+

Vi
Vo R 2
= 1 +
Vi R 1
Remarks:
The closedloop gain is positive, is greater than unity, and is selectable via the R2/R1.
The result is valid only if Vo remains within the range (Vs , +Vs+).
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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
T.E.A.
V = V1
G1
G2
+ Vo
G1 + G 2
G1 + G 2
V + = V2
G3
G3 + G4
G2
1
+
G1
G1
+
V1 +
V = V Vo =
V2
G
G2
1+ 4
G3
We note that for the particular case of G1/G2 = G3/G4, is obtained:
Vo =
R2
[V2 V1 ]
R1
G
1
Vo
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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
T.E.A.
GENERALIZED ADDER : Vo =
j=1
K +j V j+
K i Vi
i =1
V =
i =1
Vi
G i
+ V0
G 0 + G F + G i
GF
G 0 + G F + G i
i
i
m
G +j
j=1
G 0+ + G +j
V + = Vj+
V+ = V
V0 =
V j+
j =1
G +j
GF
1+
G 0
GF
G 0+
GF
G i
GF
G +j
(
n
i =1
Vi
G i
)G
GF
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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
T.E.A.
V0 = K V K V
j =1
+
j
+
j
i =1
i i
+
j
with : K =
G +j
GF
Gi
K =
GF
G 0
G 0+
If: 1 +
K i
If: 1 +
i
<
K +j
G 0+
G 0
=0 y
= K +j 1 K i
GF
j
i
G 0
G 0+
=0 y
= 1 + K i K +j
GF
i
j
K i
>
j
K +j
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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
T.E.A.
V0 =
j =1
K +j Vj+
i =1
As
K i Vi
K +j :
j
K1+
G1+
G +2
G1
+
=
= 3 , K2 =
= 2 ; K1 =
=7
GF
GF
GF
1 + K i = 1 + 7 = 8 ;
i
K +j = 3 + 2 = 5 .
j
1 + K i > K +j
i
G 0 = 0 y
G 0+
GF
= 1 + K i K +j = 8 5 = 3
i
G1+
R
= 3 R 1+ = F = 5K
GF
3
G 2+
R
;
= 2 R 2+ = F = 7.5K
GF
2
G o+
G1
RF
R
= 7 R1 =
= 2.1K ;
= 3 R o+ = F = 5K
GF
7
GF
3
 Departamento de Ingeniera Electrnica, Sistemas Informticos y Automtica
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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
T.E.A.
V0 = G(V+ V ) + Vcommon
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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
T.E.A.
Vo
Vs+
Va = V+  VVs
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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
T.E.A.
V = Vi ; V = E
If Vi > E Va > 0 Vo = +VS +

Vs+
If Vi < E Va < 0 Vo = VS
Va = V+  VVs
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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
T.E.A.
R2
R1 + R2
Vn = Vsat
Vp = Vsat
Page 21