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Circuit to demonstrate B-H hysteresis curves

Circuit to demonstrate B-H hysteresis curves

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CONTENTS

Experiments In Plotting Magnetization Curves ..................................................................... 2

Core Windings ............................................................................................................. 2

Circuit diagram ............................................................................................................ 2

Circuit Construction ...................................................................................................... 3

Principle Of Operation ................................................................................................... 3

Finding H .................................................................................................................... 3

Finding B .................................................................................................................... 4

Plotting B against H ...................................................................................................... 4

Calculating The Permeability Of A Core ........................................................................... 5

Results Using Op-Amp Integrator And Test Core .............................................................. 7

Estimating Hysteresis Losses ......................................................................................... 8

B-H Curve Demonstration Unit ........................................................................................ 10

Triangle Wave Generator ............................................................................................ 10

Coil Driver ................................................................................................................. 10

Integrator ................................................................................................................. 11

Core ......................................................................................................................... 11

Circuit Construction .................................................................................................... 12

Complete Circuit ........................................................................................................... 13

Issues .......................................................................................................................... 14

Page 1

Experiments In Plotting Magnetization Curves

The circuit discussed can be used to measure the B-H characteristics of certain ferromagnetic

components.

The core should be a toroid or other shape having a closed magnetic path. A proof of concept

circuit was constructed and used to plot hysteresis loops with a rectangular core about 15mm

by 10mm with a square cross section about 3mm by 3mm, giving a mean magnetic path length

of about 50mm and a core volume of about 450mm3

Magnetic Field Strength) typically of the form shown on

the right

Core Windings

Two windings on the core are required (a primary, and a secondary). The experimental core

was wound with as many turns on the primary as would fit (to ensure the core could be taken

to saturation with a reasonably small primary current).

Thick wire (29 SWG approx. 0.35 mm ) was used for the primary to ensure minimal

primary resistance and so low I2R losses (the permeability for typical ferrites being significantly

temperature dependent).

The primary and secondary were bifilar wound to ensure good coupling (and for expedience..).

Circuit diagram

R2 = 100 K

C1 = 470 nF

L1: Bifilar windings, 60T.

Primary wound with thickest wire practical.

Secondary thickness not important, so use

thin wire so the secondary occupies the

minimal volume.

Signal source: 5 KHz, variable amplitude

Page 2

Circuit Construction

The test circuit was constructed on Vero board:

R1

R2

C1

Principle Of Operation

The core is energized through the primary using an AC source. The wave shape is not

important a sinusoidal wave is most easily obtained, but a triangular wave is preferable for

even display brightness (the waveform is used to drive the X axis of an oscilloscope in X-Y

mode so a sine wave will dwell at the extremes of the sweep).

Finding H

The current in the primary winding is monitored by measuring the voltage developed across R1:

I p = V R1 / R1

Equation 1

H = Np x Ip / L

Eq. 2

where:

I p = Primary current

N p = Number of turns

L = Mean magnetic path length

From Eq. 1:

V R1

Ip

V R1

So:

Proportionality 1

Page 3

Finding B

From Faradays Law:

V s = N s d/dt

Eq. 3

where:

N s = Number of turns in secondary

V s dt = N s

Eq. 4

assuming the time constant R2 x C1 is long compared with the signal frequency (so V c is small

resulting in the voltage across R2 being approximately constant and so making the charging

current proportional to V s ).

So the capacitor voltage is proportional to the flux:

Vc

Prop. 2

B=/A

Eq. 5

where:

So

Vc

Prop. 3

Plotting B against H

The key relationships are the proportionalities Prop. 1 and Prop. 3:

V R1

Vc

So plotting V C against V R1 on an oscilloscope in X-Y mode will plot the B-H curve for the core.

Page 4

Below are plots produced by the test circuit:

Core saturating

Y axis: 5mV/div

Calculating The Permeability Of A Core

To make accurate calculations of the permeability of the core, a more accurate integrator is

required. The standard op-amp integrator circuit can be used as shown below, R3 goes some

way towards reducing drift, but offset null circuitry would be required to remove completely the

tendency for the integrator to accumulate the effects of the op-amp input voltage and current

offsets.

the input voltage:

Vo = -

V s /(C1 R2) dt

R1 = 5 x 10 resistors in parallel = 2

R2 = 1 K

R3 = 10 M

C1 = 0.47 F

To calculate the permeability of the core, the physical dimensions of the core and the turns on

the secondary winding must be known.

For the experimental core:

N p = 60

N s = 60

Mean Magnetic Path Length, L = 50 mm

= 0.05 m

Core cross sectional area,

A = 3 x 3 = 9 mm2 = 9x10-6 m2

Page 5

V c and V R1 are read directly from the oscilloscope and I p calculated from Eq 1

Referring to Eq. 2, values for N p , I p and L can be entered allowing a value for H to be

calculated:

H = (N p V R1 ) / (L R1)

Eq. 6

Vo = -

V s /(C1 R2) dt

V o = - 1/(C1 R2) x

So

V s dt = N s

V s dt

V o = - (N s ) / (C1 R2)

= (V o C1 R2) / N s

B=/A

So

B = (V o C1 R2) / (N s A)

Eq. 7

With the two values provided by Eq. 6 and Eq. 7, the permeability can be calculated:

=B/H

Page 6

The core losses can also be calculated (approximately) from the area enclosed by the hysteresis

loop.

Draw a rectangle round the hysteresis loop the energy represented by the rectangle (E R ) can

be calculated from the area knowing the scale factor from Eq. 6 and Eq. 7.

Measure / calculate the area of the hysteresis loop the energy represented by the loop (E L ) is:

E L = E R x (Area of loop) / (Area of rectangle)

The op-amp integrator circuit was constructed and the tests on the core repeated. The

following image shows the results:

X axis: 20 mV / Div

Y axis: 0.2 V / Div

Source Frequency: 250 Hz

Circuit values:

A = 9x10-6 m2

L = 0.05 m

N P = 60

N S = 60

R1 = 2

R2 = 1 K

C1 = 470 nF

H = (N p V R1 ) / (L R1)

H = (60 x 0.12) / (0.05 x 2)

H = 72 A/m

Eq. 8

B = (V o C1 R2) / (N s A)

B = (0.96 x 470 x 10-9 x 103) / (60 x 9 x 10-6)

B = 0.84 Tesla

Eq. 9

Page 7

Voltage measurements:

X axis: 120 mV (V R1 )

Y axis: 0.96 V

(V o )

Now the permeability can be calculated:

=B/H

= 0.84/72 H m-1

= 11.7 mH m-1

But

= 0 r

So

r = (11.7 x 10-3) / 0

r = (11.7 x 10-3) / (4 x 10-7)

r 9300

1) The picture of the oscilloscope trace was

imported to a graphics package.

2)

white to give a clearly delineated outline.

white.

4)

black and the image cropped to just

enclose the curve.

Having achieved a clear, high contrast shape, a graphics analysis package will give the total

number of pixels in the image, and the total number of pixels coloured white. This task is

outside the ability of most "painting" type graphics packages so something a little more

specialised may be needed. ADI (Analyzing Digital Images) is free and does the job very easily.

ADI returned a "white to whole picture" ratio of 11.7% for the captured image above.

Page 8

The axes of the plot have units B and H. In fundamental units:

B

= Amps / metre

= Coulomb / (second x metre)

B x H = (N x s x C) / (C x s x m2)

= N / m2

= Nm / m3

B x H = J / m3

So substituting the values for H and B obtained in Eq. 8 and 9:

Energy density for rectangle enclosing B-H curve = 0.84 x 72 J/m3

Energy density = 60.5 J/m3

Eq. 10

Energy density of losses per cycle = 0.117 x 60.5 J/m3

Multiplying the energy loss density by the core volume gives the actual core loss per cycle:

Core loss per cycle = 0.05 x 9 x 10--6 x 60.5 J

Core loss per cycle = 27.2 x 10--6

Core loss per second = 250 x 27.2 x 10--6

J/s

Page 9

B-H Curve Demonstration Unit

Having shown the validity of the design concept, a completely self-contained demonstration unit

was designed with sufficiently robust construction to allow classroom use.

The demonstration unit includes a signal generator (to create the primary current waveform)

and power amplifier to drive the primary winding on the test core. The primary current

amplitude is adjustable to allow demonstration of the on-set of core saturation etc.

The secondary winding output is fed to an op-amp integrator.

The circuits run from a dual power supply regulated at plus and minus five volts. The regulated

supplies help to ensure minimum drift in the integrator circuits.

The primary current triangular waveform

is generated using the standard

inverting integrator circuit (U2, C1, R2)

and a non-inverting Schmitt Trigger (U1,

R1, R3).

The output swing of the Schmitt trigger

(the integration voltage) is not fully railto-rail which impacts on the output

frequency. The frequency of oscillation

of the circuit as built was 485Hz.

Coil Driver

The output of the triangle wave generator is fed to a small potentiometer (RV1) which allows

adjustment of the signal level.

The signal is AC coupled / DC restored by C2/R4 and fed to the power amplifier which has a

voltage gain of 15 (determined by R5 and R6) and current gain is provided by transistors Q1

and Q2.

Page 10

Integrator

The values of R8 and C3 were chosen to provide a suitably large integrated output (without

driving the op-amp U4 in to saturation) when the core was driven in to saturation.

RV2 and R12 provide off-set null and prevent drift of the integrator output.

Components R7, R8 and C3 are used in the calculation of B and H. Therefore these values need

to be known accurately. The components used were measured and the following values

recorded:

R7 = 10.6

R8 = 98.5 K

C3 = 11.6 nF

Core

The core used had the following dimensions:

OD:

ID:

Thickness:

Height:

Area:

Mean Path Length:

Primary turns:

Secondary turns:

15.6 mm

9.8 mm

2.9 mm

6.78 mm

19.7 mm

40 mm

75

75

Page 11

Circuit Construction

Power Input

Triangle wave

Schmitt trigger

Outputs:

0V

H output

B output

Voltage Regulation

B Integrator

Test core

Page 12

Complete Circuit

Page 13

Issues

The following issues will need to be considered:

1) The oscilloscope image was a photograph taken on a hand held, general purpose

camera, and so some degree of keystone distortion was present this will degrade the

accuracy of area calculations.

It would be preferable to use a proper oscilloscope camera or an oscilloscope that can

provide a digital screen capture

2) The value of core power loss was quoted above to two significant figures, but it is

difficult to read the oscilloscope to this level of accuracy.

An oscilloscope with cursors to read values would reduce this problem

3) The thickness of the trace in the images introduces uncertainty in the area

measurements.

An A3 printout of the curve was produced and the areas measured with a planimeter:

4) The actual values / tolerance of R1, R2 and C1 will impact on the accuracy of the

calculations.

The true values of the critical components can be measured.

5) The core dimensions were estimated.

The real core dimensions would be available through manufacturers data.

Page 14

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