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CCNA Advance

Chapter 1
Multilayer Switch

EtherChannel

Describing EtherChannel
Companies require greater and cheaper
bandwidth to run their networks
Users are becoming more impatient with
any latency that occurs.
Cisco originally developed EtherChannel
as a LAN switch-to-switch technique of
inverse multiplexing of multiple Fast or
Gigabit
Ethernet switch ports into one logical
channel.
It is effectively cheaper than higher speed
media while using existing switch ports.

EtherChannel Features and Benefits

Logical aggregation of similar links


Load balances
Viewed as one logical port
Redundancy

Describing PAgP and LACP


PAgP Port Aggreagation
Protocol:

Cisco proprietary

LACP Link Aggregation


Control Protocol:

IEEE 802.3ad

Configuring Layer 2 EtherChannel

Configuring Layer 3 EtherChannel

EtherChannel: Guidelines and


Restrictions

EtherChannel: Guidelines and Restrictions


(Cont.)

EtherChannel Configuration Guidelines

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Verifying EtherChannel
Display port Channel information:

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Verifying EtherChannel (Cont.)

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EtherChannel Load Balancing

- EtherChannel balances traffic


load across the links in a channel.
- The default and
load balancing method varies
among the Cisco Catalyst models.

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Explaining Multilayer Switching

Explaining Multilayer Switching


A multilayer switch:
Combines the functionality
of a switch and a router into
one device
Enabling the device to switch
traffic when the source and
destination are in the same
VLAN and to route traffic
when the source and
destination are in different
VLANs (that is, different
subnets).

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Layer 2 Switch Forwarding Process

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Layer 3 Switch Forwarding Process

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Explaining Layer 3 Switch Processing

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Layer 3 Switch Processing (Cont.)


Layer 3 switching can occur at two different locations on the
switch.
Centralized switching: Switching decisions are made on the
route processor by a central forwarding table.
Distributed switching: Switching decisions can be made on a
port or line-card level.
Layer 3 switching takes place using one of these two methods:
Route caching: A Layer 3 route cache is built in hardware as the
switch sees traffic flow into the switch.
Topology-based switching: Information from the routing table is
used to populate the route cache, regardless of traffic.

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Frame Rewrite

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Layer 3 Switch Virtual Interface


You configure an SVI for a VLAN
for the following reasons:
To provide a default gateway for
a VLAN so that traffic can be
routed between VLANs
To provide fallback bridging if it
is required for non-routable
protocols
To provide Layer 3 IP connectivity
to the switch
To support routing protocol and
bridging configurations

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Inter-VLAN Routing Using Multilayer


Switch

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Routed Ports on a Multilayer Switch

Physical switch port with Layer 3


capability
Not associated with a VLAN
Requires removal of Layer 2 port
functionality
Configure
ip routing
interface fa0/1
no switchport
ip address 10.3.3.1
255.255.255.0
router eigrp 50
(option)
network 10.0.0.0

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CEF-Based Multilayer Switches

CEF caches routing information in the FIB table and Layer 2


next-hop addresses in the adjacency table.
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Multilayer Switch Packet Forwarding


Process
Some IP packets cannot be processed in hardware.
If an IP packet cannot be processed in hardware, it is
processed by the Layer 3 engine.

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CEF-Based MLS Lookups

1. Layer 3 packets initiate TCAM lookup.


2. The longest match returns adjacency with rewrite information.
3. The packet is rewritten per adjacency information and forwarded.

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ARP Throttling
ARP throttling consists of these steps:
Step 1: Host A sends a packet to host B.
Step 2:The switch forwards the packet to
the Layer 3 engine based on the
glean entry in the FIB. A glean
adjacency entry indicates that a
particular next hop should be directly
connected, but there is no MAC
header rewrite information available.
Step 3:The Layer 3 engine sends an
ARP request for host B and installs
the drop adjacency for host B. At this
point, subsequent frames destined
for host B from host A are dropped
(ARP throttling).
Step 4: Host B responds to the ARP
request. The Layer 3 engine installs
an adjacency for host B and removes
the drop adjacency.
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CEF-Based MLS Operation

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Configuring and Verifying CEF


Configuring CEF
ip cef (enabled by default)
ip route-cache cef (only on VLAN interface)
Verifying CEF
show ip cef fa 0/1 detail
show adjacency fa 0/1 detail

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Verifying CEF

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Common CEF Problems


Is ideal switching method (CEF, DCEF) in use?
Are CEF tables complete and accurate?

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Verify Layer 3 Switching

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Displaying Hardware Layer 3 Switching


Statistics

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Adjacency Information

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Debugging CEF Operations

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How to Troubleshoot CEF

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Summary
EtherChannel:
EtherChannel increases bandwidth and provides redundancy by aggregating
individual links between switches.
EtherChannel can be dynamically configured between switches using either
PAgP or LACP.
Etherchannel is configured and verified using a variety of show commands.
Best practices should be followed for EtherChannel configuration.
EtherChannel load balances traffic over all the links in the bundle.
Multilayer Switch:
Layer 3 switching is high-performance packet switching in hardware.
MLS functionality can be implemented through CEF.
CEF uses tables in hardware to forward packets.
Specific commands are used to enable and verify CEF operations.
Commands to enable CEF are platform dependent.
CEF problems can be matched to specific solutions.
Specific commands are used to troubleshoot and solve CEF problems.
Ordered steps assist in troubleshooting CEF-based problems.
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Question ?
Thank you !