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Course Code: BLI-221

Course: Library, Information and Society Assignment Code: AST/TMA/Jul.15-Jan.16

Blocks: 1 to 4
Units: 1 to 14

Total Marks: 70

Answer all questions.

I) Answer the following questions in not more than 1000 words each.
1. Enumerate the different types of information institutions. Discuss their role, functions and
services distinguishing between them.
2. Visit the website of Indian Library Association. Describe its recent activities. Compare its
activities with that of ALA.
II) Answer the following questions in not more than 500 words each.
1. Explain the role of libraries in facilitating and supporting learning.


2. An educated and skilled workforce is essential in a country for knowledge-based

economy. Discuss the situation in India in this regard
3. Infrastructure is important for effective library legislation. Discuss the provisions of
infrastructure of best four states in India.
4. Discuss in brief the issues to be decided for effective resource sharing in libraries.


5. Discuss the facets for code of ethics for LIS professionals.


6. Discuss in brief the role of RRLF in modernisation of libraries.


III) Answer the following questions in not more than 200 words each.
1. Differentiate between the industrial and post-industrial society.


2. Differentiate between know-what and know-who knowledge.


3. Discuss the role of public libraries in knowledge society.


4. Does a library provide referral service? Discuss the activities of a referral centre.


5. Discuss the relevance of Five Laws in the present scenario of digital information


6. Name the state that has passed library legislation recently. State briefly its significant

I) Answer the following questions in not more than 1000 words each.
1. Enumerate the different types of information institutions. Discuss their role, functions and
services distinguishing between them.
Ans.: Over the years, many libraries have supported education efforts by providing teaching
resources, information and referral services. A more active approach has been taken by
libraries offering educational classes or one-to-one tutoring programs. Many libraries have
outreach programs designed to meet the needs of specific groups of people with limited
educational skills. Library resource materials are distributed to the institutionalized, including
those in prisons, hospitals, rehabilitation centers, and group homes for the elderly and
In addition, some libraries offer programs for groups at risk for education-related problems.
Adolescents have been targeted because lack of education has been associated with other
problems including crime, pregnancy, unemployment, drug and alcohol abuse, and school
failure. After-school and summer educational programs have sought to encourage young
people to become employable, contributing members of the community and generally to raise
their self-esteem. Strategies have included homework help sessions, peer tutoring, and peergroup reading sessions.
Families have been targeted because lack of education seems to be passed from one
generation to the next: children whose parents are functionally uneducated are twice as likely
as their peers to be functionally uneducated. In family educational programs, emphasis is on
the parent's role as the child's first teacher. Parents, who may have been inspired to seek
education training by concern for their children, are taught interactive language activities for
use with infants and young children. Some libraries invite entire families to share in reading
activities and book talks, with each member borrowing a book to take home.
Man's quest for knowledge has led to the creation and accumulation of tremendous amount of
information. This quest for knowledge knows no bounds and limits and is never satisfied. It
has continued since the dawn of civilization to the modern age. This hard-earned knowledge
and information is valuable for the entire mankind and therefore liable to be preserved. With
the invention of paper man has been able to convey this knowledge to others by writing
books. Thousands of manuscripts have been written by the wise men of the earlier times but
many of them were destroyed due to the lack of proper means of preservation. With the
invention of printing press, it became easier to preserve the knowledge in the form of printed
documents. This led to the generation of a large number of books. The need for the
preservation and dissemination of information led to the establishment of more and more
libraries. Thus libraries acquired a great importance in the civilized society for education and
research. Libraries play a vital role in the development of any society by enhancing the cause
of education and academic research. They cater to the information needs of thousands of
The development of Science and Technology (S & T) in the last two centuries has led to an
information explosion. Rapid changes have taken place at a great pace. In order to meet the

growing needs of users the library system has been greatly improved and upgraded to meet
the new challenges. The services offered by libraries have also undergone a great change.
With the advent of new technologies in the field of computers and telecommunications,
revolutionary changes have taken place in the field of Library and Information Science. The
shape of traditional libraries containing a large number of printed documents is in the process
of being transformed to paper less libraries containing a large number of digitized documents.
The facilities offered by networking have not left libraries untouched. Modern libraries are
not only digitized but networked also. This has led to the creation of virtual libraries i.e.
libraries without walls through which the user has access to information at anytime, anywhere
in the world by using the modern tools of communications, such as computers and Internet
Libraries in the new millennium are leaders in knowledge management. Librarians in
universities are innovative in their use of the new information technologies to provide access
to a range of multimedia sources. Todays libraries teach students the information handling
skills to last a lifetime.
The traditional image of the library as a quiet place of study, housing mostly print collections,
is changing. The shifts in education methods, the impact of computer technology, and the
diversity of students have caused libraries to organize resources and design services that meet
and anticipate the new needs of study and teaching. Libraries organize collections and
provide access and services that incorporate changes in teaching, learning and information
The scope of a library as an effective aid to study and education is virtually multitudinous.
There are different types of libraries, viz., (a) Special library, (b) Public library and (c)
Academic library which contribute to education in various different ways.
2. Visit the website of Indian Library Association. Describe its recent activities. Compare its
activities with that of ALA.
Ans.: Ever changing information scenario and emerging role of national and regional
associations in Indian library development Maitrayee Ghosh P.K. Kelkar Library, Indian
Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India Abstract: Library associations have had a presence in
India since early nineties currently experiencing a remarkable increase in numbers and facing
significant challenges as they move into digital future. An attempt has been made to
comprehend the status of library associations in India through SWOT analysis and in this
way this paper intends to identify the strengths & potential weaknesses and draw attention on
the immediate need of restructuring and merging these associations for new working model
should function in close partnership with other groups; could be stronger financially and have
more clout in pursuing and meeting the objectives and goals of its members. Author has tried
to explore the extent to which library associations seek to protect and advance the interests of
members and responding to the ongoing changes and preparing them for the future. At the
conclusion recommendations are made for carefully planned public relations programs by
leveraging convergence Technologies could guarantee long- term success of library

Change is the movement away from a present state toward a future or generally a response to
some significant threat or opportunity. Contemporary library & information profession is
changing very fast and facing increasing pressures to achieve higher and higher level of
performance in a fast paced and competitive global environment. Today services provided by
libraries are based on the newest, cutting edge technology and professional associations have
a major role to play in this developmental process. Recent developments in digital
technology, wireless communication (the latest buzzword Wi-Fi- a high frequency wireless
local area network), knowledge management, short-term employment contracts, outsourcing
etc are affecting the knowledge and skills of information professionals to do their job
effectively on a daily or long term basis.
Basic mission of any library association is to develop products and services which offer
practical solutions to the problems in the ever changing information society; to provide
leadership for the development, promotion and improvement of library services; promote
excellence through continuing educational program, publications, awards, communications
and to undertake such other innovative programs. The purpose is to develop, expand and
enhance the professional knowledge and status of the profession. Ensuring that we stay at
the heart of the digital revolution, and staking our claim in this networked world, are among
the most significant challenges currently facing library and information workers.
As the global information age becomes a reality there is a wide spread recognition about the
role of library associations in educating and empowering the professional communities.
Traditional bureaucratic hierarchical models of library associations have been heavily
criticized as being to inflexible to deliver products and services. Although library associations
in India have been playing an important role in conveying the useful messages and guidelines
for library development, prevailing in transitional era as meeting places for professionals,
exchanging opinions and free access to information but facing a series of structural, political,
cultural and financial challenges and despite this scale of involvement there has been
relatively little analysis of the characteristics and services Indian library associations provide,
how it can be enlarged and how associations should manage the entire professional
Library associations are seen as relevant sources of information and knowledge sharing & a
way to make contacts with other like-minded institutions, furthermore it provides informal
settings for information sharing. An examination on library association related resources
reveals that Professional associations in the domain of library and information management
have received relatively less attention in the literature although potentially important because
they exist precisely to provide members with information about latest developments in this
area. Today library associations have to provide the leading role in discussions about open
access to information, user rights, freedom of expression, management of intellectual
property and the problems of copyright & promote development and advancement of
profession and encourage the membersip and participation.
Strategic planning is considered to be a powerful tool for library associations that encourages
more effective leadership and a sense of responsibility. The article by Parent (1998) provides
the outline and the basic steps of strategic planning for associations and encouraged the use

of strategic planning to increase the effectiveness of library associations and narrated

experiences of the American Library Associations (ALA) long-range planning and successful
implementation of programs. Glasgow (2000) reviewed the context of the establishment of a
library association in 1877 in Great Britain. He identified the factors influence the
development of library associations in UK and the impact of LA on the early profession. Gold
et. al. (2002) assessed the responses of 400 professional associations in UK and recorded
evidence of themes relating to the responses to the forces of change and the future.
Dr S.R Ranganathan, the father of Indian library science realized the necessity of library
associations not only to unite and educate library professionals but also to popularize libraries
and library services and founded Madras library association (MALA) in 1928 and
subsequently with his initiatives Indian Library association (ILA) was established in 1933. A
program for training librarians was started in 1929 by MALA (Madras Library association)
which was handed over to the University of Madras in 1931. This later developed into a post
graduate diploma course and eventually the full-fledged Bachelor's degree course. It took
over two decades of perseverance on the part of MALA for the Madras Public Libraries Act
to be passed in 1948. This act, the first in the country, proved to be the model for the later
acts. Ranganathans missionary zeal and untiring efforts had an impact on library associations
in India after independence.
Library associations exist to promote and support the highest standard of practice and the best
quality of delivering services. The primary role of any library association should be advocacy
on all the issues pertaining to LIS, including raising awareness about itself. National library
associations are primarily promoting library services and librarianship as a profession in the
country. In this section the three premier associations ILA, IASLIC, SIS and few regional
associations are highlighted. Indian Library Association is a long established organization
serving a relatively young profession in rapidly changing times. Since its formation in the
year 1933, it represents those who work and advocate Indian libraries.
II) Answer the following questions in not more than 500 words each.
1. Explain the role of libraries in facilitating and supporting learning.


Ans.: In recent years, universities have started paying greater attention to research.
Universities do this by developing appropriate policies, making funds and facilities available
for research, and encouraging their staff and students to do research. In many postgraduate
programmes at universities, students are required to carry out a research project and submit a
report as a pre-requisite for completing their degree. Faculty members are also required to do
research themselves, take on more postgraduate students, and are assessed based on the
outputs of their research. This has led to researchers making greater demands for access to
information and on the quality of information provided (Singh 2007). Academic libraries
within universities have long been known as gateways to information. In line with the
changing role of universities, the vision and mission of academic libraries has to alter to meet
these new requirements. As indicated by Foo (2002), academic libraries now take on the key
role of providing a competitive advantage for the university and they are positioning
themselves to be the learning and research centres of universities. Therefore, the traditional
role of academic libraries to support teaching and learning only is being challenged.

Campbell (2006) argued that academic libraries are complex institutions with multiple roles.
They provide not only books and space for students to study, but also provide services for
facilitating research activities, such as bibliographies, reference services and information
literacy classes.
At the same time, academic libraries are experiencing another challenge as a result of
changes in scholarly communication. Researchers now have ability to get more online
materials at no or low cost, and are more confident in accessing online resources. The library
is no longer seen as the only or even the primary provider of information to scholars
(Consortium of British Libraries in the British Isles (CURL) 2006). For example, researchers
are turning to Google in growing numbers, even though the libraries has provided the latest
research materials to them (Law 2009). Chiemeke (2007) conducted a research study on the
perceptions of postgraduate students and results showed that universities students visit the
Internet more often compared with the academic library facilities to fulfill their research
To better meet these challenges, academic libraries need to keep the connection with
researchers and further develop the functions and remain viable and competitive in this new
information environment so that researchers could effectively learn and apply the full
capabilities of resources and services offered, while at the same time recognize that academic
libraries offered quality research resources for them (Moyo 2004). Otherwise, university
libraries cannot contribute to the competitiveness of its university's research (Haglund 2008).
Thus, it is appropriate for academic libraries in universities to re-examine how they can play
a more relevant role in facilitating research.
2. An educated and skilled workforce is essential in a country for knowledge-based
economy. Discuss the situation in India in this regard
Ans.: OECD science, technology and industry policies should be formulated to maximise
performance and well-being in knowledge-based economies economies which are
directly based on the production, distribution and use of knowledge and information. This is
reflected in the trend in OECD economies towards growth in high-technology investments,
high-technology industries, more highly-skilled labour and associated productivity gains.
Although knowledge has long been an important factor in economic growth, economists are
now exploring ways to incorporate more directly knowledge and technology in their theories
and models. New growth theory reflects the attempt to understand the role of knowledge
and technology in driving productivity and economic growth. In this view, investments in
research and development, education and training and new managerial work structures are
In addition to knowledge investments, knowledge distribution through formal and informal
networks is essential to economic performance. Knowledge is increasingly being codified and
transmitted through computer and communications networks in the emerging information
society. Also required is tacit knowledge, including the skills to use and adapt codified
knowledge, which underlines the importance of continuous learning by individuals and firms.
In the knowledge-based economy, innovation is driven by the interaction of producers and
users in the exchange of both codified and tacit knowledge; this interactive model has

replaced the traditional linear model of innovation. The configuration of national innovation
systems, which consist of the flows and relationships among industry, government and
academia in the development of science and technology, is an important economic
Employment in the knowledge-based economy is characterised by increasing demand for
more highly-skilled workers. The knowledge-intensive and high-technology parts of OECD
economies tend to be the most dynamic in terms of output and employment growth. Changes
in technology, and particularly the advent of information technologies, are making educated
and skilled labour more valuable, and unskilled labour less so. Government policies will need
more stress on upgrading human capital through promoting access to a range of skills, and
especially the capacity to learn; enhancing the knowledge distribution power of the economy
through collaborative networks and the diffusion of technology; and providing the enabling
conditions for organisational change at the firm level to maximise the benefits of technology
for productivity.
The science system, essentially public research laboratories and institutes of higher
education, carries out key functions in the knowledge-based economy, including knowledge
production, transmission and transfer. But the OECD science system is facing the challenge
of reconciling its traditional functions of producing new knowledge through basic research
and educating new generations of scientists and engineers with its newer role of collaborating
with industry in the transfer of knowledge and technology. Research institutes and academia
increasingly have industrial partners for financial as well as innovative purposes, but must
combine this with their essential role in more generic research and education.
In general, our understanding of what is happening in the knowledge-based economy is
constrained by the extent and quality of the available knowledge-related indicators.
Traditional national accounts frameworks are not offering convincing explanations of trends
in economic growth, productivity and employment. Development of indicators of the
knowledge-based economy must start with improvements to more traditional input indicators
of R&D expenditures and research personnel. Better indicators are also needed of knowledge
stocks and flows, particularly relating to the diffusion of information technologies, in both
manufacturing and service sectors; social and private rates of return to knowledge
investments to better gauge the impact of technology on productivity and growth; the
functioning of knowledge networks and national innovation systems; and the development
and skilling of human capital.
3. Infrastructure is important for effective library legislation. Discuss the provisions of
infrastructure of best four states in India.
Ans.: India, as the worlds largest democratic nationstate and an emerging economic power
on the world stage, is a country beset with contradictions. Due in part to the information and
communication technology (ICT) revolution, a middle class of over 300 million people now
has the purchasing and consumption power to rival that of any Western developed country
(Varma, 2007). However, despite the wellpublicized ICT and information revolutions in
India, rural and urban poor populations remain largely untouched by these advances (Dreze
and Sen, 2002; Parayil, 2006). In addition, the growth of urban megacities in India is rapid,

with huge numbers of the rural poor moving to cities on a daily basis and slum dwellings
increasing at an exponential rate (Davis, 2006). Gaps between the rich and poor in these
urban areas continue to grow (Varma, 2007).
Thus, while India is experiencing rapid economic growth, the benefits of this growth are
unevenly distributed in the general population. Without addressing the needs of Indias
masses, the economic growth occurring cannot be sustainable in the long term (Varma, 2007).
A major reason for Indias continuing poverty is the governments poor record in providing
basic services such as education to the masses in fact, it can be argued that the inability to
address these fundamental needs is the countrys greatest postindependence failure (Guha,
2007). One way to begin addressing these gaps and inequities is to reinvest in improved
public infrastructure, such as education, information, and library services. With this goal in
mind the Prime Minister of India, Manmohan Singh, has created the National Knowledge
Commission (NKC), an advisory group to facilitate the development of a more equitable
knowledge society (National Knowledge Commission, 2008). According to the Prime
Minister, The time has come to create a second wave of institution building, and of
excellence in the fields of education, research and capacity building. A main emphasis of the
commission is to develop a knowledgeoriented paradigm of development in order to
increase Indias competitive advantages in the knowledge economy (National Knowledge
Commission, 2007). The structure of NKC consists of various working groups and seminars,
with working groups involved in fields such as open and distance education, undergraduate
education, and health information (National Knowledge Commission, 2008).
Public library is the centre of information which provides services to its readers on the basis
of equality of access for all, regardless of age, race, sex, religion, nationality, language or
social status free of cost. The public library is the local gateway to knowledge, provides a
basic condition for lifelong learning, independent decision making and cultural development
of the individual and social groups. UNESCO Public library Manifesto proclaims belief in the
public library as a living force for education, culture and information, and as an essential
agent for the fostering of peace and spiritual welfare through the minds of men and women.
UNESCO therefore encourages national and local governments to support and actively
engage in the development of public libraries. The public library is the responsibility of local
and national authorities. It is supported by specific legislation and financed by national and
local governments. Public libraries must therefore, be allowed to play a role of fundamental
importance in the development of future systems of lifelong learning.
Maharashtra has a rich library tradition. Native general libraries have come-up in good
number all over the state in 19th and early 20th century. Further 'Home Rule Libraries',
'Marathi Libraries' also were started with the objective of providing reading in the native
Marathi Language. Starting with the Maharashtra Library Association (1921) several
associations were founded to spread the concept of reading and reading rooms. The Library
development in Maharashtra is based on the recommendations of a Fyzee Committee,
appointed by the then Government of Bombay province, for the development of libraries in
the State. The Committee constituted in 1939 and submitted its report in 1940. The
recommendations of the Committee could not be implemented upto 1947 because of the
Second World War. After the independence, the then Government of Bombay province

decided for development of public libraries to implement the recommendations of the Fyzee
In India, there are 54,856 public libraries (Survey Report ORG-MARG) starting from English
Colony Library at Chennai in 1661. There is no authentic survey over their growth and decay.
Most of these public libraries were managed by voluntary organizations, and did not continue
long due to lack of adequate financial support from the public. Presumably, almost 50% of
such public libraries started by voluntary organization would close down after a period. Only
those public libraries which are supported by public library legislation or State Government,
through continuous grant-in-aid, are functioning. Before 1950, there were about 6000 public
libraries in Andhra Pradesh State organization by NGOs. Now this figure has reduced to 3000
or less. The scenario may be identical in other states also.
4. Discuss in brief the issues to be decided for effective resource sharing in libraries.


Ans.: The networked environment has enabled the use of libraries that is increasingly free of
time and location constraints. The rise of remote access to information increases an academic
library's obligation to realign its resources and services to meet the needs of its customers
wherever they are located. The library and information services environment has witnessed
great changes in 1990s as computing and telecommunications rapidly advanced and matured.
Library catalogues and reference tools were the first to move online and full-text documents
and multimedia resources followed them soon on institutional intranets or the Internet. Of
late, one can clearly see the increased user preferences to access computer based information
resources; library use of networks and dependency on CD based information resources.
Librarians have talked a great deal about resource sharing. It is a mode of operation whereby
many libraries share their resources and services. Resource sharing between libraries has a
long history. Every now and then, the academic community and the management encourage
librarians to cooperate, as if it is a new idea. As a matter of fact librarians have always shared
information about the library holdings and encouraged users to visit other libraries. Union
Catalogue of library holdings and interlibrary loans are the classic examples. Digital
resources and networking, although not without their own challenges, have created new
opportunities for the organization of services, maintaining virtual digital libraries and
venturing to co-operative arrangements in collection development.
The effectiveness of library services depends on the ability of librarians to provide quick
delivery of documents requested by customers either from physical stock or through
networks. The electronic resource sharing is often mentioned, as an effective way for meeting
customer needs. On one hand the availability of voluminous data in electronic format and its
cost presents challenges for libraries to meet the growing demands of shears; on the other
hand, the information and communication technologies provide library professionals an
opportunity to bring virtual library into reality.
Economics and technology are the main driving forces of electronic resource sharing. Now
with networks facilitating cooperation, the lines are blurring as to what constitutes ownership
and resource sharing. Collection building is no longer an issue to be addressed by librarians
rather it is the access to electronic information that will play a critical role. Electronic
networks facilitate effective resource sharing with speedy document delivery directly to the

users at reduced cost. With rise of Internet, the geographical barriers are broken and equal
access to electronic information is increasingly affordable. Electronic resource sharing is not
interlibrary loan. Although interlibrary loan (ILL) is an important function, ILL by itself can
no longer meet the information needs of today's users. Traditional ILL is labour-intensive and
costly. High-speed transmission of information through networks reduces the physical
boundaries and operating expenses.
The process of an exchange or sharing involves two major elements. One is resource and the
other is player. First there has to be resources to share and then there should be needy players
collaborators for exchange. The Library Consortia, Professional Associations and University
Libraries play a major role in creating and sharing electronic resources.
5. Discuss the facets for code of ethics for LIS professionals.


Ans.: Libraries and information centers are established in the contemporary societies with the
aim to provide information to those who are in need of it, so that they can play an important
role in the overall progress and prosperity of the societies to which they belong in particular
and whole world in general. A single library is not in a position to serve the information needs
of the population in a society. Thus we find different categories of libraries like

Academic Library like school library, college library or even university library
Public library
Special library and
National library

In every library there are three essential ingredients viz., Information sources comprising of
primary, secondary and tertiary sources of information. Information sources are in print,
electronic and digital formats.
Staff members who are actually acting as a bridge between the users of information and the
sources of information. Use of the library sources and the library services depends upon the
human resources (staff) working in the library.
Success of any organization whether profit oriented or service oriented depends to a large
extent on the nature of human resources. How competent and confident they are is the main
yardstick by which we can judge any organization. If an organization is financially sound, but
manned by the weak and non competent staff, there are more chances of its failure. In
contrast if there is an organization that is weak financially but are manned by dedicated and
motivated staff, there are chances of success on every front of the organization. Thus human
resources employed in the libraries and information centers must possess the features of
dedication, determination, skills, knowledge and the most important attribute is the right and
positive attitude for giving their best for achieving the goals, objectives and the mission of the
organization. Library and information centers are the service oriented institution having the
mission to contribute to the creation of well informed individuals who can contribute a lot for
the progress and prosperity of the societies with the arsenal of knowledge and information.
This mission of helping in creating knowledge based societies is possible when professionals
working in library and information centers work with honesty, dedication and determinationhallmarks of ethics in human societies.

Ethics is that branch of philosophy which is concerned with the human character and
conduct. Ethics is derived from a Greek word "ethikos" meaning a custom or character.
Chambers Dictionary defines ethics as "ethics is a code of behavior considered correct".
Thus ethics means nothing but the study of what is right and what is wrong in conduct. Ethics
comprise of set of values and are also designated as ethical codes. These values serve as the
frame work for professional conduct and provide guidelines in the ethical decision making.
The concept of professional ethics is partly comprised of what a professional should or
should not do at the work place. Every profession has developed its ethical codes. These
professional ethical codes should define the limits of acceptable conduct and give guidance to
what kind of actions are regarded as right or wrong in the occupation.
Library and information professionals are working for a purpose and the purpose is to provide
right information to the right user at the right time. The intention is that users of this
information will utilize it for taking right decisions at the right time. Achieving these basic
objectives demand that library professional must have a character, character of helping the
needy in the times of need. A number of organizations involved in different facets of library
and information science profession has formulated their code of ethics for LIS professionals.
Examples are mentioned below:

International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA)

Australian Library and Information Science Association (ALIA)
Chartered Institute of Library and Information Science Professionals (CILIP)
American Library Association (ALA)
Canadian Library Association (CLA)

By going through these codes, one can derive following features and attributes which a LIS
professional must follow while delivering his / her professional responsibilities
6. Discuss in brief the role of RRLF in modernisation of libraries.


Ans.: RRRLF has undertaken several promotional activities for qualitative improvement of
library services. Besides organisation of many seminars and conferences, it has played a
major role in the preparation of National Policy on Library & Information System. It has also
issued guidelines on public library systems and services. Raja Rammohun Roy Memorial
Lecture by a scholar of eminence is an annual feature of anniversary celebrations for the
Foundation. RRRLF also interacts with many national and international professional
associations like IFLA, ILA, IASLIC and different state level library associations.
To disseminate innovative, new concepts and ideas for the development of Public Library
Services and system in the country through research oriented activities, the Foundation
introduced Annual Raja Rammohun Roy Award to the best contributor of an article covering
the area of development of Public Library Systems and Services or suggesting measures for
promotion of reading habit.
The Foundation has also undertaken a programme of giving seven awards annually - one for
the best State central Library and six for the best District Libraries of six regions in the
country. Since 2005 the Foundation also instituted RRRLF Best Rural Library Awards - one
per each state.

The Foundation institutes "RRRLF Fellowship" to offer fellowship to five eminent men and
women in the field of Library Services who have contributed to the library movement in the
country through active involvement in the movement, organizational initiative or intellectual
leadership or are dedicated to the propagation of reading habit among the masses.
RRRLF function as a promotional agency, an advisory and consultancy organization a
funding body for public library development in India. Some important objectives of RRRLF

To promote library movement in the country.

To enunciate a national library policy and to help build up a national library system.
To provide financial and technical assistance to libraries.
To work for the implementation of public library acts in different states of India.
To provide financial assistance to organizations, regional or national engaged in the
promotion of library development.
To publish appropriate literature and to act as a clearing house of ideas and
information on library development in India and abroad.
To promote research in problems of library development.
To strengthen the children library networks in India.
To advise the government on all matters pertaining to the library development in the

III) Answer the following questions in not more than 200 words each.
1. Differentiate between the industrial and post-industrial society.


Ans.: In sociology, industrial society refers to a society driven by the use of technology to
enable mass production, supporting a large population with a high capacity for division of
labour. Such a structure developed in the west in the period of time following the Industrial
Revolution, and replaced the agrarian societies of the Pre-modern, Pre-industrial age.
Industrial societies are generally mass societies, and may be succeeded by an Information
society. They are often contrasted to with the traditional societies. Industrial society is
characterized by the use of external energy sources, such as fossil fuels, to increase the rate
and scale of production. The production of food is shifted to large commercial farms where
the products of industry, such as combine harvesters and fossil fuel based fertilizers, are used
to decrease required human labor while increasing production. No longer needed for the
production of food, excess labor is moved into these factories where mechanization is utilized
to further increase efficiency. As populations grow, and mechanization is further refined,
often to the level of automation, many workers shift to expanding service industries.
Industrial society makes urbanization desirable, in part so that workers can be closer to
centers of production, and the service industry can provide labor to workers and those that
benefit financially from them, in exchange for a piece of production profits with which they
can buy goods. This leads to the rise of very large cities and surrounding suburban areas with
a high rate of economic activity.
These urban centers require the input of external energy sources in order to overcome the
diminishing returns of agricultural consolidation, due partially to the lack of nearby arable
land, associated transportation and storage costs, and are otherwise unsustainable. This makes

the reliable availability of the needed energy resources high priority in industrial government
3. Discuss the role of public libraries in knowledge society.


Ans.: The Public Library is regarded in the peoples institution. It is local gateway to
knowledge that provides basic condition for life learning and facilitates cultural development
of the individual and social groups. The public library provides services to all irrespective of
age, sex, cast, religion, education, and social studies, generally all users get the material
relevant to their needs and requirements in the public library. UNESCO, in its Public Library
Manifesto has described public libraries its democratic institution for education, culture and
information (UNESCO Public Library Manifesto, 1972). The Manifesto further states that
the public library should be established under clear mandate of law... it should be maintained
wholly from the public funds and no direct charge should be made to any one for its
services. UNESCO, public library 1994 emphasized the role of public library as the local
centre of culture and information centre. It states that knowledge is an important resource and
public library is not only a cultural institution but also an essential welfare through the minds
of people.
The changes are taken place at the astonishing speed with the advent of ICT. Knowledge has
become core resource for economic growth, development and employment generation as its
value and investment is intangible. The factors that distinguish a knowledge society from
information society are easy access to information, the capability to absorb and interpret
information and ability to use information for transformation to higher quality to society.
National knowledge commission was established is India is 2007 which underlined the key
role of PL which can act as extremely important element of the foundation of knowledge
economy. The PL play an important role to bridge the Gap between the information poor and
the information rich by ensuing the people from all walks of society easy access to
knowledge they seek.
Today information society demands multifaceted competencies and skills therefore to fulfill
the information of the people at large the PL has to work in close collaboration with other
knowledge partners in private as well as public sector. In addition to routine functions and
service the public library are to some extent perform following functions as it should match
the changing scenario of information needs of the people.
4. Does a library provide referral service? Discuss the activities of a referral centre.


Ans.: In the last twenty years, many public libraries have begun or expanded information and
referral services. This study explores the relationship between such services and traditional
reference services in public libraries in North Carolina. Results show that librarians feel the
information and referral services they offer should generally be limited to those closely
related to traditional reference services, e.g., simple and complex information giving and
construction of a public resource file. Other information and referral services typically
provided by social service agencies (such as counseling, transportation, and escort services)
are being rejected by libraries. This rejection is consistent with the growing realization among


public librarians that, due to increasingly tight budgets, services should focus on those that
are both essential to perform and for which staff is appropriately trained.
Reference & Referral services the National library provides reference services to
researchers and general public through the reference section located at the National library
division. The public library also offers reference services at the short loan section for
materials that are in high demand and must be used within the library premises.
5. Discuss the relevance of Five Laws in the present scenario of digital information


Ans.: Shiyali Ramamrita Ranganathan (1892-1972) was considered the father of Library
Science in India. He developed what has been widely accepted as the definitive statement of
ideal library service. His Five Laws of Library Science (1931) is a classic of library science
literature, as fresh today as it was in 1931. These brief statements remain as valid -in
substance if not in expression- today as when they were promulgated, concisely representing
the ideal service and organizational philosophy of most libraries today:

Books are for use.

Every reader his or her book.
Every book its reader.
Save the time of the reader.
The Library is a growing organism.

Although these statements might seem self-evident today, they certainly were not to librarians
in the early part of the 20th century. The democratic library tradition we currently enjoy had
arisen in America and England only in the latter part of the nineteenth century (Sayers, 1957).
For Ranganathan and his followers, the five laws were a first step toward putting library work
on a scientific basis, providing general principles from which all library practices could be
deduced (Garfield, 1984).
In 1992, James R. Rettig posited a Sixth Law, an extension of Ranganathan's laws. He
conceived that Sixth Law "Every reader his freedom" as applicable only to the type of service
(i.e., instruction or provision of information).
New information and communication technologies suggest that the scope of Ranganathan's
laws may appropriately be extended to the Web. Nowadays the same five laws are discussed
and reused in many different contexts. Since 1992, the 100th anniversary of Ranganathan's
birth, several modern scholars of library science have attempted to update his five laws, or
they reworded them for other purposes.
6. Name the state that has passed library legislation recently. State briefly its significant
Ans.: Present Status of Library Legislation in India: The credit of enacting a library act for
the first time in India goes to the Kolhapur princely state of the present Maharashtra in 1945.
The act is presently non functional. In India, nineteen states have so far enacted library
legislation and the rest are providing library services without legislation. The list of the
nineteen Acts is given below:

Andhra Pradesh (Hyderabad) Public Libraries Act, 1960;

Arunachal Pradesh Public Libraries Act, 2009;

Bihar Public Libraries Act, 2007;

Chattisgarh Public Libraries Act, 2007;
Goa Public Libraries Act, 1993;
Gujarat Public Libraries Act, 2001;
Haryana Public Libraries Act, 1989;
Karnataka (Mysore) Public Libraries Act, 1965;
Kerala Public Libraries Act, 1989;
Maharashtra Public Libraries Act, 1967;
Manipur Public Libraries Act, 1988;
Mizoram Public Libraries Act, 1993;
Orissa Public Libraries Act, 2001;
Pondichery Public Libraries Act, 2007;
Rajasthan Public Libraries Act, 2006;
Tamil Nadu (Madras) Public Libraries Act, 1948;
Uttar Pradesh Public Libraries Act, 2005;
Uttarakhand (Uttaranchal) Public Libraries Act, 2005 and
West Bengal Public Libraries Act, 1979.