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January 2014





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girder building. Really big girders.

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Structural Steel Fabrication

Steel Plate & Sheet Metal Fabrication
Miscellaneous Metals
Rolling & Forming Services
Cutting Services
Industrial Coatings
Industrial & Electrical Contracting
Mobile Crane Services
Over-Dimensional Trucking Services
Heat-Bending Services
(AISC Certied for Major Steel
Bridge Fabrication)

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January 2014 Volume 93 Number 1

AWS website




Spot Welding Different Sheet Metal Grades and Gauges

Ways to improve the cross-tension strength of spot welds in
high-strength steel are examined
E. Biro et al.


Experience the highlights of this largest-ever exhibition
A. Cullison et al.


What Is the Best Method for Preheating 4130?

Three different methods of preheating are compared and
J. Walker et al.


In-Line Inspection of Resistance Spot Welds for Sheet Metal

A real-time ultrasonic monitoring system is used to track
expulsion events, electrode life, and quality problems
R. Gr. Maev et al.

Editorial ............................4
Press Time News ..................6
International Update ..............8
News of the Industry ............10
Business Briefs ..................14
Stainless Q&A ....................20
RWMA Q&A ......................22
Product & Print Spotlight ......28
Coming Events....................64
Certification Schedule ..........68
Conferences ......................70
Welding Workbook ..............72
Society News ....................75
Tech Topics ......................77
Guide to AWS Services ........95
Personnel ........................96
Classifieds ......................102
Advertiser Index ................104

Welding Research Supplement


Visualization of Gas Flows in Welding Arcs by the

Schlieren Measuring Technique
Optical analysis of gas flow is simplified with the Schlieren
E. Siewert et al.


Wettability by Liquid Metals, Metalization, and Brazing

of Barium Titanate Ceramics
A detailed investigation is conducted on the wettability, adhesion,
and interaction of perovskite-type ceramics
T. V. Sydorenko et al.


Characterization of High-Strength Weld Metal

Containing Mg-Bearing Inclusions
A novel flux cored electrode formulation produces a tensile
strength of 825 MPa without the addition of titanium or the
formation of acicular ferrite
A. P. Gerlich et al.


Weldability of Niobium-Containing High-Strength Steel

for Pipelines
The investigation of high-strength Nb-containing steels reveals an
absence of HAZ cold cracking
I. I. Frantov et al.

Welding Journal (ISSN 0043-2296) is published

monthly by the American Welding Society for
$120.00 per year in the United States and possessions, $160 per year in foreign countries: $7.50
per single issue for domestic AWS members and
$10.00 per single issue for nonmembers and
$14.00 single issue for international. American
Welding Society is located at 8669 NW 36th St.,
# 130, Miami, FL 33166-6672; telephone (305)
443-9353. Periodicals postage paid in Miami, Fla.,
and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send
address changes to Welding Journal, 8669 NW
36th St., # 130, Miami, FL 33166-6672. Canada
Post: Publications Mail Agreement #40612608
Canada Returns to be sent to Bleuchip International, P.O. Box 25542, London, ON N6C 6B2,
Readers of Welding Journal may make copies of
articles for personal, archival, educational or
research purposes, and which are not for sale or
resale. Permission is granted to quote from articles, provided customary acknowledgment of
authors and sources is made. Starred (*) items
excluded from copyright.


Founded in 1919 to Advance the Science,
Technology and Application of Welding

Improving through Innovation

The focus of my presidency is continuous improvement through innovation.
Innovation comes in many forms and can be experienced through inventive, revolutionary, trial-and-error, borrowed, and even subtle changes that are difficult to notice but
result in continuous improvement.
Look to the birth of the American aircraft industry for a good example of trial-anderror innovation. During World War I, President Woodrow Wilson promised to produce
8000 American fighter planes, but there wasnt a single American-made engine that had
enough power.
This challenge was on par with the Manhattan Project and the race to the Moon. It
would be called the Liberty aircraft engine, and most of the young Detroit auto factories cooperated to build it. In doing so, their innovations would establish Americas place
as a world leader in manufacturing.
Many welding puzzles had to be solved for the Liberty aircraft engine to be produced in
large numbers. The joining of intake and exhaust elbow fittings to piston cylinders was an
immense challenge. Early welding engineers struggled with dangerous backfiring from the
welding torches through the gas lines. The oxyfuel process was unsuccessful and a process
of manual arc welding, rigged to a servo-controlled motor to feed the electrode also proved
unsuccessful. Finally, they tried the resistance welding process, building a complex fixture
for flash welding the elbows to the cylinder. The result was a resounding success.
By wars end, 18 months later, more than 20,000 Liberty engines were produced at
half the cost of European aircraft engines. American ingenuity and the future of welding
were both validated, and the aircraft helped bring the war to a quick end.
At my company, Wilson Industries, we borrowed technology that led to an inventive
innovation: the see-through welding curtain.
In 1968, a welder working behind a canvas welding screen had a heart attack and
remained there, unnoticed, for hours. This tragedy led to a movement to bring visibility
into the welding booth.
At the time we were developing the Wilson Spectra curtain, NASA was developing
new chemical coatings used to filter light for satellite camera lenses, based on their studies of the sharp eyes of eagles. A major breakthrough was achieved by incorporating the
NASA lens coating technology into sheet vinyl, allowing us to develop the Spectra curtain, which has been honored as a NASA spin-off product.
Today, every part of our lives is influenced by welding, and AWS influences every part
of welding. AWS is currently developing online training, mobile apps, a skills certification system featuring stackable credentials and digital badges, recognition of a Master
Welder status, and an extensive video library.
AWS has opened the door to lifelong professional development of all welding personnel via American Welding Online (AWO). AWO focuses on the science, economics,
and higher knowledge skills from which welders and others can benefit. We are on the
verge of creating the most empowered welding workforce in history through our devotion to innovation.
Our Society is a partner in the Manufacturing Institutes Skill Certification System.
Soon, AWS will document, archive, and validate the career achievements of welding professionals on all levels with secure online transcripts, a national certification registry, new
ID cards, and a certified welder passport.
We are on a mission to approve community colleges nationwide as Accredited Test
Facilities. This accreditation will enable schools to train and certify welders for the needs
of their local industries, with transferable, stackable, nationally recognized AWS
The American Welding Society is devoted to
advancing the science, technology, and people of welding, by providing for the lifelong professional development of welders, educators, welding engineers, and
inspectors around the world. In doing so, AWS aims to
improve everyones safety, productivity, and career
satisfaction, by dedicating ourselves to continuous
improvement through innovation.
Dean R. Wilson
AWS President


President Dean R. Wilson
Welldean Enterprises
Vice President David J. Landon
Vermeer Mfg. Co.
Vice President David L. McQuaid
D. L. McQuaid and Associates, Inc.
Vice President John R. Bray
Affiliated Machinery, Inc.
Treasurer Robert G. Pali
J. P. Nissen Co.
Executive Director Ray W. Shook
American Welding Society

U. Aschemeier (Dist. 7), Miami Diver
R. E. Brenner (Dist. 10), CnD Industries, Inc.
D. J. Burgess (Dist. 8), University of Tennessee
N. C. Cole (Past President), NCC Engineering
G. Fairbanks (Dist. 9), Fairbanks Inspection & Testing Services
T. A. Ferri (Dist. 1), Victor Technologies
P. H. Gorman (Dist. 20), Sandia National Laboratories
S. A. Harris (Dist. 4), Altec Industries
K. L. Johnson (Dist. 19), Vigor Shipyards
J. Jones (At Large), The Harris Products Group
J. Knapp (Dist. 17), Gas and Supply
T. J. Lienert (At Large), Los Alamos National Laboratory
D. E. Lynnes (Dist. 15), Lynnes Welding Training
C. Matricardi (Dist. 5), Welding Solutions, Inc.
S. P. Moran (At Large), Weir American Hydro
K. A. Phy (Dist. 6), K. A. Phy Services, Inc.
W. R. Polanin (At Large), Illinois Central College
W. A. Rice (Past President), OKI Bering
R. L. Richwine (Dist. 14), Ivy Tech State College
D. J. Roland (Dist. 12), Marinette Marine Corp.
R. W. Roth (At Large), RoMan Manufacturing, Inc.
N. Samanich (Dist. 21), NS Inspection and Consulting
K. E. Shatell (Dist. 22), Pacific Gas & Electric Co.
T. A. Siewert (At Large), NIST (ret.)
J. Stoll (Dist. 18), Bohler Welding Group U.S.
H. W. Thompson (Dist. 2), Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.
R. P. Wilcox (Dist. 11), Ford Motor Co.
J. A. Willard (Dist. 13), Kankakee Community College
M. R. Wiswesser (Dist. 3), Welder Training & Testing Institute
D. Wright (Dist. 16), Wright Welding Technologies

For Info, go to

Praxair to Fund Welding Scholarships through
AWS Program and SkillsUSA Competition
Praxair, Inc., Danbury, Conn., a leading industrial gases company, recently announced the companys global giving program will fund more than $200,000 in scholarships over the next five years for the American Welding Society (AWS) and SkillsUSA. They will support education and hands-on training for student welders in the
United States.
An applicant must be a minimum of 18 years old, at least a high school senior who
will be applying (or has applied) to a certificate welding program or to a college/university for a two- or four-year degree focused on welding. Information on additional
qualifications is available at
Twenty-six awards will be made to students who reside/attend school in the areas
in which the following AWS Sections are located: Chicago, Ill. (Section 002); Cleveland, Ohio (Section 006); Dallas, Tex. (North Texas Section 053); Detroit, Mich. (Section 011); Fox Valley, Wis. (Section 074); Houston, Tex. (Section 022); Kansas City,
Mo. (Section 016); Los Angeles, Calif. (Section 008); North Dakota (Northern Plains
Section 117); Portland, Ore. (Section 052); Salt Lake City, Utah (Utah Section 059);
Tulsa, Okla. (Section 034); and North Carolina (Charlotte #140 and Triangle #151).

BMT to Support Welding Research Project for

BMT Fleet Technology Ltd.s latest research project with the National Shipbuilding Research Program will evaluate recent advancements in Integrated Cold Electrode (ICE) welding technology. Jointly funded by industry and the U.S. Navy through
the program, it will look at how this technology can improve productivity rates and
reduce construction costs of both commercial and naval vessels.
As project lead, BMT will work with Huntington-Ingalls Industries; Newport News
Shipbuilding; Marinette Marine Corp.; ESAB; American Bureau of Shipping; Naval
Surface Warfare Centre Carderock Division; and Defence R&D Canada.
Our main objectives for this project are to assess ICEs ability to enhance the
welding production rates, decrease distortion and costly rework, improve the properties of welds in high-strength steels and therefore reduce costs, whilst increasing the
integrity of the ships structure, said Darren Begg, project manager at BMT Fleet

Northwest Florida State College Starts Welding Program

Northwest Florida State College, Niceville, Fla., has launched a new vocational
certificate program in welding technologies. It is funded by a federal Department of
Labor grant to meet the demand for high-skill, high-wage jobs in Northwest Florida.
Welding classes started in September. The program runs 12 months, divided into
three semesters, and consists of six courses covering shielded metal arc, gas metal
arc, flux cored arc, and gas tungsten arc welding on plate/pipe. Welding instructor
Scottie Smith, an AWS Certified Welding Inspector and Certified Welding Educator,
stated the program follows the National Center for Construction Education and
Research curriculum.
Currently, the colleges welding lab is 2000 sq ft and features 15 welding booths
containing Miller Electric multiprocess power sources and wire feeders, but the college has plans to double the welding labs size. The program will receive a mobile
welding lab this month to facilitate industry training for local businesses as well.

Koike Aronson, Miller Electric Enter Strategic Agreement

Koike Aronson, Inc./Ransome, Arcade, N.Y., and Miller Electric Manufacturing
Co., Appleton, Wis., have entered into a strategic partnership agreement. Koike will
act as a distributor of certain Miller welding products throughout North and South
America, including Mexico and Central America. Also, Miller will act as a distributor
of the Koike Aronson welding positioning equipment and portable welding and cutting equipment in the same areas. The Miller products covered by the agreement are
equipment used in submerged arc and electroslag, automated gas metal arc, and automated flux cored arc welding. The companies distributorships are nonexclusive.

Publisher Andrew Cullison

Editorial Director Andrew Cullison
Editor Mary Ruth Johnsen
Associate Editor Howard M. Woodward
Associate Editor Kristin Campbell
Editorial Asst./Peer Review Coordinator Melissa Gomez
Publisher Emeritus Jeff Weber
Design and Production
Production Manager Zaida Chavez
Senior Production Coordinator Brenda Flores
Manager of International Periodicals and
Electronic Media Carlos Guzman
National Sales Director Rob Saltzstein
Advertising Sales Representative Lea Paneca
Advertising Sales Representative Sandra Jorgensen
Senior Advertising Production Manager Frank Wilson
Subscriptions Representative Tabetha Moore
American Welding Society
8669 NW 36 St., # 130, Miami, FL 33166-6672
(305) 443-9353 or (800) 443-9353
Publications, Expositions, Marketing Committee
D. L. Doench, Chair
Hobart Brothers Co.
S. Bartholomew, Vice Chair
ESAB Welding & Cutting Prod.
J. D. Weber, Secretary
American Welding Society
D. Brown, Weiler Brush
T. Coco, Victor Technologies International
L. Davis, ORS Nasco
D. DeCorte, RoMan Mfg.
J. R. Franklin, Sellstrom Mfg. Co.
F. H. Kasnick, Praxair
D. Levin, Airgas
E. C. Lipphardt, Consultant
R. Madden, Hypertherm
D. Marquard, IBEDA Superflash
J. F. Saenger Jr., Consultant
S. Smith, Weld-Aid Products
D. Wilson, Well-Dean Enterprises
N. C. Cole, Ex Off., NCC Engineering
J. N. DuPont, Ex Off., Lehigh University
L. G. Kvidahl, Ex Off., Northrop Grumman Ship Systems
D. J. Landon, Ex Off., Vermeer Mfg.
S. P. Moran, Ex Off., Weir American Hydro
E. Norman, Ex Off., Southwest Area Career Center
R. G. Pali, Ex Off., J. P. Nissen Co.
N. Scotchmer, Ex Off., Huys Industries
R. W. Shook, Ex Off., American Welding Society
Copyright 2014 by American Welding Society in both printed and electronic formats. The Society is not responsible for any statement made or
opinion expressed herein. Data and information developed by the authors
of specific articles are for informational purposes only and are not intended for use without independent, substantiating investigation on the
part of potential users.



For Info, go to

Lincoln Electric Opens Automation
Facility in Brazil
Lincoln Electric Co. recently opened its new Automation Center of Excellence in Brazil, a 5000-sq-m facility that includes
demonstration, integration, training, and office space. The newly
built facility, located in the city of Indaiatuba, features a training
lab with six robot systems, a station for orbital welding process
development and system instruction, and eight additional demonstration systems for robotic and mechanized applications. Two
classrooms can accommodate up to 40 students.
Lincoln held a grand opening event, where a welcome was extended by Indaiatuba Mayor Reinaldo Nogueira, who stressed
the importance of creating an environment for business to grow
and in which their employees could feel comfortable making their
home. George Blankenship, president of Lincoln Electrics North
American operations, delivered the keynote presentation. He
said, Our responsibility to our customer must be more than just
a provider of product. Their expectations of us are greater today
because they have escalated demands from their customer. When
we can improve their welding and fabrication procees, we become a partner rather than a vendor.
Leonardo Sabedot, business manager for the ASG-Brazil
group, closed out the presentation. We are excited by the opportunity that this facility represents, and look forward to forging strong partnerships with the many customers in the region,
he said.
Lincoln Electric has grown its automation offerings over the
last few years to include preengineered robotic systems, CNC
plasma cutting equipment, fixturing and tooling, engineered line
builds, robotic integration, laser systems, weld fume control, and
fire prevention.

The Edradour complements the companys existing fleet, which

includes daughter craft, The Aberlour, a mother vessel, The SIEM
Stork, and three dive intervention craft. The vessel has the same
design specification as The Aberlour, which will allow both to be
interchangeable with the existing twin davit system.
We are very pleased to welcome The Edradour to our fleet.
The shared design specification allows compatibility with our existing launch and recovery system and will bring familiarization
to all our crews, resulting in a greater safety recovery and efficiency in our diving operations, said Roddy James, senior vice
president of Stork Technical Subsea.

Kemppi and ABB Announce Robotic

Welding Systems Collaboration

Stork Technical Invests in New

Daughter Craft
Stork Technical Services, a global provider of management
services for the oil and gas, chemical, and power sectors, recently
announced an investment of more than $3.2 million in its new
daughter craft, The Edradour. The craft, which will provide additional operational support to meet the expanding needs of Storks
diving operations, has additional lifting capability for four-point
lifting, providing vessel crane launch and recovery capabilities,
and increased generator capacity.

Through an agreement between the two companies, Kemppi Oy

welding equipment will be paired with ABB robots such as in this
FlexArc robotic welding cell.

Kemppi Oy, a manufacturer of industrial arc welding equipment, and ABB Robotics, a supplier of industrial robots and modular manufacturing systems, have established a collaboration to
develop fully equipped robotic welding packages. ABB indicated
the technologically innovative welding packages would be designed as modular, cost-effective projects for companies to easily install or upgrade into a robotic system. The joint business
covers Europe, Asia, Africa, and South America.
Kemppi equipment will be featured at all certified ABB Robotics welding lab locations, where customers will be able to conduct robotic welding trials on the latest equipment.

Pema to Supply Two Robotic Profile

Processing Lines
The Edradour, which represents a more than $3.2 million investment, will provide additional operational support of Storks diving


Pemamek, a manufacturer of automated welding and production systems, has received another contract to supplement
continued on page 100

For Info, go to

Greater Waco Advanced Manufacturing Academy Awarded $2.2 Million Grant
The Waco Independent School District, Waco, Tex., has been awarded a $2.2
million grant from the U.S. Department of Education to further enhance the
Greater Waco Advanced Manufacturing Academy. The school opened its doors
in August and is now teaching welding skills to students from Waco and the surrounding area.
The grant is part of the federal governments $89.8 million in Magnet School
Assistance Program grants featuring a goal to promote courses within magnet
schools that will strengthen knowledge of academic subjects and attainment of
tangible vocational skills.
Our vision for the Greater Waco Advanced Manufacturing Academy is to prepare Waco area students for productive employment, success in postsecondary
education, or both, said Waco Independent School District Superintendent Dr.
Bonny Cain. Right now, we know that many of our local manufacturing businesses need welders, so were trying to meet that demand.
The school district plans to use the grant awarded to the academy for purchasing additional equipment and consumables, provide professional development
staff and students, plus expand the schools curriculum.

GE Researchers Experiment with 3D

Painting to Build Up and Repair Parts

Welding is taught at the Greater Waco Advanced

Manufacturing Academy, and this substantial
grant will be used in many ways, including to
purchase extra equipment and consumables.

Northwest Pipe Co.s Tubular Products

Group Earns Largest Project in Its History
Northwest Pipe Co., Vancouver, Wash., will provide about 400
miles of 1234-in. line pipe for the Double H Pipeline project to
transport crude oil from Dore, N.Dak., to Guernsey, Wyo.
The ability for Northwest Pipe Co. to participate on projects
like Double H is the result of $35 million of investments that have
been made in our Atchison [Kansas] facility over the last several
years. These investments have allowed us to continue to expand
our product offering both in wall thickness and strength level
on line pipe up to 16 in. in diameter, said Scott Montross,
company CEO.

Apple Secures Patent for New FSW Method

GE researchers are developing new ways to repair and build up

parts using a process called cold spray. Here, GE Materials Engineer Leo Ajdelsztajn prepares a test in one of the companys spray
GE researchers recently announced they are using a process
called cold spray where metal powders are sprayed at high velocities to build a part or add material to repair an existing part.
Also known as 3D painting, cold spray demonstrates a blend
of materials, process, and product function that can in the immediate future transform repair processes for industrial and
aircraft components such as rotors, blades, shafts, propellers, and
gear boxes. Future benefits include extended product lifespan and
reduced manufacturing time along with material costs.
To view a demonstration, visit the following link:


The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office has published a series

of 41 newly granted patents for Apple, Inc., Cupertino, Calif.
Included is an invention relating to friction stir welding (FSW).
U.S. Patent 8,556,156 dynamic adjustment of FSW process
parameters based on weld temperature lists the inventor as
Shravan Bharadwaj, San Jose, Calif., with the assignee as Apple,
Inc. The abstract states that a method for FSW is provided, and
it may include beginning an operation by directing a rotating
FSW tool along a joint between two parts; a temperature of the
resulting weld may be measured; a controller may adjust process
parameters associated with this process to decrease a difference
between weld desired and measured temperatures; desired temperature may correspond to a temperature at which parts are
plasticized; and process parameters may include rotational speed
of the FSW tool, feed rate, axial force along the FSW tool length,
and tilt angle of the FSW tool.

Sheet Metal Work Gets Efficiency Boost

Through New Technology
After receiving feedback from members, the International
Training Institute (ITI), Fairfax, Va., put a new web-based

The International Training Institute has launched a web-based

e-reader and new website (shown above) at
e-reader into development. With the launch of this method of
viewing texts and class assignments, apprentices and journey persons in courses can see their books from any device with an Internet browser. The option is also useful for individuals on the
go or those who dont have a home computer or an iPad.
On the Windows-based e-reader, students can print pages
from texts; with the iPad application, they can store books on the
device from the application; on the web-based e-reader, saving
and printing functionality is limited to specific versions; and a
mobile version of the web-based e-reader is available as well.
According to David Collins, software development manager
for ITI, the general look and feel of the website will allow for
easier navigation. About a year ago, we started traveling around
the county taking original photos to update nearly all the imFor info, go to

For info, go to



agery on the site, so the members will be able to really see themselves in the new design, Collins added.

ASM International Celebrates 100 Years

commitment and involvement, ASM has remained relevant and

focused in materials science. The gala was a wonderful way to
express our gratitude for a century of greatness, said Thom
Passek, ASM managing director.
Founded in 1913, ASM began as the Steel Treaters Club in
Detroit, Mich., with fewer than 20 members. Today, it has more
than 30,000 members and 80 worldwide chapters.
Along with historical tributes of the organizations past and a
look to the future, the event featured a keynote speech by Dr.
Peter Diamandis, chair and CEO of the X Prize Foundation.

Industry Notes
The Bhler Welding Group, Vienna, will become an integrated
part of the voestalpine Group, a steel-based technology and
capital goods group with about 500 group companies and locations in more than 50 countries and on five continents. Its
name now also changes to voestalpine Bhler Welding.

Miller Electric Mfg. Co., Appleton, Wis., has consolidated the

Pictured at the gala for ASM Internationals 100th anniversary,
from left, is ASM President (20132014) Ravi Ravindran and the
evenings emcee, Dave Kelly, a Canadian radio/TV personality.

gas tungsten arc torch and accessory lines from Weldcraft under
its brand. The only change will be the addition of the Miller
name on products, labels, and packaging. Torch bodies have
also transitioned from red to black (excluding Redhead

A $95,000 grant from the U.S. Department of Energy will allow

ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio, commemorated its
100th anniversary with a gala on Oct. 27 in Montreal, Quebec,
Canada. Nearly 400 guests, including members, past presidents,
dignitaries, and partners from around the world, came together.
For more than 100 years, in large part because of volunteer

Aiken Technical College, Graniteville, S.C., to purchase an orbital welding machine and Bevelmaster beveling machine for
use in both advanced manufacturing and nuclear training.
continued on page 100

One Bad Weld Could Cost You Million$

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Recognized as Construction Industrys
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Ford Adds Jobs, Invests Millions

in Buffalo Stamping Plant
Ford Motor Co. will invest $150 million and add approximately 350 new jobs at its Buffalo Stamping Plant in New
The venture is for more than 25 new subassemblies, including hoods, doors, and fenders; more than 500 new dies
and a new blanking line; as well as equipment upgrades and
refurbishing to support future product programs. The plant
will also add a third shift to its press room.
These additional jobs are the direct result of the dedicated effort our United Automobile Workers (UAW) members display every day at facilities all across the country, and
serve as another reminder of the resilience of American
workers and our nations manufacturing sector, said Jimmy
Settles, UAW vice president and director of the National
Ford Department.

Recent Acquisitions
At FABTECH 2013, Lincoln Electric Holdings, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio, announced the company acquired an ownership interest in Burlington Automation Corp., Hamilton, Ontario,
Canada, a designer and manufacturer of 3D robotic plasma cutting systems. Rob Tyler serves as its president. In addition, the
company has entered into a definitive agreement to acquire Robolution GmbH, based outside of Frankfurt, Germany, a European
provider of robotic arc welding systems. Wolfgang Koenig is its
managing director.
Victor Technologies, St. Louis, Mo., has acquired Gas-Arc
Group Ltd., a privately held manufacturer of gas control equipment in the United Kingdom, for approximately $40 million in
cash, subject to post-closing adjustments. Its portfolio includes
branded gas control products that meet specialty gas application
requirements as well as cutting and welding equipment for the
industrial, laboratory, and medical gas control markets. In addition, Gas-Arc will continue to operate under its own name.
Reliance Steel & Aluminum Co., Los Angeles, Calif., recently
announced that, through its wholly owned subsidiary American
Metals Corp., the company has acquired all of the capital stock
of Haskins Steel Co., Inc., Spokane, Wash. Founded in 1955,
Haskins processes and distributes carbon steel and aluminum
products of various shapes/sizes. In-house processing capabilities include shearing, sawing, burning, and forming. Haskins will
operate as a wholly owned subsidiary of American Metals Corp.,
and current management will also remain in place.
Antelope Oil Tool & Manufacturing Co., LLC, Mineral Wells,
Tex., has acquired WearSox, L.P., Houston, Tex. Founded in 2004,
WearSox is a developer of thermal spray-on casing centralizers


Ford Motor Co. will invest $150 million and add approximately 350
new jobs at its Buffalo Stamping Plant. (Photo courtesy of Ford.)

and stop collars, as well as stabilizers for the deep water/offshore

segment of the oil and gas industry. WearSoxs patent-protected
process allows for shapes to be built directly onto casing without
affecting the casings metallurgical properties. George Ribble,
Antelopes CEO, will oversee the combined business.
Airgas, Inc., Radnor, Pa., has completed acquiring the assets
and operations of The Encompass Gas Group, Rockford, Ill.,
one of the largest privately owned suppliers of industrial, medical, and specialty gases/related hardgoods in the United States,
with eleven locations and more than 130 associates in Illinois,
Wisconsin, and Iowa.
Automation International, Inc., Danville, Ill., has acquired
Hess Industries Rim and Wheel Intellectual Property. Hess Industries was located in Niles, Mich., and ceased operations in
June 2012. The purchase aligns with the companys role as a
provider in the design and manufacture of automated wheel production equipment, including welding, metal forming, assembly,
and spinning.
Keen Compressed Gas Co., Wilmington, Del., has acquired
the assets of Urie & Blanton Welding Supply Co., including all
assets associated with the industrial gas and welding supply business. Urie covered New Castle County, Del.; southeastern Pennsylvania; the Philadelphia area; some of South Jersey; and had
two retail locations that Keen will take over.
Mistras Group, Inc., Princeton Junction, N.J., has acquired
Carmagen Engineering, Inc., a professional engineering consulting and technical training services provider serving the hydrocarbon processing and other energy-related industries. Since 1986,
Carmagen has provided services focused on the oil and gas industry that includes plant operations support; turnaround planning/execution programs; and technical training.

For Info, go to

Friends and Colleagues:

I want to encourage you to submit nomination packages for those individuals whom you feel
have a history of accomplishments and contributions to our profession consistent with the standards
set by the existing Fellows. In particular, I would make a special request that you look to the most
senior members of your Section or District in considering members for nomination. In many cases,
the colleagues and peers of these individuals who are the most familiar with their contributions, and
who would normally nominate the candidate, are no longer with us. I want to be sure that we take
the extra effort required to make sure that those truly worthy are not overlooked because no obvious
individual was available to start the nomination process.
For specifics on the nomination requirements, please contact Wendy Sue Reeve at AWS
headquarters in Miami, or simply follow the instructions on the Fellow nomination form in this issue
of the Welding Journal. Please remember, we all benefit in the honoring of those who have made
major contributions to our chosen profession and livelihood. The deadline for submission is July 1,
2014. The Committee looks forward to receiving numerous Fellow nominations for 2015

Thomas M. Mustaleski
Chair, AWS Fellows Selection Committee


(please type or print in black ink)


DATE_________________NAME OF CANDIDATE________________________________________________________________________
AWS MEMBER NO.___________________________YEARS OF AWS MEMBERSHIP____________________________________________
HOME ADDRESS____________________________________________________________________________________________________
CITY_______________________________________________STATE________ZIP CODE__________PHONE________________________
PRESENT COMPANY/INSTITUTION AFFILIATION_______________________________________________________________________
BUSINESS ADDRESS________________________________________________________________________________________________
CITY______________________________________________STATE________ZIP CODE__________PHONE_________________________
MAJOR & MINOR__________________________________________________________________________________________________
DEGREES OR CERTIFICATES/YEAR____________________________________________________________________________________
LICENSED PROFESSIONAL ENGINEER: YES_________NO__________ STATE______________________________________________
SUBMITTED BY: PROPOSER_______________________________________________AWS Member No.___________________
Print Name___________________________________
The Proposer will serve as the contact if the Selection Committee requires further information. Signatures on this nominating form, or
supporting letters from each nominator, are required from four AWS members in addition to the Proposer. Signatures may be acquired
by photocopying the original and transmitting to each nominating member. Once the signatures are secured, the total package should
be submitted.
NOMINATING MEMBER:___________________________________NOMINATING MEMBER:___________________________________
Print Name___________________________________
Print Name___________________________________
AWS Member No.______________
AWS Member No.______________
NOMINATING MEMBER:___________________________________NOMINATING MEMBER:___________________________________
Print Name___________________________________
Print Name___________________________________
AWS Member No.______________
AWS Member No.______________


Fellow Description
The American Welding Society, in 1990, established the honor of Fellow of the Society to recognize members for
distinguished contributions to the field of welding science and technology, and for promoting and sustaining the professional
stature of the field. Election as a Fellow of the Society is based on the outstanding accomplishments and technical impact of the
individual. Such accomplishments will have advanced the science, technology and application of welding, as evidenced by:

Sustained service and performance in the advancement of welding science and technology

Publication of papers, articles and books which enhance knowledge of welding

Innovative development of welding technology

Society and chapter contributions

Professional recognition

Candidates shall have 10 years of membership in AWS

Candidates shall be nominated by any five members of the Society
Nominations shall be submitted on the official form available from AWS Headquarters
Nominations must be submitted to AWS Headquarters no later than July 1 of the year prior to that in
which the award is to be presented
Nominations will remain valid for three years
All information on nominees will be held in strict confidence
No more than two posthumous Fellows may be elected each year

Maximum of 10 Fellows selected each year.

AWS Fellow Application Guidelines

Nomination packages for AWS Fellow should clearly demonstrate the candidates outstanding contributions to the advancement of welding science and technology. In order for the Fellows Selection Committee to fairly assess the candidates qualifications, the nomination package must list and clearly describe the candidates specific technical accomplishments, how they contributed to the advancement of welding technology, and that these contributions were sustained. Essential in demonstrating the
candidates impact are the following (in approximate order of importance).

Description of significant technical advancements. This should be a brief summary of the candidates most
significant contributions to the advancement of welding science and technology.
Publications of books, papers, articles or other significant scholarly works that demonstrate the contributions cited
in (1). Where possible, papers and articles should be designated as to whether they were published in
peer-reviewed journals.
Inventions and patents.
Professional recognition including awards and honors from AWS and other professional societies.
Meaningful participation in technical committees. Indicate the number of years served on these committees and
any leadership roles (chair, vice-chair, subcommittee responsibilities, etc.).
Contributions to handbooks and standards.
Presentations made at technical conferences and section meetings.
Consultancy particularly as it impacts technology advancement.
Leadership at the technical society or corporate level, particularly as it impacts advancement of welding technology.
Participation on organizing committees for technical programming.
Advocacy support of the society and its technical advancement through institutional, political or other means.

Note: Application packages that do not support the candidate using the metrics listed above
will have a very low probability of success.
Supporting Letters
Letters of support from individuals knowledgeable of the candidate and his/her contributions are encouraged. These
letters should address the metrics listed above and provide personal insight into the contributions and stature of the
candidate. Letters of support that simply endorse the candidate will have little impact on the selection process.
Return completed Fellow nomination package to:
Wendy S. Reeve
American Welding Society
Senior Manager
Award Programs and Administrative Support
8669 Doral Blvd., #130
Miami, FL 33166
Telephone: 800-443-9353, extension 293

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Q: We welded the flange of a 304 stainless steel pipe fitting

(female threads), after hammering the flange to approximately
fit the tank curvature, to the cylindrical surface of a 304 tank.
Unfortunately, the fitting was not aligned correctly, so the pipe
inserted into the fitting does not take off from the tank in the
correct direction. The welder suggested that we could locally
heat the fitting and the tank, then thread a pipe into the fitting
and bend the fitting and tank shell slightly to get the correct
direction for the pipe. Is this a good idea?
A: There is some logic in the welders suggestion. Locally heating the fitting and
tank shell will reduce the yield strength of
these materials, making them easier to
bend. But things are not so simple. Assuming that the fitting and tank are really
304, not 304L, sensitization needs to be
taken into account. Welding the fitting to
the tank shell will already have somewhat
sensitized the fitting and tank shell. So
both could be damaged by intergranular

corrosion, depending upon the severity of

the corrosive environment inside and outside the tank. See the November 2007
Stainless Q&A column for details of sensitization and intergranular corrosion.
Local heating, improperly applied, can
severely sensitize the tank shell and fitting. The sensitization temperature range
for welding is generally considered to be
900 to 1600F (480 to 870C). But localized heating is a much slower process so

that the minimum sensitization temperature can be reduced to 840F (400C). If

that temperature is exceeded anywhere
during local heating, there must be a transition in temperature to the cold tank
shell so there will be a considerable region
of the tank shell that will be sensitized.
Water quenching cannot prevent that and
may cause distortion, which could make
the pipe alignment problem worse, not
better. I have to assume that the extent of
sensitization you already have is acceptable, but local heating above 840F is
likely to make it much worse.
If the extent of sensitization already
present due to welding is acceptable and
you dont want to make matters worse,
then local heating needs to be limited to a
peak temperature anywhere in the tank
shell and fitting to about 750F (400C) to
provide some margin of safety. Some significant reduction of yield strength occurs
when 304 is heated, which would be helpful in your proposed bending operation. I


Atlanta Nov. 11-13, 2014
Submission deadline: Mar. 29, 2014
The AWS Professional Program is an annual three-day program of sessions
on technical topics featuring the most recent welding research and best practices
in manufacturing and construction from around the world.
Submit your Professional Program abstract online by March 28 at
or contact Martica Ventura at (800) 443-9353 ext 224 (



Table 1 Effect of Temperature on 304 Stainless Steel Yield Strength

Temperature, F (C)
AK Steel Typical YS, ksi (MPa)
AISC Reduction Factor

68 (20)
36 (241)

expect that the stainless steel shell is

quite a bit thicker than the fitting, and the
shells cylindrical shape will give it considerable stiffness, so most or all of the
yielding will have to be in the flange of
the fitting. The AK Steel online Data Bulletin provides typical yield strength of 304
as a function of temperature, as shown in
Table 1. Also included in Table 1 are the
reduction factors (ratio of elevated-temperature yield strength to room-temperature yield strength), from the AISC Design Guide 30: Structural Stainless Steel, to
be applied to the design of stainless steel
construction. The two sources provide
similar information.
Local heating with a torch would be
very risky in this case because of the
temptation to direct the heat on the surface for a while, then withdraw the torch
and test the surface temperature with a
temperature-indicating crayon. You can

200 (93)


400 (204)
23 (159)

600 (316)
20 (134)

easily exceed the suggested temperature

limit before you realize it. I suggest you
use electric strip heaters for the heating,
and use thermocouples or an optical pyrometer to measure temperature continuously to be sure that 750F is not exceeded.
Table 1 indicates that the yield
strength of 304 stainless steel at 750F is
likely to be about one-half of that at room
temperature. So there will be some help
in your attempt to realign the fitting. But,
because the flange diameter is greater
than the pipe diameter, there will also be
a tendency for the pipe to bend more easily than the flange, even if the pipe is kept
cold. I suggest you put a sleeve (a largerdiameter pipe that just fits over the neck
of the fitting) to stiffen your lever arm
when trying to bend the flange of the
In summary, your welders idea is not

For info, go to

750 (399)


800 (427)
17 (114)

a bad idea, but its execution is not without risk. If you follow the guidelines
herein, I think you can be successful,
though I would not guarantee it.

DAMIAN J. KOTECKI is president,

Damian Kotecki Welding Consultants, Inc.
He is treasurer of the IIW and a member of
the A5D Subcommittee on Stainless Steel
Filler Metals, D1K Subcommittee on Stainless Steel Structural Welding; and WRC
Subcommittee on Welding Stainless Steels
and Nickel-Base Alloys. He is a past chair
of the A5 Committee on Filler Metals and
Allied Materials, and served as AWS president (20052006). Send questions to
damian@, or mail to
Damian Kotecki, c/o Welding Journal
Dept., 8669 NW 36th St. # 130, Miami, FL



Q: One of our resistance welding machine operators recently lost part of his
finger when it was crushed between the
electrodes of the machine. How can we
protect our operators from similar injuries in the future?

A: Forging forces ranging from several

hundred to several thousand pounds are
required to properly resistance weld metal
together, so resistance spot and projection welding machines can be dangerous
if care is not taken to protect the
For example, a welding machine operating at 600 lb of forging force with an
electrode contact area of in. will produce more than 12,000 lb of force per
square inch on a finger or anything else
caught between them.
Having witnessed an operator crush his
finger while on a factory tour years ago, I
certainly share your desire to avoid this
unfortunate situation in the future.
While not necessarily simple, the safest
way to ensure operator safety on a resistance welding machine is to tool the machine to hold and clamp the part, which
avoids the need for an operator to posi-


tion and hold the part during the process

Fig. 1.
In a welding machine with proper tooling and guards, the operator manually
loads the parts and then completely clears
out of the welding/pinch point area before
the machine closes the tips.
That being said, it is not always possible to accomplish. Following are outlined
some other ideas that can help ensure operator safety.
You did not specify whether the machine involved in the accident was a rocker
arm-type spot welding machine or a vertical action press-type machine, so enhancing the safety of both is addressed.

Rocker Arm Spot

Welding Machine
These machines are typically used to
weld sheet metal parts that are held with
both hands while the operator manipulates the part in the throat of the machine
to access all the weld locations.
Initiation of the machine should be
with a shrouded foot switch, and a pinch
point warning sign should be prominently
displayed Fig. 2. In addition, the oper-

ator should be instructed verbally and in

writing to keep his hands away from
the tips.
Although using both hands to hold the
part usually ensures that the operators
fingers are not in the pinch point area,
management can augment safety by selecting the right machine for the job and
setting it up properly.
A simple way to reduce the potential
for a spot welding machine pinch point injury is to position the machines electrode
tips so close together (typically about a in. gap) that a finger cannot get between
the tips prior to the weld stroke.
To overcome clearance problems
caused by such a short working stroke, an
optional feature for the welding machine
called an adjustable and retractable stroke
air cylinder can make it much easier to
load bulkier parts, such as those with
flanges or lips, into the welding machines
throat prior to welding.
When using retraction, the operator
typically steps on a separate shrouded foot
switch to activate the adjustable retraction stroke, also called high lift, which
gives the operator extra clearance to load
the part in the throat prior to reverting to
a minimal stroke for welding.
continued on page 25



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continued from page 22

However, if an operator is not properly trained in the operation of a retraction feature, or if its not properly adjusted, additional pinch point dangers can
result when the machine comes out of
OSHA requires guarding against pinch
point injury to be passive. This means that
there can be no way to defeat the protection system and that safety of the welding
machine cannot be dependent upon operator adjustments. Since the gap between
electrodes can vary depending on the
setup, at present the only way to meet this
OSHA requirement is by use of a system
called Soft Touch.

Fig. 2 A A rocker-arm spot welding machine with a prominently displayed pinch

point warning sign; B a close-up view of a warning sign.

rocker arm and initiation with a shrouded

foot switch is generally acceptable if both
hands are used to hold the part being
welded Fig. 3.
Again, using the Soft Touch system
and/or reducing the gap between the tips

to in. are recommended, as are adjustable and retractable stroke welding

machine cylinders to make loading and
unloading easier.
Hand-loading projection welded nuts
or weld studs exposes the operator to

Fig. 1 A growing trend is to completely

guard the pinch point of a resistance welding machine. In addition to a physical enclosure, this vertical-action pedestal-type
spot welding machine includes a light curtain to ensure that the operators hands are
outside the pinch point area after loading
the assembly to be welded into a tooling
nest. When the operator initiates the machine with a foot switch, a door automatically closes the opening in the enclosure and
shields the operator from weld flash.

Press-Type Resistance Welding

A vertical-action press-type spot welding machine can be operated much like a
For info, go to



pinch point injury every time a part is

welded, since the gap between electrodes
must be greater than in. to clear the
part. One solution is to place the nuts or
studs on the part prior to placing the part
between the electrodes. The part can then
be supported by a table and the welding
machine initiated by use of dual hand buttons installed with an anti-tie-down safety
circuit. If this method is not practical, use
of the Soft Touch system will provide the
required protection.
Another highly recommended solution
is to use an automated bowl feeder and
placement mechanism to load the nuts or
studs being welded.
Projection welding machines with tooling mounted to T-slotted platens in the
throat of the machine are considered to
be much like a sheet metal stamping press
when it comes to ensuring safety, since the
parts being welded are typically loaded by
hand into a locating fixture directly under
the ram in the pinch point.
Dual palm buttons connected to an
anti-tie-down and anti-repeat circuit have
long been the standard initiation means
for projection welding machines, and optical-touch devices are rapidly replacing
the old-style palm buttons that require
physical force to depress.
Guarding of the welders pinch point
with wire mesh or Plexiglas is also more
prevalent than ever, and light curtains in-

stalled on the opening

ensure that the operator
is completely outside the
work area when the machine is initiated (see
Fig. 1).
Zone scanners are
also now available that
sense if someone is inside the guarded area.
Using a robot to replace the operator and
manipulate a fixtured
part inside the throat of
a rocker arm or presstype resistance welding
machine is also a good
way to enhance safety.
Fig. 3 Standard spot welding machines, both vertical action
We applaud your de- and rocker arm types, can be operated safely if an operator
sire to learn from this ac- holds the parts with both hands outside the pinch point area.
cident and to help pro- Safety can be enhanced by minimizing the opening between the
tect your operators from tips and by a control feature called Soft Touch.
similar injuries in the future. It is also encouraging to see that a growing number of comTOM SNOW is CEO of T. J. Snow Co.,
panies are becoming proactive by adding
Chattanooga, Tenn., a resistance welding
protection systems to their spot welding
machine manufacturer and a member of
machines before accidents occur.
the Resistance Welding Manufacturing AlAs weve explained, there are numerliance (RWMA). Send your comments/
ous ways to enhance the safety of resistquestions to Tom at TomSnow@
ance welding machines, but proper, or to Tom Snow, c/o Welding
ator training, especially of new hires
Journal, 8669 NW 36th St., #130, Miami,
or temporary workers, should be top
FL 33166.

inoy Renaissance Resort & Golf Club, St. Petersburg, Fla.


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b oadening
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The R
WMAAnnual Meeting is a thre
presentations. Renowned economist Alan Beaulieu of the Institute for Trend
Trend Research (ITR) continues to be the
keynote speaker for the meeting. Additional speakers will be announced. Non-members are welcome to attend!
Registration opens mid-December.
For more information please contact:
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Mounted Points Designed for
Safer Sheet Metal Fabrication
The companys mounted points for stainless steel edge-breaking include a nonwoven
cotton fiber type that leaves a smooth finish
and a rubber version that produces a finer finish. Both are self dressing to the workpiece
and help make it safer for workers who handle stainless steel sheet metal. They also include the A54GFX cotton fiber type. Available in a 1 2 in. size for this application, they
are also offered in several other sizes.
Rex-Cut Abrasives
(800) 225-8182

tures all-welded steel construction, a large

top work surface, a fixed bottom shelf for
storage with a raised lip-edge design on
three sides to retain parts, and a formeddown bottom lip for easy cleaning.
Ohio Laser
(614) 873-7030

CAD/CAM Software Boosts

Sheet Metal Cutting

Diamond Wheels Enable

Fast Cutting Speeds

Radan 2014 incorporates 3D workflow

improvements and safety measures to prevent tipping on flat-bed lasers, along with
advances in common cutting on punches
and support for cluster/asymmetric wheel
tools. Simulation and time calculation
have also been improved. In addition, the
software adopts the same common cutting
strategy for punch presses as that used for
profiling machines; allows common cut
nests to be created automatically; and tagging for common cut parts has been enhanced. The nest project workflow provides graphical/interactive help when necessary, informing a user when a part is not
closed, tooling is out of date, or what improvements are needed.
Vero Software Limited
(440) 552-9743

Cutting Tip Guide Includes

Gas Fuel Comparison Chart
The companys new Cutting Tip Guide
is a quick-reference guide for its gas apparatus equipment. The pocket guide provides comprehensive operating data, in28


cluding gas pressure, gas consumption,

and other key parameters required to
quickly and easily identify the proper cutting tip for any manual or machine cutting application. Also included is a fuelgas comparison chart as well as cutting tip
and welding head/tip cross-reference
charts. It is available in print or digital
ESAB Welding & Cutting Products
(800) 372-2123

Mobile Work Table Handles

Many Applications
The Mobile Work Table XL has a 5000lb distributed weight capacity and can accommodate a variety of plant operations,
including moving supplies and equipment
throughout a facility, moving parts and assemblies between workstations, use as a
workstation for a shipping department,
use as a mobile work table for wrapping
boxed parts on pallets for shipping, as a
maintenance department mobile work
table, and as an automotive parts table for
rebuilding parts and assemblies. It fea-

Pearl Xtreme diamond wheels are designed to cut metal, stainless steel, and a
variety of ferrous metals with less odor
and debris. Engineered with a high concentration of diamonds and a strong bond,
the wheels feature fast cutting speeds and
the need to change wheels frequently is
reduced. The shape of the wheel does not
change over time, keeping the size of the
wheel consistent from the first to last cut.
Sizes available are 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12, and
14 in.
Pearl Abrasive Co.
(800) 969-5561

Brochure Features Dust

Collector Specifications
The companys full-color brochure
showcases its line of dust collectors. Photos and illustrations show how the dust
collectors protect workers from smoke,
fumes, and other pollutants in metalwork-

ing, plastics, painting, powders, and other

manufacturing industries. The brochure
also contains detailed specifications to determine the correct configuration for applications, including welding, grinding,
painting, sanding, cutting, finishing, and
more. This brochure may be downloaded
at the website shown.
Micro Air Clean Air Systems
(866) 566-4276

Fixturing Devices Suited

for Tack Welding

Corporate Video Highlights

Waterjet Technology

The companys Radiusmagnetic fixturing tools can be used to position steel

for tack welding or other pre- or postweld
operations. They also are suited for cutting and grinding applications. Three different models, all compact and lightweight, intended for various material
thicknesses or applications, are available.
The company is also offering a manual
hand lifter designed for small steel part
lifting and sheet dragging. The hand lifter
does not require batteries or electricity.

The manufacturer of waterjet systems

has produced a new corporate video featuring a behind-the-scenes look inside its
manufacturing facility in St. Michael,
Minn. The video includes an overview of
the companys capabilities and products as
well as testimonials from customers. The
video explains how water is pressurized up
to 90,000 lb/in.2 to create a stream that can
cut precise parts from virtually any material, from huge steel parts to intricate stone
inlays. Also highlighted is how customers
are using waterjet technology to solve manufacturing challenges. The video is now
showing on the companys YouTube channel at

The Lincoln Electric Co.

Jet Edge, Inc.
(888) 355-3213
(800) 538-3343

Magnetic Travel Carriage

Offers 25-lb Pull Capacity

The K-BUG 4000, a digital, magnetic

travel carriage, produces continuous or
intermittent fillet welds while traveling on
a vertical wall. The constant travel speed
produces high-quality, uniform welds.
Programming of travel pattern and weld
control eliminates excessive deposition
and reduces defects. The guide wheels
track the workpiece to provide precise
weld placement and have a pull capacity
of 25 lb.
Bug-O Systems
(800) 245-3186
For info, go to



Collection Arm Provides

Source-Point Dust Removal

Refractometer Determines
Coolant Concentration

The E-Z Arm High Flow series of

contaminant extractor arms provides
source-point collection as well as removal
of dusts, powders, fumes, smoke, odors,
and other contaminants. Capable of handling air flow rates up to 1500 ft3/min, its
design delivers an energy consumption
level of 0.35 kW/h at 800 ft3/min. The highcapacity air flow volume with the low energy consumption level is made possible
by the companys patented pawl-andsprocket, friction-release, external arm
support system. The extractor arm has a
6.75-in. diameter and is available in 7-,
10-, and 14-ft lengths.

The companys automatic temperature

compensating refractometer allows plant
operators to quickly determine the concentration of metalworking coolants and
cleaners, heat-treating fluids, water-based
hydraulic fluids, and plating baths. The
device is portable and requires no batteries. Its large scale is available in two
ranges, 010 and 032 Brix. These fluid
recycling instruments are designed for
most metalworking operations, including
cutting, grinding, and synthetic machining fluids; plating, acid, and cleaner baths;
water-based hydraulic fluids; die lubricants; and chromating systems.

Airflow Systems, Inc.

Eriez HydroFlow
(800) 818-6185
(888) 300-3743

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Mobile App Allows Users

to Share Auto Restoration

The company has introduced its new,

free mobile app for iPhone and Android
smartphones. The app provides instant access to the companys video library, tech
library, blog, live chat, social media, and
in-app coupons. The Car Cam feature allows users to submit pictures of their project, cars that were spotted at a car show,

or shots of products in action. The app

provides a convenient way to get information to solve problems that are encountered while working in the garage. The
iPhone version of this mobile app is available at the Apple iTunes store, and the
Android version is available on Google
Eastwood Co.
(800) 343-9353

Laser System Quickly

Cuts Aluminum, Brass
The Sigma XY fiber laser cutting system enables high-speed cutting of thin
metals using a rigid linear drive, gantrybased motion system. The fiber laser technology offers high-resolution cutting, with
optical spot sizes down to 10 microns, and
high linear-speed cutting made possible
through high pulse repetition rates. Features include up to 500 W of available
laser power for a range of materials, including aluminum, steels, and brass. The
laser system is available with many options, including class 1 or 4 operation, several cutting box styles, fume exhaust, part
hold-down tooling, focus control sensing,

programmable gas pressure, high-pressure cutting heads, 4- or 8-in. travel

Z-stage axes of motion, and a control
Miyachi Unitek
(626) 303-5676

Document Guides Installing

Gas Transfer Connectors
A new version of the companys Installation Procedures Document LP-105 has
been recently issued. The comprehensive
installation guide complements the Dis-


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SuperFlash 2-Gas Adjustable Mixer

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 Available for all popular 2-gas mixtures
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ing to stay up-to-date on the latest installation procedures. To order a copy, visit
the website listed.


Lokring Technology LLC
(800) 876-2323


Model 200 Positioner

Submit a New Products

Item for Consideration
If your company has a new welding,
fabricating, or manufacturing product
readily available, the details required
to be considered for possible publication in the Welding Journal are as

tributor Installation Training Course and

is an essential tool for using the companys
products. The guide covers carbon steel,
stainless steel, and CuNi pipe fittings. It
also includes tube (OD) fitting installations for stainless steel and copper nickel
range. The LP-105 is a necessary resource
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Spot Welding
Different Sheet Metal
Grades and Gauges
A study looks at improving the welding of automobile body parts involving joints of
mild and high-strength steels of varying thicknesses

n order to design lighter automotive structures, to improve

fuel economies and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, the use
of new advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) is expanding,
allowing weight savings through thinner sheet gauges.
Spot welding remains the main joining process for body-inwhite construction. Most spot welds in automotive structures
are dissimilar configurations (i.e., different sheet thicknesses
and grades are welded together), but AHSS-to-AHSS configurations have become more common.

Shear Load Testing

The design of automotive body-in-white structures is usually based on simulated crash behavior. In this case, the fracture behavior of the welds has a major influence on the whole
structures performance. Spot weld loading is usually divided
into several individual loading scenarios, among which shear
and opening modes are usually considered the most important
(Ref. 1).
Practically, shear and opening maximum loads are obtained
through simple laboratory tests, i.e., cross-tension (Ref. 2) and
tension-shear (Ref. 3). These tests are usually carried out during steel grade qualification for spot weldability. When upgrading the steel from soft drawing quality to high-strength and to
AHSSs, the trend for tensile shear maximum loads is known
and is consistent with the increase of base metal strength (Refs.
4, 5). However, in cross-tension tests there is not a clear trend
between base material and cross-tension strength (CTS) (Ref.
6), but it is well known that AHSSs may show rather low CTS.
These periodic poor strengths are usually attributed to the
high alloying content of AHSS, leading to martensitic mi-

crostructure in the spot weld, which is sensitive to the notch effect when testing is performed in opening mode. However, most
of these observations and conclusions are based on standard
steel qualification results, i.e., tests on homogeneous welding
configurations. When these data are then applied to dissimilar
configurations, the most common approach in the automotive
industry is to consider that the fracture behavior of a dissimilar
configuration can be deduced from the corresponding two homogeneous configurations through a minimum rule, i.e., the
load-bearing capacity of the heterogeneous configuration is
supposed to be equal to the minimum strength of both homogeneous assemblies. This assumption is verified experimentally
on material combinations using thin mild steels, as illustrated
in Fig. 1. The mild steel sheet is the weakest point of the assembly and fails during the mechanical test, leading to the formation of a plug around the weld.

Dissimilar Welds
Studies on heterogeneous or dissimilar configurations are
much fewer, although several studies have been published recently (Refs. 812). However most of these studies consider
only tensile-shear testing of dissimilar welds. Only the work
from Khan et al. (Ref. 9) considers cross-tension testing of a
DP600-HSLA similar-thickness configuration, obtaining a loadbearing capacity almost equal to that of the maximum level
among the similar configurations results, i.e., almost equal to
that of DP600. This result does not agree with the minimum
rule described above, which is attributed by the authors to the
difference in microstructure and hardness of the spot weld
nugget due to the dilution effect. This article focuses on AHSS

E. BIRO (, L. CRETTEUR, and T. DUPUY are with ArcelorMittal Global R&D, based in Hamilton, Ont., Canada;
Montataire, France; and Maizires-ls-Metz, France, respectively. This article is based on a paper presented at the Sheet Metal Welding
Conference XV, Livonia, Mich., Oct. 25, 2012.



dissimilar configuration spot welds tested in cross-tension. It

shows that the CTS for such configurations are greater than
predicted by the minimum rule, largely due to changes in the
solid mechanics governing joint failure.

Materials and Procedure Used

for the Investigation

Fig. 1 Example of dissimilar configuration with CTS matching

the minimum rule (Ref. 7).

Fig. 2 Three-sheet configurations based on 1-mm DP980 LCE


Fig. 3 Cross-tension strength for TRIP800 configurations.

The materials chosen for this study are a low-carbon equivalent 980-MPa dual-phase (DP980 LCE) cold-rolled steel with
a hot-dip galvanized coating, and a 800-MPa transformationinduced plasticity (TRIP800) steel.
Each steel grade was obtained in different thicknesses. Material details are given in Table 1. It can be seen that although
there are slight differences in chemistry or mechanical properties from sample to sample, due to slightly different processing
parameters, the metallurgical concept remains the same for
each grade. Experiments were carried out on two- and threesheet stackups. Both the DP980 and TRIP800 were used for the
two-sheet stackups and only the DP980 was used for the threesheet stackups. All of the joints were made using similar grade
material of both similar and dissimilar material thickness to
focus on geometrical effects. The material thickness combinations for all of the two-sheet joints are shown in Table 2.
All three-sheet stackups were made using the 1-mm DP980
LCE. These configurations were designed to study what happens in such cases, knowing that three-sheet welding is very
common in car body manufacturing. The four configurations
tested, shown in Fig. 2, are as follows: A a square DP980
coupon (patch) is inserted between the two classical cross-tension coupons for welding (1+patch+1 mm); B two coupons
oriented the same way welded with one coupon oriented
in the transverse direction to form a cross-tension sample
(1+[1+1] mm); C same configuration as A but the external
coupon is removed by manual torsion before cross-tension
testing (1+1+0 mm); D same configuration as A, but the
two coupons oriented the same way are first spot welded together strongly (with several spots) in the extremities, before
the actual three-sheet spot weld is done ([1++++1]+1 mm).
Spot welding was carried out based on using the procedure
and parameters described in ISO 18278-2 (Ref. 13). For each
welded configuration, a welding current range test was carried
out using a pedestal spot single-phase 50-Hz welding machine,
with the welding parameters chosen to correspond to the
thinnest sheet in the assembly (Table 3).
Each three-specimen cross-tension test was welded at the
multiple current levels using 38- 125-mm coupons as specified by ISO 18278-2. Cross-tension testing was then carried out
with a tensile machine equipped with a special hydraulic clamping system, allowing the cross-tension specimens to be held without sliding. After testing, the maximum load was recorded, and
the weld diameter was measured according ISO 14329 (Ref.
14), using a caliper gauge for button diameters and a magnifying glass for weld diameters in case of partial or full interfacial
failures. Only welds without expulsion are considered in the following analysis.

Information Obtained from Testing

Fig. 4 Cross-tension strength for DP980 1+1, 1+2, and 2+2


Cross-tension strength is strongly dependent on weld diameter Fig. 3. In spite of the scatter, the CTS for the dissimilar configuration is clearly above that of the similar 1-mm configuration,
rather in the trend of the thicker similar 2-mm configuration.



Table 1 Steel Sheet Samples



Sample #


YS (MPa)


Hot Dip










C (%)

Mn (%)

Si (%)

Cr (%)

Al (%)





















Table 2 Welded 2-Sheet Congurations








The CTS for the main DP980 configurations are shown as a

function of the weld diameter in Figs. 4 and 5. Other DP980 results (i.e, 1+1.25-mm configuration) have been left out of
the figures for the sake of clarity, but are considered in the
As in the case of the TRIP800 steel welds, these results show
the CTS is mainly dependent on weld diameter. Again, the dissimilar configurations performances appear obviously above the
minimum rule assumption. Three-sheet configurations based on
1-mm DP980 LCE results are shown in Figs. 6 and 7, and again
show that the CTS obtained for these configurations are higher
than expected from the minimum rule.
Figure 6 shows that compared to the standard similar 1-mm,
two-sheet configuration, both the patch and the 1+1+0-mm configurations bring an improvement in CTS. Figure 7 shows that
the [1+++1]+1-mm configuration shows a performance very
close to the 1+2-mm two-sheet configuration, whereas the
1+[1+1] configuration shows a more limited improvement, highlighting the importance of restraint in the case of three-sheet
The observation that the CTS is greater than predicted by
the minimum rule has been called a positive deviation from
the expected strengths. This positive deviation turns out to be
almost systematic when AHSSs are welded together. In the following discussion, a detailed analysis of this phenomenon is described, and a tentative explanation for it is proposed.

Analysis of Results
Several hypotheses can be proposed to explain the positive
1. Dilution Effect: when spot welding an AHSS sheet to a lowcarbon sheet, the dilution (mixing of both chemistries) reduces







the carbon content of the molten nugget, which may improve its
mechanical behavior. Although this explanation is probably true,
it cannot explain the results of the present study, since they were
obtained with similar grades joined together (Ref. 9).
2. Thermal Effect: when comparing 1+2-mm to 1+1-mm configuration, the overall assembly thickness is increased, leading
logically to increased thermal mass slowing the cooling rate. Reducing the cooling rate can, in turn, reduce the brittleness of the
microstructures formed during welding (bainite may be tougher
than autotempered martensite, which may be tougher than
quenched martensite).
3. Notch Effect: in the case of dissimilar thickness spot welds,
the solidification plane, where the columnar grains in the weld
nugget meet, is assumed to be roughly at the midthickness of
the whole assembly, which is away from the notch end at the faying surface. As the solidification plane may be weaker than the
bulk of the molten nugget, a dissimilar thickness joint may be
stronger in opening mode than a similar thickness joint.
4. Mechanical Effect: in the case of dissimilar thickness spot
welds, the stress concentration at the notch will be different than
in a similar thickness joint due to uneven loading. This will in
turn influence the cross-tension strength. As this effect is not
obvious it will be shown further in the discussion. The analysis
of three-sheet configurations results helps in understanding the
relative importance of these effects Fig. 8.
The 1+1+0-mm configuration is especially interesting as the
loading conditions during cross-tension are strictly identical to
the reference 1-mm similar configuration, but its CTS performance is greater than the strength of the similar gauge joint
Fig. 6. This positive deviation can only be attributed to the thermal (since overall thickness during welding was 3 mm instead of
2) and notch effects. However, the positive deviation for this
1+1+0-mm configuration is limited compared to the 1+2,

Fig. 5 Cross-tension strength for DP980 1.25+1.25, 1.25+2, and

2+2 configurations.

Fig. 6 Cross-tension strength for DP980 1+1, 1+1+0, and

1+patch+1 configurations.

Fig. 7 Cross-tension strength for DP980 1+1, 1+2, 1+[1+1], and

[1+++1]+1 configurations.

1+patch+1, and [1+++1]+1-mm configurations, which have

the same thermal and notch effects, highlighting that a mechanical effect is also present.
To better analyze this mechanical effect, the CTSs were normalized with respect to their weld and sheet dimensions. A parameter was developed equaling the CTS divided by the product of the weld diameter and the thickness of the thinnest sheet
used in the stackup. Although the parameter is not perfect, this
normalization turns out to be the most robust for a wide variety of cases, and has already been used in a study by Dancette
et al. (Ref. 6). After the parameter was calculated for each
weld, the values for each configuration were averaged resulting
in a value for each stackup. It should be noted that the units
N/mm 2 are used for and not MPa. This choice was made as
in most cases is not a stress; however, is close to the shear
stress in case of full button pullout. Instead, this parameter is
meant as only an equivalent stress to be used to compare the
various joint configurations. The average obtained for each
configuration is given in Table 4.
First, thesevalues confirm the qualitative analysis for
three-sheet configurations. From Table 4, thevalues of the
1+1+0 joint are slightly higher than the 1+1 configuration. As
well, both values for these joints are lower than those for the
1+2, 1+patch+1, and the [1+++1]+1 joints. This is all in
agreement with Figs. 6 and 7. This again confirms the strength
of the mechanical effect when compared to when only the thermal and notch effects are present. The values of the two-sheet
stackups were plotted in Fig. 9 as a function of the sheet thickness ratio. Even if some scatter can be seen for the similar configurations (thickness ratio of 1), there is a clear increase (positive deviation) in value for dissimilar configuration, which
is correlated to thickness ratio.
To better understand the influence of thickness ratio, a detailed mechanical analysis was found in literature (Ref. 15). In
this work, the authors developed an analytical theory of elastic
loading of spot welds. The stress intensity factors at the notch
around the spot weld are derived as a function of the material
elastic properties, the sheet thicknesses and the nominal stress
(i.e., global loading) applied to the spot weld. Of course, in the
present study the loading during cross-tension testing was not
fully elastic. As this assumption may be reached locally around
the notch, the elastic analysis from Ref. 15 was considered here
as a means of understanding the mechanical effect on positive
For the cross-tension case (opening mode), the nominal
stress, proportional to the cross-tension global load, is called
bu++, and the relevant stress intensity factors able to explain
the spot weld failure are KI (stress intensity factor in opening
mode I) or K res (a resulting stress intensity factor taking into
account the mode I and mode II stress intensity factors), which
turn out to be close to each other since the contribution of mode

Table 3 Welding Parameters

Minimum Sheet Thickness
in the Assembly (mm)

Electrode acc. ISO 5821

(type-shank diameter-tip
curvature radius-tip diameter)
G0 - 16 - 40 - 6
G0 - 16 - 40 - 6
G0 - 20 - 50 - 8

Welding Force (kN)


Welding Time (ms)

720 (four 180 ms
pulses separated by
40 ms cold times)

Holding Time (ms)




II is limited in this case. Therefore, Equations 52 and 54 from

Ref. 15 are considered,being the sheet thickness ratio (thinner/thicker) and tu being the thinnest sheet thickness.

K I = 0.1012 + 0.0233 + 0.1615 2 + 0.0473 3

b u ++ t u

Equation 52 from Ref. 15

Kre s = 0.1668 0.0097 + 0.0302 2 + 0.1461 3

bu ++ t u

Equation 54 from Ref. 15

The following analysis relies on three main assumptions:

1. Spot weld fracture occurs when the maximum load (CTS,
proportional to the maximum nominal stress bu++) is reached,
this assumption being supported by observations by Dancette
et al. (Ref. 6).
2. Spot weld fracture occurs when a critical K I or K res is
reached, corresponding to the toughness of the spot weld
3. The critical KI or Kres is constant throughout the nugget
independent of the welded configuration. Although, it is acknowledged that to consider the notch and thermal effects would
imply distinguishing different critical KI or Kres depending on
cooling rate or location inside the nugget.
Based on these assumptions, the equations above can be
written at the failure onset, both for similar and dissimilar configurations with the same minimum sheet thickness t u. Dividing one by the other yields the following expressions for the
ratio between CTS for dissimilar and similar configurations,
based on KI and Kres, respectively.

CTS dis s imilar

CTS s imilar

Fig. 8 Schematic view of the thermal, notch and mechanical effects for the main configurations.

Fig. 9 as a function of the thickness ratio for two-sheet


0.1012 + 0.0233 + 0.1615 + 0.0473

0.1012 + 0.0233 + 0.1615 2 + 0.0473 3

from Equation 52

CTS dis s imilar

CTS s imilar

0.1668 0.0097 + 0.0302 + 0.1461

0.1668 0.0097 + 0.0302 2 + 0.1461 3

from Equation 54
These computed ratios can be directly compared with the
average experimental ratios obtained from Table 4; all the data
being plotted in the same graph Fig. 10.
Clearly, the order of magnitude of the mechanical effect, as
computed through the elastic analysis from Ref. 15, appears
very consistent with the experimental data. Further work by
Dancette et al. (Ref. 16) also supports the evidence of a strong
mechanical effect explaining the positive deviation. This study
used finite element modeling to predict the failure of the
TRIP800 spot welds presented here. In that study, two different numerical approaches are considered for failure prediction
1. Similar to the above analysis from Radaj and Zhang (Ref.
15), the onset of fracture is predicted through a critical fracture mechanics parameter, but in this case the J-integral, computed through finite element analysis. A critical J-integral level
of 22.5 kJ/m is found to be appropriate for the TRIP800 spot
weld molten zone. This critical level is reached for a cross-tensile load of 3.3 kN in the case of a 5-mm-diameter weld in 1+1mm configuration, and for a cross-tensile load of 5.1 kN in the


Fig. 10 Comparison between CTS dissimilar and similar joint

strengths as function of the thickness ratio for two-sheet configurations.
case of a 5-mm-diameter weld in 1+2-mm configuration. These
results in predicted CTS are fully consistent with the experimental results displayed in Fig. 3 (Ref. 16).
2. In a second part of their study, a cohesive zone model was
used to predict the spot weld failure during cross-tension testing. Although the predicted CTS for the same configurations
(5-mm-diameter weld, 3.86 kN in 1+1-mm similar configuration and 5.39 kN in dissimilar 1+2-mm configuration) are
slightly high compared to the experimental results in Fig. 3, they
are still in the range and their ratio is clearly consistent with
the positive deviation effect.

Table 4 Average Levels

Average (N/mm2)

TRIP800 1+1 mm
TRIP800 2+2 mm
TRIP800 1+2 mm
DP980 LCE 1+1 mm
DP980 LCE 1.25+1.25 mm
DP980 LCE 2+2 mm
DP980 LCE 1+1.25 mm
DP980 LCE 1+2 mm
DP980 LCE 1.25+2 mm
DP980 LCE 1+patch+1 mm
DP980 LCE 1+[1+1] mm
DP980 LCE 1+1+0 mm
DP980 LCE [1+++1]+1 mm


While material qualification tests are frequently based on
similar welding configurations, real car body applications are
quite systematically dissimilar configurations. For spot welds
failing in plug mode, the strength of the assembly only depends
on the weakest material strength. In the case of AHSS+AHSS
welded combinations, however, things turn out differently. Similar-grade but dissimilar-thickness high-strength-steel configurations have been spot welded and tested in cross-tension.
The following main conclusions can be highlighted:
1. For dissimilar-thickness configurations, the cross-tensile
strength is above the standard minimum rule assumptions,
this phenomenon being called a positive deviation.
2. Limited thermal and notch location effects can explain
part of this positive deviation, but the main reason is
3. As evidenced through several analytical and numerical
studies, this mechanical effect is due to the less severe local
stresses at the notch in case of uneven thickness, and improves
the positive deviation when the thickness ratio increases.
Although widely used for material qualification and scientific purposes, similar configurations appear as the worst case
in terms of cross-tension performance for high-strength steels.
Actual vehicle design should consider positive deviation in dissimilar configurations to maximize the potential strength of
spot welds in high-strength steels.
The authors would like to thank Savine Henrion, Sylvain
Dancette and Florent Krajcarz for their help in this study and
ArcelorMittal for granting us permission to publish this work.

ance spot welds. Science and Technology of Welding and Joining

15(2): 149155.
5. Dancette, S., Fabrgue, D., Massardier, V., Merlin, J.,
Dupuy, T., and Bouzekri, M. 2012. Investigation of the tensile
shear fracture of advanced high strength steel spot welds. Engineering Failure Analysis 25(10): 112122.
6. Dancette, S., Fabrgue, D., Massardier, V., Merlin, J.,
Dupuy, T., and Bouzekri, M. 2011. Experimental and modeling
investigation of the failure resistance of advanced high strength
steel spot welds. Engineering Fracture Mechanics 78(10):
7. Internal ArcelorMittal data.
8. Baltazar Hernandez, V. H., Kuntz, M. L., Khan, M. I., and
Zhou, Y. 2008. Influence of microstructure and weld size on
the mechanical behavior of dissimilar AHSS resistance spot
welds. Science and Technology of Welding and Joining 13(8):
9. Khan, M. S., Bhole, S. D., Chen, D. L., Biro, E., Boudreau,
G., and van Deventer, J. 2009. Welding behavior, microstructure and mechanical properties of dissimilar resistance spot
welds between galvannealed HSLA350 and DP600 steels. Science and Technology of Welding and Joining 14(7): 616625.
10. Pouranvari, M., Marashi, S. P. H., and Mousavizadeh, S.
M. 2010. Failure mode transition and mechanical properties of
similar and dissimilar resistance spot welds of DP600 and low
carbon steels. Science and Technology of Welding and Joining
15(7): 625631.
11. Marashi, S. P. H., Pouranvari, M., Salehi, M., Abedi, A.,
and Kaviani, S. 2010. Overload failure behavior of dissimilar
thickness resistance spot welds during tensile shear test. Materials Science and Technology 26(10): 12201225.
12. Safanama, D. S., Marashi, S. P. H., and Pouranvari, M.
2012. Similar and dissimilar resistance spot welding of martensitic advanced high strength steel and low carbon steel: Metallurgical characteristics and failure mode transition. Science and
Technology of Welding and Joining 17(4): 288294.
13. ISO 18278-2:2004, Resistance welding Weldability
Part 2: Alternative procedures for the assessment of sheet steels for
spot welding.
14. ISO 14329:2003, Resistance welding Destructive tests of
welds Failure types and geometric measurements for resistance
spot, seam and projection welds.
15. Radaj, D., and Zhang, S. 1991. Stress intensity factors
for spot welds between plates of unequal thickness. Engineering
Fracture Mechanics 39(2): 391413.
16. Dancette, S., Fabregue, D., Estevez,R., Massardier, V.,
Dupuy, T., and Bouzekri, M. 2012. A finite element model for
the prediction of advanced high strength steel spot welds fracture. Engineering Fracture Mechanics 87(6): 4861.

1. Seeger, F., Feucht, M., Frank, Th., Keding, B., and Haufe,
A. 2005. An investigation on spot weld modeling for crash simulation with LS-DYNA. LS-DYNA Anwenderforum, Bamberg.
2. ISO 14272:2000, Specimen dimensions and procedure for
cross tension testing resistance spot and embossed projection welds.
3. ISO 14273:2000, Specimen dimensions and procedure for
shear testing resistance spot, seam and embossed projection welds.
4. Pouranvari, M., and Marashi, S. P. H. 2010. Key factors
influencing mechanical performance of dual phase steel resist-

Dear Readers:
The Welding Journal encourages an exchange of ideas
through letters to the editor. Please send your letters to
the Welding Journal Dept., 8669 NW 36th St., #130,
Miami, FL 33166. You can also reach us by FAX at (305)
443-7404 or by sending an e-mail to Kristin Campbell




This years show set marks as the biggest ever, both in terms of
square footage of exhibit space and in the number of attendees
FABTECH 2013 will take a place
in history as the most successful
metal forming, fabricating, finishing, and welding exhibition ever in
North America. A record 650,000
sq ft total of exhibition space was
utilized by a total 1573 exhibitors.
Also, a record 40,667 visitors

streamed onto the exhibition floor

see the latest technology that industry has to offer. The exhibition
space was 191,565 sq ft for 505
welding companies. This year, the
exhibition was a four-day event
that filled both the North and South
Halls of McCormick Place in

Chicago, Ill. This impressive event

is cosponsored by the Society of
Manufacturing Engineers; American Welding Society; Fabricators
& Manufacturers Association, International; Precision Metalforming Association; and Chemical
Coaters Association International.


ANDREW CULLISON ( is publisher, KRISTIN CAMPBELL ( is associate editor, and MARY RUTH JOHNSEN
( is editor of the Welding Journal.


Beginning with AWS

The American Welding Society President Nancy Cole called to order the 94th
annual business meeting on Nov. 18.
Dawn Young, director of Association
Sales for McCormick Place, greeted the
gathering. We are so appreciative of
AWS and FABTECH, she said. Every
other year you have a $62-million impact
on the economy of Chicago.
President Cole went on to give a brief
synopsis of the state of the Society dur-

Fig. 1 Dean Wilson, 2014 AWS president, talks of the exciting future of the

Fig. 2 Professor DuPont details his research into welding high-alloy Ni steels.

ing her tenure in 2013. Some of the accomplishments included translations of

technical standards to expand the AWS
reach around the world; the Women in
Welding initiative that has encouraged
women to get into the field of welding
with career-promoting programs, videos,
and scholarships; the expansion of online
courses through American Welding Online; the AWS use of social media to
reach the digitally connected audience;
the opening of business opportunities
around the world; and record revenues
and membership.
Throughout her travels both domestically and internationally, she was encouraged to see how many people believe
in welding. She also saw much enthusiasm in schools for the profession.
Dean Wilson (Fig. 1), the incoming
2014 president, offered the theme of his
presidential year as continuous improvement through innovation. He
noted how improvement can be subtle
and one might not even know it is happening. As an example, he recounted how
during World War I the United States had
no reliable manufacturing process for
airplane engines and production was
zero. Through a series of experiments
with welding and other processes, manufacturing was producing 20,000 engines
by 1919.
Wilson also related how his company,
Wilson Industries, introduced the first
see-through welding screen in 1968. Its
introduction was the culmination of trial
and error improvements and the utilization of technology from NASA of a
lens coating that filtered out harmful
He is looking forward to all the projects for AWS that are in the works for
2014. Some of those include stackable,
transferable certification credentials; secure online transcripts and a national certification registry for all levels of welding professionals; producing a video library for welding; development of a master welder program; a certified welder
passport; expanding American Welding
Online; continued collaboration with
Weld-Ed; and individual support through
scholarships. I am overwhelmed and excited about what is going to happen in
2014, he said.

Adams Lecture

Fig. 3 Dr. Rick Polanin gave the Plummer Memorial Education Lecture.

Dr. John DuPont (Fig. 2) delivered

the 2013 Adams Lecture titled Welding
of Nickel Alloys in Energy Applications.
DuPont is a professor at Lehigh University, an AWS Fellow, has authored more

than 140 technical papers, and is

presently the R. D. Stout Distinguished
In less than 30 years there will be a
50% increase in demand for energy,
noted DuPont, and 80% of that demand
worldwide will be met by fossil fuels. A
way to increase the efficiency of coalburning operations is to improve the
thermal efficiencies of materials used in
the process. One way to do that is to use
alloys that retain their properties in hightemperature environments. Nickel alloys, especially superalloys, are of great
interest for these applications. DuPont
has done extensive research in the welding of these alloys and observed precipitate-free zones, which actually are detrimental soft zones in the weld. Creep
voids that contribute to weld failure have
been observed in these areas. Preheat
and controlled weld temperature dont
seem to help, but postweld heat treatment that stays below 1100C does. Further research has shown that the addition of gadolinium (Gd) to the Ni alloy
within a certain range improves cracking
resistance. It appears to promote backfilling of the crack.
DuPont feels one of the biggest challenges with these alloys is long-term
creep characteristics, and solutions are
going to be found only through a cooperative effort among the user, producer,
and researcher of the alloys.
The full Adams Lecture will be published in the February issue of the Welding Journal.

Plummer Lecture
Dr. Rick Polanin, professor and program chair of the manufacturing engineering technology and welding technology programs at Illinois Central College,
presented this years Plummer Memorial
Education Lecture Fig. 3.
Polanins topic, The Future of Welding Education, focused on looking to
the past for guidance and inspiration for
the future; understanding what welding
education is about; describing the development of effective welding courses; considering the role of technology both in
equipment and teaching; why manufacturing is vitally important to the United
States; and attempting to predict the future of welding education.
With welding, you can individualize
instruction and achieve life-long learning, Polanin said.
Also included during his talk was the
complexity of issues affecting American
education for which there are no easy


answers but in welding education, the

diversity, size, culture, economic constraints/cycles, and technology advancements require the diligence of continuous improvement.
To provide for a bright future, welding education must combine sound curriculum development utilizing advancements in learning theory and modern
content delivery; incorporate welding
technology advancements; listen to input
from local and national industry; and ensure accountability through evaluating
competency, including nationally recognized qualification testing (AWS).
Polanin concluded by explaining the
application of HEAT Honesty (providing students with an honest assessment of job availability, earning potential, working conditions), Enthusiasm
(teachers need to impart an enthusiasm
for learning to students at all levels), Attitude (the general publics attitude
about manufacturing jobs and specifically welding jobs has to change), and
Teaching (teachers remain the key to success of the American education system
and welding education).

Product News
Following are just a few of the products that drew the attention of the Welding Journal editors at this years show.
Ensitech demonstrated its TIG Brush
(Fig. 4) for removing heat tint stains on
stainless steel. The system combines electricity, chemistry, and heat to clean the
weld surface. A conductive brush attached to a 40-A electrical motor applies
a cleaning fluid that is heated up to
200C. The electrochemical reaction that
occurs cleans and passivates the stainless
steel. The company offers a choice of fluids depending on whether a satin or mirror finish is desired as well as whether a
heavy or medium stain must be removed.
The company exports to 12 different
countries, but this is the first introduc-

tion of this product in the United States.

The Norzon Plus grinding wheel by
Norton was reformulated to reduce
grinding time. The ceramic and zirconia
grit works well on stainless and high-alloy
steels (Fig. 5) and, in fact, is more suited
for tougher-to-grind steels. The wheel is
claimed to be durable in difficult grinding applications and can be used with
high-horsepower grinders. This particular product is new, having been introduced to the market this past October.

ting operations Fig. 7. This 5-kW solidstate laser is touted to produce cut quality very similar to a CO 2 laser with the
speed of a fiber laser. It reaches maximum efficiency when cutting thin material, but can cut mild steel up to 25 mm
thick. The unit can handle nonferrous
metals such as copper and brass, as well
as stainless steel and aluminum. It has a
working range of 3000 mm, X axis; 1500
mm, Y axis; and 115 mm, Z axis.

Fig. 7 A fiber laser cuts steel up to 25mm thick.

Fig. 5 A reformulated grinding wheel

takes on hard-to-finish steels.

ITW Muller demonstrated its Yellow

Jacket Orbital Stretch Wrap Machine
Fig. 6. The machine accepts a standard
pallet of heavy parts or fabrications
placed inside its cylinder. The machine
is then activated and a roll of polyethylene wrap is rotated around the palette
tightly securing the parts. The whole operation takes one person about 90 seconds to complete. The wrapped pallet requires no other means of securing its load
for shipping. This unit costs approximately $25,000, accepts objects 118 in. in
diameter, and operates on 110 AC power.

The Trans Process Solution (TPS/i)

welding platform provides a more accurate and stable arc, better penetration,
and less spatter Fig. 8. Available models include 300, 400, and 500 A. The product offers a 7-in., plain-text, touch-sensitive display and a user interface that allows welders/maintenance technicians to
organize system settings. Internal communications include job memory and
wire regulation with penetration stabilization to automatically change wire
feed speed. The process control system
routes arc feedback and control at 100
Mb/s. Additional benefits are the diptransfer arc process low spatter control
and pulse multi control. Fronius USA,

Fig. 6 This orbital wrap machine

secures loose parts in seconds.
Fig. 4 Heat tint is removed from a weld
through an electrochemical reaction.


TRUMPF used FABTECH to introduce its TruLaser 5030 fiber laser for cut-

Fig. 8 The touch-screen interface on

the TPS/i, as simple to use as operating
a smart phone, can be used even while
wearing gloves.

The Elite Series of manual, straight

cutting torches offer the ability to cut up
to 10 in. when using acetylene and up to
12 in. with alternate fuel gases Fig. 9.
The patented Elite Swirl Head Injector
design mixes high-pressure preheat oxygen and lower pressure fuel gas to create
a vacuum-producing entrainment zone
that pulls gas through the torch. The series also moves from a positive pressure
universal mixer to a universal injector by
changing the cutting tip from acetylene to
any alternate fuel gas. In addition, the
torches feature a three-tube, in-line
design; internal tip nut that keeps the cutting tip seated; and color-coded pressure
adjustment knobs for identifying gases.
The series includes the Oxweld SCT-1500
and Purox SCT-4200 families. ESAB Welding & Cutting Products,

Fig. 9 The Elite Series of manual,

straight cutting torches have an internal tip nut.
The womens Arc Armor apparel,
engineered with feedback from women
welders, features the Indura cloth
jacket as well as GMA and GTA gloves
Fig. 10. The jacket, made from Indura

Fig. 10 The line of womens Arc

Armor welding protection includes a
tailored welding jacket and GMA and GTA
glove styles.

R. D. Thomas Jr. International Lecture

Professor Xiao-Ling Zhao (center) of
Monash University, Clayton, Australia,
this years R. D. Thomas Jr. Award recipient, is pictured with Warren Miglietti of Power Systems Mfg., LLC,
Jupiter, Fla., and AWS President Nancy
Cole. Zhao has chaired the International Institute of Weldings Subcommission XV-E on Tubular Structures
since 2002. Under his leadership, the
XV-E Subcommission wrote two ISO
standards 14346:2013, Static design
procedure for welded hollow-section
joints Recommendations; and
14347:2008, Fatigue Design procedure for welded hollow-section joints
Recommendations. Zhaos recent Thomas lecture, ISO Standards for Welded Hollow Section Joints, highlighted the histories, scopes, tables of contents, and major
sections in these ISO 14346 and 14347 standards.

flame-resistant cotton, provides less restriction for better movement and increases safety with a tailored fit. The
GMA and GTA gloves are available in Xsmall and small. In particular, the GMA
glove (lined) has a dual-padded palm;
fleece-insulated palm, foam-insulated
back; and original wraparound keystone
thumb design. The GTA glove is unlined
for heightened feel and dexterity; has a
triple-padded palm; and contains goat
grain leather. Miller Electric Mfg. Co.,

machine has heavy-duty rails and a rack.

The module design allows the operator
to add a bevel or other equipment without making major changes. It is available
in a range of cutting widths from 72 to
288 in. Up to ten oxyfuel stations and four
plasma stations, including dual full-contour plasma bevel stations, can be configured. Maximum rapid traverse speed
is 1400 in./min. Koike Aronson, Inc./Ransome,

Design enhancements have been

made to Versagraph Extreme, the most
advanced integrated thermal cutting machine in the companys line of cutting systems Fig. 11. It features improved
gearbox resolution, increased torque and
low backlash, plus a larger and stiffer
main beam for less z deflection and
greater load-carrying capabilities. The

The impetus for the Stoody 155FC

and 160FC hardfacing wires (Fig. 12)
came from a Nebraska oilfield customer
who was experiencing spalling with the
product he had been using. The two alloys were specifically developed to provide excellent weldability and abrasion
resistance with weld deposits comprised
of special blends of tungsten carbides in
a nickel-silicon-boron matrix. While both
gas metal arc welding wires could be use-

Fig. 11 The Versagraph Extreme thermal cutting machine is offered in a range

of cutting widths from 72 to 288 in.

Fig. 12 The Stoody 155FC and 160FC

hardfacing products were designed to
handle such applications as building up
the stabilizer shown in the center of the
bottom row of parts.


Women in Welding
Girls dont take off their tiaras for a welding helmet, but they do want a rewarding career, said AWS President Nancy Cole during the Women in Welding
reception held Nov. 19 at the FABTECH Theatre.
She discussed how she had been traveling across the United States throughout
her presidential year talking about welding and brazing, and had seen the excitement women she spoke to had regarding manufacturing and the opportunities
available in the welding field. We need to encourage those women to be the manufacturing workforce of tomorrow, she said.
Speaking first was Brenda Ryan, owner and president of Ryan Industries,
Wixom, Mich., and a partner of SME, who noted that the number of women in
manufacturing has declined in recent years. We need to offer recommendations
for change to bring more women into manufacturing, she said. It is important
that we speak with one voice. Women represent 48% of the working population,
but only 24% of manufacturing jobs.
It is expected that there will be an additional 5 million manufacturing jobs
available by 2020, Ryan said. Women offer the biggest opportunity to fill these
The statistics (Ryan) talked about should be a loud call to industry, Cole
Gretchen Zierick of Zierick Manufacturing and a past president of the Precision Metalforming Association said the only areas at her company where the number of women have not declined is customer service and general office. She
lamented the elimination of classes such as high school shop that gave students
an introduction to manufacturing and the trades.
She noted that hers is a third-generation family business. My company could
go out of business just because the workers wont exist.

ful for any type of metal-to-earth engagement tool, the 155FC wire was designed
for multipass operations where cross
checking is undesirable and to offer
greater resistance to spalling. It exhibits
a matrix hardness range of 3545 HRC.
Applications include process screw flight
edges, drill bit and stabilizer buildup, and
hardbanding. The 160FC was designed
for use as an overlay, and its matrix hardness range is 4050 HRC. It is well suited
for upstream oil and gas production applications such as drill bit holders, kicker
pads, stabilizers, and mud motors. Victor Technologies,
The Lincoln Electric Weld Sequencer
software shows a picture of a workpiece
and then explains to the welder step by
step where to place each weld Fig. 13.
It is especially useful for applications
where there is a large number of parts,
but not necessarily high volume. It eliminates the need for the welding operator
to rely on his/her memory of where each
weld is needed and the parameters for
each weld. The system on display at the
show was set up for 140 different welds.
The software automatically sets welding
power source parameters such as voltage
and wire feed speed. It also can be set to


With this seventh generation of ABBs

largest robot, the IRB 6700 (Fig. 14),
total cost of ownership has been reduced
by 20%, much of that through reduced
power consumption. The robot family is
available in payloads from 150 to 300 kg
and reaches from 2.6 to 3.2 m. The robots were designed with lighter components throughout and a smaller base.
Since the robots move less weight, they
use less power. The smaller base and
longer reach allow the robots to work in
tighter spaces. They were designed for
spot welding, material handling, and machine tending. Maintenance has been optimized, doubling the time between
service intervals. They are available with
LeanID, an integrated dressing package
designed for easier programming
and more efficient movement. ABB Robotics North America,

automatically make changes to weld parameters and to track the operators actions to confirm each weld was performed. The software can also be tied
into other equipment such as positioners. The Lincoln Electric Co.,

Fig. 14 The IRB 6700 robot family was

designed to use less power, have a longer
reach, and reduced maintenance

Fig. 13 The companys Weld Sequencer

software informs the operator where to
place each weld.

The Exact pipe-cutting system, which

features patented technology from Finland, only recently has entered the North
American market. The machines produce straight, clean cut ends on steel,
plastic, copper, cast iron, stainless steel,
and multilayer pipes. Demonstrated during the show were models Pipecut 220E
and Pipecut 280E Fig. 15. The 220E
can handle pipe diameters from to 8
in., while the 280E cuts pipe from 1 to
11 in. in diameter. The machines can cut
6-in. Schedule 40 pipe in 40 s. The cold
cutting process produces no sparks, debris, or fumes. The systems include a

shoulder bag, pipe saw, four pipe supports, saw blade, Allen wrenches for
changing the blade and adjusting the saw,
operating instructions, and a DVD with
demonstrations and instructions. Model
220E retails for approximately $1500 and
the 280E for $2500. Exact Tools Oy,

Fig. 15 The Exact pipe-cutting system

uses a cold process to produce clean,
ready-to-weld cut ends on steel, plastic,
copper, cast iron, stainless steel, and
multilayer pipes.

AWS Names 2013 Image

of Welding Award
AWS and its Standing Committee
WEMCO, An Association of Welding
Manufacturers, honored the recipients
of the 11th Annual Image of Welding
Awards (Fig. 16) at a ceremony Nov. 20.
Details about the winners are highlighted
Individual Category, Dennis A.
Wright, Olathe, Kans. Wright is a plant
manager at Zephyr Products, Inc.; runs
his own business, Wright Welding Technologies; and is a Certified Welding Inspector as well as Certified Welding Educator who trains his employees at
Zephyr how to weld. His employees are
minimum security inmates from a local
correctional institute. Also, Wrights participation in community services is shown
by his involvement on many welding advisory committees and as AWS District
16 director.
Educator Category, Nanette
Samanich, Las Vegas, Nev. Since learning to weld in 1994, Samanich has become certified in various welding
processes and is an AWS CWI and CWE.
Three years ago, she left her welding inspection career to be a full-time high
school welding instructor at Desert Rose
Adult High School. Additionally, she sits
on several educational advisory boards
and was the lead advisor for her school

Fig. 16 The 2013 Image of Welding Award winners (from left) are Ned Lane (Distributor, Cee Kay Supply); Nanette Samanich (Educator); Levi Crusmire and Bob Richwine (AWS Section, Ivy Tech Community College Student Chapter); Dennis A. Wright
(Individual); Woody Cook (Large Business, SME Steel); and Rick McCartney (Small
Business, Bay State Industrial Welding & Fabrication, Inc.). Not pictured: Dr. Patricio
Mendez (Educational Facility, Canadian Centre for Welding and Joining, University of
at the Nevada State Skills-USA Competition 20112013; volunteered at Boy
Scout Welding Merit Badge clinics; and
is currently the AWS District 21 director.
Educational Facility, Canadian
Centre for Welding and Joining, University of Alberta, Alb., Canada. This facility opened in 2010 at the University of
Alberta and currently operates under the
supervision of Dr. Patricio Mendez. A
graduate-level research center, the
school also offers undergraduate and
graduate students a fundamental to welding course. Graduate students also work
with high school students to educate
them on robotic welding. The facility is
home of an AWS Student Chapter, too.
Small Business, Bay State Industrial Welding & Fabrication, Inc., Hudson, N.H. This company was founded in
1992 by Rick McCartney after years of
working as a welder. With 23 employees,
Bay State has donated time and materials to construct the Benson Park 9/11 Memorial, plus teamed up with Building
Dreams for Marines to renovate homes
for local Marines who need improved accommodations after war-related injuries.
In the near future, it is looking to welcome apprentice and internship opportunities for individuals in local welding
Large Business, SME Steel, West
Valley City, Utah. Since 1992, this company has provided comprehensive struc-

tural steel fabrication and erection in a

variety of industries. With a core belief
in giving back to the community, it has
provided the West Jordan Rotary Club
with funding to complete a baseball field
for disabled youth named SME Steel
Field of Dreams. The company has also
provided material and labor support to
maintain the Veterans Cemetery in Salt
Lake City.
Distributor, Cee Kay Supply, Inc.,
St. Louis, Mo. Cee Kay Supply is the
largest independent supplier of gases,
welding, and cutting equipment supplies
in Missouri. It has hosted and helped
sponsor the AWS St. Louis Sections
Mini Weld Show for the past 11 years. In
addition, it partners with local colleges
and technical schools, and was a major
contributor in helping fund the AWS St.
Louis Sections Hil Bax Memorial Scholarship. Recently, the company held a Boy
Scouts of America Welding Merit Badge
clinic where eight local scouts earned
their badges.
AWS Section, Ivy Tech Community
College Student Chapter, Anderson, Ind.
This Student Chapter has only been in
existence for a little more than a year and
a half, but its first major project involved
making a steel sculpture representing a
graduating student that now stands in
front of Anderson Ivy Tech. Other projects include rebuilding a pontoon trailer,
repairing a cast iron farm tractor wheel


for the Frankton, Indiana, Heritage

Days, fund-raising to buy Christmas presents for needy children, and building tables for the Ivy Tech Engineering Department. It has also raised enough to
present $1000 to the AWS Indiana Section scholarship fund.

Welding Wars
Groups battled it out during the first
Welding Wars Competition (Fig. 17) held
at FABTECH Nov. 19 and 20.
First place went to Jeff Anderson,
Garrett Harris, and Austin Raetz with
Kankakee Community College, Kankakee, Ill Fig. 18. They prepared for this
competition before coming to the show
and were excited to win. It was tough,
Anderson said. It looks easy but was
hard, Harris added.
Second place was awarded to Anthony
Godinez, Ryan Crandal, and Brad
Williamson with Ferris State University,
Big Rapids, Mich.
Third place was earned by Jeffrey
Kubic, Matthew Zohfeld, and Robert
Stephens with Moraine Valley Community College, Palos Hills, Ill.
Prizes included welder backpacks with
supplies from BSX; gas metal arc, gas
tungsten arc/shielded metal arc, and
plasma cutting machines from Lincoln
Electric; and three-in-one gas metal arc,
shielded metal arc, and gas tungsten arc
machines from Tweco.
Given a 2-h time limit in which to
work, the three-member teams were
given a project drawing to interpret and
materials for creating it. Gas metal arc
and gas tungsten arc welding with plasma
arc cutting were used. Among the additional sponsors were NI Steel for donating steel and Bessey Tools for providing
A panel of AWS Certified Welding Inspectors evaluated all weldments to the
requirements of the current AWS D1.1,
Structural Welding Code Steel, based
on project accuracy to print specifications, weld size and overall weldment appearance, craftsmanship, professionalism, and safety.

Professional Welders
A record number of welders, 206 to
be exact, put their skills to the test to see
who would earn the bragging rights as
Americas best welder by winning the
Professional Welders Contest at
FABTECH. The two-day event attracted


Fig. 17 Students from Moraine Valley Community College display teamwork while
competing at the Welding Wars event.

Fig. 18 The Welding Wars winners present at the awards gala were (from left)
Matthew Zohfeld, Jeffrey Kubic, and Robert Stephens (third place, Moraine Valley
Community College); Anthony Godinez (second place, Ferris State University); and
Jeff Anderson, Austin Raetz, and Garrett Harris (first place, Kankakee Community

contestants from all over the United

States including California from one end
of the country and Massachusetts from
the other.
The competitors were required to
weld a -in. square tube at a 60-deg skew
onto a -in. plate all around with 18-in.
7018 electrode Fig. 19. A time limit of
five minutes was given, which included
cleaning the weld. All the welds were ex-

amined by AWS Certified Welding Inspectors according to D1.1 criteria. To

eliminate any question in determining
the winners, in addition to the visual inspection, the weld profiles of the finalists were examined with Wiki-Scan, a
laser scanning inspection system (Fig. 20)
that accurately measures the weld bead
within the set limits.
The winner of the $2500 first-place

Fig. 19 Contestants were required to weld all around a

4-in. tube set at a 60-deg skew.
prize was Brian LaRou, a pipefitter from
Morris, Ill. The $1000 prize for second
place was taken by William DeBold, and
the $500 third-place winner was Robert
Hacker from Hurricane, Utah. In addition to the three money winners, there
were nine others who received prizes of
welding-related items. Those winners
were Larry Clark, George Rolla, Keith
Cusey, Thomas Fassier, Nick Lerma, Tim
Kinnaman, Mark Mitchell, Greg Larson,
and Tanner Thompson.
The competition was organized and
run by the Indiana Section with Tony Brosio acting as the chairman of the Professional Welders Competition Committee.
He was assisted by fellow Section members, wives, and volunteers from a local
educational facility. Personnel from
Servo-Robot assisted in laser scanning
the welds.

Robotic Arc Welding

Nineteen contestants entered the
first-ever AWS Robotic Arc Welding
Contest held Nov. 19 and 20. Entrants
had to take a 20-min multiple-choice test
on welding fundamentals and robotic arc
welding systems, then undergo a timed
performance test in which they had to
demonstrate familiarity with the components of a robotic arc welding cell, program the machine to weld a test coupon,
weld the coupon, and visually verify the
coupons quality. A team of AWS CWIs
judged the competition according to the
criteria of AWS D16.4, Specification for
the Qualification of Robotic Arc Welding

Fig. 20 In addition to visual inspection, a laser scanning device

was used to determine the final winners.

The top three finishers were

Jennifer Hildebrandt (gold) (Fig.
21), a welding technology student
at Milwaukee Area Technical College; Jeff Steiner (silver), a welding engineering technology student
at Ferris State University who also
works for Polaris Industries; and
Mike Kimball (bronze), an AWS
CWI and robot programmer for
Jay Mfg., Oshkosh, Wis. In announcing the winners, Vern Mangold, D16 Committee vice chair,
commented that sometimes a person gets a chance at redemption,
noting that Hildebrandt had placed
second in June during a similar
contest held during the AWS Milwaukee Sections National Robotic
Arc Welding Conference.
Miller Welding Automation and
Wolf Robotics provided the robotic
welding cells for the competition.
In addition, ServoRobot provided
personnel and equipment used for
scoring the coupons. The purpose Fig. 21 Jennifer Hildebrandt and Mike Kimball
of the event was to draw attention placed first and third, respectively, in the firstto the AWS Certified Robotic Arc ever AWS Robotic Arc Welding Contest.
Welding (CRAW) program.
Hildebrandt said she initially
training and the complimentary opporwasnt going to participate because she
tunity to sit for an actual CRAW certifihadnt touched a robot since June, but
cation exam. The three top finishers also
her instructor and classmates urged her
received AWS duffle bags.
to compete. I entered for the possibility of training, she said. It was chalPlan Ahead for Next Year
lenging. There was pressure with the time
limits with the practical exam.
FABTECH 2014 will be held Nov.
Kimball said he found the written por1113 at the Georgia World Congress
tion the most challenging. As a relatively
Center in Atlanta. It will once again be
experienced programmer, he was more
North Americas largest welding, metalcomfortable with the practical exam.
forming, and fabricating event. For more
Hildebrandt will receive AWS CRAW
information, visit



What Is the Best Method

for Preheating 4130?
A study compares three preheat
methods based on time required,
efficiency, safety, and cost

n the oil and gas industry, AISI 4130

steel is a widely used material. This
material is quenched and tempered for
strength and other specific properties.
Once the material has been welded, the
properties of the heat-affected zone are
adversely affected. In order to lessen the
effects of welding on 4130, preheating is
an essential requirement of the welding
procedure. While the use of direct flame
is the most prevalent, other commonly
used methods include induction and
resistance heating, with resistance being
the next most commonly employed
The purpose of this study is to compare induction, resistance, and direct
flame preheating methods on multiple
levels. This comparison is based on actual test data derived from preheating
the same part with each method. No sales
nomenclature or assumed data are used.
The final result determined the most effective and efficient preheating method.

A single valve body was chosen for the
study because of its mass and its similar
configuration to valves typically used in
the oil and gas industry. The valve was
preheated to an industry minimum of
500F using typical industry practices for
all three methods. Throughout each test,
the temperatures on the inside and outside of the valve were monitored and
recorded on a data recorder. The ther-



mocouples used with the data recorder

remained in the same place for all three
tests. Elapsed time was recorded in relation to power used and temperature
readings. For each trial, once a temperature of 500F was attained, the temperature was maintained for one hour and the
energy used was recorded. Then, the temperature drop was recorded for one hour
with no additional heat input. A Fluke
power meter was installed onto the primary input line just after the fuses at the
wall disconnect to measure and record
the active energy (in kilowatt-hours) used
by the induction and resistance power
sources. For the direct flame tests,
propane fuel gas was used. The amount
of propane consumed was determined
using a scale to measure the before and
after weight of the propane cylinder.

Test Procedures
The induction heater uses watercooled cables to conduct high-frequency
electric current to electromagnetically
induce eddy currents within the material.
The electromagnetic currents in the material cause the molecules to excite which
generates the heat. As such, the heat is
generated within the material compared
to the other two methods where the heating sources are applied to the external
surface and the heat must then be conducted through the part. This results in

R. HOLDREN are with Arc Specialties
Engineering & Consulting,
Houston, Tex.

more uniform heating through the part

thickness and less radiated heat from the
preheated component.
First, all valve surfaces were covered
by wrapping the valve with an insulating
ceramic fiber blanket. Next, an induction
heating cable was wrapped around the
valve over the blanket Fig. 1. The cable
was not in contact with the block at any
point. Since the cables are water cooled
they remain approximately at room temperature when properly insulated from
the part. The induction heating machine
uses thermocouples to monitor the temperature and control the machines output. Two control thermocouples were
placed on the valve, one on the inside and
one on the outside, each within 14 in. (6
mm) of the thermocouples used with the
data recorder.
The induction heater controller was
programmed to preheat the part to 500F
as quickly as possible, and then maintain
that temperature for one hour. The data
recorder was turned on, the power meter
was set to record, and the induction machine was set to preheat. Both the data
recorder and the power meter record
time along with the other measurements.
Once both thermocouples reached 500F,
the machine was set to maintain for one
hour and the time on the data recorder
and power meter were noted. After one
hour, the machine was turned off and the
temperature was recorded for another
hour after making note of the time on the
data recorder. Throughout the test, the

amount of time required to set up and tear

down was also recorded.


Fig. 1 Position of induction heating coil, and measurement and control

thermocouple cables.

Fig. 2 Placement of resistance heating pads and thermocouple cables.

Fig. 3 Direct flame preheating setup.

The resistance heater uses resistance pads

made up of a resistant element woven through
ceramic tiles. This construction results in a
heating pad with enough flexibility to allow
for contouring the pad around or inside components with varying profiles. The element
consists of a conductor having high resistance,
so when electrically energized, the element
heats up. The ceramic tiles both conduct this
heat to the component as well as electrically
insulate the heating element from the component. The heated tiles only transfer heat to
the valve through radiant heat and conductive heat where the pads are in contact with
the valve.
The resistance heating pads were first fastened to each other with wire and to the valve
to keep them in place Fig. 2. Next, the
whole assembly was covered with an insulating ceramic fiber blanket. Two preheating
zones (with separate control) were used with
each zone using two resistance heating pads.
The pads were arranged such that each of the
two zones was on opposite sides of the valve.
The resistance heating controller uses one
thermocouple per zone to monitor the temperature and control the output to that zone.
Each zone had a thermocouple resistance
spot welded onto the outside of the valve. The
control thermocouple was connected to the
valve within in. (6 mm) of the location for
the measurement thermocouple. The second
thermocouple was on the other side, on the
outside of the valve. A thermocouple placed
on the inside of the valve in. (6 mm) away
from the one used for the data recorder was
plugged into the machine for reference only.
The resistance machine was programmed
to preheat the valve to 550F as quickly as
possible, and then maintain the temperature
for one hour. A previous test showed that
when setting the machine to preheat to 500F,
it required more than six hours for the inside
to reach 500F after the outside had attained
this temperature, so programming the controller to reach the higher temperature on the
outside was used as a means to through-heat
the part more rapidly. This is believed to have
happened because there was not a large
enough temperature differential between the
inside surface and the outside surface. Because the pads were touching the valve so
close to the thermocouple, the temperature
did not rise high enough above 500F to create that differential. The data recorder was
then turned on, the power meter was set to
record, and the resistance heating power
source was set to preheat. Both the data
recorder and the power meter record time


along with the other measurements.

Once both the internal and external
measurement thermocouples reached
500F, the machine was set to maintain
the temperature for one hour and the
time on the data recorder and power
meter were noted. After one hour, the
machine was turned off and the temperature was recorded for another hour after
making note of the time on the data
recorder. Throughout the test, the
amount of time required to set up and
tear down was recorded.

Direct Flame
A 100-lb cylinder of propane was used
with a Belchfire fuel gas and compressed air torch. The valve was rotated
on a turntable while the flame impinged
on the exterior surface of the valve
Fig. 3.
The valve was not insulated at all,
which is in accordance with typical industry practices. The data recorder was
placed on top of a piece of pipe tacked
to the valve so as to not tangle the thermocouple leads. Only the two data
recorder thermocouple leads were used
for this test.
The data recorder was turned on and
the flame and rotation were started.
Once both thermocouples reached 500F,
the time was noted and the maintenance
time started. Preheat maintenance was
determined by monitoring the temperature and cycling the torch on and off manually. This human element can add some
degree of inconsistency. After one hour
of preheat maintenance, no additional
heat was applied and the temperatures
were recorded for one hour after making note of the time on the data recorder.
Throughout the test, the amount of time
required to set up and tear down was

Experimental Results
Fig. 4 Comparison between the temperature rise on the inside and outside vs. the en
ergy used. A Propane heating; B resistance heating; C induction heating.

Time was evaluated based on time to
preheat to 500F, time difference between inside and outside reaching 500F,
time to set up, and time to tear down.

Preheat Time
When analyzing preheat time, induction produced the best results with both
the inside and outside of the valve reaching the minimum 500F in 0.6 h. The outside of the valve reached the minimum


500F in only 0.5 h. There was minimal

difference in the results from flame and
resistance preheating. Achieving 500F
on the outside with the propane required
1.02 h, while the inside required 1.1 h.
The outside with the resistance required
0.78 h, while the inside required 1.75 h.
Therefore, resistance heating required
the greatest amount of time to achieve

through-thickness preheating. Overall,

the method that brought the inside and
outside to the target temperature the
fastest was induction.

Setup and TearDown Time

The flame method required the least
amount of setup and tear-down time,

Fig. 5 Cost per part while paying off the preheat equipment (1.5 years).

Fig 6. Cost per part after the preheat equipment is paid off.

only taking 0.25 h for each. The induction method was next with 0.58 h to set
up and 0.6 h to tear down. Resistance required the longest time with 1.5 h to set
up and 0.37 h to tear down. Ease of setup
and tear-down was also considered, and
direct flame was the easiest. The direct
flame method only required the valve to
be rotated with a torch pointed at it, while
the other methods required more complicated preparation. The only constraint
with the propane method is if the part is
too heavy for a turntable. The most difficult method was the resistance; with the
reality that the operator must wire tie the
pads to each other and in the desired position, as well as deal with hot pads once
the part is preheated. Induction was significantly easier than resistance to set up,
with the self-supporting coils and the additional advantage that the coil does not

get hot. The quickest method of the three

was propane, with induction a close second, and resistance a lagging third.

Energy Efficiency
Each methods efficiency was analyzed based on energy (generated and
consumed) as well as total energy used.
For resistance and induction, the kilowatt-hours (kWh) were recorded. For the
flame test, the pounds of propane used
were recorded for the preheat and preheat maintenance stages. In order to
compare all three methods, the pounds
of propane were converted to BTU1 and
then to kWh2. The amounts of electricity used in the other tests were converted
to BTU2 so that all three tests have kWh
and BTU as values in relation to the temperature increase.

Flame preheating was the least efficient, using 171 kWh and 585,000 BTU.
Flame also had the quickest temperature
drop once heat was removed, with a 12F
difference between the inside and the
outside. The quick temperature drop was
easily predicted because there was no insulation used for the propane test. The
induction method was the most efficient,
using 21.5 kWh and 73,000 BTU and had
the smallest temperature drop once heat
was removed, with only a 4F difference.
The resistance used 24.5 kWh and 84,000
BTU. The outside temperature dropped
34F more than the inside. The difference can be linked to the requirement
that the outside needed to be heated to
550F in order for the inside to reach
500F. Once the heat was removed, the
outside and inside temperatures were
still equalizing, and once the temperatures were the same they both started
dropping. One of the most significant differences was the observation that the
propane used 585,000 BTU compared to
73,000 BTU for induction. Therefore,
512,000 BTU (87.5%) of energy was
wasted. Also, theoretically all 512,000
BTU went into heating the environment,
meaning that in production situations,
the wasted energy resulted in greater
heat exposure to welders and other workers in the area. Induction proved to be
the most efficient, using the least energy
and having the slowest temperature drop
Fig. 4AC.

Each method was analyzed to determine its level of safety based on the
amount of handling and potential hazards. Safety was evaluated because it is
one of the primary concerns in shop environments. Induction is the safest
method out of the three. The part does
not need to be on a turntable, which eliminated one part-handling operation.
Also, the induction coils remain at room
temperature at all times and with the part
wrapped in an insulating blanket, the
user has a very small chance of getting
burned by the 500 F part.
Resistance and propane are hazardous for multiple reasons, but propane
is slightly more dangerous. With resistance and propane, the heating elements
and torch are extremely hot during and
immediately after preheating, and are
only cooled by the air. With resistance,
the pads are covered with an insulating
blanket, but once the part is preheated
it is difficult to move the hot pads. With



Table 1 Summary of Test Results

Total propane used, lb
Total electricity used, kWh
Total energy used, BTU
Avg. temperature drop in 1 h/outside diameter vs.
inside diameter temperature dierential, F
Time to preheat inside to 500F, h
Set up time, h
Teardown time, h
Total time, h
Total cost*

Miller Pro Heat 35

PDS Bartech

Belchre torch




*Costs based on the following values: labor @ $65/h; electricity @ $0.064/kWh; propane @ $0.652/lb.

direct flame, the part is not covered at

all so there is a large part that will be at
the preheated temperature that the operator has no protection from. Also, with
direct flame, there is an open flame as
well as hoses filled with combustible gas
leading to a cylinder of gas or a manifold
system. The torch can be knocked over
or inadvertently pointed at something or
someone that could be burned. Also, the
propane torch heats the room creating a
less desirable work environment. Induction is the safest method, having a heating element that does not get hot, heating the valve while it is wrapped in insulating blanket, and requiring no part handling. Furthermore, since the part is
heated from the inside, induction heating results in less radiant heat exposure.

The cost of each method was analyzed
based on cost of labor, electricity,
propane, and personnel usage. An analysis using $65/h for labor, $0.064/kWh for
electricity, and $0.652/lb of propane revealed that resistance preheating costs
the most to preheat a valve, costing
$287.57. That breaks down to $164.67 in
labor to preheat the valve, $121.33 in
labor to set up and tear down, and $1.57
in electricity. Direct flame preheating
was the next most expensive, costing
$187.68; $137.58 in labor to preheat the
valve, $32.50 in labor to set up and tear
down, and $17.60 in propane. Finally, induction preheating was the cheapest,
costing $150.34. That breaks down to
$72.04 in labor to preheat the valve,
$76.92 in labor to set up and tear down,
and $1.38 in electricity.
If the shop is air conditioned, there
will be extra electricity used to dissipate



the 512,000 BTU put in the room by the

propane, $4.29 of electricity if the unit is
specifically sized for this amount of heat.
Also, if preheat labor is not taken into
account when the shop preheats offline,
preheating one part while at the same
time welding another, direct flame becomes the cheapest method, followed by
The induction method proved to be
the most efficient. With induction making the best use of the operators time,
using the least electricity, and having a
very fast uniform heating pattern.
Cost of the unit is another factor in
calculating the cost to preheat each valve.
The induction unit costs $39,000 while
the resistance unit costs $15,000, and the
flame torch costs $1,200; but with the
time savings with induction, the cost is
offset. Preheating with induction will
save the user $37 per part over direct
flame and $137 per part over resistance,
once the equipment has been paid for.

flame this adds heat to the room that

adds extra cost, more safety concerns,
and creates a less-desirable work environment. With preheat labor not included, induction was the second cheapest. Resistance was the slowest and most
expensive in every scenario, due to setup
time and the amount of time it took to
Perhaps the most important result
from this study is the fact that many variables need to be evaluated. While the
cost of induction heating equipment is
greater than that for either the resistance
or direct flame method, the efficiencies
offered will offset the added cost. Perhaps more importantly, the fact that the
induction method creates a safer environment for the worker will help to optimize both productivity and quality.

2. Google calculator

Conclusions and
Based on this study, the induction
method was the best in most categories
(Table 1). Induction heating required the
least amount of time to preheat, was the
most energy efficient, safest, and most
cost-effective. It used less energy than
the resistance and the electricity cost less
than the propane used. Induction heated
the valve the fastest and was quicker to
set up than the resistance. The induction
method also was the safest for the user,
with the whole valve being insulated and
heating coils that do not get hot.
If offline heating is employed,
propane is the cheapest, but with an open

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In-Line Inspection of
Resistance Spot Welds
for Sheet Metal Assembly
Chryslers Windsor Assembly Plant tries
out an ultrasonic real-time monitoring
system to track expulsion, electrode life,
and weld problems

sing a built-in ultrasonic sensor

provides a new approach in quality inspection of resistance spot
welds. With real-time quality monitoring, every weld can be instantaneously inspected as it is made. By knowing the
quality of each weld joint, the welding
control system user has the advantage of
correcting problems before producing
unacceptable products. It also becomes
possible to collect data and infer information regarding the process stability
that has been unavailable before. As a
stand-alone unit or in tandem with adaptive control welding systems, the realtime ultrasonic inspection technology
permits quality measurements, instead
of just quality forecasting. The dynamics
of spot weld size, instantaneous quality
changes, electrode cap degradation, and
other otherwise difficult-to-determine
parameters become readily available to
weld control engineers. This article presents a case study of an installation at
Chryslers Windsor Assembly Plant
where real-time monitoring is used to
track weld quality, expulsion events, electrode life, and detect problems. With
ever-increasing production volumes and
new metals being introduced every year,

the use of a nondestructive automatic inspection system is necessary for the sheet
assembly industry to stay competitive and
provide quality products at a low cost.

Real-Time Inspection



have been introduced to speed up the

process and increase the percentage of
validated welds. Today, nondestructive
inspection of resistance spot weld quality is a subject of high interest in automotive and other sheet metal assembly
industries. Still, with new inspection technologies, only a small fraction of resistance spot welds get tested. The procedure remains quite time consuming as
parts must be removed from the production line, or production needs to be suspended for inspection.
For this reason, many efforts have
been made to develop a real-time spot
weld quality assurance system. Most of
the existing systems employ some kind of

Resistance spot welding is currently a

dominant joining technology in the sheet
metal assembly industry, especially in automotive manufacturing. A recent automotive roadmap suggests that this trend
is not likely to change any time soon (Ref.
1). The average car contains 3 to 4 thousand spot welds, which ensure its structural integrity. For decades, the main
quality assurance method in
production was destructive
testing: peel test, chisel test,
and metallographic analysis. These methods are
quite costly and time consuming. Beside, destructive
testing is only a periodic
procedure that selectively
inspects a small random
portion of the sample pool.
Different nondestruc- Fig. 1 Schematic setup of ultrasonic in-process spot
tive inspection techniques weld analyzer.

R. Gr. MAEV, A. M. CHERTOV, W. PEREZ REGALADO, and A. KARLOFF are with Institute for Diagnostic Imaging Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ont., Canada. A. TCHIPILKO is with Tessonics, Inc., Windsor, Ont., Canada. P. LICHAA, D. CLEMENT, and T. PHAN are with Chrysler Windsor Assembly Plant, Windsor, Ont., Canada.
This article is based on a paper presented at the Sheet Metal Welding Conference XV, Livonia, Mich., Oct. 25, 2012.


Fig. 2 Two electrodes squeeze steel plates before

welding (left). Gated A-scan (right).

indirect quality assurance by measuring

some related parameters. Some measure
electrode force dynamics and electrode
displacement, others study welding current and voltage changes to predict weld
quality based on models of the welding
process. Such methods allow one to only
predict the weld quality, not measure
it, due to the indirect nature of these
Ultrasound methods use ultrasonic
waves that easily penetrate the metal
sheets and bring back information about
the internal structure of the spot weld.
For this reason, ultrasonic testing was
traditionally used for offline weld inspection. From the 1960s, different research
groups attempted to develop real-time
ultrasonic testing technology (Refs. 27).
With the relatively recent use of robots
for spot welding, along with the introduction of servo motors and tip dressers, spot
welding has become a much more stable
process to implement real-time ultrasonic inspection inline with production.
Today, our research group advanced to
the level of installation of half a dozen
prototype inline ultrasound units at several assembly plants around the world.
The biggest progress has been achieved
with our long-term partner Chrysler
Corp. at one of its plants in Windsor,
Ont., Canada.
This aricle describes the current level
of technology along with the particular

Fig. 4 Schematic M-scan of the resistance spot welding process.

Fig. 3 Two electrodes squeeze steel plates during

welding (left). Gated A-scan (right).

problems and advancements of the system installed at an industrial facility.

Inline Ultrasonic Inspection

of Spot Welding
In resistance spot welding, the metal
sheets are joined by means of melting the
base metal with high electric current. The
current is delivered by two electrodes,
which squeeze the sheets together thus
developing Joule heat. As the welding
gun makes hundreds of welds, the electrodes experience deformation and foreign material pick up. This leads to gradual degradation of the original welding
conditions and eventually to the production of unacceptable welds. Periodic current stepping, tip dressing, and electrode
cap replacements are routinely used in
production. Still, with the introduction
of new materials, it becomes harder to
predict the tip conditions and to implement timely adjustments. Some means of
real-time control become a necessity.
In the current inline ultrasound setup,
the piezoelectric transducer is installed
in the cooling water stream inside the
welding electrode Fig. 1. Sound waves
propagate through the cooling water and
copper electrode to reach the welded
plates. Cooling water is used as a couplant to deliver sound from the transducer to the copper electrode cap. The
dry contact between the electrode and
metal sheets allows ultrasonic waves to
penetrate further due to the high pressure exerted by the electrodes. The sound
experiences partial reflections at every
boundary, including the solid-liquid
boundary of the molten nugget. In mild
steel around the melting temperature,
the solid metal has an acoustic impedance of 32.7 MRayl, while its liquid state
shows 26.5 MRayl. Calculations and experiments show that this impedance mismatch at the liquid nuggets boundary reflects enough sound energy to be reliably
The transducer, which works as both

emitter and receiver, collects information from every reflecting boundary on

the wave path and forms an A-scan.
Proper time gating of the A-scan allows
software to analyze the information from
the area of interest; the metal sheets and
spot weld itself Figs. 2, 3.
Figure 4 shows a schematic view of the
ultrasonic signature of the spot welding
process, represented as an M-scan. Such
an M-scan is composed of multiple Ascans of the same point on the weld captured successively in time. Every A-scan
is simply a time-voltage graph acquired
by the receiving transducer. The first Ascans begin to shoot before welding
starts. In this case, the system works as a
simple ultrasonic thickness gauge, receiving reflections from every sheet. One can
see interfaces 1, 2, and 3 appearing horizontally and parallel to each other since
these are stationary in time. These are
reflections off of the copper-steel, steelsteel, and steel-copper boundaries. Scanning continues throughout the welding
process (Fig. 4) and some time after it
with a time interval of 3 ms between
When current is turned on, the metal
sheets temperature increases, which
leads to sound velocity reduction. Thus,
the back wall reflections from both sheets
begin to arrive later in time as temperature increases. When the base metal begins to melt, the steel-steel boundary disappears and so does sound reflection off
of it. The liquid metal nugget then grows
from the steel-steel boundary into both
sheets. Impedance mismatch between
solid and liquid steel allows the sound
waves to reflect off the top and the bottom of the nugget and thus make them
visible on the A-scan and correspondingly on the M-scan (lines 4 and 5 in Fig.
4). The two reflections continue to move
apart as the nugget grows. When welding current is shut off, the system begins
to cool and the process reverses.
Figure 5 presents real ultrasonic scans
of underwelded and properly welded spot


Fig. 6 Relating ultrasonic M-scan to real spot weld


Fig. 5 Real M-scans of the resistance spot

welding process. A Low welding current; B
high welding current.

time of flight (TOF) through the

welded sheets is directly proportional to the amount of heat developed in the stackup. It has been
shown that there is a strong correlation between TOF and nugget diameter (Refs. 8, 9). Special software
analyzes the M-scan and extracts
these parameters automatically.
The decision whether the weld is acceptable or not is made right after
the weld is made and before the
robot moves to the next weld position. This allows the implementation of feedback to the robot to either stop the line or perform
rewelding of the unacceptable weld.

Expulsion Detection

Expulsion detection in welding

is a strong area of interest, particularly for the inline system where the
effects of a physical expulsion can
make the ultrasound scans of a good
weld appear to be undersized. In
some cases, expulsion can have a
significant effect on the quality of
the weld and is undesired.
The main problem with expulsion in the ultrasound M-scans in
applications where thick sheets and
3T stacks are welded is that the heat
loss during expulsion may appear as
Fig. 7 Interface changes at a moment of if insufficient heat was generated to
produce a significant nugget, when
in fact more than enough heat was
produced. For this reason, expulsion events must be detected so that
welds. In case A, welding current was too
the future decision of the welds quality
low, and the intermediate interface did
can consider this effect.
not fully disappear (melting did not hapCurrently, there are a number of
pen) during welding. In B, welding curmethods used to detect expulsion, prerent was high enough and the intermedidominately using feedback from servo
ate interface disappeared (melting began
motors to record the displacement of the
approximately halfway through welding
electrodes. However, setups not using
servo motor feedback (e.g., pneumatic
Several parameters are used to make
guns) require additional hardware to dea decision about the weld quality, includtect expulsion events. For systems aling the presence of a liquid nugget and
ready using the inline ultrasound device,
its penetration into the sheets to deterexpulsion detection is possible without
mine the weld height Fig. 6. Ultrasonic



additional hardware or communication

with servo motor controllers.
The simplest form of expulsion detection is performed by monitoring sudden
changes in TOF from the front wall and
back wall reflections (lines 1 and 2 in Fig.
7). The back wall, or lower interface,
shows the greatest change when an expulsion occurs, since the position of this
reflection in the M-scan depends on both
the total heat in the weld zone, as well as
the total thickness of the workpiece. During an expulsion, both the total temperature and thickness of the workpiece decrease as heated material is ejected from
the weld zone. As a result, there is a sudden decrease in the TOF of the lower
The front wall, or upper interface, also
exhibits a small perturbation during an
expulsion. The TOF of this surface generally increases as a result of localized
heating at the contact point between the
electrode and plates. This arises when
substantial indentation results from a
large expulsion. At this moment, reduced
contact between the electrode and plate
surface increases the current density at
this interface, which generates a great
deal of heat at the surface. This momentary increase in temperature increases
the TOF at the front wall reflection;
this is a strong indicator of a substantial
Figure 7 shows an example of both the
front wall and back wall shifts in time of
flight that make expulsions detectable in
real-time M-scans. When an expulsion is
detected, the quality decision can compensate for the reduced time of flight to
ensure that good welds are not considered bad.

Real-Time Integrated Weld

A real-time integrated weld analyzer
(RIWA) was developed to use this technology in an industrial environment. This
device is a small unit installed on each
welding robot where the quality control

Fig. 8 User interface.

of welding spots is desired. An ultrasonic
sensor built into one of the weld gun electrodes is connected with the RIWA by
coaxial cable. The RIWA unit has the
fieldbus connection to the weld and robot
controller. Once installed, the RIWA
unit works as an unsupervised device automatically testing weld quality and sending feedback to the robot.
A state-of-the-art algorithm has been
developed for automated analysis of Mscans. It processes the weld image and
recognizes the features of the nugget formation. Morphological analysis of extracted features allows the geometrical
parameters of the liquid nugget to be determined and makes a decision about the
weld quality. Figure 8 shows a user interface with multiple registered parts and
one of the selected M-scans with automatically recognized features. Date/time
stamps on the left mark every welded

Fig. 9 Statistics over the last 24 h.

part. Each part has nine welds. As welding through the part progresses, welds
are scanned and automatically characterized. At a certain part, the purpose failures were made by dropping the welding
current. The system has successfully recognized undersized welds and stopped
the robot.
At its current state, the system performs unsupervised testing of weld quality and qualifies the results using a threelevel grading: acceptable, marginal, and
unacceptable. Processing time of a single M-scan is about 150250 ms for a 3
GHz Pentium D processor. It depends
on the stack thickness and welding time,
which determine the width and height of
the M-scan. Special algorithms for efficient M-scan processing have been applied (Refs. 12, 13). The processing time
requirements are strict since average
cycle time is around 1.52.5 s/weld. The

robot needs to receive feedback before

it advances to the next weld. If needed,
the operator can have access to the statistics of the production equipment performance Fig. 9.
Besides determining weld quality, the
system proved to be useful in detecting
nonstandard conditions such as cooling
water tube failure shown in Fig. 10. The
plot shows ultrasonic TOF through the
stack at different production times. In
Ref. 8, we have shown a strong correlation of this parameter with nugget diameter. At around 22 h, the cooling water
tube was damaged (notice the sudden dip
in average diameter) and production
continued for a few hours with some
welds being made undersized. The system was currently working in a passive
mode, but it was able to track back every
single weld and identify problematic
products for fixing.
As a robot makes hundreds of welds,
the electrode tip surface experiences deformation and continuous contamination. This leads to excessive heat developed at the copper tip and could possibly lead to cooling water overheat and
boiling. The ultrasonic system is capable
of monitoring the cooling condition. Figure 11 shows abrupt improvement of the
cooling after a tip dressing (cleaning)
event. Usually, with bad tip conditions,
the last three welds in every row are
shown as grey. Grey stands for the welds
that for some reason were not interpreted by the software. Additional analyses have shown that those last three greys
are due to the water overheat. After tip
dressing, those welds become recognizable and turn green. This information can
be used to issue recommendations on the
tip dressing frequency to optimize production process quality.
The ultrasonic testing system communicates with the PLC using discrete I/O,
DeviceNet, or other means of communication. The robot tells which part is being
loaded, which weld on the part is welded,
and when exactly to start ultrasonic scanning. In its turn, the ultrasonic system

Fig. 10 Weld quality dynamics over 24 h with cooling water tube failure at around 22 h.


tells the robot if the weld is acceptable

or not.

Ultrasonic in-process characterization of resistance spot welds has many
advantages over off-line methods, particularly adding the ability to inspect
more than 99% of the parts that would
otherwise go unchecked. In addition,
real-time monitoring of the process can
identify problems that occur and allow
control engineers to correct these problems before additional bad parts are produced. An example of a damaged watercooling pipe is illustrated in this article.
Use of the RIWA system provides an
opportunity to automatically correct bad
welds and prevent them in the future
The inline ultrasound inspection system installed in the Windsor Assembly
Plant provides the capability to observe
the process of weld formation as well as
identify expulsion. Parameters such as
the moment of melting, liquid metal penetration depth, solidification, and cooling rates are used for quality characterization of every weld done at the installed
unit. In addition, statistics of weld quality over time are monitored from which
data regarding electrode wear and
process degradation can be inferred.
Such a tool is proving to be effective in
the harsh industrial environments of the
automotive assembly plant, and the benefits of such thorough quality inspection
are immediately clear.

The authors would like to thank the
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) for
support of this research together with
NSERC/Chrysler Canada, Inc./ University of Windsor Industrial Research Chair
IRCPJ 260901-07 in Applied Physics and
Material Characterization.

1. Gould, J. E. 2012. Joining aluminum sheet in the automotive industry
A 30 year history. Welding Journal 91(1):
23-s to 34-s.
2. Sutter, J. E. 2004. In-process ultrasonic weld inspection and adaptive control. Sheet Metal Welding Conf. XI, Sterling Heights, Mich.
3. Rokhlin, S. I., Meng, S., and Adler,
L. 1989. In-process ultrasonic evaluation



Fig. 11 Improvement in cap cooling after tip dressing, more greens.

of spot welds. Mater. Eval. 47: 935943.

4. Hurlebaus, R. P. 1970. Method of
monitoring a welding operation. U.S.
Patent 3,726,130.
5. Okuda, T., and Inada, M. 1976. Ultrasonic testing method and apparatus
for resistance welding. U.S. Patent
6. Gr. Maev, R., and Ptchelintsev, A.
2000. Monitoring of pulsed ultrasonic
waves interaction with metal continuously heated to the melting point. Rev.
Prog. Quant. Nondestr. Eval. 20:
7. Ptchelintsev, A., and Gr. Maev, R.
2000. Method of quantitative evaluation
of elastic properties of metals at elevated
temperatures. Rev. Prog. Quant. Nondestr. Eval. 20: 15091516.
8. Chertov, A. M., and Gr. Maev, R.
2005. A one-dimensional numerical
model of acoustic wave propagation in a
multilayered structure of a resistance
spot weld. IEEE Trans. on Ultrasonics,
Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
9. Chertov, A. M., and Gr. Maev, R.
2003. Inverse problem solution to find
real-time temperature distribution inside
the spot weld medium using ultrasound
time of flight methods. Rev. Prog. Quant.
Nondestr. Eval. (7).
10. Karloff, A. C., Chertov, A. M., and
Gr. Maev, R. 2009. Real-time ultrasonic
expulsion detection and indentation
measurement in resistance spot welds.
Rev. Prog. Quant. Nondestr. Eval. 29(7):
11. Regalado, W. P., Chertov, A. M.,
and Gr. Maev, R. 2009. Real-time ultrasonic aluminum spot weld monitoring
system. Rev. Prog. Quant. Nondestr. Eval.

12. Chertov, A. M., and Gr. Maev, R.

2005. Extraction of straight line segments
from noisy images as a part of pattern
recognition procedure. Advances in Signal Processing for NDE of Materials.
13. Chertov, A. M., and Gr. Maev, R.
2011. New algorithm for pattern recognition in noisy ultrasonic B-scans. 12th
International Symposium on Nondestructive Characterization of Materials

Brand Awareness
to Your
Your Company
By Placing YYour
our Product
Product Video
on the AWS
W Website

For more information visit our website at
or please contact:

Rob Saltzstein / (800) 443-9353, ext. 243
Lea Paneca / (800) 443-9353, ext. 220
Sandra Jorgensen / (800) 443-9353, ext. 254



Assoc. for Manufacturing Excellence Values Veterans (AMEV2)

Conf. Jan. 14. Virginia Beach, Va. AME,

United States-European Welding Standards Conference. Jan.

FABTECH Canada. March 1820. Toronto Congress Centre,

Toronto, Ont., Canada. Cosponsored by the American Welding

2628. AWS World Headquarters and Staybridge Suites, Miami,

Fla. Cosponsored by AWS and GSI (Gesellschaft fr Schwisstechnik, Intl.). Topics to include welding standards covering
structural fabrication, pressure vessels, railway vehicles, and company certification. Contact P. Henry,; (800) 4439353, ext. 215.

Stainless Steel Conference. March 25, 26. Loews Philadelphia

Energy Conference. Feb. 5, 6. Hotel Monteleone, New Orleans,

Metal & Steel Saudi Arabia 2014. April 710. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Visit

La. Sponsored by AWS. Topics to include superior hybrid welding

processes, filler metals, and cladding procedures for use in nuclear and coal-fired utilities and oil and natural gas pipelines.
Contact P. Henry,; (800) 443-9353, ext. 215.
AERODEF Manufacturing. Feb. 2527. Long Beach Convention
Center, Long Beach, Calif. Society of Manufacturing Engineers;
(800) 733-4763;

Pipelines Conference. March 4, 5. Sheraton Houston Brookhollow, Houston, Tex. Sponsored by the American Welding Society.
Topics to include current and future pipeline welding trends. Contact P. Henry,; (800) 443-9353, ext. 215.
ABB Robotics Technology Days and Open House. March 13, 14.
1250 Brown Rd., Auburn Hills, Mich. Offering workshops, training, and demonstrations. To register, visit;
call (800) 435-7365.

For info, go to



Hotel, Philadelphia, Pa. Sponsored by AWS. Topics to include

welding of austenitic, duplex, and other grades of stainless steel
including dissimilar metals, and repair welding, cladding, cleaning, and coping with stress corrosion cracking. Contact P. Henry,; (800) 443-9353, ext. 215.

Weld Cracking Conference. April 15, 16. Hilton Garden Inn

Denver Downtown, Denver, Colo. Sponsored by AWS. Topics to
include impact tests, control of moisture in welding consumables,
and information for welding engineers to ensure higher-quality
welded products. Contact P. Henry,; (800) 4439353, ext. 215.
ITSA International Thermal Spray Assn. Annual Meeting.
April 2426. Savannah, Ga. Sponsored by ITSA, an AWS Standing Committee.;
JOM, 18th Intl Conf. on Joining Materials. April 2629. Konventum LO-Skolen, Helsingr, Denmark. In association with the
Intl Institute of Welding, cosponsored by American Welding Society, Japan Welding Society, Welding Technology Institute of
Australia, Brazilian Welding Society, and others. E-mail

For info, go to; download brochure at


Aluminum Conference. April 2830. Hotel Monteleone, New

Orleans, La.. Sponsored by AWS. Aluminum industry experts will
survey the state of the art in aluminum welding technology and
practice. Contact P. Henry,; (800) 443-9353,
ext. 215.

First Intl Symposium on Advances in Resistance Welding.

April 2830. Atlanta, Ga. Sponsored by AWS and the Resistance
Welding Manufacturing Alliance (RWMA), an AWS Standing
Committee. Topics will include research results, projects, and industrial experiences that describe significant advances in resistance welding technology. Visit, or contact
Patrick Henry,; (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 215.
AWS Weldmex, FABTECH Mexico, METALFORM Mexico.
May 68. Centro Banamex, Mexico City, Mexico.
JOIN-TRANS3 Third European Conf., Joining and Construction of Railway Vehicles. May 6, 7. An IIW associated event.
Welding Training and Research Centre, SLV Halle GmbH, Halle
(Saale), Germany.
mfg4 colocated with MicroManufacturing Conf. and Exhibits.
May 68. Connecticut Convention Center, Hartford, Conn. The
Society of Manufacturing Engineers; (800) 733-4763;
Intl Laser Technology Congress AKL 14 and Expo. May 79.
Aachen, Germany. Visit
For info, go to

For info, go to

For info, go to



MMTS Montreal Mfg. Technology Show. May 1214. Place

Bonaventure, Montreal, Que., Canada.
Composites Manufacturing. May 1315. Northern Kentucky
Convention Center, Covington, Ky. Society of Manufacturing Engineers.
Metal & Steel Middle East 2014. May 1517. Cairo, Egypt. Visit
THE BIG M including SME Annual Meeting, RAPID Conf. and
Expo, and North American Research Conf. June 912. Cobo Center, Detroit, Mich. Society of Manufacturing Engineers.

Welding Education, Skills, and Certifications Conference. July

2325. Indianapolis, Ind. Sponsored by AWS. This program answers questions on the requirements to become an AWS Accredited Testing Facility (ATF), including skills training and curriculum. Contact P. Henry,; (800) 443-9353, ext. 215.

Heat Treatment Conference. Aug. 12, 13. Sheraton Arlington

Hotel, Dallas, Tex. Sponsored by AWS. Attendees will get a better understanding of the impact of welding and heat treatment
practices to optimize weld quality and reliability. Contact P.
Henry,; (800) 443-9353, ext. 215.
Additive Manufacturing Conference. Sept. 9, 10. Renaissance
Orlando Airport Hotel, Orlando, Fla. Sponsored by AWS. Contact P. Henry,; (800) 443-9353, ext. 215.
7th Offshore Energy Expo and Conf. Oct. 28, 29. Amsterdam RAI,
The Netherlands. Visit
For info, go to

continued on page 100

Weld Smarter With

Total Welding Management
Implementing the principles and
concepts in this book could save
you $15,000 to $25,000 annually
per welder.

Drawing on more than 50 years

of welding experience, author Jack
R. Barckhoff, P.E., gives you a solid
step-by-step plan to manage your
welding operations for maximum
productivity and cost efficiency.
Specific recommendations and
real-life production examples
illustrate how your welding team
can realize productivity gains of 20 percent to 50 percent.
Total Welding Management explains the management
principles, structure, and details you need to transform your
welding operations from a cost center into a profit center. A
must-read for supervisors, managers, and executives who
seek to make their welding operations more efficient and
more productive. 185 pages, 35 figure, 20 tables, hardbound.
Order yours today: 888-WELDING (935-3464).
Outside North America: 305-824-1177.
Order code: AWS TWM, $49.50
For info, go to



American Welding Society 2006


For Info, go to

Certified Welding Inspector (CWI)
New Orleans, LA
Feb. 914
Waco, TX
Feb. 914
Seattle, WA
Feb. 914
San Diego, CA
Feb. 2328
Atlanta, GA
Feb. 2328
Mobile, AL
Mar. 27
Kansas City, MO
Mar. 27
Houston, TX
Mar. 27
Norfolk, VA
Mar. 27
Milwaukee, WI
Mar. 27
Birmingham, AL
Mar. 914
Indianapolis, IN
Mar. 914
Boston, MA
Mar. 914
Portland, OR
Mar. 914
Rochester, NY
Exam only
York, PA
Exam only
Miami, FL
Mar. 2328
Chicago, IL
Mar. 2328
Springfield, MO
Mar. 2328
Dallas, TX
Mar. 2328
Minneapolis, MN
Mar. 30Apr. 4
Las Vegas, NV
Mar. 30Apr. 4
Syracuse, NY
Mar. 30Apr. 4
San Francisco, CA
Apr. 611
New Orleans, LA
Apr. 611
Nashville, TN
Apr. 611
Corpus Christi, TX
Exam only
Miami, FL
Exam only
St. Louis, MO
Exam only
Annapolis, MD
Apr. 27May 2
Detroit, MI
Apr. 27May 2
Corpus Christi, TX
Apr. 27May 2
Knoxville, TN
Exam only
Fresno, CA
May 49
Miami, FL
May 49
Albuquerque, NM
May 49
Oklahoma City, OK
May 49
Corpus Christi, TX
Exam only
Birmingham, AL
June 16
Hutchinson, KS
June 16
Spokane, WA
June 16
Bakersfield, CA
June 813
Pittsburgh, PA
June 813
Beaumont, TX
June 813
Miami, FL
Exam only
Hartford, CT
June 2227
Orlando, FL
June 2227
Memphis, TN
June 2227

Certification Seminars, Code Clinics, and Examinations

Feb. 15
Feb. 15
Feb. 15
Mar. 1
Mar. 1
Mar. 8
Mar. 8
Mar. 8
Mar. 8
Mar. 8
Mar. 15
Mar. 15
Mar. 15
Mar. 15
Mar. 22
Mar. 22
Mar. 29
Mar. 29
Mar. 29
Mar. 29
Apr. 5
Apr. 5
Apr. 5
Apr. 12
Apr. 12
Apr. 12
Apr. 12
Apr. 17
Apr. 19
May 3
May 3
May 3
May 3
May 10
May 10
May 10
May 10
May 31
June 7
June 7
June 7
June 14
June 14
June 14
June 19
June 28
June 28
June 28

Certified Welding Educator (CWE)

Seminar and exam are given at all sites listed under Certified
Welding Inspector. Seminar attendees will not attend the Code
Clinic portion of the seminar (usually the first two days).

Certified Welding Supervisor (CWS)

New Orleans, LA
Mar. 31Apr. 4
Minneapolis, MN
July 1418
CWS exams are also given at all CWI exam sites.

Apr. 5
July 19

9-Year Recertification Seminar for CWI/SCWI

(No exams given.)
For current CWIs and SCWIs needing to meet education requirements without taking the exam. The exam can be taken at any site
listed under Certified Welding Inspector.
Denver, CO
Feb. 914
Dallas, TX
Mar. 914
Miami, FL
Mar. 2328
Sacramento, CA
Apr. 27May 2
Boston, MA
Apr. 27May 2
Charlotte, NC
May 49
Pittsburgh, PA
June 16
San Diego, CA
July 1318
Miami, FL
July 27Aug. 1
Certified Radiographic Interpreter (CRI)
Seattle, WA
Feb. 2428
Mar. 1
Houston, TX
Mar. 31Apr. 4
Apr. 5
Las Vegas, NV
May 59
May 10
Miami, FL
June 26
June 7
The CRI certification can be a stand-alone credential or can
exempt you from your next 9-Year Recertification.
Certified Robotic Arc Welding (CRAW)
The seminar dates (S:) are followed by the exam dates (E:)
S: Feb. 1013, E: Feb. 14; S: July 2831, E: Aug. 1; at
ABB, Inc., Auburn Hills, MI; (248) 3918421
S: Feb. 2426, E: Feb. 27, 28; S: Apr. 2123, E: Apr. 24, 25;
S: Oct. 2022, E: Oct. 23, 24; at
OTC Daihen, Inc., Tipp City, OH; (937) 667-0800
S: Mar. 35, E: Mar. 6; S: Oct. 2022, E: Oct. 23; at
Lincoln Electric Co., Cleveland, OH; (216) 383-8542
S: Feb. 1720, E: Feb. 21; S: Apr. 710, E: Apr. 11;
S: Aug. 1114, E: Aug. 15; S: Oct. 1316, E: Oct. 17; at
Genesis-Systems Group, Davenport, IA; (563) 445-5688
S: Mar. 1719, E: Mar. 20, 21; S: May 1921, E: May 22, 23;
S: July 2123, E: July 24, 25; S: Sept. 2224, E: Sept. 25, 26;
S: Nov. 1719, E: Nov. 20, 21; at
Wolf Robotics, Fort Collins, CO; (970) 225-7736
On request at
MATC, Milwaukee, WI; (414) 297-6996

Certified Welding Sales Representative (CWSR)

CWSR exams will be given at CWI exam sites.
IMPORTANT: This schedule is subject to change without notice. Applications are to be received at least six weeks prior to the seminar/exam or exam. Applications received after that time will be assessed a $250 Fast Track fee. Please verify application deadline
dates by visiting our website Verify your event dates with the Certification Dept. to
confirm your course status before making travel plans. For information on AWS seminars and certification programs, or to register
online, visit or call (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 273, for Certification; or ext. 455 for Seminars. Apply early to
avoid paying the $250 Fast Track fee.


The AWS Foundation

is pleased to announce
for the 2013-2014
20013-2014 scho
ool year
Donald J. Beneteau Scholarship
ith hard work and dedication, all
goals, no matter where they are along
the horizon, will be obtained."
Zachary Courtright
The Ohio State University
eelding Engineering

WS International
Internationa Scholarship
"Thank you selecting me as a
2013-2014 recipient of a A
International Scholarship. This
scholarship not only provides financial
support, it is also a source of
encouragement because of the
irreplaceable role A
WS plays in my
field of study
y, W
. I
will use this scholarship to continue my education as
every semester I am one step closer to making my
career aspirations a reality
reality.. Thank you for your
Isira U. Abeyagunawardana
Ferris State University
eelding Engineering T

James A. T
r. Memorial Scholarship
It is truly an honor to be chosen as
the 2013-2014 recipient for the James
A. Turner,
Jr.. Memorial Scholarship.
, Jr
Catrina Fox
University of South Alabama
Business Administration

Hil Bax Scholarships

Joe Grinston III
Southwestern Illinois College
Brandi Phelps
aatterott College

Colorado Section Scholarships

Thank you to the Colorado section
WS for selecting me as the
of the AWS
recipient for the 2013-2014
scholarship. Y
oour generosity helps
help me
to achieve a lifelong goal of mine.
That being having a degree in welding
technology.. It also shows my daughter
that having a sense of commitment to your goals,
your dreams can come true. Having great instructors
like Christy Dvorsky and Herb Beaven and the rest
of the staf
ff at Front Range Community College has
made it possible for me to sharpen my skills as a
welder.. Thank you again for your support in my
continuing education.
Joel Hinze
Front Range Community College
ldi T
e h l
My name is Amber Metheny.
Metheny. I
received two awards from the
American Welding
Society (A
WS and
I can not express how greatful I am for
this generosity and honor
honor.. I am feel so
blessed to be acknowledged for this
honor as a welding degree student. I
am a full time student, full time mother of three
boys, and I find such joy in my academic
accomplishments. I love what I do and enjoy the
great people I have met along this journey
journey.. It's years
from where I want to be but I am so proud of myself,
my talent. Thank you so very much to all those in
The American W
Society for helping me
accomplish more of my goals. Respectfully Yours
Amber M
Aims Community College
eelding T
I am extremely honored to be one of
the first ever recipients of the AWS
Colorado Section Named Scholarship.
This scholarship not only helps to
make my education more af
also shows the support of the
professional community towards the
upcoming generation of welders. For what is
considered an alternative educational path it is
comforting to have the support and backing of the
community of my peers who see the value of
learning welding as a lifelong skill. I am extremely
proud to say I am welding for the strength of
America and to be honored with such a show of

confidence by my section. This scholarship goes

beyond myself, it goes to show there is support for
those who wish to carry on our trade in as skilled and
educated a manner as possible.
Diego Ulibarri
Red Rocks Community College

Leo D.. Veal

Memorial Scholarship (Mobile)
I am honored and very grateful to be
selected to receive the Leo D. V
Memorial Scholarship. I know this
award will help me further my
education. I thank the Mobile Section
of the American W
eldi S
i t ffor
their generosity and support.
Mark Murphy
Reid State T
Weelding T

illiam H. Harrison
Scholarship (Mobile)
Jrr.,. Memorial Sch
Zackery Br
Ferris State University
eelding Engineering

W.. Gardner
James W
Ozark Section Scholarship
"Being selected as a recipient for the
- Ozark Scholarship
James W.
W. Gardner
is an honor
honor.. I really appreciate this
award and will continue to work hard
in my pursuit of the Associate of
Applied Science Welding
degree and the Associate of Applied
Science Drafting and Design degree, from Ozarks
Community College,
to prove my
appreciation. This will all help me someday achieve
my long term goal of a career in the industry of
Brie H. Jenkins
Ozark Technical
Commun College
Weelding T

U.S./European Welding Standards
January 2628
Miami, Fla.
The American Welding Society (AWS) and Germanys
Gesellschaft fr Schweitechnik International (GSI) have partnered to deliver a unique conference at which U.S. and European
welding standards will be presented, compared, and discussed.
This conference will benefit engineers, inspectors, supervisors,
and quality control personnel who are familiar with only one set
of standards. Topics include welding standards covering structural
fabrication, pressure vessels, railway vehicles, and company certification. The format of the conference will be one expert presentation on the U.S. standards followed by an expert presentation
on the comparable European standards for each topic. There will
be open discussion allotted for each topic period.

Energy Conference
February 5, 6
New Orleans, La.
The demand for new and improved welding technology from
the expanding energy markets is starting to pay off in the development of superior hybrid welding processes, new filler metals,
and hosts of cladding procedures. The technologies are showing
up in nuclear power plants, coal-fired utilities, and especially in
the new 1700-mile-long pipelines designed to bring oil and natural gas to American markets.

Pipelines Conference
March 4, 5
Houston, Tex.
Welding has always been an integral part of pipeline construction, going all the way back to the days when hand-held oxyacetylene torches were used to connect pipes in the field. Current and
future pipeline welding trends will be discussed.

Stainless Steel Conference

March 25, 26
Philadelphia, Pa.
This conference will bring together some of industrys most
outstanding experts to discuss the welding of austenitic, duplex,
and other grades of stainless steel. Topics will include dissimilar
metal welds between stainless and steel, repair welding, cladding,
cleaning, and the pitfalls involved in stress corrosion cracking.

International Symposium on Advances

in Resistance Welding
April 2830
Atlanta, Ga.
This is a technical conference on resistance welding topics
presented by AWS and the Resistance Welding Manufacturing
Alliance (RWMA).

Aluminum Conference
May 28, 29
New Orleans, La.
The 17th Aluminum Welding Conference will feature a distinguished panel of aluminum-industry experts who will survey
the state of the art in aluminum welding technology and practice. This conference also provides several opportunities for you
to network informally with speakers and other participants, as
well as to visit an exhibition showcasing products and services
available to the aluminum welding industry.

Welding Education, Skills, and

Certifications Conference
July 2325
Indianapolis, Ind.
The American Welding Society has created a conference program that answers questions on the essential requirements to become an Accredited Testing Facility. Conference topics include
skill training, curriculum strategies, advanced e-learning strategies, and many others. Educational institutions, corporate trainers, and educators are all encouraged to attend.

Heat Treatment Conference

August 12, 13
Dallas, Tex.
The thermal effects from welding and heat treatment influence the microstructure and mechanical properties of welds. Various materials, such as carbon steels and other alloy grades, are
affected by heat treatment, which changes the weld metallurgy
and influences the final welded product. Better understanding
of the impact of welding and heat treatment practices can allow
for optimization of weld quality and reliability.

Weld Cracking Conference

April 15, 16
Denver, Colo.

Additive Manufacturing Conference

September 9, 10
Orlando, Fla.

This conference will help welding engineers and others avoid

mistakes and turn out high-quality products. Topics range from
impact tests and how they relate to potential weld cracking as
well as the control of moisture in welding consumables.

Come and learn about additive manufacturing processes such

as powder bed fusion, material extrusion, directed energy deposition, and material jetting. These are just a few of the topics that
will be discussed.

For more information, please contact the AWS Conferences and Seminars Business Unit at (800) 443-9353, ext. 223, or e-mail You can also visit the Conference Department website at for upcoming conferences
and registration information.


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and how they compare with U.S. standards?
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Datasheet 345

Protecting the Eyes and Face

When selecting equipment for eye and face protection, keep
in mind that all such equipment shall comply with ANSI/ISEA
Z87.1, Occupational and Educational Personal Eye and Face Protection Devices.

Arc Welding and Cutting with Open Arcs

When arc welding and/or cutting with an open arc, operators
and any nearby personnel shall use helmets or hand shields with
filter lenses and cover lenses when viewing the arc. They also
need to wear protective spectacles with side shields, arc goggles,
or other approved eye protection.
Welding helmets with filter lenses are intended to protect
users from arc rays and from weld sparks and spatter that impinge directly against the helmet. To protect the user from impact hazards when the welding helmet may be raised during use,
spectacles with lateral protection or goggles should also be worn.
The spectacles or goggles may have either clear or filtered lenses,
depending upon the amount of exposure to adjacent welding or
cutting radiation. Others in the immediate welding area should
wear similar eye protection. Welding helmets will not protect against
the severe impact of fragmenting grinding wheels, abrasive discs,
or explosive devices.

Oxyfuel Gas Welding and Cutting and

Submerged Arc Welding
Welding goggles, or welding helmet or welding faceshield over
spectacles or goggles shall be worn during all oxyfuel gas welding and cutting, and submerged arc welding operations.
It is recommended that such eye protection offer lateral (side)

Resistance Welding and Brazing

Operators of resistance welding or brazing equipment and
their helpers are to wear welding goggles, or welding helmet or
welding faceshield over spectacles or goggles for eye and face

Large Area Viewing

If theres a large area viewing, such as for training, demonstrations, shows, and certain automatic welding operations, it is permissible to use a large filter window or curtain in lieu of eye and
face protection. The radiation transmission of the window or curtain material shall be equivalent to that in ANSI/ISEA Z87.1 for
shade number appropriate to the welding or cutting operation.
Additionally, suitable arrangements shall be provided to
prevent direct viewing of the arc without filter protection and
to protect viewers from sparks and chipped slag.

Requirements for Eye and Face Protection

Filter Lenses. Filter lenses shall be in accordance with

ANSI/ISEA Z87.1, and the shade shall be selected in accordance

with AWS F2.2, Lens Shade Selector.
Filter lenses should be free from any flaws that may distract,
block, or otherwise impair vision. People with special eye conditions should consult their physician for specific information
on protective equipment.
Material Properties. Helmet and hand shield bodies are to
be made of material that is thermally and electrically insulating, noncombustible or self-extinguishing, and opaque to visible, ultraviolet, and infrared radiation. They also must comply
with the requirements of ANSI/ISEA Z87.1.
Welding helmets, hand shields, and goggles that comply with
ANSI/ISEA Z87.1 are limited in combustibility.
Area of Protection. When there is a possibility of hazardous exposure, helmets and hand shields shall protect the face, forehead,
neck, and ears to a vertical line in back of the ears, from direct radiant energy from the arc, and from direct weld spatter.
Some low-current processes, such as with micro plasma arcs,
may not present a hazardous radiation exposure, but may have
a spatter exposure. Therefore, operators should be provided
with safety glasses even if there is no radiation hazard.
Effect of Materials on Skin. Materials in contact with the
body shall not readily irritate or discolor the skin.
Goggle Ventilation. Goggles are to be vented to deter fogging of the lenses in accordance with ANSI Z87.1.
Outer Cover Lenses. Outer lenses are to be provided to protect the filter lens in goggles, helmets, or hand shields from
welding spatter, pitting, or scratching. Outer cover lenses should
be made of clear glass or self-extinguishing plastic, but need
not be impact resistant.
Inner Lenses or Plates. If you are using a lift front type of
welders helmet, there should be a fixed impact-resistant safety
lens or plate on the inside of the frame nearest to the eyes to protect the welder against flying particles when the front is lifted.
Marking. Filter lenses shall bear some permanent distinctive marking by which the manufacturer may be readily identified. In addition, all filter lenses shall be marked with their
shade number and in accordance with the requirements of ANSI
Radiation Transmittance Properties. All filter lenses are to
meet the Ultraviolet, Luminous and Infrared Transmittance
requirements of ANSI Z87.1.
Maintenance. Helmets, handshields, and goggles shall be well
maintained, and should not be transferred from one employee
to another without being cleaned. Refer to the manufacturers
instructions to learn the methods of cleaning these items.

Selecting a Lens Shade

As a rule of thumb, start with a shade that is too dark to see
the weld zone. Then go to a lighter shade that gives sufficient
view of the weld zone without going below the minimum.
In oxyfuel gas welding, cutting, or brazing where the torch
and/or the flux produces a high yellow light, it is desirable to use
a filter lens that absorbs the yellow or sodium line of the visible
light spectrum.

Excerpted from ANSI Z49.1: 2012, Safety in Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes.


Pipelines Conference


back to the days when hand-held oxyacetylene torches wer 
 re pipeline welding trends will be
     AWS-sponsored confer     
Learn about the progress of new and innovative developments

in pipeline welding.

business growth.
AWS Conference attendees are awarded 1 PDH (Professional

Development Hour) for each hour of conference attendance.

and renewals.

For the latest conference information and registration visit our web site at or call 800-443-9353, ext. 223.



AWS Elects National and District Officers for 2014

Dean R. Wilson

David J. Landon
vice president

The American Welding Society has elected its incoming slate

of national and District officers,
effective Jan. 1, 2014.
Dean R. Wilson was elected
president. He is president of
Welldean Enterprises, a provider
of health, safety, and welding
products and industry consulting.
Earlier, he was director of welding business development at
Jackson Safety Products and
president of Wilson Industries
from 1987 to 2007. He has
worked on numerous AWS
standing committees, including
WEMCO, An Association of
Welding Equipment Manufacturers, where he served as chair
in 2005.
David J. Landon was elected
to a third term as a vice president.
Since 1992, he has worked as
manager of welding engineering
and missions support at Vermeer
Mfg. Co. and is an AWS Senior
Certified Welding Inspector.
Previously, he operated Landons Welding Services performing failure analyses, inspections,
and welder training and worked
as a welding engineer for
Chicago Bridge and Iron Co. He
has served on many AWS technical committees and as a Delegate
to the IIW Commission XIV,
Welding Education and Training.
David L. McQuaid was
elected to his second term as a
vice president. He heads D. L.
McQuaid and Associates, Inc.,

David L. McQuaid
vice president

which he founded in 1999. He has

chaired the D1 Structural Welding and the Technical Activities
Committees. At American
Bridge Div. of U.S. Steel Corp.,
he served as senior welding engineer and corporate engineer.
In 2009, he received the American National Standards Institute
Finegan Standards Medal for his
many contributions to industrial
John Bray was elected to
serve his first term as a vice president. A past chair of the Houston Section, he most recently
served as Dist. 18 director. Bray
is with Affiliated Machinery,
Inc., in Pearland, Tex., where he
has served as president for the
past 18 years.
W. Richard Polanin, a recent
Dist. 13 director, was elected to
serve as a director-at-large.
Polanin is a professor and program chair of Manufacturing Engineering Technology at Illinois
Central College and president of
WRP Associates. He is an AWS
Certified Welding Inspector,
Welder, and Welding Educator,
and is a SME Certified Manufacturing Engineer. He has served
as chair of the Peoria Section,
and a member of the AWS D16
Committee on Automated and
Robotic Welding, and AWS Robotic Technician Certification
Robert Roth, president and
CEO of RoMan Mfg., Inc., was

John Bray
vice president

W. Richard Polanin

elected to serve as a director-atlarge. Roth serves on the Finance

Committee, is a past chair of
WEMCO (An Association of
Welding Equipment Manufacturers), and serves on a number
of RWMA (Resistance Welding
Manufacturing Alliance) subcommittees.
Harland Thompson was
elected to serve a second term as
Dist. 2 director. Thompson is
senior project engineer and
welding supervisor for Underwriters Laboratories (UL), Inc.,
in Melville, N.Y. Prior to joining
UL in 2006, he worked in engineering and quality assurance
positions at Belle Transit Div.,
the Long Island Railroad,
Thompson Transit Services,
Ronkonkoma, N.Y.; and LTK
Engineering Services.
Carl Matricardi was elected
to continue serving as Dist. 5 director. He is founder and president of Welding Solutions, Inc.,
in Lawrenceville, Ga. In the
welding industry for 38 years, he
is an AWS Certified Welding Inspector and Welding Educator,
and vice chair of the Atlanta Section. Matricardi worked as a
shipyard welder before earning
his masters degree in education.
He has taught welding and manufacturing processes in colleges
and state universities, and served
as an expert witness.
D. Joshua Burgess was
elected Dist. 8 director. He has

Robert Roth

Harland Thompson
Dist. 2 director

Carl Matricardi
Dist. 5 director



D. Joshua Burgess
Dist. 8 director

Robert Wilcox
Dist. 11 director

served as Dist. 8 deputy director since 2009.

Burgess holds a Masters in welding metallurgy
and expects to defend his PhD dissertation this
year. An AWS certified Level III Expert welder,
he competed in the VICA welding contests where
he was a two-time Tennessee State Champion and
ranked third in the nation at the SkillsUSA competition. Currently a consultant engineer for Materials Applications, Inc., he will begin work as a
welding engineer at Alstom in Chattanooga, Tenn.,
in March.
Robert Wilcox, an AWS member since 1974,
was elected to a second term as Dist. 11 director.
He has served in many Detroit Section officer positions, including chair. He has worked in the automobile industry as a cost estimator, buyer, and
quality manager. Currently, he owns and operates
Warriors of Faith Martial Arts Academy.
Robert Richwine, an AWS Distinguished Member with the Indiana Section, was elected to a second term as Dist. 14 director. With Ivy Tech Community College since 1994, he serves as director
of its new Welding Institute. He has received the
District CWI of the Year, Meritorious, Private Sector Educator, and the District Educator and District Director Awards, the National Meritorious

Robert Richwine
Dist. 14 director

Jerry Knapp
Dist. 17 director

and the National Image of Welding Awards.

Jerry Knapp, an AWS member for more than
35 years, was elected Dist. 17 director. Knapp has
served as Tulsa Section chair for two years and is
presently a board advisor. He has extensive experience as a salesman in the gas and welding supply industry. He has worked for Alloy Welding Supply, Arkansas Specialty Co., Jimmie Jones, National Welding Supply, Bell Helicopter, Adair
Sheet Metal, Hobbs Trailers, and American Mfg.
of Texas.
John Stoll, an AWS Life Member, was elected
Dist. 18 director to fill the last year of John Brays
second term. Active with the Houston Section, he
served as chair 20092010 and assisted with its
CWI exams and welding contests. He currently
serves on API technical committees. Recently, he
joined The Bohler Welding Group North America as industry segment manager, Power and Petrochemical, Technical Services.
Pierrette Gorman was elected Dist. 20 director. She has chaired the New Mexico Section twice
and received the Section and District Meritorious
Awards. She served ten years at Sandia National
Laboratories as a lead process engineer involved
with lean manufacturing and laser processing. Ear-

John Stoll
Dist. 18 director

Pierrette Gorman
Dist. 20 director
lier, she worked as a research and applications
engineer at Optomec,
Inc.; welding engineer at
Wilson Greatbatch, Ltd.;
and a research technician
at EWI where she explored resistance welding
of dissimilar materials.
She holds two patents on
forming structures from
CAD solid models.

AWS Headquarters Campus Lauded by the City of Doral

Shown at the Doral City Council meeting Nov. 13 are (from left) Adam Temple, Sandra Ruiz, Hidail Nuez, Jim Lankford, Mayor Luigi
Boria, Bettina Rodriguez Aguilera, Ana Maria Rodriguez, and Vice Mayor Christi Fraga.
The American Welding Societys
World Headquarters campus was voted to
receive the 2013 Keep Doral Beautiful
Award during a meeting of the Doral City
Council Nov. 13. The Society was nominated for the recognition by Adam Temple, interim director of code compliance.


The citation noted the American Welding

Society campus, which houses the offices
of Sen. Marco Rubio and Congressman
Mario Diaz-Balart, has undergone major
construction, renovations, and a beautification facelift. Receiving the award from
Mayor Luigi Boria were Jim Lankford,

managing director, and Hidail Nuez, director, of AWS Administrative Services.

The Doral City Council members in attendance included Vice Mayor Christi
Fraga and Councilwomen Bettina Rodriguez Aguilera, Ana Maria Rodriguez,
and Sandra Ruiz.

Tech Topics
A2 Committee Meets at EWI in Columbus

Shown during the Oct. 29, 30 A2 Committee meeting at EWI in Columbus, Ohio, are (from left) Richard Holdren, Secretary Stephen Borrero, Chris Lander, Chuck Ford, Dave Beneteau, Bob Anderson, Mike Ludwig, Chris Thurow, Pat Newhouse, Ben Finney, Bryan Worley, J.
P. Christein, and Brian Galliers. The Committee members met to discuss the revisions for AWS A3.0, Standard Welding Terms and Definitions, and A2.4, Standard Symbols for Welding, Brazing, and Nondestructive Examination.
Standard for Public Review
D10.17M/D10.17:201X, Guide for
Welding Tubular Steel Vehicle Structures.
$35. Review expired 12/16/2013. E-mail B.
McGrath,, to order a
copy. AWS was approved as an accredited
standards-preparing organization by the
American National Standards Institute in
1979. AWS rules require that all standards
be open to public review for comment during the approval process.
New Standards Projects
Development work has begun to revise
the following standards. Affected individuals are invited to contribute to this work.
F4.2:201X, Safety Guidelines for Proper
Selection and Safe Use of Welding Cables.
This document provides guidance on the
safe and proper selection of welding cables. This includes identifying specific criteria including minimum copper content,
gauge sizing, electrical performance, and
resistance for welding cable sizes. Stakeholders: Personnel involved in welding.
Contact Steve Hedrick,
E-mail Chelsea Lewis,,
for information on the following projects.
C4.1:201X, Criteria for Describing Oxygen-Cut Surfaces. This set consists of a
plastic gauge with samples of oxygen-cut
surfaces, and a document including descriptive terms and illustrations of surface
cuts. Stakeholders: Oxyfuel gas cutters and
inspectors as an aid to identify acceptance
levels of oxygen-cut surfaces. C4.1 is referenced in several AWS D.1 structural
welding documents.
Practices for Safe Oxyfuel Gas Cutting Torch

Operation. This document includes the

procedures to be used in conjunction with
oxyfuel gas cutting equipment and the latest safety requirements. Complete lists of
equipment are available from individual
manufacturers. Stakeholders: Oxyfuel gas
operators involved with cutting steel plate
and tooling fabrication, equipment manufacturers, and building construction.
C4.3/C4.3:201X, Recommended Practices for Safe Oxyfuel Gas Heating Torch
Operation. The document includes the latest safety requirements and procedures
to be used in conjunction with oxyfuel gas
heating equipment. Stakeholders: Oxyfuel gas heating and welding operators,
and steel mill, fabrication, and tool shop
C4.4/C4M:201X, Recommended Practices for Heat Shaping and Straightening
with Oxyfuel Gas Heating Torches. This edition covers the shaping of metal products
by prudent use of heat to obtain a desired
configuration. The text reviews the theory
and analytical calculations that explain
how heat shaping and straightening occur.
Sample calculations and tables are presented for typical materials. General heating patterns and heat shaping and straightening techniques are discussed. Specific
heating applications are illustrated for various sections. Stakeholders: Oxyfuel gas
heating torch operators and users of oxyfuel gas welding systems.
C4.5M:201X, Uniform Designation System for Oxyfuel Nozzles. This document
recommends identification markings to be
permanently applied to the torch nozzle
to identify its intended application and to
improve the safe operation and applica-

David Trees (left) receives his Silver Member Certificate from Lee Kvidahl, a past
AWS president, during the Membership
Committee meeting Oct. 23 at AWS World
Headquarters in Miami, Fla. The Silver
Member Certificate is presented for 25
years of service to the Society.
tion of nozzles by torch operators. Stakeholders: Members of the oxyfuel gas welding and cutting community.
C7.2M:201X, Recommended Practices
for Laser Beam Welding, Cutting and Allied
Processes. This document can be used for
welding, cutting, drilling, and transformation hardening of various materials. These
recommended practices stress the process
basics, parameters, and applications.
Stakeholders: Members of the laser beam
welding industry.



C7.3M/C7.3:201X, Process Specification

for Electron Beam Welding. This publication discusses applicable specifications,
safety, requirements, fabrication, quality
examination, equipment calibration and
maintenance, approval of work, and delivery of work. It addresses processing and
quality control requirements for electron
beam welding with both high- and low-voltage welding equipment in high- and
medium-vacuum variations. Stakeholders:
Manufacturers, welding engineers, and machine operators.
D18.3/D18.3M:201X, Specification for
Welding of Tanks, Vessels, and Other Equipment in Sanitary (Hygienic) Applications.
This specification provides the requirements for welding tanks, vessels, and other

equipment used in food-processing and

other areas where hygienic applications are
required. Addressed are qualification, fabrication, extent of visual examination, acceptance criteria, and documentation.
Stakeholders: Suppliers of medical and
food-service equipment.
Technical Committee Meetings
All AWS technical committee meetings
are open to the public. To attend a meeting, e-mail the program manager listed.
Jan. 29, 30, Technical Activities Committee. Miami, Fla. Contact A. Alonso,
Jan. 29, International Standards Activities Committee. Miami, Fla. Contact A.

Nominations Sought for

Masubuchi Award
The Prof. Koichi Masubuchi Award,
with a $5000 honorarium, is presented
to one person, 40 years old or younger,
who has made significant contributions
to the advancement of materials joining
through research and development.
Send a list of your candidates experience, publications, honors, awards, and
at least three letters of recommendation
from fellow researchers to Todd Palmer,, associate professor,
The Pennsylvania State University. The
award is sponsored by the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, Dept. of Ocean

U.S. Experts Sought to Develop ISO Standard on Micro Melting Diffusion Bonding
The U.S. TAG (Technical Advisory
Group) that serves as the United States
National Committee to ISO/TC 44/SC 10,
Unification of Requirements in the Field
of Metal Welding, seeks United States ex-

perts to serve on a newly created subgroup

dealing with micro melting diffusion
The group is curently working on a new
ISO standard concerning micro joining

of second-generation high-temperature
For complete information, contact Andrew Davis, managing director, technical

Opportunities to Serve on Technical Committees

Volunteers are sought to contribute to the following technical committees. Visit
Methods of Weld Inspection, The B1
Committee seeks educators, general interest,
and end users. E. Abrams,
Safety and Health Committee seeks educators, users, general interest, and consultants. S. Hedrick,
Oxyfuel gas welding and cutting, C4 Committee seeks educators, general interest, and
end users. C. Lewis,
Friction welding, C6 Committee seeks
professionals. C. Lewis,
High energy beam welding and cutting,
C7 Committee seeks professionals. C. Lewis,
Magnesium alloy filler metals, A5L Subcommittee seeks professionals. R. Gupta,

Robotic and automatic welding, D16

Committee seeks general interest and educational members. B. McGrath, bmcgrath@
Local heat treating of pipe, D10P Subcommittee seeks professionals. B. McGrath,
Mechanical testing of welds, B4 Committee seeks professionals. B. McGrath,
Reactive Alloys, G2D Subcommittee seeks
volunteers. A. Diaz,
Titanium and zirconium filler metals,
A5K Subcommittee seeks professionals. A.
Welding qualifications, B2B Subcommittee seeks members. A. Diaz,

Friction stir welding of aluminum alloys

for aerospace applications, D17J Subcommittee seeks members. A. Diaz, adiaz@
Resistance welding equipment, J1 Committee seeks educators, general interest, and
users. E. Abrams,
Thermal spraying and automotive welding, The D8 and C2 Committees seek educators, general interest, and end users. E.
Machinery and equipment and surfacing
and reconditioning of industrial mill rolls,
D14 Committee and D14H Subcommittee
seek professionals. E. Abrams, eabrams@

Member-Get-A-Member Campaign
Listed are the members participating in the June 1Dec. 31, 2013, campaign. Members receive 5 points for each Individual and 1 point for
each Student Member recruited. Standings as of Nov. 20. See page 85 of this Welding Journal for campaign rules and prize list or visit Call (800) 443-9353, ext. 480, for more information.
20+ Points
J. Compton, San Fernando Valley 85
J. Morris, Mobile 75
M. Anderson, Indiana 57
D. Ebenhoe, Kern 50
G. Fudala, Philadelphia 45
M. Box, Mobile 42
B. Scherer, Cincinnati 40
K. Rawlins, Columbia 31
M. Pelegrino, Chicago 30
S. Siviski, Maine 29
B. Trankler, West Tennessee 27



D. Wheeler, Oklahoma City 25

R. Richwine, Indiana 25
G. Gammill, NE Mississippi 24
D. Saunders, Lakeshore 22
F. Babish, Lehigh Valley 20
C. Daon, Israel 20
R. Jones, Atlanta 20
1119 Points
M. Kress, Chattanooga 19
J. Vincent, Kansas City 18
D. Bastian, NW Pa. 16

P. Kreitman, Chicago 15
S. Lathrop, Puget Sound 15
S. Lindsey, San Diego 15
F. Oravets, Pittsburgh 15
S. Schulte, Kansas City 15
J. Terry, Greater Huntsville 15
R. Riggs, Tulsa 14
H. Hughes, Mahoning Valley 13
J. Goodson, New Orleans 12
R. Poirier, Tidewater 11
J. Carney, West Michigan 11
S. Robeson, Cumberland Valley 11

Shown during the Boston Sections tour are (from left) Dist. 1 Director Tom Ferri, Fitz Acheson, John Hamel, Kevin Noel, Dave Aubin, and
Jeff Mannette, Section chair.

Biazzio Giordano, Student Chapter advisor,

is shown at the Philadelphia Section event.

Students participating in the Philadelphia Section program are (from left) Trace Say, Nick
Parrish, Malik Downing, Jacob Doll, and Daniel Fillipelli.

District 1

District 2

Thomas Ferri, director

(508) 527-1884

Activity: The Section visited Climax
Portable Machine and Welding Systems in
Amherst, N.H. Conducting the tour were
Fitz Acheson, John Hamel, Kevin Noel,
and Dave Aubin.

AWS Member Counts

December 1, 2013
Sustaining ......................................601
Supporting .....................................344
Educational ...................................664
Welding Distributor........................50
Total Corporate ..........................2,204
Individual .................................59,225
Student + Transitional .................9,670
Total Members .........................68,895

Harland W. Thompson, director

(631) 546-2903

CTE Student Chapter
Activity: The Section members met at
Parkside High School Career and Technical Education Center in Salisbury, Md., to

see members of the Student Chapter

demonstrate their welding skills and learn
about the schools welder education program. Leading the event was welding instructor and Student Chapter Advisor Biazzio Bill Giordano.

District 3

Michael Wiswesser, director

(610) 820-9551

Actions of Districts Council

On Nov. 17, 2013, after due consideration, Districts Council approved the
Monterrey Section charter (Dist. 18).
Approved: Transferring Jackson, Lee,
Pulaski, and Rockcastle Counties from
the NE Tennessee Section (Dist. 8) to the
Lexington Section (Dist. 14).
Approved: Student Chapter charters
for York Tech Welding (Dist. 4), Bradley
Central High School (Dist. 8), NE Wisconsin Technical College (Dist. 12), and

West Seattle (Dist. 19).

Approved: Disbanding the following
Student Chapters: North Montco Technical Career Center (Dist. 2); Central
Westmoreland Career and Technical
Center (Dist. 7); and Kent Meridian High
School, Lake Washington Technical College, Olympic College, South Sound,
Spokane Community College, and TriTech Skills Center (Dist. 19); and the
Wilmington Skills Center (Dist. 21).


The York-Central Pennsylvania Section members are shown at Legacy Innovations in November.

Speaker: David McQuaid, AWS VP
Affiliation: D. L. McQuaid & Associates
Topic: Welding repairs and heat straightening
Activity: Following the talk, the Section
members toured the Altec Industries, Inc.,
facility in Daleville, Va. Stewart Harris,
Dist. 4 director, attended the event.

Shown at the SW Virginia Section tour are (from left) David Owens, Greg McQuaid, Chair
Bill Rhodes, speaker David McQuaid, Dist. 4 Director Stewart Harris, and David Cash.

District 5
Carl Matricardi, director
(770) 979-6344

Activity: The Section members toured the
Applied Technical Services facility in Marietta, Ga., to study its weld testing and
training operations. Jason Loy led the tour
assisted by Jeff George and David Mock.


Southwest Virginia Section members are shown during their tour of Altec Industries.

Activity: The members visited York
County School of Technology in York, Pa.,
to compete using the VRTEX virtual reality arc welding trainer. Dave Watson,
Lincoln Electric sales engineer, conducted
the contest. Jay Covert won the event.

Shown at the York-Central Pennsylvania

Section Oct. 17 event, speaker Dave Watson
(left) presents Jay Covert with a welders helmet for winning a competition using virtual
reality arc welding training equipment.


Activity: The Section members joined
members of the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, headed by
Chair Alexandra Anagnostis, to tour the
Tampa Yacht Mfg. LLC facilities in Pinellas Park, Fla. The tour was conducted by
CEO Bob Stevens and Timothy Chalfant,
chief naval architect.

Activity: The York-Central Pa. Section
members visited Legacy Innovations, Inc.,
in York, Pa., to study the manufacture of
custom-made automobiles.

Speakers: Jessica McRory, Arehna Engineering, Inc.; and John Watson, L.R.E
Ground Services, Inc.
Topic: Detection and repair of sinkholes
Activity: Al Sedory received his Life Member Certificate for 35 years of service to
the Society. This Florida West Coast Section program was held at Spaghetti Warehouse in Tampa, Fla.

District 4

District 6

Stewart A. Harris, director

(919) 824-0520

Kenneth Phy, director

(315) 218-5297

Lawson State Community College Student Chapter members are shown at the November meeting.

Life Member Al Sedory (left) is shown with

Charles Crumpton III, Florida West Coast
Section chair, at the Nov. 13 meeting.

Shown at the Atlanta Section tour are (from left) Jeff George, Dist. 5 Director Carl Matricardi, David Mock, Jason Loy, and Chair David Ennis.

Speaker: Michael Tracy
Affiliation: Hypertherm
Activity: The Section members met at Erie
1 BOCES Workforce Development Center in Cheektowaga, N.Y., for a talk and
demonstration of plasma cutting. Twentyseven members and students attended the


Shown Oct. 16 during the Florida West Coast Section tour are (from left) Bill Machnovitz,
Ray Monson, Chair Charles Crumpton III, Bob Stevens, Alexandra Anagnostis, and Timothy Chalfant.

Activity: Chuck Furman, terminal manager, gave a talk then conducted the Section members on a tour of Global Terminal, Port of Albany, N.Y. The facility is a
distribution center for ethanol, gasoline,
and crude oil.

District 7

Uwe Aschemeier, director

(786) 473-9540

Presenter Chuck Furman (right) is shown

Nov. 5 with Doug Tanner, Northern New
York Section vice chair.

John Watson (center) and Jessica McRory

are shown Nov. 13 with Charles Crumpton
III, Florida West Coast Section chair.


The Birmingham Section and Lawson State C.C. Student Chapter members are shown at the November students night program.

The incoming Lawson State C. C. Student Chapter officers are (from left) Edward Lovell,
P. J. Phillips, Chair Caroline Cotton, Ryan Duke, Roderick Jemison, and Greg Anderson.

Mobile Section Chair Michael Zoghby (left)

is shown with speaker Chip Fonde.

Shown at the New Orleans Section program are (from left) Chair Aldo Duron and presenters Eddie Harper, District 17 Director J. Jones, and Todd Taranto.

Shown at the Nov. 14 Mobile Section program are (from left) Ryan Harrison, Johnny
Dedeaux, and Chair Michael Zoghby.

New Orleans Section meeting participants are (from left) Vernon Delaune, Al Theriot, Chair Aldo Duron, John Marcade, host Rickey Fabra,
Mike Eilers, Ed Dixon, and Neal Keller.


Speaker: David Cook, team leader
Affiliation: Venturi Buckeye Bullet, The
Ohio State University Center for Automotive Research
Topic: Developing high-speed electric cars
Activity: The program was held at La Scala
Restaurant in Columbus, Ohio.

District 8

D. Joshua Burgess, director

(931) 260-7039
Some of the participants are shown at the District 10 CWI Roundtable event.

C. C. Student Chapter
Activity: The Section held its students
night program at Lawson State C. C.,
Bessemer Campus, for 55 attendees. Recruiters David Cobb, Carlos Lett, and
Erica Fleming discussed job openings and
worker benefits at Ingalls Shipbuilding in
Pascagoula, Miss.

Lawson State C. C.
Student Chapter
Activity: The Chapter held its election of
officers. Elected were Chair Caroline Cotton, Vice Chair P. J. Phillips, Secretary Edward Lovell, Treasurer Ryan Duke, Publicity Chair Roderick Jemison, and Program Chair Greg Anderson.

District 9

George Fairbanks Jr., director

(225) 473-6362

Speaker: Chip Fonde, safety director
Affiliation: Taylor-Wharton Cryogenics
Topic: Welding and cutting safety
Activity: The Section, in recognition of
breast cancer awareness, presented a pair
of pink safety glasses to each attendee. The
program was held at The Original Oyster
House in Spanish Fort, Ala.
Speaker: Johnny Dedeaux, senior fixed
equipment engineer
Affiliation: Hargrove Engineers + Constructors, Mobile, Ala.
Topic: Engineering before the Arc
Activity: Dedeaux was assisted by
coworker Ryan Harrison in his presentation detailing a new high-pressure separator used in an oil refinery. The Mobile Section has a new presence at

Shown are Drake Well Section members (from left) front row: Robert Fugate, Ronald Lang,
Jim Shore, Erick Speer, and speaker Ron Stahura; back row: Rolf Laemmer, Ward Kiser,
Mike Owens, and Delayne Jacobs.

Speakers: Eddie Harper, district manager;
Todd Taranto, local representative; and J.
Jones, district director and AWS District
17 director
Affiliation: Harris Products Group
Topic: Brazing and soldering filler metals
Activity: The program was held at
Plumbers & Steamfitters UA Local 60 in
Metairie, La., hosted by Business Manager
Rickey Fabra.

District 10

Robert E. Brenner, director

(330) 484-3650

Activity: The District held its third Certified Welding Inspector (CWI) roundtable
for CWIs to share their experiences and
opinions. The 17 attendees discussed welding procedure specifications, simplified

forms, CWIs value to production, and

quality and interpretation issues. Participating were former Dist. 10 Director
Richard Harris, Bob Gardner, Travis
Crate, Mike Owens, Dan Donaldson, Donald Baize, Phillip Schmidt, Tom Kostreba,
Adam Webb, Mike Barrett, Jason Neff,
Lance Besse, Donna Bastian, Don Adams,
Jim Meyers, John Gorski, and Bob Dissauer. The event was held at The Lincoln
Electric Co. in Euclid, Ohio.

Speaker: Ron Stahura, sales manager
Affiliation: ESAB
Topic: Plasma arc cutting
Activity: The program was held at The
Commons at Franklin, Pa.

Activity: The Section held an executive
committee meeting at Rachels Restaurant
in Austintown, Ohio.


Madison-Beloit Section members and students are shown at the October event.

Shown at the Madison-Beloit event are (from left) Chair Tony Stute, Dave Gilbertson, Rob
Stinson, James Chapman, Ben Newcomb, Chris Wierschke, and Jim Maynard.
Speaker Galen White (left) is shown with
Chuck Moore, Mahoning Valley Section
Speaker: Will Brick, manager
Affiliation: TechShop Detroit
Topic: Introduction to TechShop
Activity: The program was held at
TechShop Detroit in Allen Park, Mich.

District 12
David Havrilla conducts an automotive laser
welding class for the Detroit Section members in November.
Speaker: Galen White, welding engineer
Affiliation: Hobart Brothers
Topic: Trends in welding aluminum
Activity: This Mahoning Valley Section
program was held at Columbiana County
Career Center in Columbiana, Ohio.

District 11
Robert P. Wilcox, director
(734) 721-8272


Speaker Will Brick (right) is shown with Wes

Doneth, Detroit Section chair, at TechShop

Speaker: David Havrilla, manager, products and applications
Affiliation: TRUMPF, Inc.
Topic: Fundamentals of automotive laser
Activity: Havrilla led this 2-h class as part
of the Sections welding education series.
Forty attendees participated in the lecture
and demonstrations held at TRUMPF,
Inc., in Plymouth, Mich.

Daniel J. Roland, director

(715) 735-9341, ext. 6421

Activity: The Section members attended
the Madison Area Technical College open
house in Madison, Wis. They toured its recently expanded welding facilities and saw
its new waterjet cutting machine demonstrated by Instructor Jon Christian. Manufacturing representatives included Rob
Stinson (Lincoln), James Maynard and
Chris Wierschke (Miller), Dave Gilbertson (Encompass Gas of Madison), Ben
Newcomb (Badger Welding Supplies), and
Jim Chapman (Airgas).


4 Easy Ways to Join or Renew:
Mail: Form with your payment, to AWS

Call: Membership Department at (800) 443-9353, ext. 480

Fax: Completed form to (305) 443-5647


contact information
q New Member q Renewal
q Mr. q Ms. q Mrs. q Dr.

Please print Duplicate this page as needed

Last Name:_______________________________________________________________________________
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Please check each box that applies to the Membership or service youd like, and then add the cost together to get your Total Payment.
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A.) OPTIONAL book Selection (Choose from 25 titles; up to a $192 value; includes shipping & handling)
q Individual Members in the U.S..................................................................................................................................$35
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ONLY ONE SELECTION PLEASE. For more book choices visit
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Welding Handbook Selections: q WH (9th Ed., Vol. 4) q WH (9th Ed., Vol. 3) q WH (9th Ed., Vol. 2) q WH (9th Ed., Vol. 1)
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B.) OPTIONAL Welding Journal hard Copy (for Members outside North America)
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Please check each box that applies to the Membership or service youd like, and then add the cost together to get your Total Payment.
q AWS STudEnT MEMbERShIp (One Year)...................................................................................................................$15
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Note: Hard copy option applies to students in U.S., Canada and Mexico. Digital delivery of magazine is standard benefit for all student members.

STudEnT MEMbERShIp TOTAl pAYMEnT......................................................................................$_____________

PaYmEnt information
Payment can be made (in U.S. dollars) by check or money order (international or foreign), payable to the American Welding Society, or by charge card.
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Signature of Applicant:_________________________________________ Application Date:_______________________
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REV. 11/13

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Miami, FL 33166-6672
Telephone (800) 443-9353
FAX (305) 443-5647
Visit our website:
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q Automation
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q Computerization of Welding

St. Louis Section members are shown during their tour of AmerenUE.

Gary Dugger is shown with Bennie Flynn,

Indiana Section chair.

Attendees are shown at the Racine-Kenosha Section tour of Wisconsin Oven Corp.

Activity: The Section met at Wisconsin
Oven Corp in East Troy, Wis., to study its
operations. James Stewart, shop manager,
and Diana Dalgren, head of human resources, conducted a tour. Members of
Gateway Technical College Welding,
Elkhorn Campus, participated in the

District 13
John Willard, director
(815) 954-4838

Indiana Section awardees are (from left) Jack Laudig, Martina Miller, Erin Fromson, Gary
Dugger, and Steve Gillig.

District 14

ceived the District Director Certificate

Award, Gary Dugger the District Private
Sector Educator Award, Jack Laudig the
Section CWI of the Year Award, and Martina Miller the Section Appreciation

Robert L. Richwine, director

(765) 606-7970



Activity: The Section held its annual
awards night hosted by Chair Bennie Flynn
of Flynn Welding Inspection in Solsberry,
Ind. Erin Fromson and Steve Gillig re-

Activity: The Section members toured the
AmerenUE training facilities in St. Louis,
Mo. The guides were John Baima, Laurie
Kutz, and Steve Zaitz.

District 15
David Lynnes, director
(701) 365-0606

Activity: The Section visited the 3M facility in St. Paul, Minn., for a presentation on
new metal-removal products. Guiding the
tour were Brad Johnson, Scott Barnett,
Marv Schifsky, Nick Manor, Nate Herbst,
Jim Olson, and John Barry.


Speaker: Nancy Cole, AWS president
Affiliation: NCC Engineering
Topic: Women in Welding
Activity: The program was held at Vermeer Mfg. Corp. in Pella, Iowa.
Activity: The Iowa Section members and
guests toured Kinze Mfg., Inc., in
Williamsburg, Iowa, for a presentation
on its planter assembly area.
AWS President Nancy Cole (center) is surrounded by the ladies attending the Northwest
Section dinner meeting.

Activity: The Section and Hutchinson C.
C. personnel coached six Boy Scouts from
Troop 301 to earn their welding merit
badges. The event was held at the college
in Hutchinson, Kan.
Activity: The Kansas Section members
toured the Caterpillar Work Tools facility in Wamego, Kan., led by Mike Jones,
plant manager.

Shown during the Northwest Section tour are (from left) Anna Wald, Traci Tapani, AWS
President Nancy Cole, and Lori Tapani.

The Iowa Section members are shown during their tour of Kinze Mfg. in Williamsburg, Iowa.

Speaker: Nancy Cole, AWS president
Affiliation: NCC Engineering
Topic: Women in Welding
Activity: In the afternoon, Cole and the
Northwest Section members toured
Wyoming Machine in Stacy, Minn., a
company owned by two sisters, Co-Presidents Lori and Traci Tapani. CWI Anna
Wald serves as the companys QC manager. Afterward, Cole presented her talk
to more than 30 members and guests at
a dinner program held in Shoreview,

District 16
Ric Eckstein (left), Northwest Section chair,
is shown with Brad Johnson at 3M in July.


Dennis Wright, director

(913) 782-0635

Activity: The Section members coached
eight Boy Scouts from Arkansas City,
Kan., to earn their welding merit badges.
Speaker: David Landon, AWS vice president and manager of welding engineering
Affiliation: Vermeer Mfg. Co.
Topic: Virtual reality welding
Activity: Following the talk, Jamie Kappler (Lincoln Electric) demonstrated the
VRTEX360 virtual arc welding training system. Dennis Wright, Dist. 16 director, presented Diane Steadham the
District Meritorious Award. Chair Greg
Siepert presented Bob Simon his Silver
Member Certificate for 25 years of service to the Society. The meeting was held
at WATC National Center for Aviation
Training in Wichita, Kan.

Speaker: Nancy Cole, AWS president
Affiliation: NCC Engineering
Topic: Women in Welding
Activity: Cole and the Section members
toured the new welding facilities at
Kansas City Kansas C. C. Cole presented
Dist. 16 Director Dennis Wright the 2013
Image of Welding Award.

District 17

Jerry Knapp, director

(918) 622-8600

AWS President Nancy Cole poses with the Kansas City Section members.

Shown Oct. 19, the Kansas Section members and Boy Scouts celebrate the young welders earning their merit badges.

AWS President Nancy Cole is shown with

Dennis Wright, Dist. 16 director, at the
Kansas City program.

Diane Steadham receives the District Meritorious Award from Dennis Wright, Dist. 16

Grant Von Lunen, chair, Kansas City Section, presents a speaker plaque to Nancy
Cole, AWS president.

Bob Simon (left) receives the Silver Member Certificate Award from Greg Siepert,
Kansas Section chair.

Kansas Section program helped six Boy Scouts earn their welding merit badges Oct. 5.

DISTRICT 17 Conference
Activity: Dist. 17 Director J. Jones presented Donnie Williams, North Texas Section chair, the District CWI of the Year
Award, and District Director Awards to
Caterpillar Work Tools & Services, Luminant Academy, Red Ball Oxygen, and Lincoln College of Technology for their sup-

The Kansas Section members are shown during their tour of Caterpillar Work Tools.


Activity: The Tulsa Section members visited Sherry Laboratories in Broken Arrow,
Okla., to tour the facility and learn about
its metallurgical and mechanical testing of
materials. Don Bunn, special projects engineer, conducted the program.

District 18

John Stoll, director

(713) 724-2350
Shown at the Dist. 17 conference are (from left) Bill Hall, Donnie Williams, Candace Ortega, Dist. 17 Director J. Jones, AWS Director of Member Services Rhenda Kenny, and Ernest
Levert, a past AWS president.

Speaker: Jason Czajkowski, CWI, CWE
Affiliation: Applus RTD
Topic: Infrared thermographics
Activity: Czajkowski discussed and demonstrated infrared thermographic camera
technology and took room-light and thermal photos of the attendees. The meeting
was held at Craft Training Center of the
Coastal Bend in Corpus Christi, Tex.

Attendees are shown at the District 17 conference in Waco, Tex.

Joe Melendez (left) receives the Central Texas

Section Educator Award from J. Jones, Dist.
17 director.

Shown during the Tulsa Section tour are

(from left) Jerry Knapp, presenter Don Bunn,
and Charles Griffin.

Activity: The Houston Section toured
Forged Components, Inc., in Humble,
Tex., to study the fabrication of ASME
pressure vessels and numerous other products. Chris Heitman and David Allen explained how forgings are made and conducted the tour.



Activity: The Section members toured
Southwest Fabrication and Coatings in
White Oak, Tex. Jerry Newman, executive
VP and general manager, conducted the

Activity: Drew Fontenot shared his experiences as the Sections representative at
the Dist. 18 conference. The meeting was
held at Logans Roadhouse Restaurant in
Lake Charles, La., for 24 attendees.
Fontenot noted John Stoll was elected to
fulfill John Brays last year as Dist. 18 director effective Jan. 1 when Bray is installed as an AWS vice president.

CWI Ryan Rummel (left) is shown with J.
Jones, Dist. 17 director.
port of AWS activities. Ryan Rummel, a
CWI and CWE, received the Section Meritorious Award for his support of the Central Texas Section and serving as advisor
to the Texas State Technical College Student Chapter. Joe Melendez received the
Central Texas Section Educator Award.


Activity: The Section held a seminar for
49 attendees at NCI Training Center. The
topics were welding procedure specifications and procedure qualification records.
The presenters were George Baldree, Ron
Theiss, Charles W. Patrick, and Scott
Witkowski. The class was arranged by
James Hansford, education chair.

Activity: The Section sponsored a weeklong Certified Welding Inspector seminar
and weekend exams for 36 attendees. Abiodun Akinnibosun from Niger Delta Petroleum Resources, Ltd., traveled from Nigeria to take the exam. Test supervisors included Melissa Howard, Ethan Howard,
Barry Lawrence, Jim Otte, Tim Smith, and
Rich Howard. The activity was held at
DoubleTree Hotel in Tulsa, Okla.

Speaker: Brian Parrish, strike construction foreman
Affiliation: Eagle Ford Shale Area
Topic: Automatic pipe welding in the field
Activity: John Bray, Dist. 18 director, presented several awards.

Shown are the Houston Section members who braved the elements Oct. 31 to tour the Forged Components plant.

Shown at the Lake Charles Section meeting

are (from left) Kermit Babaz, Gary Waggoner, Chair Tac Edwards, and presenter
Drew Fontenot.

Brad Moe (left) is shown with speaker Scott

Stanley at the British Columbia Section

Shown at the Houston Section seminar are George Baldree, Charles Patrick, Ron Theiss,
Scott Witkowski, and James Hansford.

Lake Charles Section members are shown at the August meeting.

District 19

Ken Johnson, director

(425) 957-3553

Speaker: Scott Stanley, technical sales representative
Affiliation: The Lincoln Electric Co.
Topic: Virtual reality arc welding training
Activity: The meeting was held in Delta,
B.C., Canada.
Speaker: Colin Stewart, senior welding inspector
Affiliation: SKC Engineering
Topic: Removing the Port Mann Bridge
Activity: At this British Columbia Section
program, the Bruce Third Memorial Welding Scholarship was awarded to Lorenzo
Webb, a welding student and a new Section member. Attending were Bruce
Thirds widow Violet, son Rob Third, and
Adriana Webb.

Abiodun Akinnibosun (left) is shown with

Rich Howard at the Tulsa CWI seminar.

Corpus Christi Section members pictured by

room-light (top) and infrared cameras.

Activity: The Sections hosted a 9-year CWI
recertification class at CK Worldwide in
Auburn, Wash. Ron Theiss taught the seminar, assisted by Sjon Delmore, Olympic
Section chair.

Colin Stewart (left) is shown with Scott Stanley at the British Columbia Section program.


Shown at the Olympic/Puget Sound-sponsored seminar at CK Worldwide are (from left) Braidy Fernandez, Leonard Olson, John Jaques,
Eric Murray, Joseph Gallagher, Zeki Gokle, Jeffrey Rice, presenter Ron Theiss, Coby Bounds, William Gentry, Patricia Yates, Stephen Scheffle, Olympic Section Chair Sjon Delmore, David A. Vallejo, and Jeff Tuttle.

Robert Hollingsworth receives his Silver

Member Certificate from Nancy Cole, AWS
president, at the Puget Sound Section event.

Attendees observed Jared Satterlund (green

shirt) bending welder qualification coupons
at the Spokane Section Oct. 24 event.

Jeff Bailey (left) described applications for

one of the furnaces used at Wear-Tek
Foundry during the Spokane Section tour.

New Mexico Section members are shown during their tour of Horizon Trikes.

Nancy Cole, AWS president, receives a

speaker gift from Ken Johnson, Dist. 19 director, at the Puget Sound Section program.


Shown at the British Columbia Section are (from left) Violet Third, Rob Third, Lorenzo
Webb, Adriana Webb, and Brad Moe, Scholarship Committee chair.


Speaker: Nancy Cole, AWS president
Affiliation: NCC Engineering
Topic: Women in Welding
Activity: Robert J. Hollingsworth received
his Silver Member Certificate for 25 years
of service to the Society.

Shown during the Arizona Section tour are (from left) Daniel Hurst, presenter Ivan Insua, Robert James, Richard Pell, Jerry Siko, Paul
Moreno, Karl Kammerzell, Richard Moreno, Alan Gaiser, Nick Martinez, Keith Winchester, James Benjamin, Jordan Potterfield, and Fran

The Sacramento Valley Section members are shown during the Praxair tour.

Speakers: Phil Zammit, Brooklyn Iron
Works; and Jared Satterlund, Oxarc
Topics: Welding to AWS codes and nondestructive evaluation techniques
Activity: The program was held at Pullman
High School welding facility for more than
90 attendees including local industry members and students from North Idaho College. Equipment demonstrations were
conducted by Karl Susz (Lincoln Electric)
and Paul Stone (ESAB). Attendees participated in bending welder qualification
coupons and NDE techniques.
Activity: The Section members toured
Wear-Tek Foundry in Spokane, Wash. Jeff
Bailey and Bob Underhill conducted the
tour of the facility that specializes in manufacturing and heat treating parts for the
mining, power, and agriculture industries.

District 20

Pierrette H. Gorman, director

(505) 284-9644

Speaker: Adolph Romero, CEO
Affiliation: Horizon Trikes
Topic: Fabrication and DOT requirements
for road-worthy vehicles
Activity: The meeting was held in Albuquerque, N.Mex.

District 21

Nanette Samanich, director

(702) 429-5017

Activity: The Section members toured Salt
River Project Kyrene Generating Station
in Tempe, Ariz. Ivan Insua, engineer, led
the tour and discussed where welding is
used in the plant.

District 22
Kerry E. Shatell, director
(925) 866-5434

Activity: The Section members toured the
Praxair Gas Production Facility in Pittsburg, Calif. Bill Bright, general manager,
conducted the program.


New AWS Supporters

Babcock & Wilcox Euclid Facility
24703 Euclid Ave.
Cleveland, OH 44117
Representative: Brett Bercaw
529 Cenla Dr.
Pineville, LA 71360
Representative: Thomas S. Malo
Since 1965, DIS-TRAN Steel has provided transmission and substation steel
structures, tapered tubular poles, wide
flange, square tube, and lattice structures
to the utilities industry. It provides in-house
engineering and detailing capabilities with
Lean manufacturing to provide flexible
scheduling to handle quick-turn projects.
Durum USA
11133 I-45 S., Bldg. I
Conroe, TX 77302
Representative: Daniel Brotsch
Skyline Steel, LLC
9 International Way
Longview, WA 98632
Representative: Juan Rodriguez
2823 S. Craig Rd.
Airway Heights, WA 99001
Representative: Jared Satterland
Dearing Compressor & Pump Co.
3974 Simon Rd.
Youngstown, OH 44512
Derby Trailer Technologies, LLC
449 N. Water, Derby, KS 67037
Rode Welding Service, LLC
1211 Louis Ave.
Elk Grove Village, IL 60007
A1 Fence & Welding
PO Box 279
Marble Falls, TX 78654
Axenics Corp.
4 Townsend W., Ste. 5
Nashua, NH 03063
Diversified Metalworking, Inc.
106 E. Grant, Republic, MO 65738
Jogler, LLC.
6646 Complex Dr.
Baton Rouge, LA 70809



Kimball Midwest
4800 Roberts Rd.
Columbus, OH 43228

Cypress Ridge High School

7900 N. Eldridge Pkwy.
Houston, TX 77041

May Tool and Die, Inc.

9 Hackett Dr.
Tonawanda, NY 14150

Cypress Woods High School

13550 Woods Spillane Blvd.
Cypress, TX 77429

MT Rigmat LLC
PO Box 190, Charlo, MT 59824

Cy-Fair High School

22602 Hempstead Hwy.
Cypress, TX 77429

MWD Steel Fabrication

6140 McCormick Dr.
Lincoln, NE 68507
Patersonlabs, Inc.
8714 S. 222nd St.
Kent, WA 98031
Precise Welding Services
3561 Delta Height Rd.
Wallace, SC 29596

Hico ISD
PO Box 218, Hico, TX 76457
Jersey Village High School
7600 Solomon St., Houston, TX 77040
Joint Professionals & Support Intl, Ltd.
2 Tokunbo Alli St., Ikeja, Lagos
Langham Creek High School
17610 FM 529, Houston, TX 77095

Semic S.A. De C.V.

Andre Marie Ampere # 3
Parque Industrial Cuamatla
Cuautitln Izcalli 54730, Mexico

Mobridge-Pollock High School

1107 1st Ave. E., Mobridge, SD 57601

Steelpipe, Ltd.
224 Neilson St., PO Box 13514
Onehunga 1643, New Zealand

New Mexico State University Alamogordo

2400 N. Scenic Dr.
Alamogordo, NM 88310

Superior Joining Technologies, Inc.

11047 Raleigh Ct.
Machesney Park, IL 61115

Pulaski County High School

5414 Cougar Trail Rd., Dublin, VA 24084

TA Process Systems, LLC

3650 Kennesaw 75 Pkwy., Ste. #100
Kennesaw, GA 30144
Technology Development Group, Inc.
41901 Wolverine Rd., Shawnee, OK 74804
Upright Steel, LLC
1335 E. 171st St., Cleveland, OH 44110
Wartsila Defense, Inc.
26264 Twelve Trees Ln.
Poulsbo, WA 98370
Welder Testing, Inc.
502 W. 13th St., Deer Park, TX 77536
Ballinger High School
802 Conda Ave., Ballinger, TX 76821
Central Arizona College
8470 N. Overfield Rd.
Coolidge, AZ 85128
Cypress Creek High School
9815 Grant Rd., Houston, TX 77070
Cypress Ranch High School
10700 Fry Rd., Cypress, TX 77433

Poth High School

506 N. Dickson
Poth, TX 78147
Salinas Valley Welding School
1520-A Meridian Rd.
Salina, CA 93907
Stanly Community College
141 College Dr.
Albemarle, NC 28001
Terrell Independent School District
400 Poetry Rd.
Terrell, TX 75160
Venus Independent School District
100 Student Dr., Venus, TX 76084
Warren County Career Center
3525 N. State Route 48
Lebanon, OH 45036
Waubonsee Community College
Rte. 47 at Waubonsee Dr.
Sugar Grove, IL 60554
Welding Greek Institute
Training Excellence Center
Panepistimiou 44, 6th Fl.
Athens, Attiki 10679, Greece

Guide to AWS Services

American Welding Society
8669 NW 36th St., #130, Miami, FL 33166-6672
T: (800/305) 443-9353; F: (305) 443-7559
Staff phone extensions are shown in parentheses.



Dean R. Wilson
Welldean Enterprises
151 Oak Tree Circle
Glendora, CA 91741

Managing Director, Global Exposition Sales

Joe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(297)
Corporate Director, International Sales
Jeff P. . . . . . . .(233)
Oversees international business activities involving
certification, publication, and membership.

Dept. information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(340)

Managing Director
Technical Services Development & Systems
Andrew R. Davis.. . . . . . . .(466)
International Standards Activities, American Council of the International Institute of Welding (IIW)


Director, Operations
Annette Alonso.. . . . . . . .(299)
Technical Activities Committee

Executive Director
Ray W. Shook.. . . . . . . . . . .(210)
Sr. Associate Executive Director
Cassie R. Burrell.. . . . . . .(253)

Dept. information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(275)

Managing Director
Andrew Cullison.. . . . . . .(249)

Chief Financial Officer

Gesana Villegas.. . . . . . .(252)

Welding Journal
Andrew Cullison.. . . . . . .(249)

Chief Technology Officer

Dennis . . . . . . . . .(213)

Mary Ruth Johnsen.. . .(238)

Executive Assistant for Board Services

Gricelda Manalich.. . . . . .(294)

National Sales Director

Rob Saltzstein.. . . . . . . . . . . .(243)

Administrative Services

Society and News Editor

Howard . .(244)

Managing Director
Jim Lankford.. . . . . . . . . . . . . .(214)
Hidail . . . . . . . . . . . .(287)

Welding Handbook
Annette OBrien.. . . . . . . .(303)

Director of IT Operations
Natalia . . . . . . . . . .(245)


Human Resources

Ross Hancock.. . . . . . . .(226)

Director, Compensation and Benefits

Luisa Hernandez.. . . . . . . . . .(266)
Director, Human Resources
Dora A. Shade.. . . . . . . . . .(235)

International Institute of Welding

Senior Coordinator
Sissibeth Lopez . . . . . . . . . . .(319)
Liaison services with other national and international
societies and standards organizations.

Public Relations Manager

Cindy . . . . . . . . . . . .(416)
Jose . . . . . . . . .(456)
Section Web Editor
Henry . . . . . . . . .(452)

Hugh K. Webster . . . . . . . .
Webster, Chamberlain & Bean, Washington, D.C.,
(202) 785-9500; FAX (202) 835-0243. Monitors federal issues of importance to the industry.


Director, Convention and Meeting Services
Matthew . . . . . . .(239)

ITSA International Thermal

Spray Association
Senior Manager and Editor
Kathy . . .(232)

RWMA Resistance Welding

Manufacturing Alliance
Management Specialist
Keila . . . .(444)

WEMCO Association of
Welding Manufacturers
Management Specialist
Keila . . . .(444)

Brazing and Soldering

Manufacturers Committee
Stephen . . . . . .(334)

GAWDA Gases and Welding

Distributors Association
Executive Director
John Ospina.. . . . . . . . . . .(462)
Operations Manager
Natasha Alexis.. . . . . . . . . .(401)

Associate Director, Operations

Alex L. Diaz.... . . . . . . . . . . . .(304)
Welding Qualification, Sheet Metal Welding, Aircraft and Aerospace, Joining of Metals and Alloys
Manager, Safety and Health
Stephen P. Hedrick.. . . . . . .(305)
Metric Practice, Safety and Health, Joining of Plastics and Composites, Personnel and Facilities Qualification, Mechanical Testing of Welds
Program Managers II
Stephen Borrero... . . . . .(334)
Brazing and Soldering, Brazing Filler Metals and
Fluxes, Brazing Handbook, Soldering Handbook,
Definitions and Symbols, Structural Subcommittees on Bridge Welding, Stainless Steel, and Reinforcing Steel
Rakesh Gupta.. . . . . . . . . . .(301)
Filler Metals and Allied Materials, International
Filler Metals, UNS Numbers Assignment, Arc
Welding and Cutting Processes, Computerization
of Welding Information
Brian McGrath .... . . . . .(311)
Structural Welding, Welding in Marine Construction, Piping and Tubing
Program Managers
Efram Abrams.. . . . . . . . .(307)
Automotive, Resistance Welding, Machinery and
Equipment, Methods of Inspection

Dept. information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(480)

Sr. Associate Executive Director
Cassie R. Burrell.. . . . . . .(253)

Chelsea Lewis.. . . . . . . . . . .(215)

Friction Welding, Oxyfuel Gas Welding and Cutting, High-Energy Beam Welding, Robotics Welding, Welding in Sanitary Applications

Rhenda A. Kenny... . . . . . .(260)
Serves as a liaison between members and AWS headquarters.

Jennifer Rosario.. . . . . . .(308)

Railroad Welding, Thermal Spraying, Welding Iron
Castings, Welding Qualification

Dept. information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(273)
Managing Director
John L. Gayler.. . . . . . . . . . .(472)
Oversees all certification activities including all international certification programs.
Director, Certification Operations
Terry . . . . . . . . . . . . .(470)
Oversees application processing, renewals, and exam
Director, Accreditation Programs
Linda . . . . . . .(298)
Oversees the development of new certification programs, as well as AWS-Accredited Test Facilities, and
AWS Certified Welding Fabricators.


Note: Official interpretations of AWS standards

may be obtained only by sending a request in writing to Andrew R. Davis, managing director, Technical Services, Oral opinions on
AWS standards may be rendered, however, oral
opinions do not constitute official or unofficial
opinions or interpretations of AWS. In addition,
oral opinions are informal and should not be used
as a substitute for an official interpretation.
General Information
(800/305) 443-9353, ext. 212,
Chairman, Board of Trustees
Gerald D. Uttrachi

Director, Operations
Martica Ventura.. . . . . . .(224)

Executive Director, Foundation

Sam Gentry.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (331)

Director, Development and Systems

David Hernandez.. . . .(219)

Corporate Director, Workforce Development

Monica Pfarr.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (461)


Senior Manager
Wendy S. Reeve.. . . . . . . . .(293)
Coordinates AWS awards and Fellow and Counselor nominations.

The AWS Foundation is a not-for-profit corporation

established to provide support for the educational
and scientific endeavors of the American Welding
Society. Promote the Foundations work with your financial support. For information, call Vicki Pinsky,
(800/305) 443-9353, ext. 212; e-mail



Intelligrated Hires VP
Intelligrated, Cincinnati, Ohio, an
automated material-handling solutions
provider, has named
David Erickson vice
president, software
development, for its
New York-based subsidiary
Knighted. Erickson
previously held product development and
performance engineering positions for
David Erickson RedPrairie.

Aluminum Association
Makes Board Changes
The Aluminum Association, Arlington, Va., has announced the following

changes to its board. Former Vice Chair

Layle Kip Smith was elevated to chairman, replacing Pat Franc. Garney B. Scott
was named vice chair and chair of the Executive Committee. Smith is president of
Noranda Aluminum, Franc is president of
Tri-Arrows Aluminum, and Scott is president of Scepter, Inc. The new board members include Marco Palmieri, president,
Novelis North America; Kevin Person,
CEO, Wagstaff, Inc.; and David Hazelett,
president, Hazelett Strip-Casting.

Eriez Appoints Two

Eriez, Erie, Pa., a supplier of magnetic lift and separation equipment, and
metal-detection and materials conveying
technologies, has promoted Bill Dudenhoefer to market manager-heavy industry, and promoted Eric J. Confer to prod-

uct manager separation. With the company since 2006, Confer has served as a
technical sales representative and a team
leader and project
manager for the
Eriez Orange University
Bill Dudenhoefer training and education center. Since
2006, Dudenhoefer has served as separation product manager.

EB Industries Hires
Business Director
EB Industries, Farmingdale, N.Y., a
provider of electron beam and laser beam
welding services, has appointed John DeLalio director of new business development. DeLalio, with 23 years of experience in mechanical engineering and information technology positions, most recently served as senior director of enterprise architecture for NYC Health and

Selective Soldering
Academy Names Director
The Selective Soldering Academy, Elk
Grove Village, Ill., has appointed Eddie
Groves director. In the soldering and selective soldering field for 25 years, Groves
worked with AT&T/Lucent Technologies
as a soldering process engineer and later
as a sales engineer for a soldering equipment manufacturer and soldering materials suppliers.
For info, go to

Weldcote Metals Names

Midwest Sales Rep

For info, go to



Weldcote Metals,
a supplier of welding
alloys, electrodes,
helmets, and accessories, has named
Dave Colwell midwest regional sales
representative. Colwell, with 30 years experience in the weldDave Colwell
ing, brazing, and soldering industries, is
an AWS Certified Welding Inspector who
has judged SkillsUSA contests for 15
continued on page 98

continued from page 96

Caterpillar Names
Project Manager
Caterpillar, Inc.,
has assigned Jacob
Shorey to Sosnowiec,
Poland, to serve as
project manager for
the expansion of a
heavy fabrications
and welding factory.
Shorey, an AWS
member, was hired
Jacob Shorey
Manufacturing Professional Development program in 2006 as its first welding
engineering technology graduate. Prior
to this assignment, he has held several
roles and assignments in welding engineering and manufacturing.

ABB Appoints Executive

Committee Member
ABB, Zurich, Switzerland, a power
and automation technology group, has
appointed Greg Scheu as an executive
committee member responsible for the
groups acquisition integration efforts
and to take over responsibility for the
North American business portfolio. Enrique Santacana, currently country manager in the United States and regional
manager in both the North and South
America regions, will focus on growth in
South America.

James H. Walker

tonio, Tex., area. He served in both the

U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force with active
duty in Iwo Jima.
discharge from service, he received
his degree in metallurgy
Oklahoma State
University. He
worked at Brown
and Root, Livingston Shipyard,
Ingalls Shipyard,
and J. Ray McJames Walker
Dermott where he
times to Russia to consult on pipeline
welding projects. He also served as an account executive with Miller Electric Mfg.
Co., in Houston, Tex.

James H. Walker, 86, AWS president

19861987, died Nov. 21 in the San An-

Member Milestones
WeiJie Zhang

WeiJie Zhang

WeiJie Zhang has received the prestigeous IIW Henry Granjon Prize in Category D,
Human-Related Topics, in recognition for his paper, Modeling of Human Welder Behavior. Zhang received his masters degree in electrical engineering/control from Harbin Institute of Technology, China, in 2007, then joined the University of Kentucky at Lexington in 2008 as a research assistant and PhD candidate in the Welding Research Laboratory. His research interests include sensors, arc welding processes, and system identification and control. He has published more than 20 papers in peer-reviewed publications
including the Welding Journal, Measurement Science and Technology, and Manufacturing
Science and Engineering Transactions of ASME. Five of his papers studying human behavior during welding operations have been published in the Welding Journal Research Supplement. The paper he submitted at 2012 IEEE Symposium on Industrial Electronics
was ranked in the top ten of more than 300 papers submitted. His biography as a promising welding researcher was featured in the May 2012 Welding Journal.

Damian J. Kotecki

Damian Kotecki



Damian J. Kotecki, AWS president 20052006, has received the International Institute of Welding Yoshiaki Arata Award. This lifetime achievement award is presented to
a person who has made extraordinary achievements in fundamental research in welding
science and technology and its allied processes, which have been recognized as significant contributions to the progress of welding engineering and related fields. The award,
sponsored by the Japanese Delegation to the IIW, has been presented annually since
1994 to pay tribute to the career of Prof. Dr. Yoshiaki Arata who devoted years to the
development of ultrahigh energy density heat sources and their applications to welding,
cutting, and other thermal materials processing.

continued from page 8

Keppel FELS Singapore yard upgrading. Keppel FELS, which

designs, constructs, and repairs mobile offshore rigs, has frequently invested in increasing productivity and capabilities of its
rig production process. This contract is the third between
Keppel and Pemamek in a year.
The new contract consists of two PEMA high-capacity robotic
profile processing lines. The lines include cutting and marking
features and automatic palletizing systems. The new profile processing system supports the modern panel line, but also provides
profile processing capacity to various other needs of the yard.

An example of a Pema profile cutting line. The company has

recently received a contract to deliver two of its robotic profile
processing lines to Keppel FELS.


Local nexAir professional, Patrick Galphin, recently gave a

continued from page 12

ESAB Welding & Cutting Products, Florence, S.C., has added

an enhanced distributor locator to and It will also be the exclusive welding sponsor of
LetzRoll Offroad Racing and a racing team in Europe.

To highlight the introduction of a plasma cutting line for manual and mechanized plasma processes, and its evolvement into
a full line thermal cutting original equipment manufacturer,
Thermacut, Inc., Claremont, N.H., has changed its corporate
logo and the slogan to The Cutting Company.

The new welding program at Chipola College, Marianna, Fla.,

begins Jan. 7. It is 1170 clock hours, which can be completed
in about one year. The welding instructor is Patrick Kennedy.
Eastern Ship Builders in Panama City hires numerous welders
and is also expected to expand its operation in the near future.

An endowed welding scholarship has been established at North

Georgia Technical College in memory and honor of Chris McCurry who earned his welding certification there and started
his own business. Preference will be given to residents of Banks
County, followed by Habersham County. As an employee of
Johnson & Johnson subsidiary Noramco in Athens, his wife
Tracy applied for the companys matching grant program.


L.A.B.S. (Living And Breathing Science) presentation at White

Station Middle School, Memphis, Tenn. The program uses
real-life examples to reinforce science principles students learn
in class, including elements such as dry ice, argon, and

The Association for Manufacturing Excellence, Rolling Meadows, Ill., is honoring Bombardier Aerospace with a 2013 Manufacturing Excellence Award. When evaluating its Toronto
site, the assessment team was impressed by the use of tools
that drive continuous improvement., New York, N.Y., has launched its new job

board. The employment and career-building website focuses
on engineering, procurement, manufacturing/production operations, and sales/marketing. Visit

CHRG Metals, Hamilton, Ohio, a supplier of corrosion and

heat-resistant stainless with nickel alloy sheet and plate, has
officially become a division of United Performance Metals.
The company previously operated as a division of ONeal Steel.

Joining Technologies, East Granby, Conn., now offers capabilities in both laser beam and electron beam welding. The
company is using its expanded capabilities to take on
more welding projects in the medical device and aerospace

completion and continuing education units. Hobart Institute of

Welding Technology;;
continued from page 66

Educational Opportunities
LAM Laser Additive Manufacturing Workshop. March 12, 13.
Houston, Tex. Laser Institute of America; (800) 345-2737;
Hypertherm Cutting Institute Online. Includes video tutorials,
interactive e-learning courses, discussion forums, and blogs. Visit
E-Courses in Destructive and Nondestructive Testing of Welds.
Online video courses taken at ones own pace offer certificates of
100 JANUARY 2014

INTEG Courses. Courses in NDE disciplines to meet certifications to Canadian General Standards Board or Canadian
Nuclear Safety Commission. The Canadian Welding Bureau;
(800) 844-6790;
Laser Safety Online Courses. Courses include Medical Laser
Safety Officer, Laser Safety Training for Physicians, Industrial
Laser Safety, and Laser Safety in Educational Institutions. Laser
Institute of America; (800) 345-2737;
Laser Safety Training Courses. Courses based on ANSI Z136.1,
Safe Use of Lasers, Orlando, Fla., or customers site. Laser
Institute of America; (800) 345-2737;

AWS Conference on



The demand for new and improved welding technology from expanding and established
energy marketsis
tsis starting to pay of
ff in the development of superior hybrid welding processes,
new filler metals, and cladding procedures. The technologies are showing up in nuclear power
plants, in coal-fired utilities, renewable sources, and especially in the new 1,700-mile-long
pipelines designed to bring oil and natural gas to world markets.

Earn PDHs toward your AWS

AWS recertification when you attend the conference.
For the latest conference information and registration, visit our web site
at or call (800) 443-9353, ext. 223.




Made in U.S.A.
Welding Positioners
1-Ton thru 60-Ton
Tank Turning Rolls

Guarantee Pass or Repeat FREE!



Houma, LA Jan. 1324

Pascagoula, MS Feb. 314
Ellijay, GA Feb. 1728 Apr. 718
Shreveport, LA Mar. 314
Marksville, LA Apr. 28May 9
Waco, TX May 1223
Loveland, CO June 213
Ardmore, OK June 23July 4
Searcy, AR July 718
Temple, TX July 21Aug. 1
+ Includes additional self study for weekend

Used Equipment for Sale


(800) 489-2890

Also offering: RT Film Interpretation,

MT/PT/UT Thickness, CWS, SCWI,
Welding Procedure Fundamentals,
And Advanced Inspection Courses
(800) 218-9620
(713) 943-8032

Professionals Sought for

IIW Training Courses


We manufacture tank turning rolls
3-ton through 120-ton rolls

Phone: (979) 277-8343
Fax: (281) 290-6184
Our products are made in the USA

The American Welding Society, the

Gesellschaft fr Schweisstechnik
International (German Welding
Institute, GSI), and the National
Center for Welding Education and
Training (Weld-Ed) are seeking
candidates interested in obtaining
the IIW International Welding
Engineer or International Welding
Technologist diploma. Courses are
being planned that will blend
Internet-delivered training with
classroom training conducted in the
United States.
The 440-hour course will be offered
during the next two summers and
is designed to promote career
development for busy welding
Please contact Jeff Hufsey at: for more details.

102 JANUARY 2014



Showcase Your Products

and Services in the
April 2014
Welding Marketplace

Spread the word on your company around

the world by promoting a full-color photo of
your newest and hottest welding products
or services to more than 80,000 AWS
members and customers in this famous
welding product photo guide, WELDING

Win Potential Clients

by Showing Them Videos on
How to Save Money and Time
By Using Your Products!

As an extra bonus your ad will be posted on

the AWS website with an active link to your
website. Also a digital link to Welding
Marketplace will be sent to more than
68,000 AWS members. Make AWS
members your customers!

Closing date is
February 14, 2014
Call the AWS sales team at:
(800) 443-9353
Rob Saltzstein at ext. 243
Lea Paneca at ext. 220
Sandra Jorgensen @ ext. 254

For more information

visit our website at or please contact:
Rob Saltzstein
(800) 443-9353, ext. 243

Lea Paneca
(800) 443-9353, ext. 220

Sandra Jorgensen
(800) 443-9353, ext. 254


Arcos Industries, LLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IBC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 233-8460

Intercon Enterprises, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 665-6655

Atlas Welding Accessories, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 962-9353

K.I.W.O.T.O., Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(269) 944-1552

AWS Education Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20, 71, 74, 99, 101 . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 443-9353, ext. 455

KMT Saw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(269) 321-8860

AWS Foundation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 443-9353, ext. 250

Koike Aronson, Inc./Ransome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 252-5232

AWS Membership Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73, 97 . . . . . . . . . .(800) 443-9353, ext. 480

Lincoln Electric Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OBC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(216) 481-8100

AWS Publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32, 66 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 443-9353

Midalloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 776-3300

Camfil Air Pollution Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 479-6801

Miller Electric Mfg. Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(920) 734-9821

CDA Technical Institute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 . . . . . . . . .(888) 974-2232

OTC Daihen, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(888) 682-7626

Champion Welding Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 321-9353

RWMA/Resistance Welding Mfg. Alliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 443-9353, ext. 444

Cor-Met . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 848-2719

Select Arc, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IFC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(937) 295-5215

Detroit Section of AWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 . . . . . . . . . .(248) 275-8209/(614) 688-5121

Superflash Compressed Gas Equipment/IBEDA, Inc. . . . . .31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(888) 327-7306

Diamond Ground Products, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(805) 498-3837

TEKA North America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(816) 842-1773

Fischer Engineering Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(937) 754-1754

Triangle Engineering, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(781) 878-1500

Flexovit USA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 689-3539

TRUMPF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .web contact only

Fronius USA, LLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(877) 376-6487

Tweco/Victor Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 426-1888

Gedik Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+90 216 378 50 00

Uniweld Products, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 323-2111

Greiner Industries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 782-2110

voestalpine Bhler Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 527-0791

Gullco International, Inc. - U.S.A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(440) 439-8333

Weld Aid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 935-3243

Harris Products Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 733-4043

Weld Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(508) 842-2224

Hascor International Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(210) 225-6100

Welder Training & Testing Institute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 223-9884

Hobart Institute of Welding Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 332-9448

WEMCO/An Association of Welding Manufacturers . . . . . .22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 443-9353, ext. 444

Hypertherm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 643-0030

IFC = Inside Front Cover

IBC = Inside Back Cover
OBC = Outside Back Cover

IMPACT (Ironworkers) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 545-4921
104 JANUARY 2014

Visit the AWS Interactive Ad Index:


Sponsored by the American Welding Society and the Welding Research Council

Visualization of Gas Flows in Welding Arcs

by the Schlieren Measuring Technique
The influence of typical welding parameters on the gas flow for the GTAW, GMAW,
and PAW processes is demonstrated using the high-speed Schlieren technique

Gas flows in and around welding arcs have a strong influence on the welding process.
Atmospheric gases reach the arc due to turbulences and diffusion mechanisms and this affects the arc and the weld pool. Using optical analysis of the gas flow during welding with
and without the arc present reveals possible mixing and thus the causes of contamination
can be determined. The Schlieren method offers a simple way to do this. In this paper, the
setup of a Schlieren measuring system and the influence of the most relevant setting parameters are described as well as their influence on the Schlieren images.

In gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW)
the arc and the weld pool are protected
against the influence of atmospheric gases
by a shielding gas. Contamination of the
shielding gas leads, among other things, to
arc instability, oxidation, porosity, and
spatter. Furthermore, atmospheric gases
such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, or nitrogen affect the characteristics of the plasma
and influence the arc spots at the cathode
and anode. Therefore, one important goal
of welding torch development is to generate an optimal gas flow through the welding torch in order to guarantee a stable
and protective shielding gas coverage. To
achieve this, it is most important to avoid
flow separation and turbulence in the
shielding gas nozzle.
In order to minimize the experimental
effort by performing numerous welding
experiments, computational fluid dynamics and gas flow diagnostics can be used.
Dipl.-Ing. E. SIEWERT, Dr.-Ing. G. WILHELM,
M. HSSLER, Prof. Dr.-Ing. J. SCHEIN, and Dr.
T. HANSON are with Center of Excellence AAP
(advanced arc processes), a coop of Linde AG Co.
and the Lab of Plasma Technology, University of the
German Federal Armed Forces, Munich, Germany.
Dipl.-Ing. M. SCHNICK and Prof. Dr.-Ing. U.
FSSEL are with the Department of Joining Engineering and Assembly Technology, University of
Technology, Dresden, Germany.

In prior work, attempts were made to

follow this route. As described in Refs. 5
and 13, the computational fluid dynamics
were used to optimize the welding fume
exhaustion. However, in these simulations,
the arc was either neglected or significantly simplified by being modeled as a
source of thermal energy with a preset momentum. In Refs. 1 and 8, the commercial
software ANSYS CFX was used with a
contained arc module to calculate the
shielding gas flow and the diffusion. However, the models used were based on assumptions and many simplifications.
Moreover, the torch geometry was often
simplified in order to reduce the numerical mesh size. Thus, verified experimental
findings are needed for proofing and calibrating of these models.
To analyze gas flow fields, particlebased methods such as the laser doppler
anemometry (LDA) and the particle

Shielding Gas
Gas Contamination
Gas Flow Dynamics
Gas Tungsten Arc
Gas Metal Arc
Plasma Arc

image velocimetry (PIV) can be used. By

Zschetzsche (Ref. 2) the applicability of
both methods for the measurement of gas
flow in arc welding was tested and the PIV
method was adapted to measure different
welding processes. The method enabled a
nonintrusive and temporally resolved detection of a two-dimensional gas flow field
in GTAW and gas metal arc welding
(GMAW). However, LDA and PIV measurements are extremely cost-intensive and
require a high measuring technique effort.
An easier way to visualize gas flows is the
Schlieren technique, which has been
known since the 17th century (Refs. 3, 7,
1416). Typical applications where the
Schlieren measuring method was previously used are airplane aerodynamics, ballistics, and ventilation technology (Ref. 6).
Schlieren studies of electrical discharges (arcs) were first carried out by
Toepler (Ref. 3). In the field of cutting
technology, oxygen cutting analyses were
carried out by the Schlieren technique in
the 1930s (Ref. 9). Gas flow studies of arcs
by the Schlieren technique are especially
used in plasma cutting processes and thermal spraying (Ref. 6). Gas flow visualization of plasma cutting arcs and the
interaction of the arc with the workpiece
are known from investigations by Settles
(Ref. 10). These investigations can be extended to image the gas flow and turbulences below the workpiece as well. In
order to detect instabilities in the plasmacutting process, Heberlein (Ref. 11) used
the Schlieren technique in combination
with current and potential measurements
as well as acoustic recordings. An explanation of the relationship between nozzle
design and cutting quality was derived
based on Schlieren images.
In contrast, Schlieren measurements of
welding processes are not so common. For
plasma arc welding with alternating current, McClure and Garcia (Ref. 4) de-





means of the generated intensity of illumination dispersion E, which is proportional to the second derivation of the
density along path y (Equation 2).

Fig. 1 The law of refraction as foundation of the

Schlieren optic.

2 y


This method enables conclusions to be

drawn about the density gradient, but not
about the direction. Compared to the interference method, a lower resolution and
sensitivity can be reached (Ref. 6).
Due to a marginal overhead (the integration of a knife edge), it is possible to
separate the deflected from the uninfluenced light, in order to increase the resolution and sensitivity. Furthermore, with
the so-called Schlieren technique, it is possible to determine the direction of the
measured density gradient. The change in
intensity of illumination caused by the
light deflection is proportional to the first
derivation of density according to the position (Equation 3).

Fig. 2 Toeplersche Z-Schlieren assembly.

In contrast to the interference method, the
Schlieren technique is a simple and robust
measuring system. However, an exact
identification of gas flow characteristics is
not possible.
The experimental setup is carried out
as a Toeplers Z-Schlieren assembly with
two concave mirrors Fig. 2. This assembly is compact and avoids errors due
to chromatic aberration caused by the optical lenses.
The concave mirrors are axially parabolic mirrors with a diameter of 150 mm
and a focal length of 1200 mm. The diameter lies in the recommended area from D
= f/6 to f/12 (Ref. 6). In the region between both mirrors, parallel light is generated. In this optical path, different welding
arcs (Schliere) are inserted, influencing
the propagation of the parallel light. In the
focus of the first mirror, an aperture is
placed to produce a point light source enabling the production of parallel light by
mirror 1.
The knife edge is placed in the focus of
mirror 2. The knife edge is used to improve the contrast by blocking the deflected light. Images of the Schlieren are
generated by a high-speed camera with a
200-mm objective with a macrolens.
The exact position in which the
Schliere is arranged between the two mirrors has no influence on the measurement
outcome. The deflection level of the light
a in the Schlieren aperture depends only
upon the angle of deflection and the focal
length f of the mirror.

Fig. 3 Schlieren images, used filter pairs: blue/yellow (left) and red/green (right) with a shielding gas
flow of 30 L/min of argon.


scribed the necessity for a gas flow analysis. However, their work contained no corresponding results or Schlieren images.
Allemand and Schroeder (Ref. 12) used
the Shadowgraph method (Ref. 6) in order
to visualize the drop transfer during gas
metal arc welding. For illumination, a HeNe laser was used. The photographs are,
however, overexposed due to the presence
of the arc and the drop transfer was difficult to observe.
This paper describes an attempt to use
the Schlieren technique to visualize the
shielding gas flow in different arc welding
processes. The principle of operation and
the experimental setup of the Schlieren
technique are described. The most important settings and their influence on the
quality of the Schlieren images of GTA are
described so that the range of application
and the limit of the Schlieren technique
can be specified. The results of the gas
flow analysis for GTA, GMA, and plasma
arc welding (PAW) are presented, where
the influences of typical welding parameters on the gas flow are displayed.

Experimental Procedure
Physical Principle and Measuring System

By the Schlieren technique, differences

in density that cause changes in the refraction index n, in the propagation veloc-


JANUARY 2014, VOL. 93

ity c and in the direction of light propagation direction, can be visualized in transparent media. The angle of refrac-tion
relates itself to the incident angle

sin c2 n2
sin c1 n1


Thus each change in density of the

medium causes a change in the direction
of light propagation Fig. 1.
The differences in density that are observed during the welding process are
caused, according to the ideal gas equation, by differences in pressure, temperature, and concentration.
In order to make differences in density
in transparent media visible, the interference and the shadowgraph methods can
also be used alongside the Schlieren
In the interference method, two light
waves are superimposed so that an interference pattern is generated. The interference image allows the reconstruction of
the location and the intensity of the light
refraction as well as the speed of the gas
flow, the density, and the temperature.
However, this measurement method requires high precision in the adjustment of
the measuring equipment.
By the shadowgraph method, deflection of the light can be made visible by

a = f


Fig. 4 Schlieren image of a 100-A gas tungsten arc with vertical (top)
and horizontal (middle) apertures, and an iris (bottom).

Requirements of the Schlieren Method to

Analyze Welding Arcs

Alongside the already described basic

requirements such as the positioning of
the mirrors, the quality of the Schlieren
images of arc processes is above all determined by the light source and the slit
(knife-edge) or alternatively colored filter
pairs, which induce colored shadows and
interferences Fig. 3.
The knife-edge or the filter affects the
sensitivity of the Schlieren apparatus,
whereas the magnitude of the deflected
light can be assigned to different dye by
using color filters. The applicability of apertures with horizontal or vertical slits, or an
iris as well as two- and four-color filters was
investigated. In all experiments, the open
area of the slits was equal and the orientation of the illumination and the Schlieren
slit was always identical.
The two-color filters (blue/yellow and
red/green) as well as a four-color filter,
utilizing all four colors, were used. The
best results were obtained using the twocolor filters, by which the turbulences
could be visualized with very strong contrast Fig. 3. In comparison, using the
four-color filter, only marginal color nuances could be recognized. However, the
light intensity was reduced when colored
filters were used. Thus, the exposure time
had to be extended whereby a strong

Fig. 6 Schlieren images made by using 50-W automobile headlight (top, left), 150W tungsten coiled filament lamp (top, right), 250-W tungsten coiled filament lamp
(bottom, left), and 150-W halogen lamp (bottom, right).

cross-fading due to arc radiation resulted.

Analyses of the influence of the geometry and the orientation of slits clarify
that good results can be achieved with
slits oriented perpendicular to the workpiece Fig. 4.
The hot gas above the workpiece was visualized using apertures with a slit, which
were oriented parallel to the workpiece.
The iris can be used to visualize gas flow in
all directions, but the images are characterized by a lower brightness of the image.
By reducing the slit width of the knife
edge, less diffracted light, and consequently smaller differences in density,
can be visualized (Ref. 6). At the same
time the influence of the radiation of the
arc decreases. However, less light from
the light source passes the knife edge especially if the width of the knife edge is
less than the focal diameter. The goal of
the slit variation was to be able to visualize the turbulence and the density gradient of the shielding gas flow in the free jet
of the process gas in close proximity to
the arc individually. It was ascertained
that in spite of a small slit width, the density variation produced by the arc dominated Fig. 5.
When using identical concave mirrors
in the geometry described above, it is recommended that the shape of the light
sources used be equivalent to that of the
slit opening. Therefore, elongated rectan-

gular light sources were used.

Initially, the applicability of simple
light bulbs was tested. Only by the use of
high-luminosity light sources could the slit
opening as well as the exposure time of the
camera be reduced, so that:
1) The complete area of the gas flow
was illuminated,
2) overexposure of the images due to
the arc radiation could be avoided, and
3) minor differences in density could be
visualized in the gas-free jet.
Beside the power, the light source must
generate a high light intensity on the knife
edge. The gas flow in the boundary region
of the process gas-free jet can be visualized well using halogen lamps.
However, with the light sources used as
described in Fig. 6, the area of the arc cannot be investigated in detail due to its
strong brightness. Thus, further analyses
employed alternative light sources such as
a plasma arc and laser beam.
The radiation energy of a plasma arc is
approximately 10 to 20% of the total power.
Thus, the radiation emission of a 250-A
plasma arc with a voltage of 30 V is about
1000 W. Using this kind of arc is furthermore advantageous since the projection of
the light source is rectangular, as the knife
edge is. Considering the solid angle of emission, only 1% of the radiation reaches the
mirror. Nevertheless, even this amount of
light is sufficient to obtain a detailed flow



Fig. 5 Images of Schlieren setups with a 3 6 mm focus slit and a Schlieren aperture slit of 2 6 mm (left), 3 6 mm (middle), and 5 6 mm (right).

a GTAW arc is used as a light source. The

orientation of the light source, as well as
that of the Schlieren slit, is vertically
aligned to the surface of the workpiece.
The Schlieren technique was used to
make high-speed images of the GTAW,
PAW, and GMAW processes.


Fig. 7 Schlieren images made by using 250-A plasma arc (left) and 20-mW continuous wave laser (=
532 nm) (right).

GTAW with differing shielding gases,

flow rates, and currents was analyzed
Fig. 8.
The transition of the process gas-free
jet to the atmosphere is especially good to
visualize using argon with an appreciable
helium percentage (50%) as shielding gas.
However, it has to be assumed that helium
has an essential influence on the arc geometry and, above all, on the gas flow.
The arc current influences the temperature of the arc and the temperature of the
effluent gas. From the Schlieren images, it
can be clearly seen that the arc moves up
farther on the tungsten cathode, that the
core of the arc is brighter, and that there is
a stronger flux of hot gas above the workpiece. Despite the brightness, the edges of
the arc can be clearly detected.
The Schlieren measurement method can
be used to detect the turnover from a laminar to a turbulent gas flow of the process
gas-free jet in GTAW. Turbulences surrounding the arc and turbulences in the effluent hot gas can be clearly distinguished at
shielding gas flow rates of 30 L/min and

Fig. 8 Schlieren images of GTAW as a function of current, shielding gas, and flow rate.


Fig. 9 Schlieren image of a pilot arc (3 L/min plasma gas flow) where the hot plasma jet is clearly observable. The impinging hot gas on the workpiece and the effluent hot gas on the surface of the workpiece are visible by a dark plateau. Stalls in the periphery are detected by means of eddies.

image in an area that was not recognizable

before Fig. 7.
Using a 20-mW continuous wave laser
of wavelength 532 nm in combination with
a neutral gray filter with a transmittance
of 1%, the radiation of the arc could be
completely faded out Fig. 7. However,
by using a laser (point light source), a dig-


JANUARY 2014, VOL. 93

ital Schlieren image without intensity gradations results.

Results and Discussion

In order to analyze the gas flow even at
the boundary region of the process gasfree jet, despite the intensive arc radiation,

Investigating plasma arc keyhole welding was carried out by bead-on-plate welds
(6-mm-thick, mild-steel plates). To ignite
the main arc between the tungsten cathode and the workpiece, a pilot arc between
the cathode and the copper nozzle
(anode) must be initialized. The pilot arc
serves as preionization of the arc gap between the electrode and the workpiece
Fig. 9. The Schlieren method is excellently
suited to image the gas flow of the pilot
arc. An advantage is the low radiation
emission of this plasma jet.
The Schlieren images of real keyhole
welding trials were correlated with the respective welding results Fig. 10.
Clearly visible at low shielding gas flow
rates is that the fluid flow above the hot
weld joint (left of the torch) is dominated
by thermal buoyancy. In contrast, above
the cold steel sheet (right of the torch) an
equal and laminar outflow can be seen.
With higher shielding gas flow rates, the
differences between the gas flows over the
hot and the cold steel sheet are less pronounced. It is assumed that the high
shielding gas flow counteracts the thermal
buoyancy as well as causing the outflowing

tion enables
and time-resolved gas flow
Fig. 10 Schlieren images of plasma arc welding (S235, 6 mm; welding speed, 20 analysis.
2) It was ascm/min; PG-flow, 3 L/min; plasma gas three-hole-nozzle, 3 mm; torch distance, 5
certained that a
mm; shielding gas flow 5 L/min (top); 15 L/min (bottom).
powerful tungsten filament
gas to deviate from laminar flow. Using
lamp and arcs were especially appropriate
low shielding gas flows, a considerable foras light sources. In contrast, inferior immation of oxides can be determined, which
ages were obtained with widened laser
is due to contamination of the protective
cover. It must be concluded that the for3) It is possible to detect the transition
mation of a turbulent gas flow (15 L/min
from a laminar to a turbulent gas flow in a
shielding gas) does not always lead to bad
process gas-free jet in GTAW by increasgas protection cover of the weld pool. A
ing the shielding gas flow from 10 to 30 L/
sufficient gas flow is necessary in order to
counteract the thermal buoyancy above
4) Through the Schlieren method, the
the hot workpiece.
gas flow of a nontransfer pilot arc can be
excellently visualized. During studies on a
plasma arc keyhole welding process, it was
shown that high shielding flow rates, deGas metal arc welding is characterized
spite intensive turbulences, provide a betby a high radiation emission of the metal
ter protection of the process and
vapor plasma. Schlieren images of gas
counteract diffusions effects.
metal arc welding processes are therefore
5) First investigation on GMAW
especially difficult to create at high curprocesses showed that high torch temperrents. As part of the investigations,
ature principally abets the Schlieren analySchlieren images were taken of a short arc
sis of the process gas-free jets. Due to the
Fig. 11. In the images, gas flow separahigh radiation emission of the arc, powertions at the shielding gas nozzle and the
ful illuminants in combination with optical
contact tip are, in contrast to GTAW,
filters are necessary, especially in the
clearly visible. A reason for that is the
analysis of spray and pulsed arcs.
high, very hot contact tip located inside
the shielding gas nozzle caused heating of
the shielding gas.
For the analysis of a pulsed arc or a
1. Schnick, M., Fssel, U., and Zschetzsche,
spray arc, it is necessary to use powerful
J. 2006. Simulation and measurement of plasma
light sources or to mitigate wavelengths
and gas flows in plasma arc welding and cutting.
with special intensive radiation emission
8th International Seminar Numerical Analysis
of the arc by filters.
of Weldability, Graz, Austria.

The Schlieren method was used to visualize gas flows in welding processes. The
main conclusions are as follows:
1) The Topler Z-Schlieren configura-

2. Zschetzsche, J. 2007. Diagnostics of gas

shielded arc welding processes. Dresdner
Fugetechnische Berichte. Band 14.
3. Toepler, A. 1906. Observations according
to a new optical method. Ostwalds Klassiker der
Exakten Wissenschaften Nr. 158. Leipzig, Germany.
4. Garcia, G., McClure, J. C., Hou, H. and

Nunes, A. C. Gas flow observation during

VPPA welding using a shadowgraph technique.
5. Cooper, P., Godbole, A., and Norrish, J.
2007. Modelling and simulation of gas flows in
arc welding. Implications for shielding efficiency and fume extraction. Proc. on the 60th
Annual Assembly of the International Institute of
Welding, Dubrovnik, Croatia.
6. Settles, G. S. 2001. Schlieren and Shadowgraph Techniques. Springer; Berlin, Germany,
ISBN 3-540-66155-7.
7. Schardin, H. 1934. Toeplers Schlieren
method: Basic principles for its use and quantitative evaluation. Forschungsheft 367 Beilage
zu Forschung auf dem Gebiet des Ingenieurwesens Ausgabe B Band. July/August.
8. Speiseder, M., and Lang, A. 2006. Optimization of the MIG-welding process by the use
of numerical simulation and PIV measurement.
The electric arc A technology with a non-exhausted potential. Dresdner Fugetechnisches
Kolloquium, TU Dresden, Germany.
9. Zobel, T. W. 1936. Increase of the cutting
speed while flame cutting by the use of a new
nozzle geometry. VDI-Verlag GmbH, Berlin,
10. Settles, G. S. 1998. Visualization of liquid metal, arc, and jet interactions in plasma
cutting of steel sheet. 8th International Symposium on Flow Visualization.
11. Kim, S. J. 2009. Fluid dynamic instabilities in plasma arc cutting. PhD dissertation.
Minnesota, Faculty of the graduate school, University of Minnesota.
12. Allemand, C. D., Schoeder, R., Ries, D.
E., and Eagar, T. W. 1985. A method of filming
metal transfer in welding arcs. Welding Journal
64(1): 4547
13. Ebert, L. 2007. Optimization of fume extraction of torch integrated fume extraction devices.
AiF-Vorhaben 14:436 BR.
14. Foucault, J. B. 1859. Annales de lObservatoire Imprial de Paris.
15. Mach, E. 1889. Further ballistic-photographic experiments. Sitzungsband Akad. Wiss.
Wien. 98: 13031309.
16. Rheinberg, J. H. 1896. On an addition to
the methods of microscopical research, by a
new way of optically producing coulour-contrast
between an object and its background, or between definite parts of the object itself. J. Roy.
Microsc. Soc., Ser. 2, 16(8):373388.



Fig. 11 Schlieren adaptor of a short arc (3 m/min wire feed).

Wettability by Liquid Metals, Metalization,

and Brazing of Barium Titanate Ceramics
A study investigates the contact interaction and wetting of
BaTiO3 perovskite ceramics by liquid metals



Detailed investigations, including wetting studies by liquid metals and metal coatings deposition onto ceramic surfaces and brazing processes, were carried out for
semiconducting and ferroelectric perovskite ceramic states of barium titanate
(BaTiO3). Pure metals (Cu, Ag, Au, Ge, Sn, Pb, Ga, In, Al, Si, Ni, Co, Fe, Pd) and
Ti-containing alloys based on In and binary Cu-Sn, Cu-Ga, and Cu-Ag systems were
investigated under high vacuum for the semiconducting BaTiO3-x surface. The degree of wettability correlates approximately with the chemical affinity of the liquid
metal phase to oxygen (wetting increases when the liquid metal affinity to oxygen increases). Addition of Ti to the liquid metal phase increases capillary properties and
adhesion in the system under investigation. Investigations of the wettability of ferroelectric BaTiO3 ceramics were performed in air gaseous media by alloys Ag-Cu-O.
Oxygen in the gaseous media preserves stoichiometric composition of barium titanate and being dissolved in Ag-Cu alloys promotes BaTiO3 wetting. For the first
time, wettability experiments in liquid metal/ceramic material systems (BaTiO3 in
this case) were carried out when the gaseous phase was pure oxygen. At greater oxygen partial pressure (1 atm for O2 comparing to 1/5 atm for air), wettability further
increases significantly. Vacuum brazing technology for semiconducting materials and
joining processes in air or pure oxygen atmosphere for ferroelectric ceramic materials based on BaTiO3 have been developed. Various detailed brazing models of
BaTiO3 and BaTiO3-x were created.

The perovskite-type structure ceramic
materials, such as barium titanate, play a
major role in modern electronics and electrical engineering. Barium titanate (BTO)
is widely used for creating multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs), embedded decoupling capacitors (EDC), electrical ceramic filters, and other piezoelectric and
ferroelectric components (Refs. 13). Ferroelectric ceramics are ideal for use in supersonic equipment.
On the base of these materials, a ferroelectric memory device was created (Refs.
4, 5). Barium titanate is also an excellent
photorefractive material (Ref. 6).
Oxygen release that occurs during the
annealing of BaTiO3 in high vacuum and
( are with the I.M. Frantsevich Institute of Problems of Materials Science NAS of
Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine.


JANUARY 2014, VOL. 93

at sufficiently high temperatures leads to

the transformation of dielectric ferroelectric BaTiO3 into semiconducting ceramics
(Ref. 7). As a semiconductor, BaTiO3 particularly exhibits a positive temperature
coefficient of resistivity (PTCR). It means
that at a certain temperature (Curie temperature), this material exhibits strong resistivity increase (typically by several orders of magnitude) (Ref. 6); due to its
PTCR properties, barium titanate is often
used as thermistors material in the ther-

Barium Titanate Ceramics

mal switches. The great importance for all

such ceramics is creation of strong contacts (including electric ones) in combinations BaTiO3/metals and BaTiO3/
Strength of metal-oxide contact and
uniformity of metal coating are determined essentially by a wettability degree
of ceramic materials (BTO) surface by liquid metals. High adhesion of liquid metals
to ceramics surface is a crucial factor for
creating mechanically strong contact.
According to Ref. 8, the degree of perovskite-type ceramics wettability by liquid
metal, and intensity of interaction between liquid metal and solid phase, can
also determine some electric properties of
the contact, e.g., ohmic or nonohmic one,
p-n-transition (in the case of semiconducting ceramics), and Schottky barrier
Thus, creating a strong adherent metal
coating on the BaTiO3 surface for its joining to metals and metalization of perovskite-type ceramics is a perspective direction of investigation. Recently,
scientific and technical interest in this
problem was increased considerably.
Up to now, there are only a few published works concerning research of contact properties of some metals in relation
to perovskite-type ceramics, in particular
to barium titanate (Refs. 911). The experimental data on wetting of perovskite
ceramics by some pure metals in these
works contradict each other sometimes. In
addition, in Ref. 10 the conditions of experiments are described only qualitatively,
e.g., as atmosphere with high and low
oxygen pressure, so these data need verification. Regularities of strong adherent
contact formations are studied little; scientific bases of these processes are practically absent.
The present work aims to systematically investigate the details of phenomena
for wettability, adhesion, and interaction
intensity of BaTiO3 perovskite-type ceramics in different forms ferroelectric

Fig. 1 Scheme of the apparatus for determining surface tension

and wetting angles of metallic liquids. The labeled numbers represent the following: vacuum chamber (1); stream-oil pump (2); vacuum valve (3); furnace (4); metal sample on the ceramic substrate
studied (5); next samples (6); horizontal rod (7); quartz prism (8);
vertical rod (9); and digital camera (10).

and semiconducting with molten metals that will allow doing further steps in
understanding metal-perovskite ceramics
interaction and elaboration of some brazing alloys and technological processes for
joining (brazing) of BaTiO3 materials.

Semiconducting BaTiO3-x
Nonstoichiometric semiconducting
BaTiO3-x can be obtained by means of annealing in high vacuum, as is mentioned
above. It is believed that BaTiO3-x nonstoichiometry is insignificant and will not exceed such parameters for pure titanium
oxide TiO2-x. For this oxide, the x value is
between 0.04 and 0.07 (Ref. 12). Such deviation only has a minor effect on mechanical and thermodynamic properties of
the compound, except for the electrophysical characteristics.
Such nonstoichiometry variation can
be attributed to oxygen vacancies compensated mostly by background and/or intrinsic acceptors within higher oxygen partial pressure (p(O2)) regions and by
electrons within lower p(O2) regions (Ref.
13). Semiconducting BTO has specific resistivity value near 300 cm (compared to
about 10610 cm for ferroelectric
The technology of vacuum metalization and brazing by melts containing titanium as a chemically active element was

tested for preliminary annealed semiconducting

barium titanate ceramics.

Experimental and

Fig. 3 Contact angle/titanium concentration dependence for melted

Ti-containing systems on BaTiO3 at 1270 K.

The main experiments consist of the

wettability measurements of BTO by liquid metals. Wettability studies were carried out by a sessile drop method in vacuum (~ 104 Pa) at temperature 8701870
K. This method allows determining the
values of the wetting contact angle and interphasic surface energy at the liquid-gas
interface. The sessile drop method
essence was discussed in detail earlier
(Refs. 1416). The main requirement for
measuring wetting contact angle by the
sessile drop method is in the placement of
a symmetrical drop of the melt on the solid
surface. The sample should be in controlled gaseous atmosphere or in at the
temperature specified. Standard equipment for the wettability of solid ceramic
specimens by a liquid metals study using
the sessile drop method is shown in Fig. 1.
A wide variety of metals and alloys having a broad application range in electroceramic devices was used. Fourteen pure
metals (Cu, Ag, Au, Ge, Sn, Pb, Ga, In, Al,
Si, Ni, Co, Fe, Pd) and several titaniumcontaining alloys (Cu-Sn-Ti, Ag-Cu-Ti,
Cu-Ga-Ti, In-Ti) were tested.

Metal samples for wetting experiments

typically have approximately 0.50.9 g.
Metal alloys were formed in-situ by alloying. Polycrystalline barium titanate has
been specially fabricated by the method of
solid-phase synthesis. In this study, we
used BaTiO3 ceramic discs 20 mm in diameter and ~ 3 mm thick. The samples
porosity was 3.50.03%. BTO substrates
were ground and polished with sandpaper
and abrasive powder. The average surface
roughness value (Ra) was equal to 0.02
m. Before experiments, BTO samples
were annealed in vacuum at ~ 1740 K during 60 min.
The wetting of BTO by molten alloys
Cu 8.6% (at.) Sn, Ag 39.9% (at.) Cu, and
Cu 17.6% (at.) Ga (which was used to create the many braze alloys) with active titanium additive (from 3 up to 25% (at.)) was
studied as well. Results of the wetting
studies of BTO by pure metals melts and
some alloys are presented in Table 1.
Most of the investigated pure metals
did not wet the barium titanate ceramics
surface (contact angles exceeded 90 deg).
Silicon and aluminum wet BTO (alu-



Fig. 2 Dependence of contact angle of BaTiO3 for the pure metals

melts on free energy of their oxides formation.


transition zone







Fig. 4 Microstructure of (Cu-8.6 Sn) 25 Ti-BaTiO3 interface. A 1000; B distribution of elements at interface, % (at.); and C characteristic emission of elements at BaTiO3 molten metal interface (top part ceramics, bottom part alloy) with barium (1), titanium (2), tin (3), and copper (4).

minum has a minimum value contact

angle of 78 deg). As a whole, the results
agree with Ref. 9. For example, wetting
contact angle values for Ag and Au in Ref.
9 confirm our data, though we consider
value of contact angle for Cu as obviously
Overall, a high degree of solids wetting


JANUARY 2014, VOL. 93

by liquid metals is caused by an intensive

interfacial chemical interaction (Figs. 2,
3). For oxides like Al2O3, SiO2, and MgO,
liquid metal interaction with oxygen is the
main factor (Refs. 17, 18). Comparatively,
due to the more anion O2 dimension to
metal cation one and the more latter displacement in the bulk of crystal (effect of

relaxation of surface ions and according to

Weyls scheme for structure of surface of
oxides), the oxide surface is formed mainly
by oxygen anions.
The BTO surface structure containing
two cations of different sizes and valence
numbers required special consideration.
Titanium ions (with a 0.068-nm radius) are

Table 1 The Results of Wetting of Semiconducting Barium Titanate by Some Pure Metals


Contact Angle , deg

Our Data




102 [9]





90 [10]
139 [9]
134 [9]








114 [10];
124 [9]
119 [9]








138 [9]









143 [9]

138 [9]


























one with BaTiO3 surface and metallic with

liquid metal phase. In other words, titanium from a liquid phase can become a
bridge connecting the solid BaTiO3 phase
with molten metal.
Our SEM research of contact boundary BaTiO3/titanium-containing alloy has
shown the presence of a transitive zone
57 m wide, which obviously is a product
of interphase reaction. Figure 4 shows the
structure of cooled drop (Cu-8.6 Sn)-20Ti
on the BaTiO3 substrate.
Analysis of the BaTiO3/liquid metal interface shows the character of elements
distribution in the direction perpendicular
to the interface Fig. 4B. Chemical composition for the BaTiO3 phase in volume
is reproduced precisely as ~20% (at.) of
barium and titanium, and ~60% (at.) of
oxygen. This ratio remains unchanged to
the BaTiO3/metal interface. Barium concentration is insignificant at the interface.
That is why metal interaction with barium
is possible only as a monolayer adsorption
at the BaTiO3 surface. Titanium concen-

Work of Adhesion,


tration increases from 20% (at.) in the

transition zone up to ~5060% (at.) in the
contact zone. Oxygen concentration in
this zone is about 18% (at.).
In Fig. 4C, the layer (new phase) with
high titanium concentration is clearly visible. Titanium segregation from the melt at
interface is the main reason for high wettability of BaTiO3 by Ti-containing alloys.
The metal chemistry studies by M. V.
Nevitt (Ref. 23) show that oxygen stabilizes intermetallic compounds like Ti2Cu;
the Cu2-3Ti3-4O phase has been identified.
A special investigation of the processes
occurred at different temperatures in the
contact zone by a high-temperature, X-ray
diffraction method of pressed mixture
with barium titanate, copper, and titanium
powders carried out as well (Fig. 5).
Two new phases with TiO and Cu3Ti3O
structures were identified in this system.
Both substances can be responsible for
wetting. However, the Cu3Ti3O pattern
disappears at 1370 K (Fig. 5B); probably,
this compound is not stable. Just TiO can



located in octahedral cavities formed by

oxygen ions and have enough room for
displacement within the BTO elementary
cell (a = 4.011 for cubic lattice). It is an explanation of essential mobility for titanium ions oscillating freely within the octahedral environment of oxygen ions. It
determines high polarizability of barium
titanate under electric field action (Ref.
19). Such increased mobility of titanium
ions (according to Weyls scheme (Ref.
20)) leads to some more of their displacement into crystal bulk after surface formation. So, for BTO, we can neglect the interaction of liquid metal phase with
titanium cations. However, beside oxygen,
BTO surface also contains large-sized barium ions (Ba2+). It makes this situation
more complex.
On the base of ions size data (r(Ba2+)
= 0.135 nm, r(O2) = 0.140 nm) and structure of BTO crystal lattice, we can see that
only a quarter of the ceramics surface is
occupied by Ba2+ ions, and the rest by oxygen ions. Overall, we can guess that main
regularities of interactions in BaTiO3 liquid metal systems have to be similar to regularity for classical oxide (Al2O3) metal
systems. Nevertheless, the interaction of
certain liquid metal phases with barium
ions at a BaTiO3 surface should be
Free formation energies of chemical
compounds for the metals under investigation with barium are within 167250
kJ/mol (for comparison, heat of formation
for the oxides is H(Al2O3) = 1675
kJ/mol, H(SiO2) = 911 kJ/mol) (Ref.
21). Only a silicon compound with barium
(BaSi3) is formed with significant heat release (H(BaSi3) = 544 kJ/mol). But
pure silicon can only moderately wet the
BaTiO3 surface, and its adhesion is lower
than the same value for aluminum, though
Al-Ba compounds are considerably less
stable thermodynamically according to
phase diagrams data (Ref. 22). Thus, wetting and adhesion in BTO metal systems is
evidently not determined by Ba-Me interaction to a significant degree.
An inactive matrix of Cu-Ga, Ag-Cu,
and Cu-Sn alloys (Fig. 3) does not wet the
BTO surface ( 120 130 deg). A titanium addition reduces contact angles
down to 2070 deg for titanium concentration up to 1025% (at.). It has been assumed that wetting the BTO surface is,
first of all, a result of interaction between
liquid metal (titanium) and oxygen of solid
phase, as in the case of classical oxide
materials (Al2O3 and MgO). Formation of
titanium oxide (TiO) having metal-like
properties in a BaTiO3/Ti-containing alloy
system is the reason of high adhesion in
this case. Titanium, as a transition metal,
is characterized by its ability to participate
simultaneously in several chemical bonding interactions of different types ionic

Fig. 5 X-ray diffraction patterns of the BaTiO3 (Cu-28 Ti) system. A 1280 K; B 1370 K.


Fig. 6 The samples of the semiconducting BaTiO3 ceramics metalized and brazed in vacuum using the following: A In-Ti alloys; B Ag-Cu-Ti paste.

be accounted for the explanation of a wetting-in system studied at high temperatures. The same data were published, for
example, in Ref. 24 for Al2O3 systems.
Varying wetting effects of titanium in different systems studied Cu-Ag, Cu-Ga,
Cu-Sn (Fig. 3) can be explained by several reasons, in particular by various thermodynamic activity of titanium in alloys.
Ag-Cu-Ti alloys demonstrate some peculiarity. A eutectic system with about
60% (at.) of silver can dissolve in about
2% (at.) of titanium at 1270 K. A titanium
content increase leads to arising the second equilibrium liquid phase that contains
64% (at.) of Cu, 28% (at.) of Ti, and 8%
(at.) of Ag (Ref. 14). The mechanism details of such interface processes in a complex BaTiO3 (AgCuTi)phase I (Ag
CuTi)phase II system requires special
consideration. It is possible now to note
only that this process can be useful for improving adhesive bonding of BaTiO3 to

metal (arising of second liquid phase with

a high Ti concentration).
The temperature dependence of contact angle for indium-titanium alloys on
the BaTiO3 surface has been investigated
as well.
The contact angle of a In-Ti melt drops
significantly at a low temperature (in interval, 770870 K). Almost full spreading
of the In-Ti melt on a BTO surface occurs
at 830870 K. It can be used for brazing
not only semiconducting barium titanate
(BaTiO3x) but the ferroelectric one
(BaTiO3) as well.

Brazing Alloys and Technological

Conditions for Semiconducting
BTO Joining
Metalization of materials using liquid
metal film is a perspective method. However, a high degree of wetting for solid sur-

Table 2 The Result of Measurements of the Shear Strength of Brazing Barium Titanate
Ceramic Samples
Shear Strength of Brazing Ceramic Samples, MPa




JANUARY 2014, VOL. 93



faces by such metal is required. Theoretically (Ref. 14), for producing continuous
film of liquid metal, spreading factor (K)
has to be positive (Equation 1).


where WA is work of adhesion and WC is

work of cohesion.
For brazing and metalization of perovskite, compounds were chosen for
brazed compositions that are well wetted
for the surface of such materials.
Braze alloys based on titaniumcontaining systems (Cu-Sn-Ti, Ag-Cu-Ti,
In-Ti) for joining and metalization of perovskite BaTiO3 ceramic were used for
creating uniform coatings and strong
brazed samples Fig. 6A. The shear
strength of brazed ceramic/ceramic butt
joints was measured (Table 2, Figs. 7, 8).
It is shown that the strength of brazed
perovskite samples obtained using CuSn-Ti alloys equaled 42 MPa. It is about
80% of the average strength of monolithic samples.
Beside basic requirements (particularly sufficiently high wetting) for materials to be joined, compliance of their coefficients for thermal expansion is
important, because stresses caused by

Fig. 7 Scheme of the shear strength test for the brazed ceramic samples.

Fig. 9 Scheme of the apparatus for determining the contact angle of metal
melts in the air (oxygen) atmosphere. The labeled numbers represent the following: silica tube (1); furnace (2); heat transparent screen (3); digital camera (4); metal refractory wire (5); and metal sample on the BaTiO3 ceramic
substrate (6).

thermal expansion mismatch can considerably lower the strength of the joint. Applying indium-based alloys having high
plasticity is especially expedient for metalization and joining BaTiO3 ceramics.
Additionally, the technology of brazing and metalization BTO was realized
using capillary impregnation of low-melting braze alloys through titanium powder. For such alloy cleanliness, titanium
powder was obtained from TiH dissociating into titanium and hydrogen during
heating. The indium was deposition on
the titanic powder layer onto a BaTiO3
ceramics surface. During heating up to
970 K, indium spread well over the whole
BaTiO3 surface and filling brazing gap.
The thin film of In-Ti is easily formed on
the surface of perovskite ceramic in such
conditions Fig. 6B.

Ferroelectric BaTiO3
Barium titanate with a stoichiometric
structure having high ferro- and piezoelectric characteristics can be heated up
without any changes only within a oxygencontaining environment (in air). For such
materials joining, special braze alloys and
technological processes are required.
Oxygen being dissolved in some metals
leads to a substantial increase of wetting
degree and adhesion of these metals to ceramics. The oxygen effect on wetting and
also on interface and surface tension of
metal melts was investigated earlier in our
works (Refs. 14, 2528). It has been shown
that oxygen effectively increases the adhesion of Cu, Ag, Ni, and some other metals

to ionic compounds,
for example, to oxides. Several systems
(Cu-O-Al2O3, Cu-OMgO, Ni-O-Al2O3,
Ag-O-Al2O3, Ag-CuO-Al2O3) were studied in detail. The AgCu-O system is
especially interesting. We have made
the assumption that
the oxygen technology will work for
Fig. 10 Dependence of contact angle for the ferroelectric BaTiO ceramic
ferroelectric barium by Ag-Cu-O melt in air environment and oxygen on concentration 3of copper
titanate as well. Ac- at 1250 K.
cording to Refs. 14,
15, oxygen that has
Experimental Data and
sufficient affinity to an electron, being disDiscussion
solved in liquid metal, will increase the
wettability of a surface for ionic or ionFor ferroelectric BTO ceramic, expericovalent substances.
ments and technological processes were
Up to now, there are only solitary works
carried out per method in air media and, for
concerning the possibility of a perovskite
the first time, under pure oxygen atmoscompound (Pb (Mg0.33Nb0.67) O3) for wetphere using the sessile drop method as well.
ting and joining by Ag-CuO alloys (Ref. 29).
For this purpose, a special device was creScientific background of this process is not
ated Fig. 9. Experiments were carried out
developed; the reasons for oxygen influence
in oxygen flow with the partial pressure of
on wetting are not explained in this work.
oxygen about 1 atm at 1250, 1320, and 1370
Thus, the investigation of wetting ceK. Technical pure oxygen was used. But the
ramic ferroelectric materials based on
oxygen is reactive. Pure oxygen at high presBTO, elaboration of braze compositions
sure, such as from a cylinder, can react vioand technological conditions for brazed
lently with common materials such as oil
BTO ceramic joints, and creation of
and grease. Take all reasonably practicable
strongly adherent metal coatings on the ferprecautions to ensure safety to prevent oxyroelectric perovskite ceramic surfaces were
gen enrichment by keeping oxygen equipthe main purpose of the present work. The
ment in good condition and taking care
Ag-Cu-O system alloys were used as a braze
when using it. Good ventilation will also realloys base.


Fig. 8 The Weibulls graph of brazed strength in vacuum semiconducting

BaTiO3 ceramic samples.


Fig. 11 Microstructure of Ag-Cu-O, BaTiO3 interface at characteristic

emission of elements (top part ceramic, low part alloy). A 600;
B barium; C titanium; D silver; E copper. BE 1000).

duce the risk of oxygen enrichment (Refs.

15, 30).
In Fig. 10, data on BaTiO3 wetting by
silver and silver-copper alloy are
Oxygen dissolved in Ag-Cu alloy works
as a strong adhesive element. Contact
angle for pure silver in vacuum at 1250 K
was equal to 129 deg, the same value in air
was 96 deg, and in pure oxygen 75 deg.
Copper addition to silver melt (~10%
(at.)) leads to considerable contact angle
decrease to 4547 deg (in air) and to al12-s

JANUARY 2014, VOL. 93

most complete spreading of alloy ( 510

deg) in the pure oxygen atmosphere.
According to Ref. 14,
oxygen is an adhesion
active and surface active element. In the liquid metal, oxygen exists
in the form of O2 ions
and can form complex
metal-oxygen particles
with metal ions in melt
(Me2+ O-2). Such
complex particles have
a positive pole at metal ion and negative
pole at oxygen ion. Positive metallic ion of
the complex is adsorbed on negatively
charged oxygen ions, forming the surface
of BaTiO3. Localization of external electrons for metal ion at oxygen ion must
weaken the metallic bond intensity with
other metal ions. The bond between the
metallic ion of metal-oxygen complex and
another metal atom must be weaker than
metallic bond atoms with each other.
When the bond energy complex-Me is less
than bond energy Me-Me, it is the condi-

tion for metal-oxygen complex surface activity. Adsorption of metal ions on the
negative charged oxide surface results in
high adhesion.
The temperature increase intensifies
the wetting process; contact angle decreases to 2530 deg in air (with 10 % (at.)
of Cu in liquid Ag). For pure oxygen, full
spreading can be reached with Cu content
at about 67% (at.).
The high capillary activity of alloys in a
pure oxygen atmosphere is caused by a
high equilibrium concentration of oxygen
in melt under high oxygen partial pressure
(1 atm). Oxygen partial pressure for the
air is 0.21 atm. Concentration of oxygen
that saturates metal melt is described by
Sivertss law (in many cases) (Refs. 31, 32),
O liquid



p (O )


where p(O2) is oxygen partial pressure and

k is constant.
The concentration of oxygen dissolved
in the silver melt in air is equal:
O Ag = k 0, 21


Transitive zone
Fig. 12 Cross section of Ag-Cu-O drop (top part) on surface of the ferroelectric BaTiO3. A In air; B in oxygen.

Under pure oxygen atmosphere,

pure oxygen = k 1


Oxygen solubility in liquid silver in air at

1250 K equals 10.5 sm3/g Ag under pure oxygen atmosphere. It will be 2.2 times higher.
Analysis of the BaTiO3/Ag-Cu-O alloy
interface shows the presence of a transitive black zone ~710 m thick, which is
an obvious result of copper diffusion into
the ceramic substrate in air media (Fig.
11). But in oxygen atmosphere such zone
is thin (~ 1 m) or absent (Fig. 12). It is
important for saving whole degree ferroelectric properties of such ceramics.

Brazing of Ferroelectric Barium

Under the air, and especially under
pure oxygen atmosphere, the process of
joining (brazing) of ferroelectric BaTiO3
ceramics can be performed.
Braze alloy Ag-10 Cu was used for joining BTO ceramics in air and Ag-3 Cu
under pure oxygen atmosphere.
The samples of the perovskite ceramics
brazed with Ag-Cu-O alloy were obtained.
The shear strength of ceramic/ceramic
butt joints was measured (Fig. 13, Table 2).
It was shown that the strength of brazed
samples was 46 MPa. It is 88% of the average strength of monolithic ceramics,
which is more than two times the strength
given in the literature for perovskite materials brazing.
The metal that can be joined to ferroelectric BTO is a noble one platinum
(wire electrodes, plates). The pure Ag can
be used as well with minimal difficulty, accounting that the melt temperature for AgCu-O alloys were some lower than for pure
Ag. As it was shown practically, platinum
provides a strong homogeneous brazed
joint that can also be used for brazing ferroelectric ceramics to construction metal.
The brazed and metalized ferroelectric
barium titanate samples were obtained
using plastic In-Ti filler alloy in vacuum at
720 K. It was possibly because such ceramic
begins to lose oxygen and ferroelectric properties in vacuum at heating above 900 K.

A combined investigation including contact interaction and

wetting of BaTiO3 perovskite ceramics by liquid metals was carried out. Two states of barium titanate were studied.
For semiconducting BaTiO3-x
with an oxygen defect, experiments in vacuum for 13 pure metals and Ti-containing alloys (CuSn-Ti, Cu-Ga-Ti, and Ag-Cu-Ti)
were carried out. Most of the
metals under investigation do not
wet BaTiO3. Titanium addition
sharply increases capillary properties and adhesion. Compositions of capillary active braze alloys, plus methods in brazing and
metalization BaTiO3 for high Fig. 13 The Weibulls graph of shear strength for brazed in
air ferroelectric BaTiO3 ceramics samples.
contact strength achieving, were
The brazing process for ferroelectric barium titanate must be carried
1. Xu, Y. 1991. Ferroelectric Materials and
out in the oxygen-containing environment
Their Applications. North-Holland, Amster in air or preferably pure oxygen. For
brazing and metalization of ferroelectric,
2. Uchino, K. 1997. Piezoelectric Actuators
ceramic BaTiO3 used Ag-Cu-O alloys.
and Ultrasonic Motors. Norwell, Mass., Kluwer.
Based on obtained data, metal-oxygen
3. Bhattacharya, K., and Ravichandran, G.
technologies of metalization and brazing
2003. Ferroelectric perovskites for electroBaTiO3 ceramics in air and pure oxygen
mechanical actuation. Acta. Mater. 51:
atmosphere were developed, and also a
method of metalization with high adhe4. Scott, J. F. 2000. Ferroelectric Memories.
Springer Verlag, Berlin.
sion using metal melts containing oxygen.
5. Ramesh, R. 1997. Thin Film Ferroelectric
The plastic In-Ti alloy was tested for
Materials and Devices. Kluwer. Academic, Normetalization and brazing in a vacuum of
well, Mass.
perovskite ceramics. It can be used for
6. Fernie, J. A., and Ironside, K. I. 1999. Cethe semiconductor BaTiO3 ceramics at
ramic brazing. Materials World 7(11): 686688.
970 K and ferroelectric BaTiO3 ceramics
7. Bursian, E. V. 1974. Nonlinear Crystal
at 720 K, allowing use of the full range of
(barium titanate). Nauka, Moskow.
unique electrical properties for per8. Brillson, L. J. 1994. Metal-semiconductor
ovskite materials.
interface. Surf. Sci. 229/230: 909927.
The authors wish to thank Prof. M. D.
Glinchuk and PhD E. P. Garmash for synthesis of ceramic samples; PhD O. V.
Durov for assistance in the brazing
processes; and Prof. S. A. Firstov and Dr.
M. V. Karpets for microstructure interface

9. Wang, S.-F., Yang, T. C. K., and Lee, S.-C.

2001. Wettability of electrode metals on barium
titanate substrate. J. Mater. Sci. 36: 825829.
10. Cann, D. P., Maria, J.-P., and Randall, C.
A. 2001. Relationship between wetting and
electrical contact properties of pure metals and
alloys on semiconducting barium titanate ceramics. J. Mater. Sci. 36: 49694976.
11. Lee, C. Y., Dupcux, M., and Tuan, W. H.
2006. Adhesion strength of Ag/BaTiO3 interface. Scripta Mater. 54(3): 453457.




12. Tretyakov, YuD. 1974. Chemistry of Nonstoichiometric Oxides. Moscow University Publishing Co., Moscow, Russia.
13. Lee, D.-K., and Yoo, H.-I. 2001. Oxygen
nonstoichiometry of undoped BaTiO3. Solid
State Ionics 144(1-2): 8797.
14. Naidich, Yu. V. 1981. Eds. Cadenhead,
D. A., and Danielli, J. F. Progress in Surface
Membrane Science, 14. Academic Press, Inc.,
New York.
15. Naidich, Yu. V. 1972. The Contact Phenomena in Metal Melts. Naukova Dumka, Kiev.
16. Eustathopoulos, N., Sobczak, N.,
Passerone, A., and Nogi, K. 2005. Measurements of contact angle and work of adhesion at
high temperature. J. Mater. Sci. 40: 22712280.
17. Shimbo, M., Naka, M., and Okamoto, I.
1989. Wettability of silicon carbide by aluminum, copper and silver. J. of Mat. Sci. Lett. 24:
18. Fujii, H., and Nakae, H. 1996. Equilibrium contact angle in the magnesium oxide/aluminum system. Acta. Mater. 44: 35673573.

19. West, A. R. 1988. Solid State Chemistry

and Its Application. Mir, Moscow.
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S. Smith. Structure and Properties of Solid Surfaces. University of Chicago, Press, Chicago.
21. Vol, A. E. 1959. The structure and properties of binary metal systems. Nauka, Moscow.
22. Darken, L. S., and Gurry, R. W. 1953.
Physical Chemistry of Metals, 1st ed. McGrawHill Book, London.
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alloy chemistry of the transition elements. New
24. Voytovych, R., Robaut, F., and Eustathopoulos, N. 2006. The relation between
wetting and interfacial chemistry in the
CuAgTi/alumina system. Acta. Mater. 54:
25. Eremenko, V. N., Buyanov, Yu. I., and
Panchenko, N. M. 1969. The separation area in
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Nosonovich, A. A. 1960. Oxygen surface activity in copper-oxygen system. J. Phys. Chem.

XXXIV(5): 10181022.
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1961. Oxygen surface activity in silver-oxygen
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30. Health and Safety Executive.
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and carbon in metals. Metallurgy, M.


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JANUARY 2014, VOL. 93

Characterization of High-Strength Weld

Metal Containing Mg-Bearing Inclusions
Microstructural analysis of flux cored welds using a 4% Ni steel consumable
exhibits both high strength and toughness

Weld metal deposited by flux cored arc welding that exhibited a combination of high
strength and toughness was studied. Microstructural characterization revealed it contained primarily bainitic ferrite with a fine packet size in the as-deposited metal and
mainly nonaligned ferrite in the reheated zones, which were concentrated near the root
of the weld. A new type of spherical inclusion is reported with an average size of 311
nm in diameter that exhibits a shelled structure mainly rich in Al, Mg, and O in the
core, and Mg, O in the outer shell. It is suggested the good properties stem from a
combination of fine inclusion size, low content of interstitials, and small ferrite packet
size. Instrumented impact testing indicates that grain refinement in reheated zones
near the root of the weld improve the Charpy impact energy; however, fracture initiation energy is similar to the top of the weld.

This research focuses on the use of a
novel flux-cored arc welding wire formulation, which appears to depart from the
typical mechanisms of microstructural development, resulting in outstanding weld
metal strength and toughness. The traditional strategy for achieving a combination
of high strength along with good lowtemperature toughness in high-strength
weld metals is to promote an acicular ferrite microstructure (Refs. 14). This microstructure consists of fine interlocking
ferrite needles, with high grain boundary
misorientations to promote grain boundary strengthening together with crack deviation during cleavage fracture at low
temperatures (Refs. 5, 6). The nucleation
of acicular ferrite occurs intragranularly in
austenite on inclusions, and commercial
weld consumables rely on Ti and Al additions to form inclusions such as TiOx, TiN,
and MnO. Al2O3 (Refs. 79). The nucleation of acicular ferrite depends on achieving a large volume fraction of inclusions
A. P. GERLICH is with University of Waterloo,
Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, H. IZADI and P. F.
MENDEZ are with University of Alberta, Chemical and Materials Engineering, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, J. BUNDY is with Hobart Brothers, Troy, Ohio.

with a diameter between 0.2 and 2 m,

where the ideal size is close to 0.4 m
(Refs. 1013). It has been shown that
achieving this structure typically occurs
when the weld metal oxygen content is
close to 200 ppm, where lower oxygen concentrations fail to produce the acicular ferrite, while higher values form excessive
amounts of large oxide inclusions that are
1 m in diameter and nucleate cracks
(Refs. 14, 15) and deteriorate toughness
(Ref. 16).
Considering the influence of chemistry
and cooling rate on the thermodynamics
and kinetics of inclusion formation (Ref.
17), successful application of welding consumables using Ti additions requires careful control of welding parameters that
influence the chemistry in the weld pool,
particularly Ti, O, and N content. This can
limit the operating window for some con-

Flux Cored
Phase Formation
Oxide Inclusions
Instrumented Charpy

sumables to achieve the desired acicular

ferrite microstructure depending on these
chemistry additions in the electrode. However, recent developments have shown
that excellent toughness and strength may
also be achieved with a complex combination of ferrite with martensite/austenite islands, martensite, degenerated pearlite,
and upper bainite (Ref. 18). High-toughness weld metals based on large fractions
of ferrite with nonaligned second phase
and little acicular ferrite microconstituents
were produced; however, this was limited
to a tensile strength of 480 to 651 MPa
(Ref.19). Alternative microstructures are
of interest since they may offer reduced
levels of interstitial oxygen and nitrogen,
which will help to improve low-temperature toughness; however, these elements
are normally required in forming inclusions that nucleate acicular ferrite.
The general consensus is that toughness during impact testing is limited in the
upper shelf region by the volume fraction
of nonmetallic inclusions, and by the type
and morphology of microconstituents during brittle fracture in the lower shelf (Refs.
2, 20, 21). Since a ferrite structure with
aligned second phase dominates at lowoxygen contents, the toughness is limited
by the larger unit crack length path during
brittle fracture (Refs. 2224). Weld metal
deposits that achieve Charpy impact energy values of 300 J at 50C (Ref. 25) are
possible through optimizing oxygen and Ti
content to control the formation of TiO2,
which nucleates acicular ferrite. However,
there are a few techniques discussed that
do not rely on acicular ferrite structures
and do not use Ti additions.
This investigation examines the use of a
flux cored arc welding consumable with a
nominal tensile strength of more than 825
MPa, which does not utilize Ti additions
or promote acicular ferrite formation. The
weld metal can be deposited with 100%
CO2 shielding gas, while containing low interstitial content with good low-temperaWELDING JOURNAL 15-s




Fig. 1 A Macroscopic section of the joint; B optical micrograph

of the as-deposited weld metal; C optical micrograph of the reheated
weld metal.

ture toughness, as well as high strength.

The microconstituents and inclusions are
examined using a combination of optical
and SEM microscopy, and the fracture
properties are studied using instrumented
impact testing followed by fractography.

The weld metal chemistry is summarized
in Table 1, and has a calculated CEIIW carbon equivalent of 0.62, and Pcm value of
0.21 (Ref. 26). The welds were completed
using a flux cored arc welding (FCAW)
consumable that conforms to AWS specification A5.29, with CO2 shielding gas, using

a current of 200 A,
voltage of 24 V in direct current electrode
(DCEN) polarity,
and 0.0625-in. (1.6
mm) wire with a
feeding rate of 200
in./min (84 mm/s).
The details of the
consumable design
and flux chemistry
have been reported
elsewhere; however,
it should be noted that the flux contains
MgO, which provides an opportunity to introduce Mg content into the weld metal
(Ref. 27). Welding was conducted in the flat
(1G) position on a 0.75-in.-thick ASTM
A514 steel plate with a 45-deg bevel angle,
a 0.5-in. root opening and a backing plate,
similar to other studies (Ref. 28). The travel
speed was approximately 8 in./min during
each welding pass, and the heat input was
an average of 1.8 kJ/mm. During welding,
the preheat or interpass temperature was
350F (177C), and no postweld heat treatment was applied.
Charpy impact testing was conducted
between 73 to 20C on material ex-

tracted from the middle of the weld region. Additional welds were produced on a
75-mm-thick plate using the same conditions as above in order to facilitate extraction of 10 10 mm Charpy coupons along
the transverse direction of the weld. These
were obtained from approximately 2 mm
below the surface of the root, as well as 2
mm below the surface of the crown of the
weld, in order to obtain mainly reheated
or as-deposited weld metal, respectively,
from these two regions. These top and
bottom portions of the weld were also
tested by instrumented impact testing in
which the force and displacement were
recorded during impact. Instrumented impact testing was used in order to provide a
comparison of the relative fracture initiation energy values in these top and bottom
regions of the weld.
The microstructures were analyzed using
a combination of optical and SEM microscopy after etching with 2% nital. Microhardness indentation was used to
determine the hardness of the reheated and
as-deposited material. In order to determine the chemistry of fine inclusions, Auger
electron spectroscopy (AES) was used to
map elemental distributions. Further analysis of the inclusions was also conducted by

Table 1 Weld Metal Chemistry (wt-%, balance Fe)


























JANUARY 2014, VOL. 93

Optical Microscopy

The macroscopic
section of the joint in
the 0.75-in. plate is
shown in Fig. 1A, and
the typical microstructures observed in the
as-deposited and reheated regions of the
weld are shown in Fig.
1B and C. The root
Fig. 3 XRD spectrum of weld metal indicating presence of ferrite () and and fill passes of the
weld metal contain a
retained austenite ().
significant fraction of
reheated weld metal,
dissolving the weld metal in a 25% HCl and
while the upper region capping passes
25% HNO3 mixture, followed by collection
comprise mainly as-deposited material.
of the dissolved metal residue on filter
The weld metal mainly consisted of
paper. The residue as well as the bulk weld
upper bainite, referred to as FS(A) mimetal was examined by XRD analysis. The
crostructures in the as-deposited material,
weld metal solidification was also simulated
and bainitic ferrite or an FS(NA) miby calculating the Scheil diagram using
crostructure in the reheated zones conThermoCalc version S with the TCFE6
taining fine-grained material. These
database. The ThermoCalc investigations
microstructures were identified using the
examined the chemistry shown in Table 1 for
modified IIW classification scheme (Ref.
only elements >0.1 wt-% as well as oxygen
29) as either ferrite with aligned second
and carbon, and the stability of all phases
phase (FS(A)), ferrite with nonaligned
within the TCFE6 database. The algorithm
second phases (FS(NA)), and polygonal
for this is included within ThermoCalc,
ferrite (PF). Both the as-deposited and rewhere the equilibrium composition of solid
heated weld metals were examined, and
phases are calculated, assuming negligible
the area fractions of each of the ferrite
diffusion in the solid and perfect mixing in
morphologies or microconstituents were
the liquid.
quantified by image analysis, summarized

in Table 2. Within the fill passes, the asdeposited regions had an average hardness of about 285 (6.7) HV1kgf, which
was comparable to the reheated material
with a hardness of 281 (6.0) HV1kgf. It
should be noted that the capping pass weld
metal had a higher hardness of 332 (2.0)
HV1kgf as a result of the higher cooling
rates. Weld metal testing indicated that
the yield point was 763 MPa with an ultimate tensile strength of 866 MPa, and
elongation to failure of 17.8%, which is
consistent with the expected minimum ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 825 MPa.
Electron Microscopy and XRD Results

The as-deposited and reheated regions

of the weld metal are shown in Fig. 2.
There is clearly no basket-weave structure
or acicular ferrite present. Instead,
bainitic ferrite dominates with a fine
packet size in the as-deposited microstructure. The as-deposited regions
containing predominantly aligned ferrite
were organized into packets that comprised ferrite laths, with an average length
of 7.4 2.3 m (n = 35) and width of 0.49
0.18 m (n = 54).
The XRD pattern of the bulk weld
metal is shown in Fig. 3, and the only
peaks that could be indexed consisted of
ferrite and retained austenite. Based on
the relative intensities of the (220) ferrite
peak, I1, and the (111) austenite peak, I2,
the volume fraction of retained austenite
RA% can be estimated (Ref. 29) using the
following equation:

Table 2 Quantification of Ferrite Microstructures

RA % =

Region, % Area Fraction

As deposited







1 + 0.65 1
which indicated that the weld metal contained approximately 2.9% retained


Fig. 2 SEM micrographs. A As-deposited; B reheated weld metal.

Fig. 4 Weight fraction of Mg (A) and Al (B) in the halite phase vs. temperature during solidification of the weld metal, calculated using ThermoCalc.


an ionic phase, labeled as

Halite, along with ferrite
(BCC_A1) and retained
austenite (FCC_A1#1).
The halite phase consists
mainly of MgO, and is included in the ThermoCalc
TCFE6 database within
the Fe-Al-Ca-Cr-Mg-MnNi-Si-Ti-C-O system, with
possible substitution of
Mg for other elements
permitted. In the present
work, halite begins to precipitate in the melt at just
over 2300C and is initially
aluminum rich, and then
devoid of aluminum at
Fig. 5 SEM micrograph of an Mg- and Al-rich inclusion in weld metal. lower
<1600C, and this is followed by solidification of
ferrite. The calculated
Thermodyamic Analysis
content of magnesium and aluminum in
the halite during solidification is shown in
The formation of inclusions in the weld
Fig. 4, with a balance of oxygen, suggesting
pool was examined by considering the
it would have (Mg,Al)O chemistry. It
thermodynamic stability of various oxides
should be noted that when magnesium is
using ThermoCalc, considering the actual
not included in the chemistry, the calculaweld metal chemistry and the assumptions
tions suggest that Si2O4-Al6O9 phase
for a Scheil solidification plot. The results
would solidify first in the melt, followed by
indicated that the equilibrium phases durMnO-Al2O3, and the halite phase is not
ing solidification of the steel first involves

Table 3 Instrumented Charpy Impact Testing Measurements


Test Temperature,

Dynamic Fracture
Toughness J1d, kJ/m2

Energy, J






JANUARY 2014, VOL. 93

Inclusion Analysis

Spherical oxide inclusions could be observed in the steel, and measurements indicated they have an average size of 311
120 nm (n = 69). These fine inclusions
were found to contain aluminum and magnesium Fig. 5. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) was used to map the
elemental distribution in these oxides, and
a core/shell structure can be observed containing mainly Al oxide in the core, and a
shell with Mg oxide Fig. 6. These observations support the thermodynamic calculations in Fig. 4, which suggest that the
inclusions are initially nucleated with a
core that is rich in magnesium, aluminum,
and oxygen, and then following growth,
the outer shell only contains magnesium
and oxygen. Some prior research has also
shown that halite particles with a MgO
stoichiometry are predicted by ThermoCalc in steels containing low oxygen content and trace amounts of Mg (Ref. 31)
However, to the authors knowledge, such
Mg-Al-O-rich inclusions have never been
reported in weld metal and no correlation
could be observed between nucleation of
ferrite phases and these inclusions.
The carbides in the steel were also extracted by dissolving the weld metal in a
mixture of HCl and HNO3 acid. The dissolved solution was screened through filter paper in order to capture the solid
particles. XRD analysis was used to determine the solid phases recovered following
dissolution and filtering. The XRD peaks
observed in the residue recovered were
identified as ZrC carbide (Ref. 32), and
the particles were extracted from the filter
paper onto double-sided copper tape for
SEM microscopy. This residue is shown in
Fig. 7, and consisted mainly of cuboidal
particles; however, a small fraction of
spherical particles could also be observed,
which may correspond with the oxide in-

clusions observed in Figs. 5 and 6, along

with iron-chloride residue, which may
have reprecipitated during particle extraction. EDX analysis revealed mainly the
presence of oxygen, carbon, iron, and
chlorine, with a small fraction of zirconium, magnesium, and aluminum in the
extracted residue. Based on the SEM and
XRD observations, it would be expected
that the cuboidal particles correspond with
ZrC, with an average size of 221 45 nm
(n = 10).

Charpy Toughness Measurements and


Instrumented Charpy Testing of Top and

Bottom Region of Weld

The top (near the cap) and bottom

(near the root) of the welds tested showed
significantly different microstructures. The
bottom of the weld shows a much higher
amount of reheated material, as shown in
Fig. 1A, which results in much different
balances between FS(A) and FS(NA) microconstituents (higher FS(NA) in reheated material).
The differences in the fracture strength
of these two microstructures were investigated using instrumented impact tests. In
these tests, the evolution of force during
the breaking of the sample is recorded.
The resulting curves are illustrated in Fig.
12. These curves provide much richer detail than a report of only total impact energy values. In particular, the dynamic
fracture toughness or J-integral value (J1d)
may also be calculated from the data
based on the methodology proposed by
Moitra et al. (Ref. 33). In this approach,
the standard Charpy sample has a notch
and no precrack is present, which requires

Fig. 6 AES analysis of element distributions of the Mg- and Al-rich oxide in weld metal, with A Fe;
B O; C Mg; D Al maps shown.

one to estimate when the actual fracture

has initiated based on the force-displacement data collected during impact. For
this type of specimen, the dynamic fracture toughness is given by:
J1d = (ES)i Bbo


where is a constant, (ES)i is the energy

absorbed up to the crack initiation point,
the sample thickness B is 10 mm, and bo is
the remaining ligament length of 8 mm. It
has been shown that in the case of Charpy
impact specimens, =1.45 (Refs. 33, 34),
and that the crack initiation point for ferritic steel specimens can be taken as the
point corresponding with (PMAX + PGY)/2,
where PMAX is the maximum load during
impact, and PGY is the general yield load
(Ref. 35). In some cases, resonance in the
impact tester produced large oscillations
in the force output, so the force output
data was averaged to remove these oscillations and allow PMAX and PGY to be
readily determined. The area directly
under the force-displacement curve up to
the point (PMAX + PGY)/2 was then quantified to directly measure (ES)i.
The measured values for the impact
performance of the top and bottom regions of the weld are summarized in Table

3. The J1d and the total impact energy are

similar for both regions of the weld
(slightly higher for the bottom region, with
the difference more marked at lower temperatures). The fracture surfaces are also
comparable, with slightly finer features
(average size of dimples) in the bottom.
The similarity in fracture toughness and
fracture surface between the top and the
bottom of the weld, despite having such
different balances of FS(A) and FS(NA)
is consistent with a fracture mechanism
dominated by inclusions and carbides,
which are stable during reheating and are
expected to have a similar distribution in
the top and bottom of the weld. In a mechanism dominated by carbides and inclusions, smaller inclusions result in higher
toughness values, and the small size of the
inclusions and carbides observed here (all
below 0.5 m) are an important factor in
the high-impact values observed.

In prior investigations, Koseki and
Thewlis have shown that toughness and
strength degrades when the weld metal
Al/O ratio exceeds 1.0 (Ref. 4), since these
will promote a spinel structure that does
not favor acicular ferrite nucleation (Ref.


The impact testing results are shown in

Fig. 8. The upper shelf extends to 40C,
and the ductile to brittle transition temperature, if defined as the temperature at
which toughness is intermediate between
the upper and lower shelves, is at 60C or
below. The upper shelf value is approximately 130 J, and the lower shelf was never
reached, despite tests being conducted
down to 73C. The fracture surface of
Charpy specimens tested at 18C exhibited mainly a fibrous fracture surface,
while those tested at 62C exhibited a
combination of fibrous failure and quasicleavage fracture, as shown in Fig. 9.
Spherical particles could be observed in
bottoms of many of the dimples observed
in the fibrous fracture surfaces, in addition
to a few randomly distributed cuboidal
particles, as shown in Fig. 10. The quasicleavage fracture surface shown in Fig. 11
had facets with dimensions comparable to
the ferrite packed diameters observed by
SEM in Fig. 2.

Fig. 7 SEM micrograph of particles extracted from the weld metal following dissolution in acid.

Fig. 8 Charpy impact energy values for material extracted from the middle region of the fusion zone.


Fig. 9 Fracture surfaces from central region of the Charpy sample for tests. A 18C; B 62C.

36). However, this ideal Al/O ratio is

based on the fraction of acicular ferrite
being maximized, as long as titanium is
present (Ref. 37). Since the Al/O ratio was
extremely high and there was negligible titanium content, no acicular ferrite formed
in the weld metal.
Precipitate particles with dimensions
>1 m could not be observed in the inclusions extracted from the weld metal by dissolution, or on the fracture surfaces,
suggesting that the presence of submicron
sized (Mg, Al)O particles may have suppressed the coarsening of oxide inclusions.
The oxygen content measured in the weld
metal (120 ppm) is within the range observed for gas metal arc welds; however,
the particularly low nitrogen content (64
ppm) is attributed to the use of CO2
shielding gas along with the high aluminum content (0.557 wt-%). For any
given level of oxygen content, a transition

JANUARY 2014, VOL. 93

from a small number of large inclusions to

a large number of fine inclusions will result in lower room temperature fracture
energy values since the number of initiation points for fibrous fracture will increase (Ref. 38), particularly if decohesion
has already occurred at the particle interface upon cooling of the weld metal. In the
case of cleavage fracture, fracture stress
increases dramatically with decreasing inclusion size, particularly those <0.5 m in
diameter (Ref. 39), as in the case of the
weld metal examined here. Further analysis could not directly correlate the size and
spacing of the inclusions to any other microstructural features.
It is interesting to note a shelled inclusion structure similar to the one observed
in this work (but without Mg) was observed in a prior study of flux cored consumables containing Ti and Zr by Narayan
et al. (Ref. 40). They showed that the for-

mation of a core/shell structure prevents

coarsening and agglomeration of inclusions by capping the aluminum oxide
particles and suppressing their growth. In
that study, a much higher fraction of nitrogen (0.018 to 0.020 wt-%) was present
in the weld metal, promoting a shell of
(Zr,Ti)N to cap the inclusions. In the present work, it appears that magnesium may
have a similar effect in suppressing the
coarsening or agglomeration of the oxides
in the liquid weld metal, as suggested by
the thermodynamic calculations in Fig. 4.
The amount of retained austenite
measured (2.9%) is comparable to 9.4%
measured using the same technique previously in steel welds containing 9 wt-% Ni
(Ref. 41), where no peaks corresponding
with martensite could be detected (Ref.
42). However, this does not necessarily indicate that martensite was absent since the
low carbon content of the weld metal

Fig. 10 Particles observed on fracture surface of Charpy sample tested

at 18C.

Fig. 12 Instrumented Charpy impact data showing force and displacement during impact from the A Top region of weld; B bottom region.

would minimize lattice strains, making it

difficult to detect martensite via XRD. Regardless, the presence of a significant fraction of austenite may be beneficial during
fracture, and the nickel content (3.51%) of
the weld metal likely provides an austenite
stabilization effect (Refs. 41, 43). The addition of Ni to weld metal has long been
known to improve low-temperature toughness of weld metals, particularly
below 30C (Refs. 4446). For example,
more than a 100C decrease in the ductile
to brittle transition temperature can be
achieved when only 3.5% nickel is added
to steel (Ref. 47).
The Charpy toughness values and impact transition temperature achieved in Fig.
8 are comparable to those observed in a
9%Ni steel, despite using a much lower
nickel content (Ref. 41). Reducing the fraction of interstitials, in addition to the presence of nickel in solution is also known to
increase the cleavage fracture strength and
lower the brittle transition temperature dra-

matically. The premise is that nickel improves the cohesive strength of the ferrite
lattice itself, which contributes to the enhanced fracture properties (Ref. 48). The
present work suggests that an additional enhancement may occur due to a change in
the distribution of microconstituents as well,
since nickel is an austenite stabilizer. For example, when MA phase does not contain
martensite but rather is dominated by
austenite, this may also enhance toughness
properties (Ref. 49).
The high fracture toughness values obtained at low temperatures are also promoted by the fine-grained ferrite
microstructures produced in the welds in
combination with small-diameter oxide inclusions. The fine ferrite sizes with fewer
aligned microstructures in reheated zones
contributed to the higher fracture energy
values. Aligned ferrite grains are typically
separated by boundaries with low-angle
misorientation (Ref. 50), and do not promote crack deviation during cleavage frac-

ture. When the width of the ferrite laths or

size of the packets are reduced (as shown
in Figs. 1 and 2), and few aligned carbides
are present, the cleavage fracture stress increases dramatically (Ref. 51). Since the
FS(A) microconstituents that dominate
the upper portion of the weld exhibit a fine
packet size, this contributed to the fracture
toughness in the top regions of the weld
(containing mostly the as-deposited material), reducing the unit crack path during
fracture (Refs. 23, 52). Both J1d and the
total impact energy are slightly higher for
the bottom region of the weld, and this
trend is explained by increased fraction of
reheated material with a microstructure
that contains a lower fraction of aligned
ferrite/carbide phases. The difference in
toughness between top and bottom is
more pronounced at lower temperatures,
where cleavage fracture dominates and
the finer microstructures with fewer
aligned ferrite microconstituents result in
higher fracture energies.



Fig. 11 Facets observed on the quasi-cleavage fracture surface of Charpy

sample tested at 62C.


It is particularly interesting to note that

the fine spherical Mg-Al-O-based inclusions were formed in the presence of 300
ppm of Mg in the weld metal. There has
been limited discussion in the literature on
the application of Mg as an alloying element in steels; however, it has been noted
to produce nitride and oxide precipitates,
which may be useful in refining the grain
structure in the heat-affected zone (Ref.
53). The use of MgO in welding flux is
common, due to the strong deoxidizing
role of Mg in the weld metal (Ref. 54), although the concentration of Mg in weld
metal is seldom ever reported due to its
low solubility in steel. To the authors
knowledge, this work represents the first
time that Mg has been observed to play a
significant role in the structure of fine oxides in a weld metal, as indicated by the
AES observations in Fig. 6 and the thermodynamic modeling in Fig. 4. Since the
chemistry and microstructural features
contributing to the properties of the weld
metal were heavily influenced by the flux
used here (Ref. 27), it is worth examining
how this can be optimized further in consumables for other processes.

Fine Mg-bearing inclusions with a
core/shell structure have been observed in a
carbon steel weld metal. Flux cored arc
welding was used to produce a weld metal
that contained primarily bainitic ferrite with
a fine packet size in the as-deposited metal
and mainly nonaligned ferrite in the reheated zones. Spherical inclusions with an
average diameter of 311 nm were observed
with a shelled structure that was mainly rich
in aluminum, magnesium, and oxygen in the
core, vs. magnesium and oxygen in the outer
shell, which was suggested to be halite based
on thermodynamic calculations for the weld
metal chemistry. The combination of a fine
inclusion size, nickel in solution, a low content of interstitials (such as [O] and [N]),
along with a fine ferrite packet size, were
suggested to provide an excellent combination of toughness and strength. Instrumented impact testing showed the slight
increase in grain refinement in reheated
zones around the root of the weld improved
impact properties, although fracture initiation energies were comparable to the top of
the weld.
Financial support was provided from
Hobart Brothers and Natural Sciences and
Engineering Research Council of Canada
(NSERC). Discussions with Mario Amata
of Hobart Brothers, and Graham Thewlis
are also greatly appreciated.


JANUARY 2014, VOL. 93

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F., Sturel, T., and Pineau, A. 2000. Sci. Technol.
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52. Ito, Y., and Nakashin, M. 1979. Sumitomo Search 21: 5267.
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1999. Sci. Technol. Weld. Joi. 4(3): 133142.

Weldability of Niobium-Containing
High-Strength Steel for Pipelines
The investigated steels showed no tendency to cold cracking in the heat-affected
zone, even with low heat input

The presented study contains an assessment of weldability based on careful investigation of two niobium-containing industrial steel grades X70 and X80, with 0.056
and 0.094% Nb, respectively. Characteristics of their resistance to brittle fracture in
the heat-affected zone (HAZ) were evaluated on simulated samples after rapid heating to high temperature followed by cooling at various rates corresponding to different heat inputs. As shown, the HAZ of both investigated steels ensure performance
down to 30C in submerged arc welded thick-walled pipes welded with high heat
input. Investigations of phase transformations at cooling from 1300C and microhardness measurements have shown that investigated steels with Nb content up to
~0.1% do not have a tendency for cold cracking in the HAZ during welding, even
with very low heat input.

The high working pressure of modern
gas pipelines up to 100120 MPa require
high-impact toughness [Charpy V-notch
(CVN)] of the material (at least 180250
J/cm2) at relatively low temperatures
down to 20 to 40C, depending on the
specifications for the pipelines. Designed
steel grades actually have higher CVN values; however, the most critical area of
pipelines is the weld heat-affected zone
(HAZ). The HAZ undergoes recrystallization, grain growth, followed by (at
cooling) a large scope of austenite transformation, thus destroying the attractive
thermomechanical-controlled processing
(TMCP) microstructure, and often is the
site of the lowest fracture resistance.
The microstructure of high-strength
low-alloy (HSLA) steels depends on the
steel composition and thermomechanical
processing route. With the recent trend toward lower carbon (C) contents, niobiums (Nb) effect on transformation behavior has been noted with the emergence
of acicular or bainitic steels. Under certain
conditions, such as utilizing low interstitial
contents and high austenitizing temperaI. I. FRANTOV (, A. N.
BORTSOV (, and I.
Y. UTKIN are with I. P. Bardin Central Research
Center for Ferrous Metallurgy, Moscow, Russia.
A. A. VELICHKO is with Izorsky Pipe Plant,
Kolpino, Russia.

tures, small Nb additions increase hardenability by depressing the Ar3 transformation temperature.
Microalloying with Nb is an integral part
of the composition of modern high-strength
steels for pipelines because of its significant
and simultaneous effects on retardation of
recrystallizaton, precipitation hardening,
and hardenability of austenite facilitating
the formation of a grain-refined structure of
favorable acicular ferrite/bainitic ferrite and
contributing substantially to the strength of
low-C steels (Ref. 1).
At the same time, there is considerable
disagreement on the effect of Nb on HAZ
toughness. Some controversy exists in the
literature concerning the influence of Nb
on HAZ properties under certain conditions that is discussed by pipeline construction companies and steel producers.
In the study of the effect of Nb in the
presence of nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr),

Weld Process Simulation
Weldability Testing
High-Strength Steels
C-Mn Steels
Submerged Arc Welding
Shielded Metal Arc Welding

vanadium (V), and molybdenum (Mo), it

has been shown that the microalloying Nb
steels with V and Mo leads to embrittlement of the HAZ (Ref. 2). Negative effect
of joint microalloying pipeline steels by V
and Nb was also noted in other studies
(Refs. 3, 4).
In a study performed at heat inputs
ranging from 1.5 to 6 kJ/mm using steel
with various C contents, it was shown that
Nb additions can have a detrimental or
beneficial effect at low heat inputs, depending on the C level (Ref. 5). Investigating HAZ embrittlement in Nb-containing C-Mn steels, it was shown that 1) C
content dominates in the control of the
toughness properties and is particularly
detrimental to HAZ toughness at higher C
levels (0.19% C) in combination with Nb;
2) Nb does not have a significant effect on
HAZ toughness at low C levels (0.06% C)
at high welding heat inputs up to 6 kJ/mm;
3) good toughness properties can be obtained at intermediate C levels of 0.12%
with intermediate to high Nb additions at
lower heat inputs in the range 1.5 to 3
kJ/mm; 4) high C levels (0.19% C) combined with a low heat input result in the
formation of untempered brittle martensite and lower bainite with poor toughness
properties regardless of Nb content.
Numerous publications have discussed
the effect of Nb addition on the properties
and microstructure of the HAZ in low-C
microalloyed steels. Niobium is reported
to be beneficial as it expands the nonrecrystallization temperature range, which is
useful not only for plate rolling, but because it increases hardenability, which, in
turn, leads to retardation of the grain
boundary ferrite network, thus enhancing
intragranular ferrite formation in lowheat-input HAZ (e.g., Ref. 6). The positive effect of Nb was found in another
study, where it was noted that at higher C
contents Nb facilitates the formation of
carbides, decreasing the martensiteaustenite (MA) fraction (Ref. 7).
Other works reported that the increase
in the hardenability by Nb enhances not
only the Widmansttten ferrite and upper
bainite but also MA formation in the re-




Fig. 1 Microstructure of the X80 base metal (250).

Fig. 2 The proposed criteria for brittle fracture resistance.


Fig. 3 The temperature dependence of the impact toughness in the HAZ of the following: A X70; B X80 grade steels depending on the cooling rate
(shown on the curves), corresponding to a different heat input at welding.

heated region. Some researchers pointed

out a linear increase in MA with an increase in Nb content, but this effect has
been found at rather high C content (Ref.
8). The corresponding hardness increase
was attributed to precipitation of fine
Nb(C, N) formed at cooling after the re-

dissolution of Nb (Ref. 5).

An investigation of the HAZ microstructures of two steels with 0.04% C and
0.070.10% Nb showed no difference in the
prior austenitic grain size and, consequently, in the local hardenability. On the
other hand, Nb reduced the size of the

Table 1 Chemical Composition of the Investigated Steels




Chemical Composition (%)
































Notes: H70 (HSLA) is the steel for offshore application in accordance with Standards Det Norske Veritas
(DNV) Offshore Standard OS-F101, Submarine Pipeline Systems.
X80 (HSLA) is the steel for the Cheyenne Plains Pipeline, U.S.A.


JANUARY 2014, VOL. 93

bainitic packet in the HAZ leading to an improvement in impact toughness (Ref. 9).
Some researchers found that a small
addition of Nb decreases toughness (Ref.
10), while others found either no significant effect of Nb addition in the case of
low-C steels (Ref. 11) or increased toughness in very low C (~0.03%) steel (Ref.
12). The importance of very low C to ensure high HAZ toughness in two-pass submerged arc welds is emphasized in a few
studies together with confirmation of the
fact that without microalloying by Nb the
strength of X80 cannot be achieved (Ref.
13). An investigation of coarse-grained
HAZ of X80 grade steel with ~0.1% Nb
using simulation of a single welding thermal cycle came to the conclusion that the
heat input should be less than 30 kJ/cm to
ensure good Charpy impact toughness
(Ref. 14).
As is well known, all properties including impact toughness are defined by the
microstructure. Therefore, all discussions
and differences of opinion about the role
of Nb, which was often overshadowed or
mixed with the dominating roles of C and
Mn or Mo content, should be related to

the role of Nb in specific steel compositions on parameters of phase transformation of overheated austenite at specified
cooling conditions, defined by specific
heat input. In fact, there is a lack of data
correlating the thermal conditions of the
HAZ, in particular for multipass welding,
with Nb effect on phase transformation at
corresponding cooling rate.
Thus, the presented study of two highNb-containing pipeline steels aims to characterize not only the impact toughness of
the simulated HAZ as a function of temperature and a wide range of heat inputs, including two-pass and multipass welding, but
also to investigate phase transformations of
coarse-grained austenite at various cooling
rates as well as the type/microhardness of
the obtained structure.

Materials and Methods of

Material. Investigation of weldability in
the current study was carried out on samples of steels with strength of the X70 to X80
classes corresponding to the requirements
of Russian and international standards,
whose compositions and tensile properties
are shown in Tables 1 and 2. Sample thicknesses for steel grades X70 and X80 were,
respectively, 25.4 and 16.4 mm.
The low-C steel investigated contained
1.621.75% Mn, no V or Mo, and Nb microalloyed in the range of 0.06 to 0.10%.
Sulfur (S), and phosphorus (P), aluminum
(Al), and titanium (Ti), as well as calcium
(Ca) and trace elements, are not significantly different in those two grades:
0.00070.001% S; 0.0060.0013% P;
0.020.04% Al; 0.0120.026% Ti;
0.0040.006% N2; 0.00120.0015% Ca;
0.0002% boron (B); 0.0040.005% tin
(Sn); 0.000% arsenic (As); 0.050.10%
copper (Cu); 0.001% cobalt (Co); and
0.003% lead (Pb).
Figure 1 shows an example of the grade
X80 steel base metal microstructure.
Simulation of welding. With all existing

varieties of evaluation of weldability, the

final assessment of the suitability of pipe
steels for use in specific conditions is accomplished by testing the impact toughness of the welds. As is well known, the
coarse-grained HAZ (CGHAZ) undergoes heating to 13001320C and therefore has the most reduced, in comparison
with the base metal, impact toughness, but
a direct investigation of its properties with
the necessary localization of fracture in
the site of the HAZ is difficult. Simulation
of various heat inputs in the current study
was implemented by varying the applied
cooling rates to samples heated at high
heating rates up to 13001320C, as is
widely used in modern studies (Refs. 3,
14). In comparison with those studies,
where a Gleeble was used, the authors of
this work applied contactless induction
heating to samples with the same capability to simulate a real welding process and
obtain dilatometric data at cooling. This
method allowing the assessment of weldability criteria and investigations of phase
transformation in the HAZ based on simulation of thermal welding processes
within tubular steels has been developed
by the I. P. Bardin Central Research Institute of Ferrous Metals and actively used
for more than two decades.The samples
for subsequent mechanical testing were
subjected to heating and cooling, using
thermal cycles that corresponded to typical welding conditions adopted during the
manufacture of pipes, as well as in the construction of pipelines. For simulation of
the submerged arc welding (SAW)

process, when the cooling rate is less than

10C/s, 10 10-mm samples were used.
For multipass welding with low heat input
and therefore high cooling rates, 5 10mm samples were applied to reduce the
temperature gradient over the cross section of the blanks. For normalizing Charpy
toughness values, the converting factor of
0.65 was used for smaller samples, which
has been established by comparing the experimental results of the impact tests of
subsized and traditional full-size Charpy
samples of compared steels.
Thermal simulation facilitates not only
the investigation of impact toughness and
hardness of the HAZ, but also the morphology of microstructures corresponding
to specific welding conditions.
In the process of manufacturing
pipelines, various types of welding are
used including two-pass SAW during pipe
production and multipass shielded metal
arc (SMA) or other welding processes
during the construction of gas pipelines.
These welding processes are fundamentally different in terms of the welding heat
input and the character of the thermal
fields. Calculations of thermal fields are
made using two-dimensional field equations, applied to the factory mode of welding pipes with large heat inputs, and threedimensional ones for multipass welding of
butt joints in pipes at low heat-input
Calculation of thermal fields and determination of cooling rates for multipass
welding and two-pass SAW. Based on the
theory of thermal processes (Ref. 16), the

Table 2 Tensile Properties of Investigated Steels


Tensile Properties












Fig. 4 The impact of toughness of steel in the HAZ of A X70; B X80 at different temperatures of testing vs. the applied cooling rate (W800/500): 2
the line of the average brittleness threshold (T50 CVN); 3 the line of specified minimum toughness (here 70 J/cm2).

Fig. 5 Microstructure of HAZ of multipass butt-joint welding, hot pass,

preliminary temperature 100C (250).


equations of two- and three-dimensional

heat-conducting paths are used to estimate the interrelation of modes of welding (heat input) and time of cooling (cooling rate) of welded connections.
In particular, calculations of a threedimensional thermal field was applied to
welding weld roots at low heat input. At a
given mode of welding, there is no influence from the pipe wall thickness, d, and
the equation reflects only the effect of
heat input, E:
(t8/5) = (0.67 5*104*To)**E*
[1:(500 To) 1:(800 To)] *3
During welding of pipes using SAW
with a large heat input, a two-dimensional
thermal zone was considered. The equation demonstrates the influence of both
pipe wall thickness and the level of heat
(t8/5) = (0.043 4.3*105*To)
* *E2/d2*[1:(500 To)]2 [(1 : (800

Table 3 shows the symbols and designations for Equations 1 and 2. The charts as
presented in Fig. 9, which are based on
corresponding calculations and experi-

Fig. 6 Comparison of impact toughness vs. cooling rate dependences for

testing the investigated steels at 30C.

ments, allow estimations of the cooling

rates from the peak temperature for every
specific heat input. One of the corresponding charts for multipass welding will be
presented later.
During longitudinal welding with high
heat input, the cooling rate of the HAZ is
affected by the amount of heat input, a
wall thickness, and a temperature prior to
welding, meaning the temperature of the
previous pass during two-pass SAW.
The calculated cooling rate values, depending on the initial temperature of the
weld during two-pass SAW are presented
in Table 4 for pipes with wall thicknesses
of 16.4 and 25.4 mm. During welding of
the external joint, each thickness requires
a specific optimal level of heat input,
which ensures the necessary geometric parameters of the joints. Appropriate cooling rates of the external weld were defined
both for the condition of full cooling of the
internal joint (20C), and for its incomplete cooling to 60 and 100C.
Phase transformations and microstructure. The study of phase transformations was performed using a fast operating, high-temperature dilatometer
(DB-Chermet) capable of induction heating up to 1350C at a heating rate from 10
to 300C/s and cooling capacity with rates

Table 3 Symbols and Designations for Equations 1 and 2


Units of Measure



Dimensionless factor


JANUARY 2014, VOL. 93

Time of cooling from 800 to 500C
Parameter of the process effciency
Heat-input (E = U*I/V)
Electric voltage of a welding arc
Electric current of a welding arc
Speed of welding
Temperature of preheating
Thickness of pipe wall

from 0.3 to 250C/s. Microstuctures of

dilatometric and weld-simulated samples
were investigated using etching in 2%
Nital and optical microscope Axiovert 40
MAT. Twelve to 15 samples were used to
build each CCT diagram. The diagrams
contain microhardness values against
each cooling rate and corresponding product of phase transformation so those numbers can be used, in particular, for evaluation of hardness of martensite.
Evaluation of resistance to brittle fracture. The investigated steel samples were
subjected to induction heating in accordance with a specific thermal cycle of
welding and subsequent cooling at a wide
range of cooling rates. Specimens with
simulated microstructure of the HAZ
were machined to cut a sharp (Charpy)
notch and subjected to impact testing in
the temperature range 20 to 60C. The
usual determination of the temperature of
ductile to brittle fracture transition, based
on area fraction of shear fracture, is practically impossible on subsized samples due
to the large plastic deformation of thin
samples. Therefore, the estimations of resistance to brittle fracture were based on
the following set of parameters, schematically shown in Fig. 2.
The upper limit, corresponding to
the beginning (lowest temperature) of
the shelf toughness (ShCVN) and signifying the beginning of the transition
from ductile to brittle fracture (projection T1 in Fig. 2).
The average threshold T50 ShCVN
(here at ~110 J/cm2) corresponding to the
decrease in impact toughness by 50% relative to the maximum (Shelf CVN) values,
which corresponds to a mixed brittleductile fracture and, as shown by comparison with full-size samples, corresponds to
5060% of the tear fracture pattern (projection T2 in Fig. 2).

Fig. 7 Microstructure of HAZ depending on simulated thermal conditions (250).

The temperature of minimum toughness required (here 70 J/cm2), which is

usually defined by specifications for gas
pipes (projection T3 in Fig. 2).

Results and Discussion

Investigation of HAZ Resistance to Brittle

Evaluation of weldability of the steel

containing 0.056% Nb based on T50 CVN
(Fig. 3A) shows that during cooling of the
external weld with a rate of 68C/s corresponding to the condition of complete
precooling of the internal weld, the temperature of the average threshold ductilebrittle transition of the HAZ (here corresponding to CVN ~120 J/cm2) is 30C
(determined for 7C/s). For welding over
the hot joint (with its temperature of
100C) and accordingly for the condition
of a reduced cooling rate T50 ShCVN increases only up to 20C (determined for
3.3C /s).
Evaluation of weldability of the steel
containing 0.096% Nb by T50 CVN presented in Fig. 3B, under the same welding
conditions, demonstrates that the ductile-

brittle transition temperature (here, too,

at CVN ~ 120 J/cm2) is also 30C (determined for cooling rate 7C/s, and for welding over the hot joint (again at 100C)
rises also to 20C. Thus, the increase of
Nb content does not negatively impact the
brittle fracture resistance of the HAZ during welding with high heat input.
The obtained experimental data were
transformed to some diagrams depicted in
Fig. 4. These diagrams present the CVN
values vs. applied cooling rate at various
temperatures of impact toughness measurements and thus allow us to define permissible ranges of cooling rates in the tem-

perature region of phase transformations

W8/5 (cooling rate from 800 to 500C),
which may ensure a prescribed level of
brittle fracture resistance of the steel in
the HAZ. As shown, these curves exhibit
some extremes, pointing out a maximum
possible impact toughness of the HAZ. At
present, this possibility cannot be implemented due to lack of technical means to
control postweld cooling.
In particular, Fig. 5 presents the HAZ
microstructure after simulation of multipass joint welding, the hot pass version.
When very favorable microstructure with
100% lath bainite was obtained, bainite

Table 4 Calculated Values of Cooling Rates, Depending on the Preliminary Temperature of

the Joint during Two-Pass, SAW
Temperature of
Internal Joint
before Welding,
T, C


Pipe wall thickness, (mm)

Heat input (E ), kJ/mm
Cooling rate (W800/500) (C/s)



Fig. 8 CCT diagrams of A X70; B X80 steel grades, built at cooling from 1300C.


lath size is 15 microns, prior austenite

grain size is 40 microns.
As shown for X70 grade (Fig. 4A), the
studied composition shows a wide range of
acceptable cooling rates for welding with
large heat inputs, typical for factory-made
longitudinal SAW, as well as with low heat
inputs applied for field construction joints.
Depending on the test temperature for a
specific pipeline operation, the allowable
range of postweld cooling rates may vary.
For example, to guarantee a CVN value
more than 120 J/cm2 at 20C, the permissible range of cooling rates is from 2.7 to
It is worth noting that for field SAW
at 7C, all existing working instructions
require preheating to 150C, which means
heat input should be 1.2 kJ/mm or higher
to ensure a cooling rate no higher than
As can be seen for X80 grade (Fig. 4B),
its high Nb content shows a wide range of
acceptable cooling rates for welding with
both high and low heat input. Depending
on the testing temperature for a specific
pipeline operation, the allowable range of
postweld cooling rates may vary. For example, for a guaranteed level of toughness
of more than 120 J/cm2 at 20C, the permissible cooling rate range is from 2.7 to
Figure 6 presents the comparison of
those permissible ranges of cooling rates
for both investigated steels for impact
toughness tested at 30C. As shown, the
X70 steel with 0.056% Nb can guarantee
retaining 50% ShCVN (here 115 J/cm2 ) at
cooling rates from 8 to 60C/s, and the
specified minimum value (here 70 J/cm2)
at cooling rates from 3.8 to more than
100C/s. Increase in Nb content results in
slight changes of those values. The toughness of 115 J/cm2 at 30C can be guaranteed at cooling rates from 7 to 20C/s,
whereas the level of 70 J/cm2 can be assured at cooling rates from 3 to 70C/s.
Microstructures obtained at various

JANUARY 2014, VOL. 93

cooling rates are presented in Fig. 7. Figure 7A corresponds to the HAZ at very
slow cooling and contains 50% bainite and
50% polygonal ferrite with the sizes of the
bainite packet and ferrite grain of 30 and
35 microns, respectively. Figure 7B presents the microstructure of the SAW HAZ
with a hot pass (preliminary temperature 100C): 5% polygonal ferrite and
95% bainite, average bainite packet size is
15 microns, and prior austenite grain size
(PAGS) is 70 microns. Microstructure of
HAZ at SAW with a cold pass (20C) is
presented in Fig. 7C and contains 100%
bainite of lath and globular morphology,
and the bainite packet size is 10 microns
and the PAGS is 60 microns. The microstructure that can ensure the highest
low-temperature toughness is presented
in Fig. 7D. It is 100% lath bainite with a
packet size of 10 microns and PAGS of 45
Effect of Nb on the Kinetics of Austenite

The changes in impact toughness

shown above reflect changes in microstructure resulting from the transformation of coarse-grained austenite in the
HAZ for a specific thermal cycle. Investigations of phase transformations resulting
in the building of continuous cooling
transformation diagrams (CCT) were performed after the high-speed heating of
dilatometer samples to a temperature of
As shown in Fig. 8A, B, the kinetics of
austenite transformation in both steels
that were investigated is featured by bainite transformations in a wide range of
cooling rates. The fact that Nb promotes
the formation of lower temperature transformation banite-like products at a relatively high cooling rate is noted also at
comparative investigation of effects of Nb
and V (Ref. 15). Martensitic transformation is observed at high enough cooling

rates, but they do occur in pipeline butt

joints. Niobium slightly increases the stability of austenite, so that the formation of
martensite in steel containing 0.094% Nb
is observed at a cooling rate of 50C/s,
compared with 70C/s at 0.056% Nb content. This effect is small and it is necessary
to note that the actual cooling, which accompanies the root welding without preheating the weld, even with a cooling rate
of 90C/s, results in the volume fraction of
martensite being not more than 25% and
10%, respectively, for the 0.094% and
0.056% Nb. As can be seen from the CCT,
the formation of a significant amount of
(low-carbon and therefore not very hard)
martensite in these steels is impossible.
Diffusion-controlled ferrite transformation is shifted, under the influence of
niobium, to the slow cooling rates up to
2.5C/s at 0.094% Nb, and up to 4.2/s at
0.056% Nb, i.e., toward significantly lower
than the usual cooling rates during welding of thick-walled tubes under a layer of
Evaluation of Tendency to Cold Cracking

During multipass welding, the HAZ

cooling rate depends on the heat input and
the temperature of the weld before the
welding, beside the effect of the wall thickness. Processing of multipass butt-joint
welding of pipelines varies depending on
type of weld and heat input values as the
Root weld with heat input up to 0.55
Hot pass with heat input up to 1.2 kJ/mm;
Facing joint with GMA (CO2) welding
with heat input up to 2.0 kJ/mm.
The diagram of cooling rates vs. heat
inputs for these types of butt-joint welding
is shown in Fig. 9.
Measurements of microhardness of
dilatometric samples used at constructing
CCT diagrams to characterize products of
austenite transformations allow the evalu-

ation of the tendency to cold cracking in

the HAZ during welding.
The permissible level of hardness is 315
HV, which reflects a certain amount of
bainitic-martensitic mixture in the HAZ
structure, is established by norms of Det
Norske Veritas (DNV-OS-F101) and is applicable for welding pipes with a wall
thickness of 20 mm or more. (This criterion applies to the evaluation of field
joints of pipelines welded with high cooling rates, when partial quenching of HAZ
site is possible in the case of increased stability of the austenite).
As shown in Fig. 10, neither steel exceeds the 315-HV limit up to cooling rate
of 70C/s. It should be noted that the increase in Nb content up to ~0.10% at
medium level of Mn and small amounts of
Cr did not affect the propensity to quenching of HAZ metal and thus the compositions studied are not at risk of cold cracking during welding, even with very low
heat input.

1. Weldability assessment was performed based on careful investigations of
two Nb-containing industrial steel grades
of X70 and X80, respectively, with 0.056
and 0.094% Nb.
2. The resistance of the two steels to
brittle fracture in the HAZ was evaluated
on samples of the steels after high-temperature heating and cooling to simulate
the weld thermal cycle of welded joints at
different heat inputs.
3. Use of different criteria of resistance
to brittle fracture including the tempera-

Fig. 10 Determination of the critical cooling rate, preventing cold cracking

in the HAZ, based on the maximum permissible hardness of 315 HV.

ture of 50% shelf impact toughness and

temperature of minimum specified impact
toughness (here 70 J/cm2), have shown
that the HAZ of both investigated steels
ensure performance of pipelines down to
30C in SAW of thick-walled pipes using
high heat input.
4. CCT diagrams developed and measurements of microhardness of microstructures, formed by the transformation of
austenite at different cooling rates from
1300C, have shown that the investigated
steels with Nb content up to ~0.1% do not
have a tendency to cold cracking in the
HAZ, even at very low heat input.
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C., and Pontremoli, M. 2011. Effect of Nb microalloying on the heat-affected zone microstructure of X80 large diameter pipeline
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10. Fujibayashi, S., and Endo, T. 2002. Creep
behavior at the intercritical HAZ of a 1.25 Cr-0.5
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Fig. 9 The cooling rate, depending on the heat input at multipass welding
of butt joints (figures show the temperature before the next weld pass, C), independent of pipe wall thickness.

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