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USING

PR ESTRESSED BEAMS

ON

p pp

using

Prestressed Beams

using prestressed concrete bridge beams

B A NICHOLSON

11

ISBN 0 95000347 2 X

60 Charles Street

Leicester LE11 FB

Typeset by B. A. Nicholson.

Design by G. Ballantyne.

Printedby UniskillLtd.

111

CONTENTS

FOREWORD

STANDARD BEAMS

1.1 History

1.2 Bridge deck types

1.3 Choice of section

1.4 Standard sections

1.5 Practical site considerations

2

2

4

6

6

8

12

GRILLAGE MODEL

3.1

Introduction

3.2 SuitabilityofGrillage Analysis

3.3 Grillagemodelsfor prestressed beamdecks

3.4 Deck idealisation

3.5 Section properties

3.6 Edge stiffening

3.7 Torsion

14

14

14

16

18

20

22

24

CALCULATION OF LOADS

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Definitions

4.3 Highway loading

4.4 Wind load

4.5 Pedestrian live load

4.6 Temperature effects

4.7 Shrinkage

26

26

26

28

APPLICATION OF LOADS

5.1 LoadCombinations

5.2 Selection ofCritical LoadCases

5.3 Input to Grillage Analysis

38

38

38

40

6.1

General

6.2 Design Bending Moments

6.3 Serviceability Limit State

6.4 Prestress losses

6.5 Ultimate limit state

6.6 Shear

6.7 Longitudinal shear

44

44

44

46

50

56

60

66

32

32

32

36

iv

FINISHINGS

7.1

Introduction

7.2 Bearings

7.3 Waterproofing andsurfacing

7.4 Joints

7.5

Parapets

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Grillage analysis

8.3 Design oftransverse reinforcement

68

68

68

80

82

84

86

86

88

90

FOREWORD

For several years, the Prestressed Concrete Association has run a basiccourse

on prestressed concretebridge design. This one day course hasbeen held in

various parts of the country, and uses lecturers both from within the PCA

member companies and from outside consultants.

This book contains a development of some of the material presented in the

course. The original course notes were prepared by H. J. Lloyd, I. M. Gibb,

and A. E. Gamble. This book has been prepared by B. A. Nicholsonbased on

the material in those course notes.

The bulk ofthe booktakesthe form ofa worked example ofthe designof the

beams for a simply-supportedsingle span beam-and-slabdeck. The final section

is a partial design example of an inverted T beam deck, included in order to

illustrate the extra calculations required for a solid slabdeck.

By following the workedexamples, together with the additional commentary,

it is hoped that the reader will be ableto designsimple bridgesusing standard

precast beams,whetherthey are ofbeam-and-slab, or solid slab construction.

STANDARD BEAMS

1.1

HISTORY

The use ofprecast prestressed beams in bridge decks in the post World War II era

owes its success inthe mainto the foresight ofthe Prestressed Concrete Development

Group, whichin the 1950's developed the firststandard beam sectionsto be available

from the beam manufacturers.

This enabled factory production ofthe beamson a large scale, and, with the dawnof

major road construction in the late 1950'sand its philosophy ofgrade separation for

motorways and trunk roads, it gave bridge engineers scope to rationalise design

procedures using up-to-date load distribution theories.

The standard beam sections available at that time have of course themselves been

developed and modified, and in essence only one really remains today with any

significant usage. This beam,the inverted T beam,is usedin bridge decks in spans up

to about 20 metres.

that there was scope for a standardbeamthat would enable larger spanstobe achieved.

Consequently, at the end of the decade a new beam was introduced for spans from

about 15 to 30 metres. This was designated the M beam,dueto itswidthandintended

spacing. These beams were intended for use in pseudo-slab bridge decks with a

contiguous concretebottom flange using transverse reinforcement located through

lowerweb holes at 600mm centres along the beams.

Eventually engineers realised that the M beamcouldbeusedmoreefficiently in beam

and slab decks by eliminating the bottom in-situ concrete andby spacingthe beams

apart at up to 1.5 metre centres. The limitation on this type ofuse proved to be the

shear capacity ofthe beams, whichhave a web thickness of only 160mm.

Other beams developed around this time were the U beam for beam and slab decks

up to about 30 metre spans, and a U shaped variation ofthe M beamforuseas edge

beams in M beamdecks. Eventually, with the very popularM beam being used in a

manner somewhat different from its intended use, and bearing in mind the various

problemsand limitationsthispresented, a newbeam was developed by the Prestressed

Concrete Association in the late 1980's. This was designated theY beam.

The Y beam now has three variants: the TY beam, the Y beam, and the SY beam.

Together these cover all span ranges up to 45m. It is expected that in due course

inverted T beams and M beams will cease to be used in favour of the enhanced

properties ofthe Y beamranges.

STANDARD BEAMS

Inverted T beam

H

M beam

TY beam

U beam

Y beam

SY beam

1.2

Concrete bridge superstructures using precast prestressed concretebeams fall into

threedistincttypes: slab decks, pseudo-slab decks, and beam and slab decks.

Slab Decks

Slab decks can be solid or voided, and provide simply supported spans ofup to 20

metres. These decks usestandard TY or inverted T beamsplacedside by side. The

space between them is then filled with in-situ concrete, and an overall covering of

75mm completes the deck.

Continuity ofthese decks can quite easilybe achieved by usingreinforcement in the

in-situ concreteover the supports. Suspended spansusing TYbeams or inverted T

beamscan be lightenedby introducingvoid formers into the spacebetween the beams.

Pseudo-slab Decks

This type of bridge structure is currentlynot quite so popular. Precast beams are

incorporated into avoidedslabtype ofdeck by eitheraddingan in-situ bottom flange

andtop flange, as with the original M beamdecks, or by usingvoidedbeams(e.g. box

beams).

and soffit shutters, andprovidesa torsionally stiffer deck thanordinary beam andslab

decks.

Spans for this type ofbridge deck are usuallylimited by the length ofprecast beams

that can be transported to site, and thereforeare rarely more than 30 metres.

Beam and Slab Decks

ofdeckcomprisesindividualprecast beams at discrete centres with an in-situ concrete

top flange. M beams, TY beams,Y beams, SYbeams, and U beams can all be used

in this form ofconstruction.

Withmost ofthe standard rangeofprecastbeams the in-situ concrete top slab is cast

into permanent formwork whichis locatedin recesses formedinthe edges ofthe top

flanges ofthe beams. Typical spans for this type ofdeck are similarto the pseudoslabdecks above, beinglimited in the mainby transportable beam components.

Standard edge beams are available to complement the Y beam, TY beam, and M

beamranges. Theseprovidea vertical visible face, andhave the capacity to carrythe

extra loads from the parapetcantilever.

STANIAiu BEAMS

Service ducts are included in the infihl concrete betweenthe beams.

Service ducts run under the footpath.

A carrierdrain runs through one ofthe U beam cells.

and YE8 edge beams on each side.

Service ducts run under the footpath.

1.3

CHOICE OF SECTION

For the types of superstructure indicated above, the beam manufacturers provide

standard details ofthe individual sectionsand theirranges together with an indication

of typical span ranges for decks incorporating these beams and carrying standard

highway loads.

by the available span, and it is also inevitable that there will be areas ofoverlap where

the choice between inverted T beams in a slabdeck or individual M or Y beamsin a

beam and slab deck may not be clear cut. In this situation it may be necessary to

evaluate more than one solution, andthe standard sections enable a swiftselection of

the available ranges for comparative design exercises to be undertaken and cost

comparisons made.

that is covered by morethan one specific beamunit. In this situation itis usuallycost

effectiveto select the larger unitwhere there are no restrictivelimitationson headroom.

1.4 STANDARD SECTIONS

Design

Althoughthe various types of standard beam sections are well documented in terms

ofdimensions and structural properties, it is important to point outthat thesefactory

produced beams are standard only to the extent that they are manufactured using

standard shaped sections. The amount and magnitude ofprestress applied to each

beam is dependent on its individual situation, andmustbe determined by the designer

prior to manufacture. The standard sectionsshow where prestressing strands may

be located, but it is the responsibility ofthe designer to determine which ofthese are

to be used.

In their literature, the manufacturers give suggestions for gooddesign details. These

should be adhered to, as they leadto economy and good workmanship.

Manufacture

Precastprestressedbeamsare manufacturedin long lines ofseveralunits usingstraight

strands. These are debonded for varying distances at the endsofeach beam within

the mould. This is necessary to maintain the stress in the beam at an acceptable level

as the self-weight bendingmomentreduces approaching the supports.

Once the concrete in the moulds reaches the minimum transferstrength,detensioning

can take place, the strands between the beam can be cut, and the beams removed to

the storage areaprior to deliveryto site.

STANDARD BEAMS 7

Span in

metres: 12

14

16

20

18

22

Beams at im centres

24

26

28

Beams at 2m centres

Beam selection chart for the Y beam range, taken from PCA literature.

-4-4-

1300

-1-4-

-4--I-

1200

4--I-

-I--I-

1100

-4--I-

-I--I-

1000

4--I-

-4--I-

900

800

+4--I--I-

260

210

160

-4-

-4-

4-

110

60

0

It is up to the designer to decide which of these strand positionsto use.

30

32

1.5

Handling

achieved with either single or twin cranesto suitthe site requirements. However, TY

beams and inverted T beams are usually lifted using a sling through the end web

holes.

Access to Site

It is ofobvious importance that there is suitable access to the bridges in order for the

beamsto be delivered and lifted offthe trailerby suitably located cranes. Ofcourse,

this also applies to the route to the construction site which must allow the delivery

lorriesto manoeuvre theirlengthy loads.

Thereis generally no problem inthe transportation ofbeams ofthe lengthsdescribed

in this book.

Camber

Variation in camber ofprestressedbeams is inevitablewhen oneconsidersthetolerance

withmaturity and climatic conditions.

been borne in mindby the designer that an occasional failure to meet the specified

tolerance on soffit level variationdoes not resultin impossible constructionconditions.

The carefulpositioning ofadjacent beamsin a deck should nearlyalways resultin an

evening out ofdifferential camber.

Edge Details

the construction ofthe central deck slab area. This necessitates the formationof a

construction joint along the edge beam prior to constructing the fascia.

Alternatively, it is sometimes possible to construct the fascia as a second stage casting

in the manufacturer's yard, prior to delivery to site as an almost complete unit. One

advantage of this is that the beam can be propped quite easily at the works, thus

enabling stressesin the precast beam section to be minimised.

STANDARD BEAMS

the deck, or alternatively can be cast onto the UM beam by the

manufacturer so that the edge beam and parapet can be brought

to site as a single unit.

in-situ concrete

Cast by manufacturer

10

Skew

Although it is possibleto manufacture precast beamswith skew ends,the increase in

cost for eachunit and the problems that skew presentsshould be considered in detail

at the design stage.

Firstly, it should be remembered that even a very smallchange in skew anglerequires

a new stop end for the mould. A change from say 300 to 31 increases the widthby

12mm for an M beam. To rationalise a range ofangles with a variation of 10, say,

would be a useful andeconomic possibility

Structural problems created by skewin the ends ofprecast beams relate specifically

to the acute corner, wherethe formation ofcracks can cause the cornerofthe flange

to spall when the beamcambers during transfer. Although notstructurally significant,

this is undesirable, and is best prevented by blocking out the corner to give a local

square end.

An additionalproblemthatpresents itselfwith skewbeams isthat oflocatingtransverse

reinforcement through the webholes. It is recommended that the standard webholes

permit reinforcement to be placedfor skews up to about35. Higherskewsthan this

would require special non-standard web holes, whichwould increase the costofthe

beamssignificantly, and may even affect the shear capacity ofthe section. For high

skewbridges, it is normally better toplace the transverse deck reinforcement atrightanglesto the beams ratherthan parallel to the abutments.

Transverse Reinforcement

For the transverse reinforcement through the webholes ofprecast beams, it is usually

better to usea numberofsmaller bars rather than a single large diameter bar, as lap

lengths are reduced andhandling becomes easier. For some awkward skew situations

it may even be sensible to use untensioned prestressing strand threaded through the

web holes instead ofreinforcing bars, as it is more flexible.

The positioning oftransverse deck reinforcement whenusing solid edge beamsmay

require the use of couplers at the edge beam interface.

Temporary Support

It is important to ensure that the beamsarc supported so that they cannot topple over

on site. Deeper beams,particularly when beingjacked to their final level and during

bearing installation, must be assessed to eliminate this risk.

STANDARD BEAMS 11

tDecks1ab

Diaphragm

M beam

L

Web hole at end ofM beam,

for diaphragm reinforcement

to M beam

330 wide

Diaphragm

800 wide

Diagrams show endsofM beamsembedded in a diaphragm.

Sections 3 to 7 of this book consist of a design example of a beam and slab deck.

This design example shows the typical sequential calculations necessary for the full

design of a precast pretensioned concreteY beam in a simply supportedbeam and

slabbridge deck.

The righthand pages show the numerical calculations involved at each stage, and the

left hand pages contain explanatory comments and further information.

The example bridgehas the following design requirements:

26.6lm single span

7.3m carriageway, plus I .0m hard strip each side

1 .5m footpath each side

HA

Loading

plus 37.5 units HB

Surfacing 100mmthick (minimum) plus20mmwaterproofing

Span

Width

= 50 N/mm2

Precast concrete

fd =40N/mm2

= 40 N/mm2

In-situ concrete

Prestressing strand

= 1820 N/mm2

Area = 165 mm2 per strand

The edge detail was chosen for aesthetic reasons, and the outerbeams placedas near

to the edges ofthe bridgewithinthis limit. This led to the beam spacing of 1.275m.

The span charts for Y beams give spans for beams at I and 2 metre spacings. It is

straightforward to interpolate from this information to make an initial selection of

beam size, in this case Y8.

Clearly alternatives would have been possible, for example eleven Y6 beams could

have been used, at about 1 metre spacing. However, it has been foundthat unless it

is necessary to make the deck as shallow as possible, it is usually preferable to use

fewer but largerbeams.

DESIGNEXAMPLE 13

13350

llatdstn'p

540

1500

rniagew

1000

7300

1275

Cross

Overall

1275

se/of

bridgedecfordes#/,exgir/e

1000

fw

1500

540

14

GRILLAGE MODEL

3.1 INTRODUCTION

Early bridgedecks were analysed on a strip basis. Abnormal andwheel loads were

crudely distributed and conservative designs resulted. Experimental data became

available to determinethetransverseload carryingcharacteristicsofdecks to determine

the correct level oftransverse strength provision andto distribute loadmorelogically

to the longitudinal members. For example, in the 1950'sMorice andLittledeveloped

a Distribution Coefficient method which was a simple hand method based on

experiments which allowed for the overall distribution of loads on a plate structure

suchas a bridgedeck. It was satisfactory for skews up to 200. This method was one

ofseveral similartechniques extensively usedindesignoffices forapproximately 15

years, until the advent ofcomputer techniques which enabled larger andmore complex

structurestobe analysed moreaccurately usinggrillage, finite strip andfinite element

methods. Ofthesethreemethods grillages offer the widest range ofstructures which

can be analysed. Popular opinion suggests they are also the easiest to use and

understand.

No analysis method gives a rigorous solution, and some degree of error must be

accepted, usuallyrangingup to 10% or20% depending on complexity. Theseerrors

come from several sources, including the idealisation ofthe geometry and material

properties, and idealisation ofthe structural behaviour.

Grillage analysishas found favour as a bridge engineer's design tool because it is

perceived to have the following advantages:

Grillage beams can be positioned to correspond with physicalbeamsin

the real structure, or wheremaximum effects are anticipated.

Modern PC versions have 'user friendly' input, often designed by

engineers, anduse pre- andpost-processorsto ease subsequent checking,

searching andanalysis.

Familiarity ofuse in thedesign office enables rapid analysisandchecking,

which is vital in a competitive market.

Programs are relatively cheap, thusmaking analysis economic.

The method can be used for structures with beam and slabs decks, voided slabs or

solid slabs. It can be used for simple and continuous bridges, and allow for elastic

supports and settlement. It is suitable for right, skew and curveddecks. This range

covers hundredsifnot thousandsofbridgedecks designedin recent times, andcertainly

covers all bridges with prestressed beams.

GRILLAGE MODEL

NILLAfiANAL418/8

Thiskm/ge wi/Ike aira/ysed withagill/agea#a/qsiS.

"

fingi#reei (fiarope)L4iilted

84711 Cwe#Mw

a,'rdthe %a.c'Sis verti2'a//yuiwards. Loadbrg wi/Ike app/ledDrthe iregative rditectikw.

/ei'rgthofthe menrkei airdthe Y-axisisstill veflica/lyupwards. TheZ-ax/s liesDr thep/an'eof

thegui/age.

15

16

Longitudinal grillagebeams are placed onthe line ofthe physical beams, andrepresent

the composite action ofthe beam and its associated section of slab. Longitudinal

beams are alsopositioned along the parapet edgebeam. Transverseelementsrepresent

the top slab. Thereare no end diaphragms in thisbridge,but when these are present

they must alsobe represented by appropriate transverse elements.

This type ofgrillage model is suitable for beam and slab decks usingM-beamsand

Y-beams.

Because oftheusually large numberofbeamsin a T-beam deck, itmay be preferable

to model two or threebeams by onegrillagemember. Transverse elements represent

transverse solid infill elements. Because ofthe non-uniform shape ofthese elements

as they pass over and throughthe beams their depth is normally taken to the centre

line ofthetransverse holes. The widerspacing ofmodel elements doesnotmaterially

affect the transverse element idealisation since the structure acts as a true slab.

However, care is needed when evaluating design moments shearsand reactions due

to the combination ofseveral physical elements into single model elements.

U-beamdecks, although basically beam and slab decks, behave differently because

the transverse stiffness alternates across the deck between stiffthrough the beams

and flexible between the beams. The beams are positioned to try andequalise the top

slab spans between andacrossbeams. Onemethod ofmodelling a U-beamdeck is to

place longitudinalelementsonthe centre lineofeachweb. The longitudinalproperties

for each grillagebeam are then taken as halfthat ofthe composite box section. As

with the inverted T-beam decks, careis required in evaluating the outputsincethere

are now two longitudinal elements representing onephysical beam.

1

n

\U/ \U/

p

\

p

n

p

GRILLAGE MODEL

oft/re deck

The bridge

looks like

thi;

co#tribite 10

teS

The ci

t/reremre'

wi/Ibep/aceda/oirgtireparapetke'ams. Thus tiregrit/agerepreseirtatA'roft/re cross-sectloit

1900x. 1275, wir/cir we//belowa2,'l aspectratio airdlirerefore satifactorq.

17

18

Grillage analysis idealises a deck into a grid of interconnected beams. The real

dispersedeffects ofbending, shearand torsion are assumedto be concentrated in the

nearest equivalent grillagebeam.

Variations from the true behaviour arise because the real slabs element equilibrium

requirestorques andtwiststo be identical andin orthogonal directions, but in grillages

the joints can rotate differently. However, ifa slab is modelled by a sufficiently fine

grillagemesh these anomaliesare smoothedout to become almost insignificant. Again,

moments in grillage beams are proportional to the beam curvature in that direction.

In real slabs, moments also depend on the orthogonal direction curvature, but this

error is alsosufficiently small to be ignored.

There are a few fundamental requirements for competent grillagemodelling:

Place the grillagebeams coincident with the physical beams or lines of

designed strength.

Where possible, lay out the grillageto capture all the load, and for ease

ofshape generation and section property calculations.

Transverse elements should be spaced to try and reflect the aspect ratio

(length/width) ofthe whole deck.

Skew decks can be analysed by orthogonal or skew meshes. Ifthe skew

exceeds 20, the model should be laid out within 5 ofthe real skew.

Generally, transverse members should be orthogonal to the longitudinal

members, particularly when skew exceeds 20.

Bearing positionsshould be represented faithfully, and in skew bridges

the verticalstiffnessmust bemodelledwith care astheycan have significant

effect on theoretical distribution ofload.

Once the grillage model has been setup, it is recommended that an initialtest load is

applied(suchas a uniformUDL), to verifythat it is behaving correctly. The test load

case should be checkedagainst some simple hand calculations (e.g. wL2/8)to make

sure that the results are reasonable.

GRILLAGE MODEL

n//aae mvde/

Thegill/age.wode/is/towitbe/ow

The(fr-stdkgcasts/towsthe i,odeirHmbers,aitdfrtdicates

sti/'orts

a cfrc/e.

31

46i

15

61

76-

38

53

68

75

90

91

106

30

45

60

105

120

121

135

136

150

151

165

Thesecoirddhigram s/towstheitenrbern#mbethrg.'

t5t

152

-1 ii

16

164

15

18 19

50

249

262

263

290

156

ISP

158

159

304

130

19

20

Sincethe precast andin-situconcretestrengths do notdifferby more than 10 N/mm2,

Clause 7.4.1 permits a modular ratio of 1.0 to be used. However in the example a

moreaccurate valuehas been calculated taking into account ofthe different concrete

strengths.

The Y beams have standard notches 50 mm deep alongthe top edges. These allow

formwork to be placed between the beamsto support the deck concrete. In thiscase,

20 mmthickpermanent formwork is used,so thatthe beamprotrudes30 mm into the

deck slab. The overall height of the section is 1.590 m. The composite section

properties are calculated by assuming the section is made up from the Y8 beam, a

rectangular slab which overlaps it by 30 mm, and the small overlap areawhich must

be subtractedas it hasbeen counted twice.

The code permits stiffnesses to be represented on the gross concretesection ignoring

the reinforcement or strand. This is the most straightforward, since the amount of

reinforcement andstrand hasnot yetbeen accurately determined atthe analysis stage.

In some situations, suchas continuous bridges at supports, the transformed section

may be important and should be used.

Under transient applied forces the short term elastic modulus should be used, and

under applied deformations or long term loads the long term modulus should be

used. To save analysis time for these two situations a value between long and short

may be chosen, ideally reflecting the proportion ofpermanent to transienteffects.

Almost all analyses are executed on elastic models, even though the code allows

plastic methods with the approval of the bridge authority. An elastic analysis is

appropriateforthe serviceabilitylimit state,whichis the most importantfor the design

ofthe pretensioned beams. The use ofan elastic model for the ultimate limit state is

simple and conservative. It is a lower bound solution in which the structure is in

equilibrium andyield isnot reached.

GRILLAGE MODEL

$ectloir Propemes

&am ilo,,e.'

74rea = 0.5847m2

bean,,

9=0.639 m'

I = 0,1188s,

Comt'os/te

8/ab cocretef,=40N/nrm'2,

=31itN/m'nr

=34kN/m'm't

0220

&an,cocretef =50N/mwr,

Mod#/arratio = 31/34 =0.91

1.370

re4jiiredforca/cu/at/oiloftheseiwe,'ht

othetwie Memodular ratio willbeappliedto theslab.

The actualarea

Actual

8/ak

Overlap

'/8

ffect,Ve

area

0.280

-0.012

0.585

0.255

1,480

0,378

-0.011

1.385

-0.015

0.585

0.639

0.374

0.853m' 0.829sr

Totals

The valuesforA('y-?

94/M

A(i-7

area

0.0891 0.0011

-0.0027 0.0000

0.0366 0.1188

O.737m

O.2429m'

ir Mi tableca,,oit/qbefl//ed4rafterqhasbee,,ca/cilIated

=0.737/0.829 =0.889m'

(from'bottomofbean,)

I =0.2429si

$ectioir moduilicait owbe calculated'

=0.273n,3

ofbean,,

Top ofslab,

=0.347m3

Top

= "(1400-7,)= 0.475 ,3

=I/(l.590-9)

Z

i

Thi lastvalue

ot

stresses theslab, The modit'larratio iiruistbe diVided of

valuetofind

thetruesect/onmvduiluis fortheslabi

Zk

ot th/

Q,

21

22

Most decks have edge stiffening for the parapets. Many deck arrangements cause

the edge beam to be the most heavily loaded. In many instances these effects are

complementary,the extra stiffness reducing stresses from the extraloading. However,

the combined stiffliessofthe edge beamwiththe parapet upstand maybe significantly

higher than the stiffness of the internal beams, and so may attract high unwanted

loads into the parapet upstand. Care must be taken in the computermodelling to

ensure that the stiffness allocatedto the edge beam is not unrealistically high, as this

would aggravate the problem.

To counteract this 'overloading'phenomenon, the following approaches canbe taken

whenthe apparent edge beaminertiais significantly higherthan internal elements:

model the edge upstand as a separate element (usuallywith less inertia

than the main elements). This reverses the trendofattraction.

calculate thewhole deckinertia

includingthe upstands,andalsoexcluding

the upstands. Then allocate halfthe difference to each edge member.

This is likely to be significantly less than the inertia calculated for the

discreteedge shape.

makethe

edge upstand discontinuous. This is becoming more popular as

it also reduces thermal and differential shrinkage cracking. It does,

however, require careful detailing.

In the design example, the third method has been adopted. The downstand fascia and

parapet are cast after the deck has been completed, and are both cast in sections

about2.5m long separated by a narrow gap.

The stiffness of the parapet cantilever is included with the outer Y beam. Edge

longitudinal elements are included in the model alongthe line ofthe parapetsupport

upstand. These elements are givenvery small section properties so that they do not

contribute structurally to the grillage. They are only included to give the grillage

model a tidy appearance the same size and shape as the bridgedeck. Theycouldbe

omittedwithoutaffecting the results ofthe analysis. Ifnominal members are usedin

this way, however, loads should not be applied directlyto these members.

GRILLAGE MODEL

dge &am

To acir/eve aH ecoiromia'aledgebeamdes/gM, atwo stage

ct/OHse'eirce wi/Ike ised

1n tiref

tj

tstage, tiredecicast

edgebeams.

toiitside tire

ofthestagetwo coirstriict/o.'r

The weiht

siq'poned

hotpreseiltedhere, buttiresecM'npropeniesoft/re

stageoireedgebeamstobeused4r tirIaira4'siare;

effectiVeArea

= O,O2 m

9 =O.875m

I =O.24Om

dicoirt4uuousparapetOHdownstairdfascki.

oftirecross-sect/oir

The

shaded OH

to beusedfortire ma4rgri//ageaira4,s, caH

be calculatedasfortire/,rteriralbeam oirtireprevious

page, airclare asfollows;

Actualarea =1.044m2

= 1,003 m

7 =l,022m

effectiVeArea

=0.316m4

Parapetedgemember'

struictut'rat aird verqsmallva/lieswi//beiisedfortiresect4'irpropemes.

slabmembers;

Theserepreseirta1. 900m sect/oir slab;

There

of

= 0.00153m4

I =mbt/12= 0.911.9000.2203/12

so the slab

represeirt0. 950m ofslab;

=

=

I mbd/L2 0.91 x 0.950 x 0.220/12 =0.00077m4

isHo eNddkiphragm,

eHd

members s41rplq

23

24

3.7 TORSION

Torsional inertiacan be difficult to calculate precisely. A reasonable estimate can be

madeby dividing the section up into rectangles. The torsional inertia ofthe section is

approximately givenby the sum ofthe inertias ofthe individual rectangles. In beam

and slab bridges, the torsional inertia is normally small compared to the bending

inertia, so this approximate methodofcalculation is sufficiently accurate.

For rectangularsections,

C = k1b3d

b is the length ofthe shortside

d is the length ofthe long side

and k1 is a factordepending on the ratio d/b

where

k1

This formula should not beused for elements which represent sections ofa wide slab.

In thiscase, the valueusedfork1 mustbe reflect the whole slabaction, and should not

be calculatedforthe individualelements. Slabstwist inboth longitudinalandtransverse

directions, so the value ofC is halved for eachdirection to reflectthisdouble action.

Additionally,the slabelements shouldbe transformed in accordance with the modular

ratio. The torsional inertia ofslab elements is thus givenby:

C = '/6mb3d

Torsionless Design

For many composite beams, as here, the torsional inertia is an order of magnitude

less than the bendinginertia. The analysisofsuchbridges canbesimplifiedby ignoring

the torsion constraints. In otherwords, torsionless design can be used.

The resulting load distribution is less effective andthis gives riseto slightly increased

bending moments. The correspondingly increased design strength is considered

adequate to carry the torques which would be associated with a full torsionmodel.

Torsionlessdesigns should not be usedfor significantskews or boxbeamdecks which

maybe chosen for theirhigh torsion stiffness properties or where torsional strength is

a significantrequirement.

Torsion should also not be ignored in UM beams and thick edge beams such as YE

beams, even ifinternalbeams are consideredtorsionless. Edge beams can be subjected

to considerable torsion due to loads from the parapet cantilever, and cracking of

thesebeams couldoccuriftorsion is ignored in the design.

GRILLAGE MODEL

of

I127.5x0.220

0.540x1,080

T

fi$ca/cii/ate

1.

0.,50x 0.290

two waqs/a

ofa wider

6 frfb3d/6

Th,

80

=O.91OL203xL2P5/6

=0,0021,?

d/b = L080/0.34o

=3.18

6 =i(1b3d =0.26P0,34O31,080

=Q,Qjf3j4

'1

3.'

= 0.P5o/o.29o=2,59

=(1-0.63k/d)/3 = (1-0.63/2.59)/3 =0252

C ='1b5d =O,252x0.29OO,750

d/b

=00046i?

Total

s/o#ali',ern,,

C =00021#0.0113 + 0.0046

=0.018,?

forcostparisoir,

Theken'd4rg 4lerthT

1=0.255,?

To,%#wi/IMerefore be #regleced

25

26

CALCULATIONOF LOADS

4.1 INTRODUCTION

The Departmental Standard BD 37/88, Loads for Highway Bridges, is currently used

to determine the loading on UK bridges. BD 37/88 effectively supersedes

BS 5400 Part2 inthe UK, pending revision ofthis Standard, anditis usedthroughout

this design example.

The loads generally specified in the Standard are nominal loads appropriate to a

return period of 120 years. Design loads will be obtainedlater by multiplying the

nominalloads by load factors given in the Standard. An additional factor, y0, is

also introduced to obtain the design load effects (moments, shears, etc.) from the

design loads. Values of are givenin BS 5400Part 4 for concretebridges.

4.2 DEFINITIONS

other structural design work:

Dead Load

Superimposed

Dead Load

bridge, such as road surfacing, parapets, etc.

LiveLoads

PrimaryLive Loads

Secondary

LiveLoads

traffic (eg. centrifugal forces, braking,lurching).

Permanent

Loads

(i.e. DL, SDL, and any loads due to fill).

Transient

Loads

(i.e. wind, temperature, and live loads).

CALCULATIONOF

Los 27

C7ILCUL74TIONOTLOAD

DeadLoad

DeadloadwY/becar/iedbqthebeastsacf-l'tg%n'e, with/tocosipos/te acz'Ion'.

/f3 &asta/oite

Weig'kt

=0,584x24kN/st

= 14.03k/V/st

= Q584P(f8,)+Q,2c5Q5(s/ab)-0.0120(oven'ap)

/irterna/beam'

=0,85325,2

We/g.*t =0,c5532st224kN/st3

=20.48k/V/st

idgebeam

Area

=0.5848) +0.4592(s/ab+caitt#ever)

=1.044st2

We,kt =1,044s,224kN/sr5

=25.05k/V/st

8uperh'rposedDeadLoad

Thi load4rg

app/ledto thecostposiebeast&s/akstrkc$Hre.

-f

wolecarnigewai. ThAi'rc/udes a/b waitceforwaterprooflHgprotect/on boards.

$DL =0.165st24k/V/st3

= 4.Ok/V/st2x. 1.275rn

Verge.'

The

=4.0k/V/rn2

=5,1k/V/stperbeast

wei,toftirefootpath,andnon-structural(d/scontzsruouis) str4tgcourseandfasck

wi/Iallbe takenas$DL

of

28

4.3 HIGHWAYLOADING

Notional lanes

For the purposes of calculating the loads to be applied to the bridge deck, the

carriageway is split into notional lanes. In this context, the carriageway is taken as

the distance between raised kerbs, thus including the hard shoulders (see Clause

3.2.9.1). Clause 3.2.9.3 then defines how the carriageway should be split into notional

lanes. Note that in this example there are three notional lanes for loadingpurposes,

even thoughthe deck will be marked out for only two lanes oftraffic.

HA Loading

comprises a uniformly distributed load (UDL) andaknife edge load (KEL) combined,

or alternatively a singlewheelload.

For loaded lengths up to and including 50 m, the UDL expressed in kN per linear

metre ofnotional laneis given by the equation:

W = 336(IIL)'67

where L is the loaded length (in metres) andW is the load per metre ofnotional lane.

The KEL per notional lane is always taken as 120 kN.

The UDLand KEL are uniformlydistributed over the full widthofthe notional lane

to which they apply. However, not all lanescarrythe full HAload at the same time,

and this is dealt with by means of lane factors. These are functions of the loaded

length and the lane width, and are specified in Table 14 ofthe Standard.

The single 100 kN wheel loadalternativeto the UDL andKEL canbeplaced anywhere

onthe carriageway,andoccupies eithera circular areaof340mmdiameter ora square

areaof300mm side. The single wheelload is only significant in the local analysis of

the deck slab, which is not covered in this design example.

CALCULATIONOF LOADS

l-/iahwatLoads

6am'gewa.iwidth

= 1,0 (*ardstr') + 73

=93m

Three iiot/ona/Iawesarerei/red'

Not/offallaMe width,

/174 load'

kL

Loadedleirgt/r

=26.61 m'

/1AUDL =336(1/L)6'

=536(1/26.61)

k/V/rn

HAAL =120k/V

= 100k/V('si'rgIeload)

Wheelload

L)3,/&s Thkle14.'

LaMefactorskasedoit

a2

=0 013,(3,1(40-26.61) + 3.65(26.61-20))

=0,90

&stlaMefactoi /3 = a2 =0.90

$ecoffdlaNefactoi /2 = a2 =090

ThIrdlaNefactoi

133

= 0.60

29

30

HB Loading

HB loading represents abnormal vehicle loading. An example might be a low load

trailer carrying a power station transformer, with tractor units at front and rear.

For all public highway bridges in GreatBritain the minimum numberofunits oftype

HB loading that mustnormallybe considered is 30, butthisnumbermay be increased

up to 45 units.

For thisdesignexample, the client has specified37.5 units ofHB load.

The HB vehicleas defined in the Standard represents fouraxles with fourwheels per

axle. Oneunit ofload represents 10 kN per axle. Thusthe full 45 units maximum is

equal to 450 kN per axle or 112.5 kN per wheel.

the smallestfigure is obviously the most critical.

As with the HA wheel load the contact surface may be taken as circularor square

with a contactpressure of 1.1 N/mm2.

Note that in thisexample the HB wheel load is less than the HAwheel load. For slab

design the HA wheelwill therefore be critical.

Longitudinal andtransverse loading

CALCULATION OF

Thibridge

/15 load'

AyJeload=37,5xl0kN =375k/V

W4'eel load

=375 kN/4

= 1500k/V

=9375 k/V

Thus ditance betwecir cdiltralax/es

Jorion'ta/Loads,'

Thi

=250kA/+(8k/V/rnx2.6rn)

=463k/V

/13

appliedto on'en'otion'a/lan'e,

lon'gituidin'a/ load

=25% 1500k/V

=375k/V

butwi/IHotbe critical asit less than' the HA lon'gituidin'al load

Clause 6.11giVes thenornin'altran'sverseloads/

The n'orn4ral tran'sverse loaddue toskidd4rg

a s4tglepo4ttloadof300 k/V

acti.Yg4,an'qd,tecti'n('parallelto theroadsurface)

Los 31

32

Methods ofcalculating windloads are given in Clause 5.3 ofthe Standard.

Combination2 loading(seepage 38) isnot significantin itseffect on a largeproportion

ofbridges, suchas concrete slaborbeamand slabstructures 20m or less in span, 1 Om

or more in widthand at normal heightsaboveground. Wind load thereforedoesnot

need to be calculated for most bridges designed using prestressed beams.

Forloaded lengthsof36m andunder, the nominal pedestrianlive load is a uniformly

distributed live load of5.0 kN/m2.

of0.8 is applied to thenominal pedestrian live loading specified for footbridgesalone.

Thus, in this case the pedestrianlive load is 4.0 kN/m2.

4.6 TEMPERATUREEFFECTS

Temperatureeffects produce two aspects ofloading,namely therestraint to the overall

bridge movement due to the temperature range, and the effects of temperature

differences (or gradients) throughthe depth ofthe bridge deck.

Temperature Range

maximum and minimum shade air temperatures for the location ofthe bridge from

isotherms plottedon maps ofthe UK, and shown in Figures 7 and 8 in the Standard.

As these isotherm maps are derived from Meteorological Office data relatingto a

return periodof 120 years (the bridge design life), it may be necessary to adjust the

temperaturesfor a return period of50 years forcertain applicationssuchas footbridges

andcarriagewayjoints. This is achievedby a straightforward increase or reduction in

temperature as indicated in Clause 5.4.2 ofthe Standard.

Maximum andminimum effective bridgetemperatures are then derived from Tables

10 and 11 in the Standard. Prestressed beam bridges will always be type 4.

The effective bridge temperature range is then used for designing the bearings and

expansion joints, or if this movement is restrained then in determining the stress

resultants in the structure.

CALCULATION OF LOADS

WZ'tdload

t*i

Wi,dload

speci%'al/icalc/atedfor

2 wi//notbecritical

/'ridge.

footpathLoads

Nom4ya//,VeloadforfootpathsigiVen/it Clause 6.5,1,1as

5i('N/m.

h'icethisbridgecarr,skikwa.i/oad/itgaswe//asthefootpath,

thereductionfactorof0.8 app/is.

Neducednom/iualload be applied = 0.8 x 5.0 = 4.0 kN/m

Temperature Nange

from

Miuimuimshade aitteli,t'eratgre=

180

Max/mumshadealt

+3606

fromf#uire 9, bridgeconstruction

from Tab/es 10and11,

type 4.

= 47C

Coefficient ofthermale.q.'ansiin = 12x1Ct6/C

Lengthbetweeneansi'nj/iuts = 27m (approx)

Temperaturerange

= 47x

x27=0. 0152m

= 76mm

Nangeofmovement

(121O6,)

movement

Nange

fromcentra/posi'tt'n

of

33

34

Temperature Difference

Positive temperature differences occurwithinthe superstructure whenconditions are

such that solar radiation andothereffects cause a gain in heatthrough the top surface

ofthe deck. Conversely, reverse temperature differences occurwhen conditions are

suchthat heatis lost from the top surface ofthe bridge deck as a resultofre-radiation

and othereffects.

Temperature gradient diagrams for each ofthesestatesare shown on Figure 9 in the

Standard. For surfacing ofthickness other than 100mm these can be modified by

reference to Appendix C.

The coefficient ofthermalexpansion for concrete and steel is takenhere as I2x 106.

For concrete with limestone aggregates, a reduced coefficient ofthermalexpansion

of9x 10-6 can be used.

the top line ofdiagrams opposite. The stress at the top of the slab, for example, is

calculated as:

Stress = E ci. T = (31,000 N/mm2)x (12x106/C) x (13.5C) = 5.02 N/mm2

In a simply supported deck there is no axial restraint at the ends, and no moment

restraint. The axial and moment components of these stresseswill be relievedby

overall lengtheningandhogging ofthe deck. A self-equilibratingsetofinternalstresses

will remain; they will exist without any external forces or reactions on the deck.

Theseinternalstresses are calculatedby subtractingthe axial and moment components

from the stresses calculated for the fully restrainedcondition.

Stresses due to negative temperature differences also need to be calculated. These

are not presented here, but exactly the same procedure is followed.

It is worth noting that the serviceability limit state stressesdetermined from these

temperature difference diagrams are subject to a load factorof0.8.

CALCULATION OF LOADS

TestfleratureD/fferen'ce

9ofD37/88

PositiVeteratu1red7ereHce/

k,=0 Jim

*3

15.5CC

0,25mfl

=020m2.5CC

Cross

JOiN/mm'

$tresses 41fui/4irestrained

Temperature

deck

Difference

=iaT

Ca/cu/ateam/forcea#dmomentcomponentsofthesestresses.

A

1

1,275x0.15

1,2,75x0,07

2

4

//

0.626

0651

0516

1,12

1,275x0J5

1.95

0.96

0.44

0.51

0.4.zx0.18

0.75x0.20

0.375

0.086

0.037

0.077

0391

-0.822

Am/force =

I,,

74Y

0214

0154

0.245

0,044

0015

-0.063

= 0787MN

= o.S7SMNm

st'/qsupportedbridge,ne/theraxia/forceormomentare4ifactrestra4rea so locked4t

Momentre/easestress = (0.373M/V&/Z

= (0.373MNm)/(0. 475m) =0.79N/mm2 at top'ofbeam', etc.

Ax/a/re/easestress

502N/mm

1,02 N/mm'

Nestrainedstresses

fromtopdhtgram

086N/mm'

095N/mm'

095

re/ease

098N/mm'

j37d

3,18N/mm'

144N/m.w'

Moment

$eif- eqii/ibrat4ig

re/ease

temperature stresses

35

36

4.7 SHR[NKAGE

Whenthe in-situtop is cast on the precast beamssome ofthe shrinkage ofthe beams

has already occurred. Hence differential shrinkage occurs betweenthe precast and

in-situ concretes, andthis results in the development ofa pattern ofinternal stresses.

Clause 7.4.3.4 statesthatthe Table29 shrinkagevaluesmay be adopted. It is reasonable

(and usual) to assume that half of the beam shrinkage has occurred at the time of

casting the top slab. Hence the differential shrinkage assumed in the calculation is

halfofthe Table 29 shrinkage value.

The effects ofdifferential shrinkage will be reduced by creep. Allowance is madefor

thisin the calculations byusingareduction coefficient, 4. A valueof 0.43 is normally

usedfor this coefficient, as given in Clause 7.4.3.4.

differential temperature stresses. The restrained stresses are calculated, andthe axial

force and momentcomponent are subtracted to give the actual internal stresses.

CALCULATION OF LOADS 37

$rirkage

thetotalshithikageoft/re beam' has taI(enp/ace before thes/ak cast;

/tZassiimed/a4

Different/alskr4t.(-age stra4r,

15ot

__________________

I

I&I

Nestra/nirgforce

Nestra/n4rg stonrent

A

'

= x. x x..

= -15010 x 31000 .x. (L2,5x 0.220)x 0.43

= -0,561 MN (tensi2w)

= -0.561 x eccentric/tJ,f

=-0.561X('1,480- 0.889)

=-0,332MNm'

Ca/ri/at/onofinternalstresses

= -2.0N/m'm

Ax/al re/ease = ('0.561MN,)/1"O. 829nr,) = -0.68 N/mnr

Montentrelease = A4/Z1, = -0.332/0.381 = -0,5,N/m'm' attopofslab, etc.

Nestrai'redstress =

x.

x. 0

Total4,terna/stressesares/townontheri/tthanddiigram;

-2.0N/,m

-062N/mi,r

-067

4N15N/mm

-054

N/mm-

-0,66 N/mi

Nestra,'red

stresses

Ax/al

Mom'ent

&/f-eii/likrat4rg

re/ease

re/ease

skr4rtagestresses

38

APPLICATIONOF LOADS

5.1

LOADCOMB1NATIONS

BD 37/88 considers five combinations ofloads. These are listed in detailin Table 1

of the Standard, which also gives load factors to be used in each case. The five

combinations can be summarised as follows:

Comb.

1:

Comb. 2:

Comb. 3:

Comb. 4:

Comb. 5:

live load is alsoincluded.)

Wind load, plus loads in Comb. 1 (butwith some reduced load factors).

Temperature effects, againcombinedwith loads from Combination 1.

Secondary live loads (each considered separately), in combination with

permanent loads and the associated primary live load.

Bearings friction, togetherwith permanent loads.

analysis of the bridge deck. In pretensioned beam bridge decks, Combination 2

(including wind loading) is rarelycritical, and is ignored in the design example. This

leavesCombinations 1 and 3 to be analysed.

to Departmental Standard BD 24/92, The Design ofConcrete Highway Bridges and

Structures, Use ofBS 5400: Part4: 1990. The most important change thisintroduces

relates to the Combination 1 loading. The beams must comply with Class 1 SLS

stress limits for a modifiedversion of Combination 1. BS 5400: Part 4 calls for a

maximum of 25 units ofHB load for this condition, but BD 24/92 reduces the live

loading to HAaloneforthis condition. This design example follows the requirements

of BD 24/92.

In this example, maximum midspan moments will obviously be obtained by

concentrating the loads as near to midspan as possible. This means putting the HA

KEL at midspan in the lanes to which it applies, and also putting the HB vehicle at

midspan.

Positioning ofthe loads to obtain maximum bendingmomentelsewhere in the span,

or on skew bridges, is not so easy. The arrangement ofloads which give maximum

effects in the various beams can be found by trial and error. Alternatively, some

software packages will automatically analyse a multitude ofdifferentpossibilities and

report the maximum effects.

The temperature loads in Combination 3 do not cause any bendingmoments in the

beams, andso will not have a significanteffect at ULS. OnlyCombination 1 therefore

needs to be analysed at ULS.

APPLICATION OF LOADS

APPL/CA1/ONOfLO74D TO 5N/LM

Load Cases

beams, onli themaxi,wmmoments(wh'ith will occarat midspan,), andthe max/mi/rn shearat

theendsofthebeamsandat

are needed Moments are reqjiiredboth at$L$ and

at WL'. On4 WL isrequiredfortheshear ca/calat4ns, batthe

cond/tiw Wi//a/so be

ana4'sed togiVemac'wrn loadson thebearings.

Loadcasesmastbeselectedforhe'at

,]) 37/88. Note thatthe/-/ ye/rideis widerthan airothna/lane, When the/1 ye/ride

straddles theadjicentlane, theK.L isomittedfromthatlane, andthelanefactorforthe/14

IIDLis basedon a not/9na/lane widthof2.Sm, giving alanefactorof0.7S9(see C/aase

6.4.2(b))

HA alone'

L,neJ

Combination 1 at

and11L

Combinati'on3 at

L'

Combiratin 1 at

Combi'tat,kn

3 at

and 11L

Combi',at,n 3 at

LandUL

HA with37.5an/tsH

to max/miseshearandreactins

in lane 1.'

Combination1

Combination 1 at

Le2

krne3

at$Land UL$

iL

/14 130.9 iL

HA, /330.6, iL

HA, J3,=O.9,

vehicle

HA,

132=0.789

HA,

/3=O.9 AL

HA, 132=0.789

H

I

HA,

vehicle

/3=O.9, AL

H, ye/ride

HA, 132=0.789

H4 J3=0.9,

/(.zL

39

40

Loading to grillages can be applied in the form of member loads and joint loads.

Member loads can include UDL, varyingUDL, point loads and torque. These are

normallyapplied with reference to the local memberaxes. Joint loads can include

both forces andtorques, anddisplacements(normally usedfor settlement ofa support).

These are usually applied with reference to the global axes. In this example, only

UDL member loads and vertical joint loads will be used.

ofloads to the grillagemodel. In the example givenhere, however, a manual method

Uniformly distributed loads are generally applied as member loads along the main

elements. A patchload is statically distributed acrossthe members beneath the patch.

Line loads can be applied as member loads, but the HA knife-edge load in this

exampleis appliedasjoint loads. Similarly, the HB wheel loadsare staticallydistributed

between the nearest joints, and applied as joint loads.

HA loading alone

In the example opposite, Load I is the HA UDL loading for lanes 1 and2, multiplied

by the lane factor of0.9 for these lanes. Elements 179 to 234 represent four main

longitudinalbeams, andreceive member loads representing a width ofdeck ofI .275m.

The basic HA UDL is 37.3 kN/ni on a notional lane width of 3,lm, so the load

applied to members 179 to 234 is:

Member load=(1.275m/3.lm)x 37.3 kN/mx0.9= 13.81 kN/m

The remaining load is allocated to the beams represented by members 165 to 178,

and 235 to 248. So for members 165 to 178:

Member load = (0.1875m / 3.lm) x 37.3 kN/m x 0.9 = 2.03 kN/m

The last section of data shows how the individual loads are combined with factors

x as given in BD 37/88 Table 1 for Combination 1

equivalent to the factors

at SLS.

\I)

/14 [3=O.9,

ALL

\ ft)\

rii/aaei'rpiitdata

The itpI1tdaia

LOAD1 /14

UDL

A4tjl4[N LOAD

165

TO

MNL1&2 (/3=0.9)

205

178 UN!

235

TO

248 UN!

15.81

-9.88

theloadsoirthisd/agrtrnf/

_____________

LIMe!

LOAD2HAUDLL4A/i3(/3=O,6)

ML4V1?NLOAD

249 TO 276 UN!

277 TO 290 UN!

L,.ye2

LIe3

____________

-2.61.7

c -9205

-1354

LOAD 3 Af M!D-PAN

10INTLOAD

3853 68 83f'f-44,42

25

98

-6.53

ff3J.79

LOAD 4 TOO7WA'f

MtA4,SLN LOAD

165

151

-5.10

TO 164 291 TO5O4UN/f-O9O,

TO

LOADS.$UNfA6/NC

ML44BL7<LOAD

179 TO 276 UN!

LOAD 6

-5.1

VfDL

Mbl4EN LOAD

16S TO 178 277 TO 290 UN!

LOAD COM 7 (SLSCOMB. 1

12

Sf2

2 1.2

61.0

5 1,2

f -14,6

f/A ALONL)

4 1.0

f/A, /3 =0.6, !L

APPLICATION OF LOADs

riilaaei',piitdata

The

irptdataforsomeofMeCombirat/oir 1 loadcases

L074D1

AA/f$1&2 (13=0.9)

/174 //DL

MA4&N LOAD

165 TO 178 WA/I

179 TO 234 WA/I

235 TO 248 WA/I

LC)AD2HA

WDL

-2.03

-13.81

-9.88

Meloadso#i tk/digram'

/14 $=O.9, AL

/14 13=0.9, /(tL

LAM3 (13=0.6)

Mt.M&NLOAD

235 TO 248 WA/I

277 TO 290 WA/I

c -2.617

-9.205

/174,

-1.354

LOAD 3 AL A4/D-MA/

JOINTLOAD

38 53 68 83ff-44,42

f'f -6,53

23

98

ff 3J,79

LOAD 4 fOO7WA'f

MtJ14N LOAD

165 TO 178 277 TO 290 WA/I

151 TO 164 291 TO 304 WA/I

'

-5.10

-0.90

LOADS$WNM6IA/

MfMN LOAD

LOAD

-5,1

6 VfN( SDL

MMN LOAD

LOAD 60M3 7 ($L COM&. 1

11.2

51.2

21.2

61.0

31.2

/174

ALOM)

41.0

#3=0.6,

AL

41

42

The page opposite shows the input data for load cases in which the HB vehicle is

positioned formaximum edge zone longitudinal bending. Note the absence ofKEL

in the straddled lane next to the HB lane. A similarload layout is alsorequiredwith

the HB vehiclein the central lane.

The datafor Load 1 is for 37.5 units ofHB (375 kN per axle,or93.75kN per wheel).

The wheel loads are distributed between the nearest grillagejoints, and applied as

point loads. Loads 2 to 7 are similar to Loads 1 to 6 on the previous page. Loads 8

and 9 represent Combination 1 at SLS and ULS respectively.

As before, the combinations are made from applying the andy1 factors from Table

= 1.1. Thus the factor applied to

1 of BD 37/88. Note that for ULS loadings,

Load 1 in the final set of datais:

memberandjointnumbers, the notional lanes, and the positionofthe HB vehicle:

151

164

165

21

72

25

26

361

193

51

J9

52

55

56

206

234

221

235

98

249

113

265

128

2Z

178

L LL

291

248

- - --

262

276

304

Grillage output

Each software package has its own convention for output display. Generally the

memberend moments at the samejoint in any element string (eg. main longitudinal

member) are averaged to find the maximum designmoment at that joint. The sign

convention may give opposite senses for each moment in a sagging effect, or they

may be given the same sign, so care is therefore necessary in the interpretation. The

design shear forces and twistingmoments are evaluated in the sameway.

Someprogramsenvelope a group ofanalysis resultsto provideeasy identification of

maxima.

APPLICATION OF LOADS 43

/1

LOAD 1

L,4iV. 1

JOINTL04D

66 67 70 71 f'f -93,75

51 525556 f'f -140.625

36 37 40 41 -93,75

21 22 25 26 -46.875

ff

LOAD2!-IA

I/B

LAN2(f3=.789)

MM&N LOAD

221 TO 234 U/Vt c-12,1

235 TO 248 UNI

f7'4,

-8.66

-8.66

MMBL LOAD

249 TO 276 UN!

235

-13,81

-3,93

-2.03

TO 248 UN!

TO 290 UN!

277

LOAD kZL

JOINTLOAD

M3

M!DSPAN

98

143

f-12,63

-6.53

LOADS fOO7WA'f

MtMBN LOAD

165 TO 178 277

164 291

151

TO

LOAD

68UIfAC!N

TO 290 UN!

TO 304 UN!

-5.1O

-O.9O

Mfjl4BNLOAD

LOAD

MMBNLOAD

165 TO 178 277 TO 290 UN!

-14.6

11,1 21.1 31.1 41.1

51.0 61.2 71.0

LOAD COMB

2 1.43 3 1,43 4 1.43

5 1.65 6 1.925 7 1,32

LOAD COMB

1 1.43

ve/ilcle

0.789

/3=09 AL

44

6.1 GENERAL

The left hand pages in this section are in the form ofa commentary on the example

design calculations on the right hand pages.

All references to clauses and Tables in this section refer to BS 5400: Part 4: 1990.

The units used in the calculations are Meganewtons and metres. These have been

chosenin order to avoidthe need to use largenumberofpowers often, andto avoid

the need to convert between different units withincomplicated expressions. Itshould

be noted that the unit ofstress ofMN/rn2 is numerically the same as N/mm2,and so

stresseshave been quoted in the latter unit.

6.2 DESIGN BENDING MOMENTS

The grillageanalysis doesnot include the dead load ofthe beams andthe in-situ slab,

as these loads are carried by the prestressed beamsalone. Theseloads mustbe added

by hand. Appropriate load factors for the different load combinations have been

included in the grillage analysis, but need to be applied to the dead loads at this stage.

valuesare obtained from BD 37/88 Table 1. Note that a valueof1.2 has been

taken for the dead load at ULS. The Standard permits a lower value of 1.15 to be

adopted, but the onus is on the designer to ensure that the assumed unit weight of

the structure is not exceeded. Consequently most designers preferthe conservative

value of 1.2 at this stage ofthe design.

The

The value for is taken as 1.1, as given in Clause4.2.3 for methods of analysis

otherthan plastic methods, for which a value of 1.15 should be adopted.

The calc.eilati2,ns whihfollow c#-e

These wi//al/beident/cj4

so tiredesi,'q#risfort/re worstcase

Des4vr&nd4igMoments

iscariiedbqtireprecast beamacti'rga/one.

The deadloadbendingmoment

Loadsare.'

= 20.48 N/m

DL precast = 14.03 kN/m

Total DL

DL lit-sit/i

= 6,45 k/I/rn

6/8

6/8

DL i'r-situ = wf2/8 = 6.45 26.

= 1242k/Vm' = 1.242MNm

= 571 kNm

=0.571 MAIm

factorshavebeen/irc/uided4,theana/qsis, so thegri//ageoutputgiVesthefactoredmornents. In

thetablebelo thebend4rg momentsforloadcases3 and 4 aretakenfromthegri/lage output

formidspan ofanX#erna/beam. tachcasei'rcludes SDL, footpathloads, and/IAload 3endi'rg

moments4rthetableareal/%iA4Nm'

$L

Comb4iat,'n 1

Load case

1.' DLprecast

2.' DL ,'isitui

3.' Th4('uidl+ke/)

4.' 37.5 /I8

Nom4ral

moment

,,

i'iored

moment

WL

Combitatin3

'

,,

0.571 1.0 0.571 1.0

2.540

3.278

Combi'rat,n 1

factored

moment

1.242

0571

2117

2.980

factored

moment

1.21, 1

1,21, 1

1.639

0753

3,493

4261

45

46

The basicprestress design is carriedout at SLS. Midspan stresses are calculated for

the various load combinations atthe top andbottom ofthe beam,and atthe top ofthe

slab. Prestress must be providedto ensure that the stresseslimits are satisfied at the

time of transfer of the prestress (when the load on the beams is at a minimum), and

under maximum loadings.

The table in the calculations opposite list the relevantstresses due to all the different

loadings that need to be considered. Load cases 3 and 4 refer to the grillage load

cases for which the moments are listed on the previous page. Note that these all

include SDL, footpath loads and HA loads in the appropriate combination. The

stressesinthe table forthese load cases are simplyobtained from thebending moments

by dividing by the section moduli.

Clause4.2.2 (as modified by BD 24/92) andtabulatedopposite:

Tension:

Load Combination 1: Clause 4.2.2(a)has been modified by BD 24/92 to state

that the section should be checked as Class 1 with live loading due to HA

alone. No HB load needbe considered forthis condition. Clause 6.3.2.4(a)(1)

gives a limiting tensilestressofzero for Class 1.

Load Combination 3 : Clause4.2.2(b) states that the section should be checked

as Class 2 or 3, but BD 24/92 specifies that Class 2 should be used, for which

Clause 6.3.2.4(a)(2) gives a limiting tensile stressforpretensioned concrete of

= -3.2N/mm2

-0.45

if

Compression:

Clause4.2.2(para3) specifiesthatthe section should be checked incompression

under the full Load Combination 1 and3 loadings. Table 22 gives the allowable

This gives 16 N/mm2for the slab and 20 N/mm2

compressive stress as 0.4

for the precast beam. However this value can be increased by 25% for the

upper surfaceofthe precast unitincontactwith in-situ concrete(Clause 7.4.3.2.)

provided that failure would be by tendon yield, because the in-situ concrete

confines the precastconcrete. This increase is not used in this example; it will

be seen in the ULS bending checklater in the calculations that thisconditionis

not satisfied.

PRESTRESSED BEAMDESIGN 47

Stresses atMidspan

Thebendi'rgmomentsHeed tobe conve4ed

Z#o

in ordertocarr,'o#tSLSdesiqn.

canbe obtainedusing

modii/i fortire

beam

'8

4 = 0,156 m3

4 =-0,fst3

Comb4ration 1. I-IA alone, are ca/ciliated fromtiremomentofL54OMNmg4'en onpage 45,

andthecomposite sect%21r modiiligiven onpage 21.'

momentsareresisted

cfr'lllage

Z1, = 0.381 m5

= 0.475 m

Zkb =-0.273m5

Stress4rtopofbeam =2.540/0.475 = 5.35 N/mm'

Stressii,bottomofbeam = 2.540/-0273= -930N/mm'

Temperature

c'

comb/nations,iftire.yirave anadverse

thesestressesareascalculatedonpage 37. All

arethereforeomittedfromtiretotals,

SLS Comb4rati'on 1

Section

Load case

Precast

1.' DL &am

2.' DL Slab

Composite

y

796

3.66

3.' HA

6.67

4.'37.5frI

860

5.35

6.90

-6.68

-3.07

-930

5,'Pos Temp

6.'Neg Temp

7.'Sirruirkage

Totals

HA

37.5 i-Is

Stress l4ilts

SLS Comb4rat,'on3

1.38

-0.54

6.67

8.60

1835

1990

-1959

<16

<20

-0

(-0.52)

5,56

7.82

2.54

7.96

3.66

-6.68

-3.07

4.46

6.27

-7.76

(-0.69)

(-1.65) 0.74

(-0.52) 1.38

810

-1092

(1.15)

-1.25

-0.54

10.36

18.20 -1930

20,01 -22.46

<'16

<'20

>-3,2

48

232 kN. If initially stressed to 75% of its characteristic strength, the initial

force would be 0.75 x 232 = 174 kN per strand.

Dyform strand is used in the design example, initially stressed to 70% ofits

characteristicstrength. This gives an initial tension of210 kN foreach 15.2 mm

diameter strand.

to 75% oftheircharacteristic strength. Therefore, although Clause 6.7.1 allows

up to 75% to be used for pretensioning, some manufacturers elect only to

stress Dyform strand to 70%. This reduced valueis usedin the design example.

The chosen strand pattern should always have strands located at the

manufacturers' standard positions.

Prestress Des/a,,

fortes,,tatthebottom oft*e beam, Combiratio,,

/1,4 aloite critical'

I j*

= -19.59N/msr'

overcome tki stress. TaA.lMgatrhi/eccentricitqof370mm, andassllm/Hg 30% losses.'

19.59

0.7

P

P

Pe

=+

A

Z

0.5847

+ PxO,370

0.186

=7.565A4N

tens/onper

strand1s210,(N

No,

$trandpatteriri'sing37strands,'

No, ofstrands

/1ei*tofrowabovesoffit

x

x

8

12

x.

11

1200mm

950mm

160mm

110mm

60mm

=

=

=

=

=

37

Cent,ro,d

4800

1900

1280

1320

660

9960

= 9960/37

= 269mmfromsoffit

= 0.269m

7 = 0.639m

= 0,639 - 0.269

..

eccentricit,'

= Q.370m

(asassi/med)

36strands(m/'/rllm)

49

50

The prestressing force does not remain at its initial value. The prestress

transferred to the beams a few days after they are cast is less than the force

initiallyjackedinto the strands. Prestress losseswhich occur at or before transfer

are due to:

(i) Relaxation ofthe strands.

(ii) Elastic shortening ofthe beamunder the prestessing force.

Stressesin the precast beam need to be checked at transfer. The prestress at

transferis calculated by subtracting the above lossesfrom the initialprestress.

Stresses in the beam are then calculated and checked against the allowable

stresses for the conditions at transferwhenthe concrete has not yet reachedits

full strength.

Clause 6.7.2.2 states that the relaxation loss should be the 1000 hour value

obtained from BS 5896, which is 2.5%. An examinationofstrand manufacturers

data indicates that it is reasonable to assume that between 25% to 50% ofthis

occurs prior to transferfor long line pretensioning operations. For ease of

calculation, it is usual to assume 50%relaxation before transfer, and 50% after.

The elastic loss at transfer is calculated at the centroid of the tendons, and is

due to the compression arising from the prestressing force, after the initial

relaxation loss prior to transfer, and the self-weight of the beam. The latter is

included because the beam cambers during transfer, and hencehas to carry its

self-weight as a simply supported beam.

The change in strand stress =

(E / E )

The net forceafter transfer= initial force - relaxation loss - elastic loss.

be added to the dead load stresses from page 47 to give the actual transfer

stresses in the precastbeam.

The stress limits for compression are given in Clause 6,3.2.2(b) and Table 23,

and for tension in Clause 6.3.2.4(b)(l). The strength ofthe concrete at transfer

In this case it is

is referred to as d which is less than the final strength

=

assumedthat f. 40 N/mm2.

Loss ofrestress

Ii /a/restressirg force

P=

370,210

=7.770MN

at

Ne/ax.atio,,loss

(i)

= 7673MN

P = 0. 987-5x 7770

()

loss attrairsfee

= + Pe2 - MDL e = 7.673 7.673 x 0.37Q2 - 1.242x 0,370

I

A

I

0.5847

0.11&3

011(33

= 1&09N/mnt'

zlast/cs*o4eni1gloss,

x,

x (strandarea)

= (200/31)(1&09N/mm2)(37O.OOO165m2)

= 0.713MN

Transferprestressi?rgforce, afterlosses

'tressesattransferarenowca/cii/atedandckec-edagairsta/lowable stresses.

Transferstressesdietoprestressa/one;

ZEf- 6.960

0.5847

= 11.90 -16.51

6.9600,370

0.156

= -4.61 N/mm'

mtllar4i

05847

0.186

t,e

are

beaml)Landprestress. DL stressesaretakenfrompage47.

Compressivestressl/m/tf/2 = 20 N/mm'

= 25.75 (prestress) - 6.68 (DL) = 1907N/mm'

Compressi'nat bottom,

Tensilestress//.'ii/t

Miri'iuim stressattop,

$ectin

b=

-1.0N/mm'

sat/sfactor9 attransfer

51

52

losses are due to:

(i) Shrinkage ofthe concreteas it cures.

(ii) Creep ofthe concretedue to the permanent compressive stresses.

(iii) Further relaxation ofthe strands.

These losses need to be evaluatedto find the final (long term) prestressing

force. This final prestress is usually about30% less than the initial prestress,

andit is the finalvaluethat mustbe usedin the calculations forthe design ofthe

beams.

Shrinkagestrain is given in Table 29 for pretensionedmembers subjecttonormal

exposure as 300 x 106.

Creep strain is givenin Clause 6.7.2.5 as 48 x 106per N/mm2 forcube strengths

in excess of 40 N/mm2. However, ifthe stress exceeds one third ofthe cube

strength, the creep is no longer proportional to stress, and has to be increased

by a factor varyingbetween 1.0 and 1.25dependingon the stress. A modification

factor, k, is used:

= f/2

= 20 N/mm2

k = 1.25 when

= 13.33N/mm2

k = 1.0 wheny6

fd/3

=

In this case,

19.07 N/mm2

so k = 1.22 by interpolation

of Clause 6.7.2.5 permits the loss to be calculated based on the substantial

simplification ofassuming that the strands are concentrated at their centroid.

The final prestressing force is obtained by subtracting the shrinkage loss, the

creep loss, and the relaxation loss from the force aftertransfer.

The design stresses in the precast beamare the stresses dueto the final prestress

afterall losses, as calculated on the opposite page,plusthe stress combinations

tabulated on page 47. These stresses are then compared with the allowable

tensile and compressive stresses, also given on page 47.

f,'ral losses

rirlcageloss

(i)

=

x A = 300XlO6X200l03(37X0000165m2)

= 0.366 MN

Creeploss

(II)

0 per

= 1.22

modf/'atloirfa'ctor(I'asedon Yb =19,07 N/mm2)

at t.4'ecelltro/doftelldons,

N/mm2

A

I

I

0.5847

0.1188

0.1188

=11,90 8.02 - 3.87

=

= 16.05 N/mm-'

= x.3x.A=(1.22X48X1U6X16,Q5)y(20010)

(37x0.000165)

= 1.148MN

Nelaxuzt%9n ofstralld

(th)

f/Malprestressirgforce, afteralllosses

(31.2%fiqa//osses)

ir

fPe

A Z

5.349

0.5847

5.349x,0,370 = 9.15-12,69=

-3,54N/mm2

0.156

95.349X0,370

= 915+10,64=19,79N/mm2

$Lstress/Z'rn'tsafterfiiralprestresslosses.'

C/reck,

$tress atbottomofbeam,

=O.20N/mm2

->0

=16,47N/m,ir'

<20N/mm2

$tress at topofbeam,

$ect%,'ratmidspair

Gb

satf.factortir tens,wa.'rdcompress/o.'r.

53

BEAMS

54 SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN US[NG PRESTRESSED

The prestressing force and eccentricity previously calculated are for midspan

wherethe dead and imposed load moments are maxima. At othersections the

moments are smaller, and in order to satisfy the stress limits, the eccentricity

needs to be reduced. This can be achieved by either debonding or deflecting

some of the strands. In this example debonding has been adopted. Some

manufacturers prefernot to use deflected strands, andwill ask to manufacture

Stress limits at transfer will be criticalat all sections otherthan midspan. The

computer program specifies thedebonding required to limit the transferstresses

to f/2 in compression and -l N/mm2 in tension.

This calculation couldalternatively be carried out by hand withoutdifficulty.

Debond4rgofsti'ands

4 computer

,/2 it

at trairsferto

program kas keenusedtoI/mit thestresses

it

Theprogramdetermiresastrandpatterir (compat/kle

The resultsareas

/I/ows

Strairdpatteri,atnridspan'

/e,'htofrowakovesoffit

No, ofstrands

11

60mm

110mm

160mm

950mm

1200mm

12

8

2

4

DekoirdZ.igDetails

ir

&ct,wm.

tram/s row

fromsipt

13,31

11 12

11 12

11 12

11 12

9 12

9 12

9 12

7 12

7 12

5 12

3 10

11.97

10.64

9.31

7.98

6.65

5,57

3,99

2.66

1.33

0.00

8 2

8 2

8 2

8 2

8

8

8

8

8

8

2

2

2

2

2

2

8 2

TransferN/mm2

raIN/mm2

o

3.38

3.30

3.06

2.67

2.84

2.13

1.26

0.96

-0.25

-0.84

-0.96

1908

4.42

13.21

1914

1933

1965

4.35

13.26

13.39

412

3.74

3.67

2.98

13.61

2.14

1.63

1419

0.47

1481

1926

-0.33

14,87

1719

-0.79

1406

1847

1902

19.70

18.89

1983

13,26

13.68

14.06

55

After the prestress design has been carried out at SLS, a check should be made

ofthe situation at ULS.

The calculationoftheultimate moment capacity ofthe composite sectionwhich

is presentedon the followingpageadopts a commonlyusedapproximatemethod.

In this method, the pre-strain in the concrete, due to the prestress, is ignored.

Sincethe ultimate capacity ofthe section is normally(as in this case) foundto

be well in excessofthe ULS moment, a more exact calculation ofthe ultimate

capacity is not considered to be necessary.

The pre-strain in the strands is determined forthe condition afterall losses have

occurred.

The strains in the diagram are the additional strains due to loads. Hence the

pre-strain has to be addedto the strand strain at each level to obtain the total

strain.

Note that the strainat the top ofthe slab is takenas 0.0035, the failure strainof

concrete. Ultimate failure is by crushing ofthe concrete, not by yielding ofthe

strands.

PRESTRESSED

Bx

DESIGN

flexut-c

W/fi'irpfe

15<53

1266

$fress4fra/,,cuitvefor

15. 2mm / 1)0cmstraird

ref fe3,?r?$54O0Pa44

'O'

0'

00055

Presfra4',,,sfra,,ds,

=5.349MN/(200 103x57x0.000165sr9

= 0. 0043

Tiq eufcalax/s

af fopofsecM7n

of0.0035 4t

= 0.00940

C3

C4

C-5

0.0035

= O.OO44+(O.&50/0.630,)X0.0035

= 0.0091

= 0.0044 + (0.800/0.630)x 0.0035

= 0.00&34

= 0.0044 + (O.OJ0/O.63O,)0.0035

= 0.00446

= 0.0044- (O.240/O.63O,)O.OO35

= 0.0030,

2

1

57

58

Knowing the total strains, the strand stresses at each level canbe obtained from

the stress- strain curve.

has been

For this calculation, a constant compressive stress block of 0.4

Part

4

would

in

the

concrete.

BS

5400

assumed

However,

strictly require the

parabolic rectangular stress block in Figure 1 to be used,becausethe neutral

axisis not in the flange (Clause 6.3.3.1(b)). A computer programme would

be required to perform the calculation rigorously. The approach adopted in the

example is conservative and adequate for most situations.

modifiedneutralaxis depth.

Because the outermost tensions have not yielded, Clause 6.3.3.1 requires the

momentofresistance to be at least 1.15 timesthe design moment.

c#rveare

$tres$es(torn

(0.01292-0.00633)

317 + 1266

1403 N/rnrn2

= 1387N/rnrn2

(00oj

(4 0.00446x200x103

(5= 0.00307x200x10

= 892N/mm2

= 614N/mrn2

force.'

7 =ll0.0001651414 = 2.566

7 =12x0.000165 x1403 = 2.778

= 8xO.000165x1357 = 1,831

= 20,000l65y c392 = 0.294

= 4x0,00016.5 614 = 0.405

i5

T =7.87MN

(forces/

= 0.4x40x.1,27-5x0220

= 4.4&3MN

= 0,4x50x(0.40#O.36)x0,410

= 3.477MN

.C=4.4&3+3.477

= 7.97MN

U=C (d/crept7Hcf

Tak4rg

1%)

o,,4i

ofa//force8

#era/j

MT

=(2.566X0.900)+(2.778X0,850)+(1,&31X0,&OO)

M6

+(O294.)(QO1O)+(O4Q5XQ24O) =6.O4MNm'

To.ta/

.'.

Morne.#ofNes,$a,,ce

= 9O9MNrn

= 909MA/rn

1,

= 6.65 MA/sr

..

37.5

/13,

frompage 45)

/'r flex/ire

WL.

59

60

6.6 SHEAR

A prestressed concretebeam can fail in two basic modes (see Clause 6.3.4.1):

By an inclinedweb crack developing independently of a flexural crack.

This type of failure can occur at any section of the beam (cracked or

uncrackeddue to flexure). BS 5400refers to this mode as a V0 failure.

(ii) By aflexuralcrackdeveloping into an inclined shear crack. Thistype of

(i)

under the ULS loading. BS 5400refers to this mode as a Vcr failure.

need be considered.

Clause 7.4.2.2(a)allows the designereither to assume that all the shear is resisted

by the precast beam acting alone, or to calculate to shear resistancebased on

the composite section.

stressesinarectangular beam,andgives the shear force forwhich the maximum

principal tensile stress reaches thetensile strengthofthe concrete. For a flanged

beam, the expression is a conservative approximation.

The calculation method based on the precast beam alone is straightforward,

and is adopted here. A calculation based on the composite section would be

muchmore complicated, and is notrecommended. The principal tensile stress

at the centroid ofthe composite section wouldhave to be calculated. Since the

expression for V0 is based on an elasticstressanalysis, account would have to

be taken of the different stress distributions from those loads acting on the

beam alone, andthose acting on the composite beam.

A partial load factor ofeither 0.87 or 1.15 has to be applied to the compressive

stress at the centroidal axis due to prestress,

Obviously, 0.87 results in a

lower value ofV0, and so this value is used in the calculation.

f.

The full prestress is not developed within the transmission length, which is

given in clause6.7.4. Hence,ifthe support is withinthe transmission length, a

reduced value of prestress should be used in the calculations. Clause 6.7.4

states that a linear development ofstress withinthe transmission length should

be assumed.

accordance with Clause 6.7.4 is:

= 360x15.2/'140 = 865mm

The calculation opposite is thereforestrictly only applicable 865 mm from the

end ofthe beam.

Desiwltear.force$

*etablebe/owt/tefactoredskearforcesfor/oadcases3 ai,d 4

comedIvect/qfrom

grit/age

Nomi,a/

earforce

Load 6ase

1. DL'recast

L DL4tsltii

3.

4,

017

and/nc/#derelevantfactorsand$DL, etc.

ULLoad Comb/natIon1

'y x.

1,2x. 1,1

1,2x1.1

0.06

/174

37,5H

Max/mum

0247

0114

0,396

0.584

be

6lase7.4.2.2.(a)(1)

= 0.67bnJf2

Q7ff

w/rere

Ii = 1400mm

b =216mm(min)

= 0.24/5

= 1.70 N/mm2

=prestressatcentroidofbeam

fromdebondi'igca/ca/atiirs,prestressatsppoti

= -0.79N/mm2

= 14.06 N/mm2

I.'rterpo/atlirgto

Idthestressatthecentroki 0.639mfromthebottom,

= 14.06 +(0.639/1.400)x.(-0.79-14.06)

=

7.28N/mm2

V= 0,670,216x1,400J1.702 0.871.707.28

= 0.749MN

62

allows for degradation of shear capacity due to fatigue effects.

The effective depth d is the depth tothe outermost strands from the compression

face. Clause7.4.2.2(c) makes clear that thisshould be derived forthe composite

section, evenwhenthe calculation for V is based on the precast beamalone,as

here. Thus = 1590mm - 60mm = I530mm, or I .530m.

At the quarter span point the section is cracked in flexure at ULS. Henceboth

modesofshear failure should be considered.

As for shear atthe supports, the calculation for V0 is based on the precast beam

acting alone.

less

app//ed 11Lshearforce t'' so shearre4r,forceme#it

mustbeprovidedaccordingto Clause6.3.4.4,'

O.4bd- V

74 V+0.87

= 0.000536ii

= 0,536 mm2/mm

forT12/,,ks,

use 712

74

0.945 +Q,4O,216f,53O-Q.749

0,87x460x 1.530

= 226 0.536 = 422 mm ('a(/mwm)

l,sat400mm centres.

earatQuarter'.e'an

s/reara/so.'reeds to be checked atotherposit/9ns along thebeam' ThesearetheIIL$ loadsat

thequarterspanposition. The centralportin ofthebeam wi/Ibe des/,'9nedfortheseloads, with

theendquartersre/irforcedascalculatedabove. The sectionatqjiarterspanmustbecheckedboth

ascrackedandasuncrackeditflexure.

Load Case

1. DLprecast

2. DL ,'rs/tu

3. /174

4. 37,5/-/

Nomital

Nom4i'al

shear

Coi,cident

force

moment

0094

0043

0.932

0447

)(

factored

shearforce

factored

coirc,de.# moment

1.2x.1.1 0124

1.2x.1.1 005.7

0.297

1.230

0590

2.789

3.290

0458

=0.639

/1B"

atquarterspandue toprestressandDL

stressesdue toprestressalonearecalcu/atedbqsubtractitgtheeffectoftheDL,'

The del'ondingca/cu/ati'onsgivestresses

= 13,68 + 0.932/0186 = 18.69N/mm2

/nterpolati'rg forstress at centroidofsect/on, 063 9m abovesoffit.'

6 = 18.69+"0.639/1.40q.)x(3.00-18.69,) = &79N/mm2

= 0.808.'Wl

fromthese,

63

64

In the case ofthe shear resistance for a section cracked in flexure, the calculation

based on the composite section is not too complicated, and results in a higher

value of Vcr than ifthe beam assumedto act alone. The method based on the

composite section is adopted here.

Clause 6.3.4.3 gives an expression for the crackingmoment corresponding to

the ultimate tensile stress beingreachedat the extreme tensile fibre:

Mcr = (0.37'If +

f) I/y

the fact that moment is applied partly to the beam alone, and partly to the

composite section. I/y is different for these two cases. Thus the cracking

moment has to be calculated by addingthe DL moments to the extramoment

at the

required on the composite section to give a stress of (0.37Jf +

bottom fibre. In this expression, value of for the precast concrete should

clearly be used. A partial factor of0.87 has to be applied to the compressive

stress dueto prestress alone,

f)

f.

formula which gives a lower bound to the test data. The flexure-shear crack

will occurin the precast portionofthe composite section, so again the value of

to be used in this expression relates to the precast concrete.

Note that Mcr is less than the total moment at ULS. Hence the section would

be flexurally cracked at ULS.

minimum reinforcement should be provided even whenthe ULS shearforceV

is less than V.

()'ect/oHcraclced4fflexufre/ V

forcosiposite

wi/Ikecalculated

f,brereache8(O,3+f,)=Q,37XJ3+Q,87l&69=1&&3fl//stsr2,

airdthesromeittacti'rgoirthecomt'os/te sectioir.'

DL m'oste.',t =

DLstress =

1.379/0.186 =741N/nrm2

= (18.88-7.41)Z,,,

= 11,47x0,273

=3.I3IMNm

Claise6,3,4,3g4'e'

V,= 0.037bdJ?J+V

=

d 1,590-0,281= 1.309m

The ceNtrold

= 0,037x.0,216x.1,309/

.x,0,639

= 0.638 MN

V

<V

V =

so V

crItical' V

=V

0639.> V = 0.638

A V+

0,4ba.-

t'

soshearrei/rforcemeHt/

reqjl"ed'

_0,639+0.4X0,2161,53Q-Q,638

0.874601,530

0.87fa

= 0,000218st

= 0.218 srm2/m'm

for T12I,s,

Maxlnrnrnspaciirg

(a) 0.75d

(b)4b

= 226/0.218 = 1037stm' (staHst)

= 0.75 1560 =Il7Onrnr

=4x216

=864srnr

65

66

Verticalshear forces in the beams always give riseto longitudinal shear forces.

Indeed, according to elastic theory, the longitudinal shear stress is equal in

magnitude to the vertical shear stress at any point. The construction joint

between theprecastbeam andthe in-situ deck slabformsa weak plane,andthe

longitudinal shear alongthis planeshould be checked. It is often found that the

reinforcement provided forvertical shear is adequate for the longitudinal shear

requirements ofClause 7.4.2.3.

7.4.2.3that the shear force at the interface may be calculated by elastic methods,

allowing for the fact that the dead load is carried by the precast beam alone.

Only the loads applied to the composite section cause shear forces at the

interface. This is a safe assumption, asthe vertical shear capacity atthe supports

was calculated assuming the precast beam carried the whole load, thus not

relying on composite action. Similarly at quarter span, although the full section

was used for the calculation ofthe vertical shear capacity, that calculation also

assumed the dead loads to be carried by the beam alone; the assumption made

in the longitudinal shear calculation is consistent with this.

The shear capacity depends on the contact surface at the interface. It is usual

to assume a"roughas cast" surface,which only requires cleaning ofthe surface,

but no special preparation. This is defined as surfacetype 2.

grades ofconcrete atthe interface. Thus,based on the in-situ concrete, =40

The value of

N/mm2.

(a) is an upperlimit on the ultimatelongitudinal shear stress, here 3.6 N/mm2,

(b) is the combinedcapacity ofthe concreteandthe reinforcement.

Both at the supports, and at midspan, the reinforcement provided for vertical

shear has also been found to be just adequate for longitudinal shear at the

interface. Note, however, that the calculated reinforcement requirement for

vertical shear atmidspan was only 0.000218 m2/m, which would not have been

enough for longitudinal shear. More reinforcement than this was provided in

order to avoid exceeding the maximum permitted spacing.

the

The

theortgiYes /ong/'tHd/ta/shearas

V1

= VA9/I

1,275

thesectionabovethe/ongitHd/iia/shearphvre,

otherwordstheshadedareaiiithedhgram.

1.570

imp/ifbiassiirnZ'rga

themodularratio, butiwor/#fg the

s.'na//over/apbetweenthebeamands/al',

4rc/adi'rg

Atthesui,tt'ort m'ax/suuirnverticalshearon compositesectionigiVenon 61,'

= 0.584MN

A = 1,25mxQ,22OmxQ,91 = 0255m

9 = f.37Q+(Q.22Q/2)-O,&39 = 0.591rn

V

I =02429m4

Thesurface

(a)

(b)

(frompage2l)

= VA/I=(0.54MN)X(O255m)x(0.59P&/(0,2429m)

V,

= 0.362 MN/rn

= 0.09X('40N/mm2)(0.400m)

k1f1,L8

= 1.44MN/m

->

so 0/c'

= 0,00056.5m2/m

= 0.200+0,1(32

= 0.382MN/m

->

soo/'

V = 0.45(3MN

...

t'=0.284MN/m

forthevertia'alshearre4rforcementofT12lurks at800mmcentres, Ae

+ 0.7Af = 0.291 MN/rn

->

so 0/c'

0.000283 rn

atqularterspan.

67

68

FINISHINGS

7.1

INTRODUCTION

The finishings ofa bridge deck can be defined as:

Bearings

Joints

Waterproofing andsurfacing

Parapets

Although they round off the design and detailing of a bridge deck, they should be

given very early consideration as they can have an important effect on the bridge

analysisand performance. For example, the bearing positionon an abutment can

affect the span, accessfor inspection,maintenanceandreplacement. The consideration

of carriageway surfacing profile affects loading (eg. crowningor vertical curves).

The parapet type needs to be adequately anchored into the deck edge.

7.2 BEARINGS

Althoughthe technology of bearing design can be left to the specialist suppliers'

mechanical engineers, the bridge designer should develop an appreciation of the

different bearing types to avoidproblems and failures.

There are two main types of bearing commonly used with precast beams, namely

elastomeric andpot bearings. Elastomeric bearings have been chosen for the design

example, and they are by far the most common, probably due to their lower initial

cost. However, they may prove with time to have a more limited life.

Elastomeric bearings are generally laminated, and consist ofalternate layersofsteel

andrubberbonded together. Capacities depend on the area, height, numberand size

ofthe layers. Theyaccommodate vertical loads by compression, translation by shear

deformation, and rotation by variablecompression.

In pot bearings, the confined elastomer is heavily loaded and is assumed to act like a

fluid to accommodate rotation. Translations are enabled by a sliding interface of

PTFE and stainless steel.

For elastomeric bearings, there are generally two possiblemethods ofresisting the

horizontal forces. A pin can be provided at one end and a guide at the other end,

which carryall the horizontal forces. Alternatively, as in the example, the forces can

be resisted by the horizontal stiffness of the bearings; this situation is known as a

'floatingdeck'.

FINISHINGS

Thi l'ridgewi//we18keathrg, 9

A

deci( a

e&c/ efid

Plaitofbridgedec.

<

>

LoitgitiiditaImovemeittxossib/e

atbotir em/s oftirebridge

<

>

69

70

All bearings should be bedded horizontally, even when the bridge deck has a

longitudinalfall.

Care is needed on skew bridges to keep the axis of the principal movements

and rotations in harmony with the bearing axes. This may require a wider

bearing shelf.

Bearings need to be inspected andmaintained. Ifthey need to be replaced, the

bridgedeck will have to be temporarilyjackedup. Access to the bearing shelf,

and drainage of the bearing shelf, must be provided for in the design of the

abutments (and also the piers, in the case ofmulti-span bridges). A bearing

shelf with a drainagechannel at the front is easierto clean, but increases the

spanandpossibly the abutment thickness. For largerbridges, an abutment with

an internal access gallery is sometimes justified. This gives easy access to

bearings and expansion joints, at the costofa substantially largerabutment:

End

Diaphragm

Y8 beam

Abutment

FINISHINGS 71

Deck slab

'/8 beas,

fJastoirericbeariirg

&ariHgp/x#ith

15Oi,hih

&ar4Yg

25 ,irnvfalltorear

ONC elid

ofthe

i'a

se#i

showx'rgcross

Dra4fagechaNNel

aklltmeHt keari'igshe/fan'd

tirekear4rgshe/fforifspect/Ma#idma/irtenancewi/Ibefromirdenreath thebridge.

72

The bridge designer should carry out calculations of the range of loads and

movements that the bridgebearings will sustain. Theseare then specified on a

bearing schedule, and a bearing complying with these specifications will then

beselected(often bythe contractor)using data suppliedbybearing manufacturer.

On the example bridge, all 18 bearings will be identical. On bridges where a

floating deck is not used,movements will be smallerat the pinnedend than at

the guidedend, anddifferent bearings mightbe needed.

Nominal horizontal loads have been calculated for the design example at the

same time as other nominal loads. The maximum horizontal loads for each

bearing are now calculated from these loads.

Verticalloads are obtained from the grillage analysis, exceptfor the dead load.

The permanent vertical load on the bearings needs to be specified, as well as

both the maximum andminimum loads. On continuous bridges, as well as on

some skew simply-supported bridges, the minimum load can be less than the

permanent load.

FINISHINGS

LNlNDtlA/C74L6WLATl0N'

i, al/directionsatLHeedto becalcalatedforentry1'rto t.*ebearing

Loads and

schedule.

Loads

Longitdiiral load,'

/174 load

X critiai

Nom/iral load

= 463 KN

9 bearings atoneend

Assiinreeqjially

= 463/9 = 51.4KN

51.4xJ.0,1,0 = 51,4AN

Nosri#ralloadperbear4rg

Lloadperbeathrg

514 YYfLXYf3

Transverseload,'

= 300 MI

Nonrmalload

Ifthisloadoccars nearoneendof

bridge,

thi

loadwi/Ike resitedbybearings at

endonly.

Nomiralloadperbeathrg 300/9 = 33.3 l'N

$L'/oadperbearig33,31,O1,O = 33,3K/V

both /ririrgm andmax,'i#rnr loadsare req#ired

M4,imusrload=permanentload= DL + 'DL

Vern'calload'

DL

=

20.48KN/mx('span/2)x'yfxyf3

= 20.48

l(N/m13,3m1,0xJ,Q

= 272KN

= 4.OKN/nt2x

l.27SmX('span/2)XYILxy13

= 4.0KN/m2X1.275m13,3mxj,21,Q

= 81K/V

Mi>rmrirnrbeari'rg load

DL + $'DL

Maxi,iim

reactiin fromcompiiteranalysi,

= 456KN

and

/1. loaa trcldi'rg

($DL

y)=

MaK/m#mbear4rgload = DL + 456

73

74

internal andexternal effects, andsecondly as reversible andirreversibleeffects.

Internal effects are:

temperature (and humidity)

*

*

creep

shrinkage

dead andlive vertical loading

* settlement (or other ground movement)

traction and braking

centrifugal or similar effects

* erection procedures

Effects marked * are irreversible.

BS 5400: Part 9: Clause 5.15.1 gives general guidance on the forces and

movements tobe considered for bearings together with the relevantlimit states.

Forthe design example, reversible and irreversible translations androtations at

SLS are required.

Clause 6.7.2 ofBS 5400: Part 4 gives guidance on shrinkage and creep, with

Clause 6.7.2.4 referringspecifically to shrinkage,andClause 6.7.2.5 specifically

to creep.

FINISHINGS

Moves,e,#s

Trverse/

assumed that

Megli/k/e.

afldrevers,b/e move/iteirts occurdue tothermalexair..io#r

geaitdcreep,

'hritk,ageofcoNcrete

- assumethatha/ftotalshrLiMageoccursbeforebeamsarep/aced 011

bear#igs,

'hnage/HMitle#gth = 300 x 1 total

... Total shr4ri(age = 300 x 1

x, 26600mm= &0mm

'/2shthitage ocdum'fg afterbeamsareplaced= & 0/2 = 4.0 mm

Creep ofco#crete

Creep/uw/t/eitgth =48 x ICY6perN/mm'

bear/itgs.

fromcalcuilati2itsforprestressedbeam

des/g.sr,

stress

at

ce#ttroid

10

N/mm'

average

Totalcreep=48xlC76x26600mmxlO/v/mm2=12,8mm

'4 creepoccufr/ifg afterbeams areplaced =12.8/2 = 6.4 mm

74551/me that total

ofshmtAageaitdcreepshorten4ig

itreversible movement =

x x 5.2

... lrrversib/etrailslat/onatbear/llgs

= lox 1.Oxi,2

sharedeqjia/4' ateachend

5.2 mm

= 5,2mm

Temperatuireraitge

Nom/naltemeratuirerange= 47C

Coeffi'/eitt ofthermalexpansion= 121 06/06

...

= 15.0mm'

Nomlscralra,rgeofmovement

Assume bear4rgsareff)(ed/ncen'treofraitge

...

ofmovement = 75 mm

Nomth'alraitge

Temperatureeffectsaretheon4ieffects(excepttransinttrafficloads)caHs4lgreversible

trans/atloits, Assume thesereversible movementsaresharedetpiallq'

the two

abu,tments.'

$Lreversible traits/at/oil = )( x(3.8)

Nevers/bletrails/at/onatbeari'rgs = 1.0 x 1.0 x (3.8) = 3.8 mm

/Vom4ia/trails/at/oil

75

76

Irreversible rotations due to the self-weight of the precast beams take place

before the bearingsare fixed in position, so do not affect the bearings. However,

rotations due to the dead load of the slab and the superimposed dead loads

must be absorbed by the bearings, and are calculated opposite.

the effects calculated here. It can be assumed that this effect is not so large as

to cause overall negative rotations greater in magnitude than the rotations

calculated here. Therefore creep rotations can be ignored, and do not need to

be calculated.

section acting alone. SDL rotation is most conveniently estimated by applying

the SDL load to the composite section, and calculating the rotation by hand,

ignoring any load distribution between the beams.

Reversible rotations dueto live loads can be extracted from the grillageanalysis.

Allgrillage load cases in the design example include SDL, which must therefore

be subtractedto get the reversible effect only.

FINISHINGS

Xotatiiir

i'ofa

made

beamsdue to thedeadloadan'dj'restress occursbefore thebeari'rgsare 4istallea sothXdoes

Hotcauserotation'ofthebeathigs. $ag thebeamsdue to theut-situ slaban'dVL causes

of

of

rotationftttheoM/ositedftection'. LiVeloadobvu2as/q causesreversiblerotatf2n's.

Deadloadofslab

$IabDLrotation'

= wl3/24I

(Iforbeamon'Iq)

=

(0.00645iWI/m,)x(26,6m)

24x(34000MN/m)x(0.11&3m4)

=0.00125rad,n's

iperftttposedDL =5,1 N/m = 0.0051,Wv'/m

'DL rotation' = wl3/24.zI

(usurg forcomposite section')

(0.OO5IMN/m,)x(26,6m)3

24 x(34000MN/mi,)x (0.2429m4)

= 0,00048rad,mn's

Irreversible rotation'at

factors

=0.00183radhin's

= 0.00281radkrns

max/mum rotatkw

atL

Neversublerotation'

= 0.00223 radkrn's

thebearfttgrotatesun'dertheweuIttoftheftr-situ slabi

= 0.00125radkin's

= (6.45 kN/m)x. (26.6m)/2

Neaction = wl/2

= 85.8N

Nate = rotation/lOOk/V

= 0.00125/0.858

Notation'

=0. OOl46radhmn's/lOOkN

when'

77

78

Bearing Schedule

The results ofthe calculations from the previous pages are entered into a bearing

schedule. BS 5400: Part 9.1 contains a standard form of bearing schedule.

The completed schedule for the design example is shown below, and the page

opposite shows how abearing can be chosen from amanufacturers' catalogue,

and checked for compliance with the schedule.

Numberoff

Seatingmaterial

Upper surface

Lowersurface

Upper face

Allowable average

contactpressure

Lowerface

(N/mm)

Design load

effects(kN)

Serviceability

limit state

Ultimate

limit state

Vertical

t,t'oxgMonar

f7oxgMortar

Serviceability

Ultimate

.20

Serviceability

Ultimate

maximum

.20

permanent

minimum

553

353

,28

Transverse

33,3

Longitudinal

51,4

Vertical

Transverse

Longitudinal

Irreversible

Transverse

Longitudinal

Transverse

5,2

Reversible

Longitudinal

Transverse

3.8

Irreversible

Reversible

Longitudinal

Transserse

Irreversible

Longitudinal

Transverse

Longitudinal

Transverse

000183

Reversible

Longitudinal

Transverse

0.00223

Maximum rate

Maximum

(radians/IOOkN)

Upper surface

Longitudinal

Transverse

bearing

dimensions

Lowersurface

Longitudinal

Transverse

000146

400

300

400

300

Translation

(mm)

Serviceability

limit state

Ultimate

limit state

Rotation

(radians)

Serviceability

limitstate

(mm)

Longitudinal

Overall height

Tolerable movementofbearing

under transient loads (mm)

Allowable resistance totranslation

under serviceability limit state(kN)

Allowable resistance torotation

underserviceability limitstate (kNm)

Type offixing required

Vertical

Transverse

Longitudinal

Transverse

Longitudinal

Transverse

Longitudinal

Upper surface

Lower surface

ioo

1

1

1.2.5

20

40

t,oxgMortar

poxgMortar

FINISHINGS

4025-02-08/3.

from CCL

D/meMs/o/rsare 400mmx, 250mmx, 30mm

Max/mum rotatio.'rspecified

Max/mum trans/at/oilspecified

=0.00183+0.00223

= 0.OO4O6radirns

=523.8

=90mm

rad%iits

=

Notat,.'rcapaci at 14.7mmshear 0.0038 rad,nrs

73/f4rterpo/n,

rotationcapac/tifat 90mmshear =

Notati,, capacitq

adeajiate.

Mix/i,wm vertia/reaction.i'ecifled=

Vern'a/ca/aci'tq, no shearorrotatXw

728k/V

=1882 k/V

13/f 4rterpo/atioir,

co-ex/ so venicaIcapacit/f

adequate.

Checkstiffnesses.'

Vern'a/(compressiVe) stiffiress,

Deflectiiratmaximum load

=1745k/V/mm

= 732k/V/1745

= 0.42mm

(from catalogue)

shearstiffness,

Maxftiruimsheardeflectiir

resitanceto trans/at,,r

= 4.29k/V/mm

= 90mm

= 90 .x. 4.29

= 38,6k/V

(fromcatalogue)

fina/4,', checkmovementundertransi'ent/oad'

a/so0A

Max/mum(transiwt)/ongitud/'ra/loadonbearirg = 51.4k/V

Moveme,rtundertra,rs,'ent/oad= 51. 4/Ks = 51.4/4.29

=12.0mm

Thi less than the 12.5mmspecifieaso transi,rtmovemeirt/ w/thi'r tolerance.

79

80

The minimum desirable surfacing thickness is 110mm,madeup of:

40 mm

60 mm

10 mm

wearingcourse

regulating course

waterproofing

the regulating course, increasing the thickness to 130 mm.

Two types ofwaterproofingare in commonuse, namely sheetingandspraymembranes.

Althoughgenerally thought ofas more expensive, the sprayversionsare gaining in

popularitydue to their more comprehensive coverage, and due to the fact that they

reduce the overall dead load.

Drainage ofthe waterproofing in areasnearjoints or severe crossfalls where ponding

may occurwill improve the durability ofthe surfacing in these areas.

Reference should alsobe madeto the Highways Agency Standard BD 47/94. Further

informationcanbefoundinTRRL ResearchReport 185: "A field trial ofwaterproofing

systems for concretebridge decks"by A. R. Price.

FINISHINGS 81

(i,otruiiredforspra.ywaterproorgs,'stem)

DeckwaterprooflHg

Wai'erprooflurgdetail

82

7.4 JOINTS

The function ofanyjoint is to bridgeany gap or discontinuity between the deck and

the abutment, whilst allowing horizontal movement and rotation ofthe deck to take

place.

Theyare subject to all the effects applied to bearings, andare dividedinto two main

categories: buriedjoints and mechanicaljoints.

Buriedjoints have continuous surfacing over the structural discontinuity, and are

usually reserved forsituations where the movements are less than 15 mm. The design

example uses asphaltic plug joints at each end of the bridge span. A steel plate

bridges the gap between the deck and the abutment, and a strip of flexible asphalt

placedover it along the line ofthejoint.

Larger movements are oftenaccommodated with mechanical joints. In thiscase the

surfacing is discontinuous. An example is illustrated below.

Surfacing

Mechanical expansionjoint,

beddedon epoxy resin,

and bolted to deck and abutment

usingresin anchors.

/

__

-Deck

I

___

Abutment

wall

FINIsHINGs 83

__ \/_

'iitfaci'rg

..

Dec1(-s/ak

1'

20mm PVC

h'c3

dra4i

7lbHtme1#

wa/I

Waterprooflurg tai(e/rdowH

kack of

ai ak#tme#ts

84

7.5 PARAPETS

There are five parapetgroups for highwaybridgesreferredto in Highways Agency

Standard BD 52/93:

P1 are required

locations.

P2 are required for all purpose roads. Metal versions have a traffic face

mesh where pedestrians are allowed. They are subdivided into P2 (80)

and P2 (113) depending on the prevailing speed restrictions at the site.

P2 (48) are also occasionally found at urban sites.

P4 are usedon bridleways.

PS are required over railways, and usually have Pt strength requirements.

Theseare taller, and have solid infihl panels.

P6 are high containment parapets for use at high risk locations.

Standard metal versions in steeloraluminium are available from the various suppliers

listed in BS 6779 Part 1. There are differences between the types which affect the

edge plinth detailing and spacing of posts. Reinforcement should be detailed to

accommodatestandardapprovedanchorage cages. Mostdesigners give the contractor

the choice ofsteelor aluminium parapets, although individual clientauthorities may

have preferences relatingto maintenance aspects.

Concrete can also be used for the P1 and P2 containment requirements, sometimes

facedor sandwiched with othermaterials such as brick.

P6 high containment parapets are often provided in the form of precast concrete

panels, which are either cast into the edge ofthe deck, or bolted down onto it. The

edge ofthe deck must be designed to resist the high transverse bending moment that

a vehicle hittingthe parapetcan generate; seeBS 6779: Part2. The bendingmoment

is too high to be resisted by the bending strength of a standard deck slab, or the

torsional strength of M orYbeams. A torsionally stiffedge beamshould beprovided,

or the base of the parapetpanels should span over two adjacent beams.

Precast parapet

panels, 2.5m long,

bolted to deck.

A typical edge detail for a bridge deck with a high containment parapet.

FINISHINGS

P2(1131t'/i)c/am4ihrntpra1e'et

coitcreteHpstafldky

wasker$alldp/8t/'s1eeves.

Mes%,//

croiitbelowparapet base

Parapetdetails

85

86

8.1

INTRODUCTION

The design ofprestressed beamsin a solid slab deck follows the samepattern as for

a beam& slab deck. This section consists ofa partial design example ofa solid slab

bridge deck, to demonstrate how to deal with the transverse moments and shears

using reinforcement threadedthrough the web holes ofthe precast beams.

The example bridge has the following designrequirements:

9.089m between bearings (singlespan)

6.5m carriageway (two 3.25m lanes)

I .Om footpath each side

21

Skew

HA load to BD 37/88

Loading

No HB load is required for this private development

Surfacing 180mmtotal maximum thickness (including waterproofing)

Span

Width

Inverted T beamswere chosen as the most suitable form ofconstruction for thisshort

span. The beamselection charts indicate that T2 beamsare appropriate for a span of

about9m. The beams are placedsideby side in this form ofconstruction, so for the

width ofdeckrequired, eighteenT2 beams are needed. The bridge could alternatively

have been designed usingtwelve TY2 beams.

In-situ concrete provides the infill between the beams, andthe topping over the beams.

The standard thickness for the topping is 75mm, and this is usedhere. The topping

should neverbe specifiedless than 75mmthick.

9300

Overa//widM

400

1000

6500

C'vsssecfloit of9089m

1000

400

si'ir,i'/q

askewof2f.

kteen71? keastsaresedata saci'rgof.5Osrnr.

The kridgedeck/ta8

,t tireX'tf#/co#crete.,rdereachfoot aM.

Thi tirecrosssecfioirskowi'rgoir4iMest-rctiira/e/eme,rt-s.

Thetirickiress,r tiremiddle oftire deck 495mm,

Tot-alheiirt-oftireedgebeams

920mm'.

87

88

The grillageused to analyse this bridge deck has nine longitudinal members, each

representing two inverted T beams with theirassociatedin-situconcrete:

BS 5400: Part4: Clause 7.4.1 doesnot require a modular ratioto beused for concrete

strengths varyingby ION/mm2, and so no account hasbeen taken ofthe difference

between the precast andthe in-situ concrete in the analysis ofthisbridge. The section

properties of the internal longitudinal members are therefore based on a simple

rectangularshape.

The edge members have different properties, due to the geometry ofthe edge detail,

and the presence ofservice ducts under the footpath.

Transverse members have been provided to divide the spaninto eightequal segments

of 1.1 36m. The beams oversail the bearings by 0.605m on thisbridge, so the members

alongthe line ofthe bearings represent a similarwidth ofslabto the members within

the span.

Because the skew of210 is not too large, the transversemembers have been positioned

parallel to the abutments. This leads to a simple grillagelayout, and is reasonably

accurate for small skew angles. Decks with a large skew should be analysed with a

grillageinwhichthe transverse members are at right angles to the longitudinalbeams.

Because of the discontinuous nature of the deck in the transverse direction, it is

normal (and conservative) to assume that the transverse members can be represented

by a solid slabdownto the centre ofthe webholes, which is 175mm above the soffit

ofthe inverted T beams.

= 9.089m

1,016

1.136

/S

Area

= 0,495 1,016

= O,503m2

I =(0.4953l.016)/l2 =0.0103m4

c = (o,4953 1.016)/a = 0.0205m4

ect,on'roeimsoftraitsverse members(rereseirti'rg 1. 136m widthofslab)'

Thici(wess slabassumedfortran'sversemembers isdown'to web irolesof Tbeams,

wir/c.*are0, l7imabovesoffitofbeams.

of

slabtkii'kn'ess = 0.495-0.175

Area

I

C

= 0.320 x, 1,136

= (0.320x 1.136)/12

= (0.320x 1.136)/a

= 0.320 m

= 0.364 m2

= 0.0031 m4

= 0.0062m4

89

90

Transverse sagging reinforcement can only be provided through the webholes ofthe

precast beams, which are at 0.610m centres. The sagging moment is therefore

recalculatedfor a 0.610m section ofslab.

Note that the depth to the reinforcement is the same as the depthassumed forthe slab

inthe analysis.

to a single T25bar as the extraflexibility will makeit easier to threadthe barsthrough

the web holes on site, particularly ifthese are not perfectly aligned.

Reinforcement of4T16 throughthe webholes is often usedfor the largerinverted T

andTY beams.

Note that Clause 5.3.3.2 also has a requirement for additional longitudinal shear

reinforcement in the tensile zone. Inthiscase, thisonly amounts to 83mm2 per 0.610m

section. This requirement is easily fulfilled by the excess ofbendingreinforcement

provided. Furthermore, the maximum bending andthe maximum shear will not occur

at the same place, so thisrequirement will rarelyactually result in extra reinforcement

beingneeded.

Clearly the concreteand the tensile steel have plenty of capacity to resist the shear

between the beams. The interface between the precast beamsandthe in-situconcrete

also needs to be considered. The shape of the precast beams allows shear to be

transferred by interlocking between the beams andthe in-situ concrete. Additionally,

shear can be assumed to be transferred by dowel action ofthe reinforcement through

the web holes:

Dowel action shear capacity = 0.7 A (0.87

= 0.169 MN

This is well in excess ofthe ULS shear of0.066 MNfor a 0.610m section ofdeck.

f)

verse$agg/ngMoment

Tra

fromthegri//ageana4fs/

max11L transversesagging momentfora 1.136iire/ement

= 101 ,VVm

Momentper 0.610msecMw

= 0.0542MNm

d = 0.320 m

D'Mto

k =0.610m

= 40 N/mm2

= 460 N/mm

z = 0,95 d = 0.304 m (assumed)

Width ofsectX9n,

Leverarm,

M=(0.87f)A8z

Use 3T16 (area

= 446mm2

= 603 mm2)

z =

rovi'ded

Checi(

(i- 1'1f8)d

so cony?mrirgassumptionof .z

(1

1.1X460X0.000603) = 0.961d

40x0.610x0.320

= 0.95 d

Tran'ersehe,r

MamULshear,'ta

fromgri//age,

$hearper0.610msecttn

V = 123(-N= 0.123MN

= (Ol0/l.136,)xO.123 = 0.0660MN

= 100 x 0. 000603m'

0.6IOmx 0.320m

= 0,50 N/mm' from Tak/e8

.i'ercentage reiorcement

0.31 %

=112

=

from Tak/e9

1,12x0.50 = 0.56 N/mm'

= 0.56 N/mm'

adeqjate.

91

92

Hogging moments can occur in this bridge deck near the edge beams, if the

edges ofthe deck are loaded, but thereis no loadnear the centre. Note that the

maximum hoggingmomentis muchlower thanthe maximum sagging moment

on the previous page.

A142 mesh will be used in the toppingthroughout the deck. This nominal

reinforcementis used in the topping concrete which is predominantly in

compression. However, at the edges of the deck where hogging occurs, this

reinforcement is not enough, and T6 bars are added.

TraHsve/e

frorn

egnYageaMa4fs/',

x/llirn.'1Logg/Mg

1. 136rn e/ern&#

ofslab

Dek

= 32kA/rn

= 0,0282 M/Vrn/rn

b =1.136rn

z = O.95d = O266rn

(a'prox)

= 265rnrn2/rn

TheA142rneskprovidesa

of142 rnrn''/ wirith

hogg4i'gattheedges ofthedeci( Add/t/Haltrailsverse re4fforcerneilt of2s,/en'gths of76bars

at200rnrn ceiltres wiYltltereforebeadded/it thetoppi'igateachsideoft/fedecA

Thta/re4rforcerneittarea

= (142rniit2/rn) + (142rnrn2/&

= 284rnrn2/n,

> 265rnrn2/rn

reqjixved

PCA4

60 CHARLESSTRW1.E1CE5Th iEi ]FB

Telephone:

01

6 2536161

Fe\OI

I5I48

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