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With the technical term package, it is indicated by the Engineering
Companies, but generally speaking in the industrial field, a small
system constituted by two or more equipment, connected each others
with piping, including some instruments and often electric components;
therefore in this little plant, four of the six classic departments of the
Instrumentation, Electrical.
The Civil work department is indirectly involved, in the sense that this
small plant has, of course, to stand and to rest on a basement, but the
Civil Word division could be directly concerned, for example, in case
that the Package should include a steel structure; the Process
department obviously, does not appear in evident manner, but it is
upstream located, being the guide and the informing principle of all the
equipment and complexes.
We have repeated more times little plant, small system to indicate
the package. But there are also significant units, for size and
complexity, which can be considered as a package unit.
Among these complex packages we will deal with, as examples, the
Pneumatic Transport System and Air Conditioning System.
As far as the small packages are concerned we will consider, as
examples, three of them: Solid Handling System Oil Water Treatment
Unit Dosing Unit.


Just for curiosity we want remind that the term package comes from
the English word package that in the common acception means
parcel of things packed together.

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Air Conditioning System

4.2.1 Notes on the Psychrometry

The atmosphere, in which we live, is constituted by a mixture of dry air
and water vapour.
Its moisture content is referred to as humidity. The proportion of
moisture in the air, affects personal comfort.
The psychrometry studies the properties of the mixture air-vapour, with
particular regard to the ambient and technological necessities. Psychrometric Diagrams
Since a conditioning system has to provide a proper thermo-hygrometric
treatment of the air, it is convenient to use suitable charts for the
calculation of such treatment. There are various types of these charts:
Molliers diagram, Carriers diagram, Carr-Ashraes diagram.
We will refer to the ASHRAE in the metric version provided by CARR
group. Application of Psychrometric Chart
It is sufficient to have two quantities, to get all the other ones.
Example (see the attached diagram 2.1.2.F):

dry air temperature


wet bulb temperature



We can read from the diagram:

specific humidity

12,2 g/kg

relative humidity


specific volume

0,875 m3/kg

temperature of dew point



14,7 kcal/kg


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4.2.2 Ambient Conditions for the Comfort Comfort, Industrial and Production Conditioning
Purpose of the air conditioning is the one to generate, in the ambient,
satisfactory conditions for the presence of people.
The purpose of the industrial conditioning is the one to get artificial
climate in order to permit the carrying out work particular cycles,
dictated by requirement of technological process.
The conditioning of production borns from the necessity to conciliate
demands imposed by established technological process with the ones of
comfort for the continuous presence of operators. We will analyze
various cases, taking however into account that we can pass from a
system to another one, for the calculation, only changing the
parameters. Basic Parameters
The basic parameters for the air conditioning are:

Pureness of the air

Velocity of the air near the people


Relative humidity

Pureness of the Air

The impurities developed inside the air conditioned rooms as toxins,
smokes, bad smells can be eliminated by means of air changes with
external air.


In the following table are indicated the air changes per hour for different
building or room, with the note that air changes up to eight per hour,
provide for removing contamination normally caused by human
The higher rates of air changes provide for removing heat and steam in
temperate zones.

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The indicated table refers to the pure ventilation; it is clear that air
changes higher than 8 can be reduced with a complete air conditioning.
Other adopted criteria are:

On the basis of the number of occupants (20 80 m3 per


On the basis of quantity of fresh air in relation to the volume air

on work ambient ( 1 2 air changes per hour, till to 8 changes);

On the basis of surface of the floor (2 8 m3/h per square meter

of floor).

Velocity of the Air near to the People

The range of the values of the air velocity near the person is limited
between 10 20 cm/sec. Of course, these values have nothing to do
with the velocity at the outlet of the diffuseurs or grilles.

Temperature and Relative Humidity of the Air

Statistics and various experiences suggest the following values for
temperature and relative humidity:

for the R.U. on assume a value between 40% and 70% (normally
50%) both in summer and in winter

for the temperature on assume a value limited between 18C and

20C (max. limit of 20C has been fixed in order to reduce the
energetic consumption) while, in summer the suggested
temperature is connected to the external one, by means of the

ti =

+ 10


that means that, with the increasing of the external temperature also
the internal temperature rises, and this is not only for energy saving
reasons, but also in order to limitate the (delta) between inside and
outside, since the human organism well tolerates positive sudden
changes of temperature, while does not tolerate negative sudden

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changes. Always for comfort reasons, the difference of the temperature

of the entering air and the air present in the room, has to be controlled.
The advised values are:
te = 8 12C summer
ti = 12 14C winter

As far as the allowance on the thermo-hygrometric conditions is

concerned, usually on assume a value of 5% for the U.R., and 1%
for the temperature, in accordance with the normes UNI 5104.

Ventilation Requirements
TABLE 1 Air Changes per Hour
Assembly Halls
Banquet Halls


Billiards Rooms

Air changes per hour


Boiler Houses


Cafs and Coffee Bars








Club Rooms


Dance Halls


Dye Works


Engine Rooms


Factories (Workshops)




Furnace Shops


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Hospitals: General Wards


Hotel Bars


Kitchens (Commercial or School)


Kitchens (Domestic)






Machine Shops


Mushroom Houses




Paint Shops


Photographic Darkrooms


Pig Houses


Poultry Houses: Deep Litter






School Classrooms




Ships Accomodation Lounges


Ships Apple Storage


Ships Cargo Holds (general)


Ships Holds carrying Eggs, Meat, etc.


Swimming Baths




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4.2.3 Types of Air Conditioning Plants General
All types of plant have, as common unit, equipment called air
treatment unit.
The air treatment units have the task to provide for the air, to be sent
into various rooms, different treatments according to the project
The obtaining of these results is reached by means of modular
construction of particular equipment called as already said air
treatment units (ATU or in Italian Language UTA).
The linking of different sections, each of these able to develop a
determinate operation, allows to obtain the necessary performance for
the plant with high precision.
These units do not usually include the components for the production
of hot and cold fluids; such machines, refrigeration units and heat
generators, have to be provided separately.
The air treatment units, are normally constituted of the following

Mixing sections of fresh air and recirculated air

Filtration section

Pre-heating coil section

Humidification section

Cooling and dehumidification coil section

Post-heating section(*)

Ventilation section


Now we will examine the main air conditioning plants, with the remarks
that the combination of these, can give place to many other systems,
each of them with its particular characteristics.
(*) According to various cases, the post-heating battery, can be located
into ducting.

Page 157 of 462 Conditioning Systems for Single Zone

This is the more simple type of the air treatment unit. From the unit,
the air is supplied, at the required conditions controlled by thermostat
and/or humidistat of zone, to the various rooms.
The air, so distributed can treat a zone (constituted by one or more
rooms) where the thermo-hygrometric conditions are uniforms. Conditioning of Multiple Zones Type
The air conditioning system of multiple zones type, is the natural
extension of the single zone one, when the various rooms, to be
conditioned, have different thermo-hygrometric requests.
Substantially on dials of only one conditioning group, but the ducting of
which, is splitted into various ducts, each of them serves one room (or
one group of room). At the beginning of the ducts post-heating coils are
installed; these coils are controlled by their respective thermostats.
Usually, a pilot room (the more binding one for extension and for
thermal loads) is selected to demand and control the cold requirement,
while, for the other rooms, the regulation is obtained by the postheating the air at the required temperature.
Therefore it can happen that in summer, the maximum cooling power,
on the basis of which the plant has been dimensioned, is neutralized by
means of these post-heating treatments. We understand very well as the
exercise cost, for this type of plant, can considerably raise, in
comparison with the plant of single zone type. Conditioning System of Multi-Zones Type


The systems of air conditioning of multizone type, as the ones of

multiple zones, permit the simultaneous air conditioning of more rooms
or groups of rooms which present different thermic internal loads.
But, while the air conditioning plants of multiple zone type,
substantially born from the single zone system, with subsequent
splitting of the air supply ducting into additional ducts, the multi zone
systems consist of centralized air treatment units of package type that
contain just inside the unit, the splitting into zones.

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In detail, the conditioners are constituted of mixing section of fresh air

and recirculated air, a filtering section, a fan section, one treatment
section including, in parallel, one cooling coil and one heating coil, and
at the end a set of mixing dampers (one for each foreseen zone) for the
variation of mixture ratio between the hot air and the cold air, with a
constant flow rate for each zone.
These dampers are located at the outlet of the unit and each couple of
dampers is at the head of one independent duct. Conditioning System of Air-Water Mixed Type

In this type of plant, the supply of heat and cold into rooms to
compensate the thermic-hygrometric load is given both to the air and to
the water.
The water at the required temperature is sent, by piping to the local
unit that include one coil, one filter and one fan, called fan coil, while
the primary air is sent to the various rooms by ducting.
The fresh air is submitted to the same treatments in an air treatments
centralized unit already described. It is clear that in this case the unit,
treating only external air, is smaller, under similar conditions than ones
which have to treat fresh and recirculated air.
This type of plant permits, in comparison of other types, great flexibility
in the design and in the planimetric arrangement.
For example the fan-coils can be visible (under the windows for
example) or located in the false ceiling.
There is also the possibility to carry out an air conditioning plant
without the use of centralized air treating unit, simply by providing the
local units by means of external air intake.


The limits of this simplified system are easy to individuate.

Page 159 of 462 Conditioning System of Double Duct Type

With this system the cooling and heating coils are properly placed in
order to feed two separated ducts which depart from the unit.
One duct conveys the cooled air, the other one the hot air, both arriving
to the rooms which have to be air conditioned. In each room, a mixing
box is installed provided with conjugated dampers which provide for the
mixing of the two air flows coming from the conditioners, according to
the ambient thermostat.
Generally speaking this air distribution is made at high speed (mainly
for space reasons) and therefore the mixing boxes have also the
function to attenuate the velocity and the noise. The system of double
duct type, is a system of quality, particularly suitable for large
complexes both civil and industrial.

4.2.4 Filtration of The Air

As already said one of the purpose of the air conditioning plants, is the
one to maintain in the served rooms, a proper pureness of the air; the
above is usually got, by means of adequate changes of fresh air, but in
the mean time, by cleaning fresh air and recirculated air by means of
proper filtration system.
The choice of the more suitable filter depends from various factors,
mainly connected to the characteristics of impurities present in the air
and to final destinations of the conditioned places.
The main characteristics of the filter are: the efficiency, the retention
capacity and load losses.
The filter efficiency is measured by the ratio:

up stream concentration down stream concentration

eff. =

x 100


up stream concentration

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4.2.5 Equipment of the HVAC Systems

The main equipment used in the HVAC system, in addition to the air
treatment unit, already described, are mentioned here below,
accompanied with a very short description: for more detailed
specification, man has to refer to specialised literature. Monoblock Self-Contained Conditioning Units
These equipment, foreseen for inside or outside installation, are
constituted by two parts assembled in the same box:

One moto

condensing unit composed by compressor,

coil and fans for the cooling of the coil if
is made by air, or by heat exchanger if the
is of water type.

One evaporating section composed by a cooling coil, of direct

expansion type, a centrifugal fan for the supply and return of the
air, filters and the necessary piping and valves. A control panel is
also provided.

Therefore it is realised a complete and hermetically closed refrigerating

circuit. In this case the unit require only to be connected to the supply
and return air ducts and the electric and hydraulic feeding.


These monoblock units are available on the market for a powers range
from 10 to 200 Kw.

Page 161 of 462 Self-Contained Conditioning Unit, Roof Top Type

These units, belonging to the self-contained type previously seen, are
foreseen for outside installation to be positioned on the roofs of the
building, for the direct climatization of the below rooms. Depending
from the refrigerating requested capacity, these conditioners can be
equipped with one, two or more compressor, with the condensating and
evaporating coils in one or more sections. HVAC System, Split Type
The air conditioning machine of split type are constituted by a motocondensing unit air cooled for outside installation and by a
ventilating/evaporating unit (that can be provided with ducting) to be
positioned inside. Both the units have to be connected each to other
with 2 refrigerating lines (one for the refrigerating liquid, the other one
for the gas). Of course, electrical lines have to be also provided.
These split units originated for the cooling, can be today used for the
heating, on the basis of the heat-pump principle.
We can find on the market, split units of various capacity:

Split units of 1,5 15 Kw refrigerating power.

They are employed







Split units with a refrigerating power till 80 Kw.With these

capacities it is possible to carry out systems provided with a
certain extensive ducting or it is possible to carry out VFR
systems (Variable Refrigerant Volume) of minor power but that
can be connected to a greater number of internal units. This type
can be used also for minor industrial buildings.

Page 162 of 462 Refrigerant Groups of Compression Type

Of course, in addition to the self-contained equipment, previously
noted, refrigerant groups of compression and absorption type are used,
especially for high refrigerating capacity.
Here below we give short notice on the refrigerant groups of compressed
type for capacities till 200 Kw compressors, scroll type are used.
For higher capacities till to 900 Kw the screw compressors are
Over these capacities the centrifugal compressor are used.
The refrigerating fluids, now given up the Freon, are the HFC 410 A for
the refrigerating groups of scroll type and HFC 134 A for refrigerating
groups, screw and centrifugal type.

4.2.6 Data and Information to be given to the HVACs Supplier General
Purpose of an air conditioning plant consists, as already said, of the
simultaneous control of the temperature, relative humidity, ventilation
and pureness of the air.
Before starting in the design it is necessary to gather and to organize all
the information and the available data, to be transmitted, attached to
the Material Requisition to the suppliers of HVAC System, intended as
Package Unit.


It remains understood that an engineering company can design, define

and purchase the single items constituting the HVAC plant, without
applying to the specialised supplier of HVAC system; this choice
depends from the internal resources of the engineering company
(availability of specialists in this field) from the complexity of the system
and for the timing. It is a fact that, apart little systems as electrical
substations or offices, it is always more convenient to address to
specialised Vendors, the sole responsible of the HVAC plant.

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These data and information will include:

Drawings of the buildings and of the rooms

(plants and sections)

to be conditioned

Design external conditions (temperature, relative humidity, in

winter and summer)

Design internal conditions (temperature, relative humidity, with

the required tolerances, filtration level)

Type and thickness of the walls, floors, ceilings and roofs

Characteristics of doors, windows, rolling shutters or curtains

Internal sources of heat (for each room) gains from:

- lighting : w
- crowding: n of people
- fluid evaporating: kg/h
- stoves, heater, dryer: kcal/h

characteristics of the utilities:

- water, compressed air, steam, electric power

use of the rooms (offices, laboratory, control room, etc.)

type of the required system:


- all air, air and fancoils, air and split units, etc.

Number of the required air changes

Room foreseen for the installation of air conditioning equipment

Foreseen daily hours of operation.

Page 164 of 462 External Thermohigrometric Design Conditions

The external design conditions change for the different geographic
locations. It is not reasonable to dimension the plants for the heaviest
conditions that happen during only few hours in a certain years
number; this should cause additional costs with the limited benefits.
Standard tables indicating external design conditions are generally
adopted, in case of lack or other requests and indications. The Heat Transmission through the External Structures due to the
Temperatures Difference
The transmitted heat, in regime condition, through a wall because of
the different temperatures between external and internal air, is given
q = K S (te ti)
S = wall area m2
te = external temperature
ti = internal temperature
K = global coefficient of thermic transmission kcal/m2 Ch
Where K is given by:






or more generally for composite structures





+ .

ai, ae = unit surface conductances in kcal/h m2C



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s1, s2,sn = thicknesses of the various layers of structure in m


c1, c2,cn = coefficients of thermal internal conductivity of materials per

kcal/m hC

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Thermal Internal Conductivity c (kcal/m hC) for some materials


Specific weight kg/m3







- cement, sand, gravel, armor Fe



- cement, sand gravel



- pumice



- cellular





820 + 1.950




Bitumen cardboard





Resin laminate





1.000 + 1.200





- with lime mortar



- with cement mortar



- with plast mortar





- hollow bricks



- cutting stones


1.400 + 2.800

- tuff


1.100 + 1.900



Construction Materials


Roofing sheet:
- ribbed plates in Al (i.e. coverrar from TML alusio
SICIT alucover from ASA)

Natural or synthetic rubber plates




- full bricks

- plywood

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- plast



- linoleum



- rubber



- P.V.C.



- asphalt and resin (i.e. vinilom AT)









- dry


1.400 + 1.900



2.400 + 2.800

- Armaflex



- foam



- ultrafoom



- Fiberglass



- Ultralite



Rock wool









- plast light panels



- wood fibers with MgSO4




- dry
- moist
- clayey

Insulating materials

Expanded elastomers i.e.:

Fiberglass (mattresses, panels, chapels) i.e.:

Insulating bricks:
- 29% clay, 28% sawdust, 43% coke
- pumice


- cork
Thermal insulating panels:

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Expanded elastic poliuterano







- dissolved cork
- cork slabs with bituminous binder

4.2.7 Figures to be used for Quick Estimates

Here below we give some data, to be considered only indicative, but
certainly useful for preliminary estimates of costs and services
consumption. Costs
A system very convenient for quick estimates, could be the one to fix the
cost, of the conditioning plant per m3, empty for full of the building; in
this respect, we must immediately say that the fluctuation of this cost is
rather wide according to the type of installation; in fact, a part the
carrying out modalities of the building, particularly as regards the
thermal insulation, its destination, the availability of cooling water, etc.,
the cost per m3 varies greatly, up to fluctuations in the range of 100%,
depending from the buildings size.
So while for a building of normal dimensions, cubature for example of
5.000 m3, the cost per m3 could be around 90,00 , for small rooms,
on the contrary, with volume around to the 500 + 800 m3 (typical case
of the control room) the cost could raise up to 110,00 + 130,00 per
With the increase of the size of the building and therefore of the
importance of the plant, the cost per m3 tends to reduce; still today also
for large air-conditioning plant from several hundreds of thousands of
frigories/hour, it is difficult to decrease under 50 60 per m3.


The above mentioned prices are inclusive of all: design, materials

supply and installation.

Page 169 of 462 Services Consumption

Electrical Power
The requirements of frigories can be fixed with sufficient accuracy
around 30 - 50 frigories/hour per m3 of the building; therefore
estimated 1 kw for each 3.000 + 3.500 Fr/hour (values valid for
medium-high potential) the electrical power required, it is easy, on the
basis of the only cubature, to estimate, with sufficient approximation,
the power absorbed by the cooling system.
Cooling Water
The preliminary evaluation of the water rate, necessary for the cooling
of the condenser, can be immediately calculated from the knowledge of
electrical power absorbed by the cooling system. In fact a reliable
parameter is the one that sets in 0.5 + 0.8 m3/h for kW installed, the
required water rate. Note that this water rate is reflected in a real
consumption only in the case in which the water, at the outlet of the
condenser, is recycled and is therefore "lose".
In the case in which the plant is provided with cooling tower or
condenser cooler with air, the consumption of water, may set around
3% + 4% of the water rate above established.
The requirements of heat, for winter conditions, can change from a
minimum of 15 + 20 Kcal/h per m3 to a maximum of 30 + 35 Kcal/h.
Knowing the buildings cubature is immediate to get a reasonable
estimate of the necessary steam.


Engine Room
The practice shows that many times it overlooks, in the design of a
building, to provide adequate space for the engine and the equipment
room. In principle we can consider that the engine room should have,
with a height of 3 + 4 meters, a surface of 0, 6 + 1 m2 for each 100 m3
of conditioned space.

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Pneumatic Transport Systems

With the technical term Pneumatic Transport, we define a particular
transport system that uses a flowing gas in order to transport different
kind of products, such as: dry solid material of different shape and size
(chips, granules, powdery, etc.).

4.3.1 Definitions
As follows the definitions of the most frequently quantities and terms
used in Pneumatic Transport field are listed. Equivalent length
It concerns the effective length of the circuits, which is appropriating
increased in order to consider the localized resistances. Concentration
It concerns the relation between the weight of the transported product
and the weight of the gas constituting the vehicle which is involved in
the transport. Velocity of Support or Flotation
It is the velocity for which the thrust induced on the product particles,
balances their weight.

STP-011/13 Specific Gravity in Bulk

It concerns the apparent specific gravity that considers the existing
voids among the particles. In order to assure a good evaluation of this
quantity, it is necessary to indicate as well the context in which the
measure has been performed (in condition of aeration, whether
compacted etc.)

Page 171 of 462 Angle of Repose

It is the angle for which the material free surface, let free to glide,
assumes the final position in comparison with the horizontal level. Granulometry
It gives the dimensions of the granules or of the particles that constitute
the material. It is determined from the quantity in percentage of the
granules that have defined dimensions. Flowability
It is the characteristic of the material obtainable from laboratory
research. It gives useful guidelines about the transportability of the
It is function of the following parameters:


Density in bulk


Angle of repose

Uniformity coefficient Floodability
It is the characteristic of the material obtainable from laboratory
research. It gives useful guidelines about the possibility to be
maintained in suspension.


It is function of the following parameters:

Transport aptitude

Angle of fall

Aptitude to dispersion

Page 172 of 462 Electro-excitability
It is the tendency of the material to acquire an electric charge due to
wiping. Explosiveness
It is the possibility of the material, in determined conditions of
temperature, pressure and humidity, to create explosive mixture.

4.3.2 Classification
The pneumatic transport can be essentially divided into two main

Transport of powdery and granulate material by means of

horizontal and vertical ducting, using pressure or suction
pressure gas.

Transport of suitable material easily to be fluidized by means a

kind of a little sloping duct with bottom constituted by a porous
septum crossed by gas.

The pneumatic transport that belongs to the first category, can be

classified in function of the following parameters.

STP-011/13 Classification according to the Operating Requirements

Transports of suction type

Transports of pressure type

Transports of suction-pressure type (combined)

Page 173 of 462 Classification on Concentration Basis

Low concentration transports on pressure

Low concentration transports on suction

Medium concentration transports on pressure

Medium concentration transports on suction

Low and medium concentration transports on suction-pressure

High concentration transports on pressure Classification according to Pressure Level

The transports on pressure can be classified as follows:

Low pressure transports ( 10.000 mm w.c.)

Medium pressure transports (10.000 30.000 mm w.c.)

High pressure transports ( 30.000 mm w.c.) Classification according to the Machines and/or Equipment Used

Transports carried out by means of fan

Transports carried out by means of blowers, Root type

Transports carried out by means of compressors

Transports carried out by means of liquid ring pumps

with the use of rotary valves for the loading

with the use of launch pots for the loading

STP-011/13 Classification according to the Type of Circuit

Transports by means of open circuit

Transports by means of closed circuit

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4.3.3 Selection The use of pneumatic transport for solid or powdered materials, in place
of other type of transport, is mandatory, a part of any other
consideration, when:

There is the demand to make the transport, without the

contamination of the surrounding environment.

There is the requirement to make the transport, avoiding any loss

of product even if occasional.

Man has to send and/or to take the product to/from points not
otherwise accessible.

Man has to transport products perishable on contact with

atmosphere; in this case man resorts the transport in close
circuit, with inert gas, or in close circuit with air properly treated. The use of pneumatic transport, instead of other types of transport, is

suggested when:

Complicated and tortuous courses have to be followed because of

various facilities (railway and for pedestrian crossing, harbour
docks, big equipment and existing structures etc.)

Man has to take the products from points of not easy accessibility
(corners of storehouse, wagons and trucks, unloading, bags
breakers etc.)

Man has to avoid forced stops of product (which could cause

fermentations) that could require expensive action for cleaning
and maintenance. Selection among the various types of pneumatic transport


The logistic configuration and the number of the loading and unloading
points of the plant establish the basis choice of transport type; therefore
the following transports will be used:

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Transports of suction type, when we have to pick up the product

from more points and we have to send it to an only one point
(provided that the transport distance and flow rate allow this type
of transport)

Transport of pressure type, when we have to convey the product

from one loading point to various unloading points.

Transport of suction-pressure type, when we have to take the

product from various points and we have to send it to various
unloading points

4.3.4 Design Criteria Dust exhausting and filtering
Whether for the treated product the maximum quantity of dust, which
is given out from the dust exhausting system, it is not in accordance
with the Standard or it is not plainly indicated, it shall be specified by
the supplier (mass flow for unitary transporting air volume). In any case
it shall not be higher than 25 mg/m3.
The dust exhausting system shall be built up with not combustible
The filtering suction hose material shall be dealt with the operative
requirements and also with the transported product type. In particular
provided that the powders can produce explosive mixtures, the suction
hoses shall be made with electro-conductive material in order to avoid
the accumulation of static electricity.
The use of hoses filters with mechanical shaking, it is allowed only for
transports with an operation purely discontinuous.


If the supplier has forecast only one cyclone system in the vacuum
system, as dust exhausting system, the fan (or the blower) that is used,
shall be formally guaranteed against the wear.

Page 176 of 462 Materials
All the ducts will be realized with the use of not combustible stuff. If,
there is the possibility that the product could be damaged by the
ferrous pollution, it will be used stainless steel or aluminium.
The diameter of the ducts will be estimated depending on the effective
volume of the gas. In case of transports with high compression ratio,
the variation of the ducts diameter shall be provided.
The thickness of the ducts will depend on the diameter, on the operative
conditions and at last, on the type of the material. If it is not specified,
the selection of the suitable thickness will be a supplier duty.
The minimum radius of the bends, carried out in only one piece, will be
equal to:

10 diameters concerning the transport supply lines

1,5 diameters concerning the dust exhaust lines

The lines that are realized with segments, shall be constituted, at least,
by 10 stub pipes when the angle of the bend measures 90.


Whether it is possible, it would be better to avoid, between two

consecutive bends, the intermediate lengths (sections), if it is lower than

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Flanged connections
In conformity with the to ducting, the flanges will be in
accordance with, if it is possible, the Standard ANSI, excepted the
thickness, that would be a supplier duty.

Welded connections
In case of ducts butt-welded, the execution of the welding shall
ensure the absence of distortions especially for thickness of a
modest entity.


Vertical Ducting
The supports for vertical ducting shall be positioned at distance
not higher than 7m.

Horizontal Ducting


The supports for horizontal ducting shall be made with the

following distances:


up to 3

4 + 8


10 + 14

Whether the realisation of the ducting supports should not be a duty of

the supplier of the pneumatic system, anyhow in his design, the
supplier shall provide and therefore permit a correct and safe anchorage
of the supports, for instance considering beams or supports for the
consequents overloads.

Page 178 of 462

4.3.5 Rotary Valves

The maximum difference of pressure that it is allowed for the rotary
valves is 6.000 mm w.c.
Within the systems under pressure, the rotary valves shall be supplied
with a breather pipe to allow the correct loading of the alveoli and to
avoid the formation of air pockets above the valve.
The minimum number of the radial blades shall not be lower than eight.
Moreover the number of blades from the side air that are used in the
seal, has to be higher than the side product.
The rotary open valves are operating only for pressure values that are
lower than 2.500 mm w.c. and never for granulated products or anyhow
The rotary valves will be normally activated by means of a chain. In case
of complex or a not well known product, the rotary valves of feeding will
be provided of speed variators.

4.3.6 Switches Valves

The choice of the type of the switch valve, if otherwise not specified, is
left to the supplier. In any case the following prescriptions shall be
observed. Switches Valves of Elastic Strain Type
These types of valves are not usable when:

The system has been used for transports of several products that
can not be in contact

The temperature overcomes 100C.

STP-011/13 Two Way Valves, Blade Type

Usable only for the transport of granules.

Page 179 of 462 Switches Valves with Flexible Hydraulically Operated Devices

These types of valves are not usable for products that can not be in
contact with the atmosphere. Two Way Valves, Drum Type
To be used only in extreme case.

4.3.7 Operating Equipment

The selection of the suitable equipment provided with all the necessary
devices, such to make the system safe and reliable, shall be at the
manufacturer care if not otherwise indicated. In any case the following
guidelines shall be considered:
Rotary compressors, blade type, shall not be used in case of the product
does not accept oil traces even if minimal.
In case the product can generate explosive mixtures and the plant is
under pressure, the blower blades shall be in anti-sparking execution.
Fans and blowers shall be provided with the belt transmission in order
to vary the characteristics, if any.
4.3.8 General Criteria for Installation Operative Accessibility


The supplier shall assure the operative accessibility of all the

equipment. In case of mandatory logistic or process reasons, the
ducting should completely contain the equipment positioned at ground
level; the supplier shall provide the space for a proper settlement of
The roofs of the silos and the service levels of the structure supporting
the transport equipment shall be accessible by means of ladders with
interruption point positioned at maximum of 9 meters of high.

Page 180 of 462

When the silos, connected to pneumatic transport, are grouped in such

way to constitute a battery (adjoining or reasonably close) the roofs of
these silos shall be connected each other by means of platforms. In this
case possible differential gradient between the silos shall be duly
On the top of the silos served by pneumatic transport it shall be
foreseen the space and the support for the arm of the hoist intended for
the lifting of the heaviest piece to be handled during the maintenance
Such hoist shall be suitable to permit the descent inside the silo of a
crate apt to contain one person.
4.3.9 Safety Rules
Design of silos, filters and of any other possible vessel and/or
equipment to the pneumatic transport assigned for product that can
cause explosive mixtures.
A part of specific rules on the matter, the following provisions have to be
considered as prescriptions of good engineering:

To provide proper discharge holes (vents) which allow to limit the

pressure values in case of explosions

To carry out the vessel adopting a design pressure such as its

components (roof, bottom and shell) can, in case of explosion,
cause warping without constituting danger for the surrounding


The vents can be of the following type:

Hinged hatch covers; to be used in case the product is not subject

to deterioration to the though least contact with the atmosphere.

Diaphragms; to be used in case the contact of the product with

the atmosphere is absolutely to be avoided.

In lack of other specific guidelines, the vents surface, shall be

calculated on the bases of what recommended by National Fire Codes
last edition.
In case the roofs of the silos, provided by the pneumatic transport
system, are also partly realized with diaphragms, immediately under the
roof shall be provided an opportune safety net.

Page 181 of 462

The silos provided by the pneumatic transport, shall be supplied with a

taking gate for the fireproof plant (sprinkler).
In case the transported product can cause explosive mixture or in case
the plant, also transporting product that does not cause explosive
mixture, comes to be, also partially, in classified area, the grounding of
the ducting and of the equipment, shall be assured.

4.3.10 Tests Dimensional Check by the Shop
This check will be carried out in shop during the fabrication of the
equipment and ducting to verify the correspondence of the various
components with the working and detailed drawing approved for the
construction. Working Test by the Shop
For all that components, for which it is demanded the seal to the dusts
and the air, as switches, filters, tank of discharge etc. a resistance test
to water and/or air will be carried out according to the modalities that
will be agreed between the engineering company and the manufacturer.

4.3.11 Material Requisition

Since a Pneumatic Transport is a package rather complex for the
number of the involved items, for the ducting routes, sometimes very
for the installation and safety problems, particular
attention and care have to be given in the preparation of the material
requisition for quotation.


The following data, information and drawings, to not be considered,

anyhow, exhaustive, have to be supplied to the Vendors of these units:

Physical and chemical

pneumatically conveyed.


Size of maximum lump size.

Maximum rate.

Temperature and moisture content.






Page 182 of 462

Possible abrasiveness, stiking, gumming, etc, of the product.

Type of the transport to be adopted (to be confirmed by the


Suggested lay-out of the system (to be confirmed by the Vendor).

Data Sheet or technical description of all required equipment and

materials as: storage silos, feeding hoppers, bag breaker (if any),
intermediate and final silos, cooling coils (if any), pneumatic
transport screw conveyors (if any), rotary valves, exhausting

Battery limits. As far as the battery limits are concerned, they can
be fixed in very short and simple modality; in fact, the battery
limits of the product generally are: the first loading hopper at the
beginning of the transport system and the last silo at the end of
the same.


For the utilities the battery limits shall be:

for the electrical part, the cables glands on the power and control
panel(s) supplied by the Vendor. All the connections to the other
electrical users, starting from the control panel shall be at Vendor
care and charge.

in case of need of water to cool the transported product, the

battery limits shall be flanged connection to each exchangers or
coil; it is not convenient, even if possible of course, to let Vendors
make the connection among the various exchangers or coils with
piping of their supply. In other words the piping distribution will
be at the Contractor care and charge.

In case of instrument air need, the same considerations, made for

the cooling water, are still valid.

Page 183 of 462


Material Handling Systems

These systems have the purpose to transport dry material of different
origin, shape and size; they are employed in various industrial fields as
coal-mine, pharmaceutical industries, food industries, plastic materials
production plants, etc..
In this chapter, we will not deal with dusty or granular products of
which we will refer to the pneumatic transport systems.
Therefore we are considering Belt Conveyor, Bucket Belt Elevator,
Chain Conveyor etc..
Manufacturers literature on conveyors usually contains suggestions for
the selection of more convenient and useful handling system.


In any case the process engineer, the project engineer and the
mechanical specialist, always in close contact, have to supply to the
Manufacturer all the necessary data and information as:

Physical and chemical properties of the material to be handled

Maximum rate

Size with the indication of maximum lump size

Temperature and moisture content

Bulk and real density

Possible abrasiveness, chemical reactivity, sticking, gumming etc.

Length and location of the conveyor including sketch showing the

proposed path, the equipment directly connected in the operation,
as sylos, mixers, etc.; of course type of the building or shelter has
to be specified with the indication of the internal temperature and

Page 184 of 462


Oily Water Treatment Unit

The oily water treatment unit, CPI type (corrugated plates interceptor),
of contained dimensions, can be considered a typical skid mounted
With the term skid mounted we intend an unit package completely
assembled in the manufacturer shop, installed on skid.
The unit, after the transport on site, has to be only connected to the
inlet and outlet piping, while the local control panel has to be
electrically fed.
The system is used to eliminate the oil from the water.
The water to be treated is sent, for gravity, to the CPI unit in order to
avoid the formation of emulsion due to the action of the pumps.
The oil is separated for the differences of specific weights; the
separation is favoured by means of the action of the coalescent plates,
located in the basin of separation.
The oil is removed by means of a skimmer and discharged into a tank
and, from this, transferred by a pump of screw type.
Then the water is sent to a second tank and discharged by a floodway,
adjustable along the height. Finally the water is transferred into a vessel
in order to be discharged by the action of a centrifugal pump.
The slush, formed for the sedimentation of the suspended solids, can be
discharged by a manual valve.
Differently from other equipment and units, for this kind of package
particular knowledge and studies are not required by the process and
project engineers since this type of units is enough standardized.


The necessary data and information

manufacturers are the following:






Flow rate of the water to be treated

Oil content (in mg/l) at the inlet

Oil specific gravity

Suspended solids (in mg/l) at the inlet

Oil content in the water (in mg/l) at the outlet

Max dimension of the separated oil drop (in mm value, if

indicated, to be confirmed by the Vendor)


Page 185 of 462

Temperature of the water

Environmental conditions

Page 186 of 462


Dosing Units
Also a dosing unit, as well as the Oil Treatment Unit, of CPI type,
previously examined, can be considered a typical example of package
unit, completed shop assembled, mounted on skid, complete with
drivers and all the other necessary accessories.
As example we will consider an Antifoam Dosing Unit for the Injection
and Measuring of an antifoam product into an amine liquid flow.
The unit, taken into consideration, is very simple and of limited
dimensions; it is mainly constituted by:

N 1 atmosphere tank, SS made, for the storage of the product


N 2 dosing pumps (one as spare)

N 1 calibration pot

Oscillation dampers

Connecting piping and the necessary instrumentation


Also in this case, since the package of this type are largely
standardized, the only care and attention that the process engineer and
project engineer have to be given are the completeness of data and
information to be furnished to the manufacturer, they are:

Flow rate of the dosing pump (in lt/h)

Material of the dosing pump (SS)

Codes for the pumps (f.i. API 675)

0 100 % with the pump in operation

Outlet pressure (bar g)

Capacity and material of the tank

Type of antifoam product (f.i. Chimec 8049 or equivalent)