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2x1 + x2 +5x3 + x4 = 5;

x1 + x2 3x3 + 4x4 = -1;

3x1 + 6x2 2x3 + x4 = 8;

2x1 + 2x2 + 2x3 3x4 = 2

1

1+dxx 2

1

By direct stiffness matrix approach, determine stiffness matrix for

Beam element neglecting axial deformation

Determine the shape function for a three noded bar element using

polynomial form in local coordinates

(i) Nodes, primary nodes, secondary nodes and internal nodes

(ii) Local coordinates, global coordinates, natural coordinates and area

coordinates.

(a) Effect of element aspect ratio on accuracy

(c) Mesh refinement vs higher order elements.

Consider the truss element with the coordinates I (10,10) and 2 (50,40).

If the displacement vector is q=[ 15 10 21 43]T mm, then determine (i)

the vector q' (ii) stress in the element and (iii) stiffness matrix if E=70

GPa and A=200 mm2

(i)

Plane stress element

(ii)

Plane strain element

Explain the isoparametric concept in finite element analysis. And Explain

the terms isoparametric, subparametric and superparametric elements.

10

analysis & Explain incremental procedure to handle material non-linear

problems.

5x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 = 4;

x1 + 7x2 + x3 + x4 = 12;

x1 + x2 + 6x3 + x4 = -5;

x1 + x2 + x3 + 4x4 = -6

2

By direct stiffness matrix approach, determine stiffness matrix for

Truss Element

Determine the shape function for a two noded bar element using

Cartesian coordinate system

Derive the expressions for natural coordinates for a two noded element

(i) In terms of L1 and L2, when range is 0 to 1

(a) Effect of element aspect ratio on accuracy

(b) Numbering nodes for band width minimization

element formulation for the following figure. Use P=300 k N; A,=0.5 m2;

A2=1 m2; E=200 GPa

(i)

Axisymmetric Element

(ii)

Constant Strain Triangle

Discuss the convergence criteria for isoparametric elements. And

explain different types of isoparametric formulations

Find the natural frequencies of vibrations of a simple cantilever beam.

Explain different types of nonlinearities

Solve using Gauss Seidal Method

2x1 + x2 +5x3 + x4 = 5;

x1 + x2 3x3 + 4x4 = -1;

3x1 + 6x2 2x3 + x4 = 8;

2x1 + 2x2 + 2x3 3x4 = 2

9

10

1

Briefly explain various attempts made to reduce memory requirement in

storing stiffness matrix.

Determine the shape function for a three noded bar element using

polynomial form in local coordinates and plot their shapes

(i) Constant strain triangle (CST)

(ii) Linear strain triangle(LST)

Assemble equations of equilibrium for the spring system shown in Fig. by

direct approach. Show that minimization of potential energy also yields

same result.

Determine the forces in the members of the truss shown in Fig. 11.22

Take E = 200GPa, A = 2000

mm2.

an assembly of two triangular elements with the displacement field in

these elements expressed as u = al + a2 x + a3 Y and v = a4+ a5x +a6y .

Assume v = 0.2

(a) Uniqueness of mapping of isoparametric elements.

(b) Jacobian matrix

10

unconstrained stepped shaft of areas A and 2A and of equal lengths (L),

as shown below.

2x1 + x2 +5x3 + x4 = 5;

x1 + x2 3x3 + 4x4 = -1;

3x1 + 6x2 2x3 + x4 = 8;

2x1 + 2x2 + 2x3 3x4 = 2

compare with exact

Element

State and explain the convergence requirements of polynomial shape

functions.

element to be used for plane stress/plane strain problems.

Obtain the forces in the plane truss shown in Fig. 11.21 and determine

the support reactions also.

Use finite element method. Take E = 200 GPa and A = 2000 mm2.

Analyse the beam shown in Fig. using FEM technique. Determine the

rotations at the supports.

Given E = 200GPa and I = 4 106 mm4.

State and explain the three basic laws on which isoparametric concept is

developed.

10

Heat is generated in a large plate (K = 0.4 W/m 0c) at the rate of 5000

W/m3 The plate is 20 cm thick. Outside surface of the plate is exposed

to ambient air at 30C with a convective heat transfer coefficient of 20

W 1m2 0c. Determine the temperature distribution in the wall.

10x 7y + 3z + 5u = 6;

-6x + 8y z 4u = 5;

3x + y + 4y + 11u = 2;

5x 9y 2z + 4u = 7

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of FEM over

(i) Classical method

(ii) Finite difference method.

Explain the term Shape Functions. Why polynomial terms are preferred

for shape functions in finite element method?

Determine the shape functions for a CST element. Show that they are

nothing but area coordinate

reactions of the axially loaded bar

as shown in Fig. Take E = 200 GPa and P = 30 kN

edge and subjected to concentrated load at its free end. Assume E =

Calculate the displacement at the free end of a 50cm long tapered bar

of area of cross section 1000 mm2 at its fixed end and 600 mm2 at the

free end, subjected to an axial tensile load of 1kN at the free end.

Assume E = 200GPa. Using Isoparametric formulation

10

Consider a brick wall of thickness 0.3 m, k = 0.7 W/m OK. The inner

surface is at 28C and the outer surface is exposed to cold air at -15C.

The heat transfer coefficient associated with the outside surface is 40

W/m2 OK. Determine the steady state temperature distribution within

the wall and also the heat flux through the wall. Use two elements and

obtain the solution.

2

3

What is meant by displacement function? Write down convergence criteria for Finite

Element Analysis

Solve following simultaneous

equations

using Gauss Elimination Method

Using generalized coordinate approach, find shape functions for two noded bar/truss element.

State and explain the three basic laws on which isoparametric concept is

developed.

Explain the different types of non-linearities encountered in structural

analysis

A composite slab consists of three materials with thermal conductivities

of 20 W/m oK, 30 W/m oK, 50 W/m oK and thicknesses 0.3 m, 0.15 m

and 0.15 m respectively. The outer surface is at 20 DC and the inner

surface is exposed to the convective heat transfer coefficient of25

W/m2 oK and a medium at 800 DC. Determine the temperature

distribution within the wall.

2

3

4

5

elements.

Find the natural frequencies of longitudinal vibrations of the

unconstrained stepped shaft of areas A and 2A and of equal lengths (L),

Name some of the standard FEA packages. And Write short note on pre

and post processors used in FEA packages

Introduction, How FEM works, Brief history, Example case studies, Available solvers

1.

Explain working of FEM Packages

The finite element method (FEM) (its practical application often known as finite element

analysis (FEA)) is a numerical technique for finding approximate solutions of partial

differential equations (PDE) as well as of integral equations. The solution approach is

based either on eliminating the differential equation completely (steady state problems),

or rendering the PDE into an approximating system of ordinary differential equations,

which are then numerically integrated using standard techniques such as Euler's

method, Runge-Kutta, etc.

Typical FEA Packages involves three basic phases

Pre-processor

Solution

Post-Processor

FEA uses a complex system of points called nodes which make a grid called a mesh (Figure

2). This mesh is programmed to contain the material and structural properties which

define how the structure will react to certain loading conditions. Nodes are assigned at a

certain density throughout the material depending on the anticipated stress levels of a

particular area. Regions which will receive large amounts of stress usually have a higher

node density than those which experience little or no stress. Points of interest may

consist of: fracture point of previously tested material, fillets, corners, complex detail,

and high stress areas. The mesh acts like a spider web in that from each node, there

extends a mesh element to each of the adjacent nodes. This web of vectors is what

carries the material properties to the object, creating many elements

2.

Write a Note on What is FEM and its History

Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was first developed in 1943 by R. Courant, who utilized the

Ritz method of numerical analysis and minimization of variational calculus to obtain

approximate solutions to vibration systems. Shortly thereafter, a paper published in 1956

by M. J. Turner, R. W. Clough, H. C. Martin, and L. J. Topp established a broader definition

of numerical analysis. The paper centered on the "stiffness and deflection of complex

structures".

By the early 70's, FEA was limited to expensive mainframe computers generally owned by

the aeronautics, automotive, defense, and nuclear industries. Since the rapid decline in the

cost of computers and the phenomenal increase in computing power, FEA has been

developed to an incredible precision. Present day supercomputers are now able to produce

accurate results for all kinds of parameters.

3.

Explain application of FEM in following Engineering Analysis

Structural Engineering

Automotive Analysis

Types of Engineering Analysis

Structural analysis consists of linear and non-linear models. Linear models use simple

parameters and assume that the material is not plastically deformed. Non-linear models

consist of stressing the material past its elastic capabilities. The stresses in the material

then vary with the amount of deformation.

Vibrational analysis is used to test a material against random vibrations, shock, and

impact. Each of these incidences may act on the natural vibrational frequency of the

material which, in turn, may cause resonance and subsequent failure.

Fatigue analysis helps designers to predict the life of a material or structure by showing

the effects of cyclic loading on the specimen. Such analysis can show the areas where

crack propagation is most likely to occur. Failure due to fatigue may also show the damage

tolerance of the material.

Heat Transfer analysis models the conductivity or thermal fluid dynamics of the material

or structure. This may consist of a steady-state or transient transfer. Steady-state

transfer refers to constant thermoproperties in the material that yield linear heat

diffusion.

Results of Finite Element Analysis

FEA has become a solution to the task of predicting failure due to unknown stresses by

showing problem areas in a material and allowing designers to see all of the theoretical

stresses within. This method of product design and testing is far superior to the

manufacturing costs which would accrue if each sample was actually built and tested.

5.

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of FEM over

(i) Classical method

(ii) Finite difference method.

In classical methods exact equations are formed and exact solutions are obtained where

as in finite element analysis exact equations are formed but approximate solutions are

obtained.

Solutions have been obtained for few standard cases by classical methods, where as

solutions can be obtained for all problems by finite element analysis.

Whenever the following complexities are faced, classical method makes the drastic

assumptions

and looks for the solutions:

(a) Shape

(b) Boundary conditions

(c) Loading

Fig. 1.4 shows such cases in the analysis of slabs (plates).

To get the solution in the above cases, rectangular shapes, same boundary condition along

a side and regular equivalent loads are to be assumed. In FEM no such assumptions are

made. The problem is treated as it is.

When material property is not isotropic, solutions for the problems become very difficult

in classical method. Only few simple cases have been tried successfully by researchers.

FEM can handle structures with anisotropic properties also without any difficulty.

If structure consists of more than one material, it is difficult to use classical method, but

finite element can be used without any difficulty.

Problems with material and geometric non-linearities can not be handled by classical

methods. There is no difficulty in FEM.

Hence FEM is superior to the classical methods only for the problems involving a number

of complexities which cannot be handled by classical methods without making drastic

assumptions. For all regular problems, the solutions by classical methods are the best

solutions. In fact, to check the validity of the FEM programs developed, the FEM solutions

are compared with the solutions by classical methods for standard problems.

The common methods available for the solution of general field problems, like elasticity,

fluid flow, heat transfer problems, etc., can be classified as presented in Fig.

6.

FEM Packages

The general applicability of the finite element method makes it a powerful and universal

tool for a wide range of problems. Hence a number of computer program packages have

been developed for the solution of a variety of structural and solid mechanics problems.

Among more widely used packages are ANSYS, NASTRAN, ADINA, LS-DYNA, MARC,

SAP, COSMOS, ABAQUS, NISA. Each finite element program package consists from

three parts:

1 programs for preparation and control of the initial data,

2 programs for solution of the finite element problem,

3 programs for processing of the results.

The ANSYS program is a computer program for the finite element analysis and design.

The ANSYS program is a general-purpose program, meaning that you can use it for almost

any type of finite element analysis in virtually and industry - automobiles, aerospace,

railways, machinery, electronics, sporting goods, power generation, power transmission and

biomechanics, to mention just a few. General purpose also refers to the fact that the

program can be used in all disciplines of engineering - structural, mechanical, electrical,

electromagnetic, electronic, thermal, fluid and biomedical. The ANSYS program is also

used as an educational tool at universities. ANSYS software is available on many types of

computers including PC and workstations. Several operating systems are supported.

The procedure for a typical ANSYS analysis can be divided into three distinct steps:

1 build the model,

2 apply loads and obtain the solution,

3 review the results.

7.

What is difference between Finite Difference Method & Finite Element Method?

FDM makes pointwise approximation to the governing equations i.e. it ensures continuity

only at the node points. Continuity along the sides of grid lines are not ensured.

FEM make piecewise approximation i.e. it ensures the continuity at node points as well as

along the sides of the element.

FDM do not give the values at any point except at node points. It do not give any

approximating function to evaluate the basic values (deflections, in case of solid

mechanics) using the nodal values.

FEM can give the values at any point. However the values obtained at points other than

nodes are by using suitable interpolation formulae.

FDM makes stair type approximation to sloping and curved boundaries as shown in Fig. 1.5.

FEM can consider the sloping boundaries exactly. If curved elements are used, even the

curved boundaries can be handled exactly.

FDM needs larger number of nodes to get good results while FEM needs fewer nodes.

With FDM fairly complicated problems can be handled whereas FEM can handle all

complicated problems.

General concepts of FEM, Procedures, Linear Spring element, Assembling spring elements,

Element types, Structural, Assembling matrices, Global connectivity, Boundary conditions,

Solution methods, Commercial FEA systems

1.

Explain Step by Step Procedure of Finite Element Analysis?

The finite element method (FEM) consists of the following five steps:

1. Preprocessing: subdividing the problem domain into finite elements.

2. Element formulation: development of equations for elements.

3. Assembly: obtaining the equations of the entire system from the equations of individual

elements.

4. Solving the equations.

5. Post-processing: determining quantities of interest, such as stresses and strains, and

obtaining visualizations of the response.

2.

Derive Elemental Equations for Linear Spring Element?

Derive the element equation for each spring element.

First, a general equation is derived for an element e that can be used for any spring

element and expressed in terms of its own forces, spring constant, and node deflections,

as illustrated in figure.

Element e can be thought of as any element in the structure with nodes i and j, forces fi

and fj, deflections ui and uj, and the spring constant ke. Node forces fi and fj are internal

forces and are generated by the deflections ui and uj at nodes i and j, respectively.

For a linear spring

f =k u , and

For equilibrium,

f i =f i=k e ( u iu j) =k e uik e u j

Or

{ }[

]{ }

f i

k

k e ui

= e

f i k e k e u j

The above matrix equation is a general form of an equation of a spring elements, and can

be used to derive element equations for any spring element in this example, and in general,

it is valid for any linear spring element. Thus, equations for each elements can be

written as follows:

{ }[

]{ }

f 1

k

k 1 u1

= 1

f 2 k 1 k 1 u2

3.

What is connectivity table?

In finite element method, model is discretized into no of elements and it is necessary to

represent connectivity of elements with appropriate procedure. Following figure

illustrates discretized into three elements and its connectivity is established in the form

of table.

4

Types of Element in FEA

Based on the shapes elements can be classified as

(i) One dimensional elements

(ii) Two dimensional elements

(iii) Axi-symmetric elements and

(iv) Three dimensional elements.

These elements are suitable for the analysis of one dimensional problem and may be called

as line elements also. Figure shows different types of one dimensional elements.

We need two dimensional elements to solve two dimensional problems. Common two

dimensional problems in stress analysis are plane stress, plane strain and plate problems.

Two dimensional elements often used is three noded triangular element shown in Fig. 4.2.

It has the distinction of being the first and most used element. These elements are known

as Constant Strain Triangles (CST) or Linear Displacement Triangles.

Six noded and ten noded triangular elements (Fig. 4.3) are also used by the analysts. Six

noded triangular element is known as Linear Strain Triangle (LST) or as Quadratic

Displacement Triangle. Ten noded

triangular elements are known as Quadratic Strain Triangles (QST) or Cubic

Displacement Triangles. One can think of trying the use of still higher order triangular

elements like Cubic Strain Triangles and Quartic Strain Triangles.

4.

What is Panelty Approach and Elimination Approach?

Elimination Approach

In this method the known displacement is removed from the list of unknowns and the

equations are reduced. If

T

[ F ] = [ F2 F 3 F 4 F 5 ]

is zero

Panelty Approach

The round off errors involved in computations is advantageously used in imposing boundary

conditions. It involve adding a very large number to the diagonal element and right hand

side vector corresponding to the displacement on which boundary condition is specified.

Thus to impose

results into

obtained as usual. Thus the required result is achieved without many changes in computer

coding. The value of C selected should be much larger than k11, not less than

108 times

5.

Explain Co-ordinate systems used in FEA Analysis,

The following terms are commonly referred in FEM

(i) Global coordinates

(ii) Local coordinates and

(iii) Natural coordinates.

However there is another term generalized coordinates used for defining a polynomial

form of interpolation function. This has nothing to do with the coordinates term used

here to define the location of points in the element.

Global Co-ordinate System

The coordinate system used to define the points in the entire structure is called global

coordinate system.

Figure shows the cartesian global coordinate system used for some of the typical cases.

For the convenience of deriving element properties, in FEM many times for each element a

separate coordinate system is used. For example, for typical elements shown in Figure, the

local coordinates may be as shown in Figure. However the final equations are to be formed

in the common coordinate system i.e. global coordinate system only.

A natural coordinate system is a coordinate system which permits the specification of a

point within the element by a set of dimensionless numbers, whose magnitude never

exceeds unity. It is obtained by assigning weightages to the nodal coordinates in defining

the coordinate of any point inside the element. Hence such system has the property that

ith coordinate has unit value at node i of the element and zero value at all other nodes.

The use of natural coordinate system is advantages in assembling element properties

(stiffness matrices), since closed form integrations formulae are available when the

expressions are in natural coordinate systems.

Natural coordinate in one dimension

Consider the two noded line element shown in Figure. Let the natural coordinate of point P

be (L1, L2) and the Cartesian coordinate be x. Node 1 and node 2 have the Cartesian

coordinates x1 and x2.

8.

Define stiffness matrix and explains its special features. (Properties of stiffness

Matrix)

The stiffness matrix, [K], relates the forces, {f}, applied at a set of coordinates on a

structure to the displacements, {v} at the same set of coordinates.

[K]{v} = {f}

Coordinates are defined by the locations and directions of the forces, {f}, and

displacements, {v}. Let's consider a structure with two coordinates:

Coordinates are defined by the locations and directions of the forces, {f}, and

displacements, {v}. Let's consider a structure with two coordinates:

[ K ] = K 11 K 12

K 21 K 22

This stiffness matrix represents a set of two equations with two unknowns.

K 11 v 1 + K 12 v 2=f 1

K 21 v 1+ K 22 v 2=f 2

[ K ] =[ K ]

, i.e.

K ij =K ji

1. It is a symmetric matrix,

2. The sum of elements in any column must be equal to zero,

3. It is an unstable element. So the determinant is equal to zero.

9.

(b) Truss Element

(c) Beam element

BAR ELEMENT

As shown in Fig., a linear spring with stiffness k has two nodes. Each node is subjected

to axial loads of f1 and f2, resulting in displacements of u1 and u2 their defined positive

directions.

Subjected to these nodal forces, the resulting deformation of the spring

u=u 1u2

becomes

f 1 =ku=k (u 1u2)

The equilibrium of forces requires that,

Which yields

f 1 =f 2

f 2=k (u 2u1)

]{ } { }

k k u1 = f 1

k k u2

f2

or

is stiffness matrix,

K e u e=f e

u

is force vector

TRUSS Element

Fig. shows a typical plane truss. The truss may be statically determinate or indeterminate. In the analysis

all joints are assumed pin connected and all loads act at joints only. These assumptions result into no

bending of any member. All members are subjected to only direct stressestensile or compressive. Now

we are interested to see the finite element analysis procedure for such trusses.

Since the members are subjected to only axial forces, the displacements are only in the axial directions of

the members. Therefore the nodal variable vector for the typical bar element shown in Fig. 2 is

{}

'

= 1'

2

Where

1 ' and ' 2 are in the axial directions of the element. But the axial direction is not same

for all members. If we select x-y as global coordinate system, there are two displacement components at

every node. Hence the nodal variable vector for a typical element is,

T

=[ 1 2 3 4 ]

as shown in Fig. 11.12

From the Figure it is clear that

Direction cosines,

l=cos , m=sin

'1=l 1 +m 2

'2=l 3 +m 4

Further we can write

{}

1

{ ' }= = l m 0 0 2

0 0 l m 3

{}[

'

1

'

2

{ ' }=[ L ] { }

Where,

Where

[ L ]= l m 0 0

0

lm

and [L] is called transformation (or rotation) matrix. If the coordinates (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) of node 1 and 2

of

the elements are known, we can find

l=

( x 2x 1)

le

,m=

( y2 y 1 )

le

l e = ( x2 x1 ) + ( y 2 y 1 )

[ K ] e =[ L ]T [ k ][ L ]

[]

l 0

E A

m

[ K ] e = 0 e e 1 1 l m 0 0

l e 1 1 0 0 l m

0 l

0m

10.

][

What is meant by Quadratic Shape Function (explain three noded 1-D element) & its

derivation

What is Axis Symmetric Element in FEA and its uses

What is local and Global Co-ordinate Systems? For 1D spar element derive

relationship between local and global co-ordinate system

A simple example in FEA, Geometry creation, Mesh generation, Solving and examining the

results Element types and their selection, Basic elements, Types of nodes, Degrees of

freedom, Interpolation, Automatic mesh generation, Selection of parameters, Boundary

conditions, Specifying loading

1.

What is Mesh Generation?

3.

stiffness matrix.

4.

(i) Nodes, primary nodes, secondary nodes and internal nodes

(ii) Local coordinates, global coordinates, natural coordinates and area coordinates.

(iii) Higher order elements and lower order elements.

5.

(i) Constant strain triangle (CST)

(ii) Linear strain triangle(LST) and

(iii) Quadratic strain triangles (QST).

6.

Explain the term Shape Functions. Why polynomial terms are preferred for shape

functions in finite element method ?

Determine the shape function for a two noded bar element using

(i) Cartesian coordinate system

(ii) Local coordinate system ranging from 1 to zero.

(iii) Local coordinate system with range -1 to 1.

Using generalized coordinate approach, determine shape functions for a two noded

beam element and apply necessary checks.

Write short note on Lagrange functions.

Differentiate between the terms lumped loads and consistent loads.

Write short notes on:

(a) Effect of element aspect ratio on accuracy

(b) Numbering nodes for band width minimization

(c) Mesh refinement vs higher order elements.

Discuss the various points to be considered while descretizing a structure for finite

element analysis.

Differentiate between a bar element and a truss element

Explain the elimination method and penalty method of imposing boundary conditions.

Comment on the two methods

Verification of results, Some examples, 2Dtruss, 2Dtruss with different, two dimensional

problems, Plane stress and plane strain, Axisymmetric Plates and shells,

1.

Explain terms Plane Stress and Plane Strain and its significance in FEA

What is meant by P method and h method used in FEA Analysis

Explain the isoparametric concept in finite element analysis.

The various elements so far we have seen are having straight edges. To take care of

curved boundaries refined meshes are to be used when straight edged elements are

employed. Even with refined meshes analysts were not happy with the results since

unnecessary stress concentrations are introduced. Higher order elements also do not

overcome the problem of suitably approximating curved boundaries. The isoparametric

concept brought out by Taig revolutionized the finite elements analysis and it also helped

in properly mapping the curved boundaries. They brought out the concept of mapping

regular triangular and rectangular elements in natural coordinate system, to arbitrary

shapes in global system as shown in Figure.

Theorem I: If two adjacent elements are generated using shape functions, then there is

continuity at the common edge.

It may be observed that in the parent element, for any point on edge AB, shape functions

Ni = 0 for nodes not on the edge and Ni exists for nodes on the edge. Hence the final

function is the same for the common edge

AB in any two adjacent elements, when we give the same coordinate values for the nodes

on common edge.

Hence edge AB is contiguous in the adjacent elements.

In the finite element analysis with isoparametric elements, shape functions are used for

defining the geometry as well as displacements. If the shape functions defining the

boundary and displacements are the same, the element is called as isoparametric element.

Theorem II: It states, if the shape functions used are such that continuity of

displacement is represented in the parent coordinates, then the continuity requirement,

will be satisfied in the isoparametric elements also.

Theorem III: The constant derivative conditions and condition for rigid body are

satisfied for all isoparametric elements if,

( N i )=1

State and explain the three basic laws on which isoparametric concept is developed.

Same as Above

Explain the terms isoparametric, subparametric and superparametric elements.

In the finite element analysis with isoparametric elements, shape functions are used for

defining the geometry as well as displacements. If the shape functions defining the

boundary and displacements are the same, the element is called as isoparametric element.

u=[ N ]{ }e ,

x=[N ]{x }e

and

function of serendipity family. The elements in which more number of nodes are used to

define geometry compared to the number of nodes used to define displacement are known

as superparametric element. One such element is shown in Figure (b) in which 8 nodes are

used to define the geometry and displacement is defined using only 4 nodes. In the stress

analysis where boundary is highly curved but stress gradient is not high, one can use these

elements advantageously. Figure (c) shows a subparametric element in which less number

of nodes are used to define geometry compared to the number of nodes used for defining

the displacements. Such elements can be used advantageously in case of geometry being

simple but stress gradient high.

Derive the stiffness matrix for a beam element.

Derive the general equation for determining the stiffness of an element with usual

notations in the form

(ii) Write short note on variational principles.

(iii) Derive EulerLagrange equation for an integral function using variational

principle.

(iv) Using principle of minimum potential energy derive the expressions for consistent

loads for body forces and surface forces.

Write short notes on numerical integration and stress smoothening in the case of

four noded quadrilateral plate element.

Write short notes on

(i) Triangular plate bending elements

(ii) Conforming and non-conforming plate bending elements

(iii) Mindlins C0continuity element

(iv) Shear locking and

(v) Stress smoothening as applied to plate bending analysis.

Explain the different types of non-linearities encountered in structural analysis

Briefly explain the structure of a finite element analysis program.

Solving axial member problems, Beam stiffness matrix, Different loading conditions,

Formulation using Algor, Verification of results, Frames, Plane frame, Space frame,

Verification of results

Postprocessing, Stresses, Strains, Displacement, Animation, Plotting, Interfacing with

CAD and 3D analysis, Modeling techniques, Solid elements, Element refinement,

Formulation of problem, Interfacing with CAD systems, Examples with ProEngineer,

Inventor

Nonlinearities in FEM Analysis

Advantages of Polynomial function for shape function in FEA Analysis

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