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# 1

## Solve using Gauss Elimination Method

2x1 + x2 +5x3 + x4 = 5;
x1 + x2 3x3 + 4x4 = -1;
3x1 + 6x2 2x3 + x4 = 8;
2x1 + 2x2 + 2x3 3x4 = 2

1

1+dxx 2
1

## Compare with exact integral

By direct stiffness matrix approach, determine stiffness matrix for
Beam element neglecting axial deformation

Determine the shape function for a three noded bar element using
polynomial form in local coordinates

## Explain the following terms clearly

(i) Nodes, primary nodes, secondary nodes and internal nodes
(ii) Local coordinates, global coordinates, natural coordinates and area
coordinates.

## Write short notes on:

(a) Effect of element aspect ratio on accuracy
(c) Mesh refinement vs higher order elements.

Consider the truss element with the coordinates I (10,10) and 2 (50,40).
If the displacement vector is q=[ 15 10 21 43]T mm, then determine (i)
the vector q' (ii) stress in the element and (iii) stiffness matrix if E=70
GPa and A=200 mm2

## Explain following terms

(i)
Plane stress element
(ii)
Plane strain element
Explain the isoparametric concept in finite element analysis. And Explain
the terms isoparametric, subparametric and superparametric elements.

10

## Explain the different types of non-linearities encountered in structural

analysis & Explain incremental procedure to handle material non-linear
problems.

## Solve using Gauss Elimination Method

5x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 = 4;
x1 + 7x2 + x3 + x4 = 12;
x1 + x2 + 6x3 + x4 = -5;

x1 + x2 + x3 + 4x4 = -6
2

## Compare with exact integral

By direct stiffness matrix approach, determine stiffness matrix for
Truss Element

Determine the shape function for a two noded bar element using
Cartesian coordinate system

Derive the expressions for natural coordinates for a two noded element
(i) In terms of L1 and L2, when range is 0 to 1

## Write short notes on:

(a) Effect of element aspect ratio on accuracy
(b) Numbering nodes for band width minimization

## Determine the nodal displacements and element stresses by finite

element formulation for the following figure. Use P=300 k N; A,=0.5 m2;
A2=1 m2; E=200 GPa

## Explain following terms

(i)
Axisymmetric Element
(ii)
Constant Strain Triangle
Discuss the convergence criteria for isoparametric elements. And
explain different types of isoparametric formulations
Find the natural frequencies of vibrations of a simple cantilever beam.
Explain different types of nonlinearities
Solve using Gauss Seidal Method
2x1 + x2 +5x3 + x4 = 5;
x1 + x2 3x3 + 4x4 = -1;
3x1 + 6x2 2x3 + x4 = 8;
2x1 + 2x2 + 2x3 3x4 = 2

9
10
1

## Compare with exact integral

Briefly explain various attempts made to reduce memory requirement in
storing stiffness matrix.

Determine the shape function for a three noded bar element using
polynomial form in local coordinates and plot their shapes

## Explain the terms

(i) Constant strain triangle (CST)
(ii) Linear strain triangle(LST)
Assemble equations of equilibrium for the spring system shown in Fig. by
direct approach. Show that minimization of potential energy also yields
same result.

Determine the forces in the members of the truss shown in Fig. 11.22
Take E = 200GPa, A = 2000
mm2.

## Compute the plane strain stiffness matrix of a square, treating this as

an assembly of two triangular elements with the displacement field in
these elements expressed as u = al + a2 x + a3 Y and v = a4+ a5x +a6y .
Assume v = 0.2

## Write short notes on

(a) Uniqueness of mapping of isoparametric elements.
(b) Jacobian matrix

10

## Find the natural frequencies of longitudinal vibrations of the

unconstrained stepped shaft of areas A and 2A and of equal lengths (L),
as shown below.

## Solve Using Gauss Elimination Method

2x1 + x2 +5x3 + x4 = 5;
x1 + x2 3x3 + 4x4 = -1;
3x1 + 6x2 2x3 + x4 = 8;
2x1 + 2x2 + 2x3 3x4 = 2

## Solve using Gauss Quadrature 3 Point Formula

compare with exact

## By direct stiffness matrix approach, determine stiffness matrix for Bar

Element
State and explain the convergence requirements of polynomial shape
functions.

## Explain the method of finding shape function for 8 noded rectangular

element to be used for plane stress/plane strain problems.

## (i) Explain the principle of RayleighRitz method.

Obtain the forces in the plane truss shown in Fig. 11.21 and determine
the support reactions also.
Use finite element method. Take E = 200 GPa and A = 2000 mm2.

Analyse the beam shown in Fig. using FEM technique. Determine the
rotations at the supports.
Given E = 200GPa and I = 4 106 mm4.

State and explain the three basic laws on which isoparametric concept is
developed.

10

Heat is generated in a large plate (K = 0.4 W/m 0c) at the rate of 5000
W/m3 The plate is 20 cm thick. Outside surface of the plate is exposed
to ambient air at 30C with a convective heat transfer coefficient of 20
W 1m2 0c. Determine the temperature distribution in the wall.

## Solve using Gauss Elimination Method

10x 7y + 3z + 5u = 6;
-6x + 8y z 4u = 5;
3x + y + 4y + 11u = 2;
5x 9y 2z + 4u = 7

## Compare with exact integral

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of FEM over
(i) Classical method
(ii) Finite difference method.
Explain the term Shape Functions. Why polynomial terms are preferred
for shape functions in finite element method?

Determine the shape functions for a CST element. Show that they are
nothing but area coordinate

## Determine the nodal displacement, element stresses and support

reactions of the axially loaded bar
as shown in Fig. Take E = 200 GPa and P = 30 kN

## Calculate displacements and stress in a triangular plate, fixed along one

edge and subjected to concentrated load at its free end. Assume E =

## 70,000 MPa, t = 10 mm and v = 0.3.

Calculate the displacement at the free end of a 50cm long tapered bar
of area of cross section 1000 mm2 at its fixed end and 600 mm2 at the
free end, subjected to an axial tensile load of 1kN at the free end.
Assume E = 200GPa. Using Isoparametric formulation

10

Consider a brick wall of thickness 0.3 m, k = 0.7 W/m OK. The inner
surface is at 28C and the outer surface is exposed to cold air at -15C.
The heat transfer coefficient associated with the outside surface is 40
W/m2 OK. Determine the steady state temperature distribution within
the wall and also the heat flux through the wall. Use two elements and
obtain the solution.

2
3

What is meant by displacement function? Write down convergence criteria for Finite
Element Analysis
Solve following simultaneous
equations
using Gauss Elimination Method

Using generalized coordinate approach, find shape functions for two noded bar/truss element.

## Formulate a Weak Formulation for following differential equation

State and explain the three basic laws on which isoparametric concept is
developed.
Explain the different types of non-linearities encountered in structural
analysis
A composite slab consists of three materials with thermal conductivities
of 20 W/m oK, 30 W/m oK, 50 W/m oK and thicknesses 0.3 m, 0.15 m
and 0.15 m respectively. The outer surface is at 20 DC and the inner
surface is exposed to the convective heat transfer coefficient of25
W/m2 oK and a medium at 800 DC. Determine the temperature
distribution within the wall.

2
3

4
5

## Explain the terms isoparametric, subparametric and superparametric

elements.
Find the natural frequencies of longitudinal vibrations of the
unconstrained stepped shaft of areas A and 2A and of equal lengths (L),
Name some of the standard FEA packages. And Write short note on pre
and post processors used in FEA packages

Introduction, How FEM works, Brief history, Example case studies, Available solvers
1.
Explain working of FEM Packages
The finite element method (FEM) (its practical application often known as finite element
analysis (FEA)) is a numerical technique for finding approximate solutions of partial
differential equations (PDE) as well as of integral equations. The solution approach is
based either on eliminating the differential equation completely (steady state problems),
or rendering the PDE into an approximating system of ordinary differential equations,
which are then numerically integrated using standard techniques such as Euler's
method, Runge-Kutta, etc.
Typical FEA Packages involves three basic phases
Pre-processor
Solution
Post-Processor

FEA uses a complex system of points called nodes which make a grid called a mesh (Figure
2). This mesh is programmed to contain the material and structural properties which
define how the structure will react to certain loading conditions. Nodes are assigned at a
certain density throughout the material depending on the anticipated stress levels of a
particular area. Regions which will receive large amounts of stress usually have a higher
node density than those which experience little or no stress. Points of interest may
consist of: fracture point of previously tested material, fillets, corners, complex detail,
and high stress areas. The mesh acts like a spider web in that from each node, there
extends a mesh element to each of the adjacent nodes. This web of vectors is what
carries the material properties to the object, creating many elements
2.
Write a Note on What is FEM and its History
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was first developed in 1943 by R. Courant, who utilized the
Ritz method of numerical analysis and minimization of variational calculus to obtain
approximate solutions to vibration systems. Shortly thereafter, a paper published in 1956
by M. J. Turner, R. W. Clough, H. C. Martin, and L. J. Topp established a broader definition
of numerical analysis. The paper centered on the "stiffness and deflection of complex
structures".
By the early 70's, FEA was limited to expensive mainframe computers generally owned by
the aeronautics, automotive, defense, and nuclear industries. Since the rapid decline in the
cost of computers and the phenomenal increase in computing power, FEA has been
developed to an incredible precision. Present day supercomputers are now able to produce
accurate results for all kinds of parameters.
3.
Explain application of FEM in following Engineering Analysis
Structural Engineering
Automotive Analysis
Types of Engineering Analysis
Structural analysis consists of linear and non-linear models. Linear models use simple
parameters and assume that the material is not plastically deformed. Non-linear models
consist of stressing the material past its elastic capabilities. The stresses in the material
then vary with the amount of deformation.
Vibrational analysis is used to test a material against random vibrations, shock, and
impact. Each of these incidences may act on the natural vibrational frequency of the
material which, in turn, may cause resonance and subsequent failure.
Fatigue analysis helps designers to predict the life of a material or structure by showing
the effects of cyclic loading on the specimen. Such analysis can show the areas where
crack propagation is most likely to occur. Failure due to fatigue may also show the damage
tolerance of the material.
Heat Transfer analysis models the conductivity or thermal fluid dynamics of the material
or structure. This may consist of a steady-state or transient transfer. Steady-state
transfer refers to constant thermoproperties in the material that yield linear heat
diffusion.
Results of Finite Element Analysis
FEA has become a solution to the task of predicting failure due to unknown stresses by
showing problem areas in a material and allowing designers to see all of the theoretical
stresses within. This method of product design and testing is far superior to the
manufacturing costs which would accrue if each sample was actually built and tested.
5.
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of FEM over
(i) Classical method
(ii) Finite difference method.
In classical methods exact equations are formed and exact solutions are obtained where
as in finite element analysis exact equations are formed but approximate solutions are
obtained.

Solutions have been obtained for few standard cases by classical methods, where as
solutions can be obtained for all problems by finite element analysis.
Whenever the following complexities are faced, classical method makes the drastic
assumptions
and looks for the solutions:
(a) Shape
(b) Boundary conditions
(c) Loading
Fig. 1.4 shows such cases in the analysis of slabs (plates).
To get the solution in the above cases, rectangular shapes, same boundary condition along
a side and regular equivalent loads are to be assumed. In FEM no such assumptions are
made. The problem is treated as it is.

When material property is not isotropic, solutions for the problems become very difficult
in classical method. Only few simple cases have been tried successfully by researchers.
FEM can handle structures with anisotropic properties also without any difficulty.
If structure consists of more than one material, it is difficult to use classical method, but
finite element can be used without any difficulty.
Problems with material and geometric non-linearities can not be handled by classical
methods. There is no difficulty in FEM.
Hence FEM is superior to the classical methods only for the problems involving a number
of complexities which cannot be handled by classical methods without making drastic
assumptions. For all regular problems, the solutions by classical methods are the best
solutions. In fact, to check the validity of the FEM programs developed, the FEM solutions
are compared with the solutions by classical methods for standard problems.

The common methods available for the solution of general field problems, like elasticity,
fluid flow, heat transfer problems, etc., can be classified as presented in Fig.
6.
FEM Packages
The general applicability of the finite element method makes it a powerful and universal
tool for a wide range of problems. Hence a number of computer program packages have
been developed for the solution of a variety of structural and solid mechanics problems.
Among more widely used packages are ANSYS, NASTRAN, ADINA, LS-DYNA, MARC,
SAP, COSMOS, ABAQUS, NISA. Each finite element program package consists from
three parts:
1 programs for preparation and control of the initial data,
2 programs for solution of the finite element problem,
3 programs for processing of the results.

The ANSYS program is a computer program for the finite element analysis and design.
The ANSYS program is a general-purpose program, meaning that you can use it for almost
any type of finite element analysis in virtually and industry - automobiles, aerospace,
railways, machinery, electronics, sporting goods, power generation, power transmission and
biomechanics, to mention just a few. General purpose also refers to the fact that the
program can be used in all disciplines of engineering - structural, mechanical, electrical,
electromagnetic, electronic, thermal, fluid and biomedical. The ANSYS program is also
used as an educational tool at universities. ANSYS software is available on many types of
computers including PC and workstations. Several operating systems are supported.
The procedure for a typical ANSYS analysis can be divided into three distinct steps:
1 build the model,
2 apply loads and obtain the solution,
3 review the results.
7.
What is difference between Finite Difference Method & Finite Element Method?
FDM makes pointwise approximation to the governing equations i.e. it ensures continuity
only at the node points. Continuity along the sides of grid lines are not ensured.
FEM make piecewise approximation i.e. it ensures the continuity at node points as well as
along the sides of the element.

FDM do not give the values at any point except at node points. It do not give any
approximating function to evaluate the basic values (deflections, in case of solid
mechanics) using the nodal values.
FEM can give the values at any point. However the values obtained at points other than
nodes are by using suitable interpolation formulae.
FDM makes stair type approximation to sloping and curved boundaries as shown in Fig. 1.5.
FEM can consider the sloping boundaries exactly. If curved elements are used, even the
curved boundaries can be handled exactly.
FDM needs larger number of nodes to get good results while FEM needs fewer nodes.
With FDM fairly complicated problems can be handled whereas FEM can handle all
complicated problems.
General concepts of FEM, Procedures, Linear Spring element, Assembling spring elements,
Element types, Structural, Assembling matrices, Global connectivity, Boundary conditions,
Solution methods, Commercial FEA systems
1.
Explain Step by Step Procedure of Finite Element Analysis?
The finite element method (FEM) consists of the following five steps:
1. Preprocessing: subdividing the problem domain into finite elements.
2. Element formulation: development of equations for elements.
3. Assembly: obtaining the equations of the entire system from the equations of individual
elements.
4. Solving the equations.
5. Post-processing: determining quantities of interest, such as stresses and strains, and
obtaining visualizations of the response.
2.
Derive Elemental Equations for Linear Spring Element?
Derive the element equation for each spring element.
First, a general equation is derived for an element e that can be used for any spring

element and expressed in terms of its own forces, spring constant, and node deflections,
as illustrated in figure.

Element e can be thought of as any element in the structure with nodes i and j, forces fi
and fj, deflections ui and uj, and the spring constant ke. Node forces fi and fj are internal
forces and are generated by the deflections ui and uj at nodes i and j, respectively.
For a linear spring

f =k u , and

## f i =k e ( uiu j )=k e ( uiu j ) =k e ui + k e u j

For equilibrium,

f i =f i=k e ( u iu j) =k e uik e u j

Or

{ }[

]{ }

f i
k
k e ui
= e
f i k e k e u j

## Writing these equations in a matrix form, we get

The above matrix equation is a general form of an equation of a spring elements, and can
be used to derive element equations for any spring element in this example, and in general,
it is valid for any linear spring element. Thus, equations for each elements can be
written as follows:

{ }[

]{ }

f 1
k
k 1 u1
= 1
f 2 k 1 k 1 u2

3.
What is connectivity table?
In finite element method, model is discretized into no of elements and it is necessary to
represent connectivity of elements with appropriate procedure. Following figure
illustrates discretized into three elements and its connectivity is established in the form
of table.

4
Types of Element in FEA
Based on the shapes elements can be classified as
(i) One dimensional elements
(ii) Two dimensional elements
(iii) Axi-symmetric elements and
(iv) Three dimensional elements.
These elements are suitable for the analysis of one dimensional problem and may be called
as line elements also. Figure shows different types of one dimensional elements.

We need two dimensional elements to solve two dimensional problems. Common two
dimensional problems in stress analysis are plane stress, plane strain and plate problems.
Two dimensional elements often used is three noded triangular element shown in Fig. 4.2.
It has the distinction of being the first and most used element. These elements are known
as Constant Strain Triangles (CST) or Linear Displacement Triangles.

Six noded and ten noded triangular elements (Fig. 4.3) are also used by the analysts. Six
noded triangular element is known as Linear Strain Triangle (LST) or as Quadratic
Displacement Triangle. Ten noded
triangular elements are known as Quadratic Strain Triangles (QST) or Cubic
Displacement Triangles. One can think of trying the use of still higher order triangular
elements like Cubic Strain Triangles and Quartic Strain Triangles.
4.
What is Panelty Approach and Elimination Approach?
Elimination Approach
In this method the known displacement is removed from the list of unknowns and the
equations are reduced. If

## Note elements corresponding to row and column of k11 are eliminated. If

T

[ F ] = [ F2 F 3 F 4 F 5 ]

is zero

## computers are used, computer coding becomes too lengthy.

Panelty Approach
The round off errors involved in computations is advantageously used in imposing boundary
conditions. It involve adding a very large number to the diagonal element and right hand
side vector corresponding to the displacement on which boundary condition is specified.
Thus to impose

results into

## 1=a 1 . Other values are

obtained as usual. Thus the required result is achieved without many changes in computer
coding. The value of C selected should be much larger than k11, not less than

108 times

## 1 1030 and got satisfactory results.

5.
Explain Co-ordinate systems used in FEA Analysis,
The following terms are commonly referred in FEM
(i) Global coordinates
(ii) Local coordinates and
(iii) Natural coordinates.
However there is another term generalized coordinates used for defining a polynomial
form of interpolation function. This has nothing to do with the coordinates term used
here to define the location of points in the element.
Global Co-ordinate System
The coordinate system used to define the points in the entire structure is called global
coordinate system.
Figure shows the cartesian global coordinate system used for some of the typical cases.

## Local Co-ordinate System

For the convenience of deriving element properties, in FEM many times for each element a
separate coordinate system is used. For example, for typical elements shown in Figure, the
local coordinates may be as shown in Figure. However the final equations are to be formed
in the common coordinate system i.e. global coordinate system only.

## Natural Co-ordinate system

A natural coordinate system is a coordinate system which permits the specification of a
point within the element by a set of dimensionless numbers, whose magnitude never
exceeds unity. It is obtained by assigning weightages to the nodal coordinates in defining
the coordinate of any point inside the element. Hence such system has the property that
ith coordinate has unit value at node i of the element and zero value at all other nodes.
The use of natural coordinate system is advantages in assembling element properties
(stiffness matrices), since closed form integrations formulae are available when the
expressions are in natural coordinate systems.
Natural coordinate in one dimension
Consider the two noded line element shown in Figure. Let the natural coordinate of point P
be (L1, L2) and the Cartesian coordinate be x. Node 1 and node 2 have the Cartesian
coordinates x1 and x2.

8.

Define stiffness matrix and explains its special features. (Properties of stiffness
Matrix)

The stiffness matrix, [K], relates the forces, {f}, applied at a set of coordinates on a
structure to the displacements, {v} at the same set of coordinates.
[K]{v} = {f}
Coordinates are defined by the locations and directions of the forces, {f}, and
displacements, {v}. Let's consider a structure with two coordinates:
Coordinates are defined by the locations and directions of the forces, {f}, and
displacements, {v}. Let's consider a structure with two coordinates:

[ K ] = K 11 K 12
K 21 K 22

This stiffness matrix represents a set of two equations with two unknowns.

K 11 v 1 + K 12 v 2=f 1
K 21 v 1+ K 22 v 2=f 2

## Stiffness matrix is symmetric,

[ K ] =[ K ]

, i.e.

K ij =K ji

1. It is a symmetric matrix,
2. The sum of elements in any column must be equal to zero,
3. It is an unstable element. So the determinant is equal to zero.
9.

## (a) Bar Element

(b) Truss Element
(c) Beam element

BAR ELEMENT
As shown in Fig., a linear spring with stiffness k has two nodes. Each node is subjected
to axial loads of f1 and f2, resulting in displacements of u1 and u2 their defined positive
directions.
Subjected to these nodal forces, the resulting deformation of the spring
u=u 1u2
becomes

## which is related to the force acting on the spring by

f 1 =ku=k (u 1u2)
The equilibrium of forces requires that,
Which yields

f 1 =f 2

f 2=k (u 2u1)

## Rewriting above equations in matrix form as below,

]{ } { }

k k u1 = f 1
k k u2
f2

or

is stiffness matrix,

K e u e=f e
u

## is nodal displacement vector, and

is force vector

TRUSS Element
Fig. shows a typical plane truss. The truss may be statically determinate or indeterminate. In the analysis
all joints are assumed pin connected and all loads act at joints only. These assumptions result into no
bending of any member. All members are subjected to only direct stressestensile or compressive. Now
we are interested to see the finite element analysis procedure for such trusses.

Since the members are subjected to only axial forces, the displacements are only in the axial directions of
the members. Therefore the nodal variable vector for the typical bar element shown in Fig. 2 is

{}
'

= 1'
2
Where

1 ' and ' 2 are in the axial directions of the element. But the axial direction is not same

for all members. If we select x-y as global coordinate system, there are two displacement components at
every node. Hence the nodal variable vector for a typical element is,
T

=[ 1 2 3 4 ]
as shown in Fig. 11.12
From the Figure it is clear that

## '2= 3 cos + 4 sin

Direction cosines,

l=cos , m=sin

'1=l 1 +m 2
'2=l 3 +m 4
Further we can write

{}

1
{ ' }= = l m 0 0 2
0 0 l m 3

{}[

'
1
'
2

{ ' }=[ L ] { }

Where,
Where

[ L ]= l m 0 0
0

lm

and [L] is called transformation (or rotation) matrix. If the coordinates (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) of node 1 and 2
of
the elements are known, we can find

l=

( x 2x 1)
le

,m=

( y2 y 1 )
le

l e = ( x2 x1 ) + ( y 2 y 1 )

## and it may be called as element stiffness matrix in global coordinate system.

[ K ] e =[ L ]T [ k ][ L ]

[]

l 0
E A
m
[ K ] e = 0 e e 1 1 l m 0 0
l e 1 1 0 0 l m
0 l
0m

10.

][

What is meant by Quadratic Shape Function (explain three noded 1-D element) & its
derivation

## Explain different types of Boundary conditions

What is Axis Symmetric Element in FEA and its uses
What is local and Global Co-ordinate Systems? For 1D spar element derive
relationship between local and global co-ordinate system
A simple example in FEA, Geometry creation, Mesh generation, Solving and examining the
results Element types and their selection, Basic elements, Types of nodes, Degrees of
freedom, Interpolation, Automatic mesh generation, Selection of parameters, Boundary
conditions, Specifying loading
1.
What is Mesh Generation?

3.

## Briefly explain various attempts made to reduce memory requirement in storing

stiffness matrix.

4.

## Explain the following terms clearly

(i) Nodes, primary nodes, secondary nodes and internal nodes
(ii) Local coordinates, global coordinates, natural coordinates and area coordinates.
(iii) Higher order elements and lower order elements.

5.

## Explain the terms

(i) Constant strain triangle (CST)
(ii) Linear strain triangle(LST) and
(iii) Quadratic strain triangles (QST).

6.

## Explain the term Cr-continuity.

Explain the term Shape Functions. Why polynomial terms are preferred for shape
functions in finite element method ?
Determine the shape function for a two noded bar element using
(i) Cartesian coordinate system
(ii) Local coordinate system ranging from 1 to zero.
(iii) Local coordinate system with range -1 to 1.
Using generalized coordinate approach, determine shape functions for a two noded
beam element and apply necessary checks.
Write short note on Lagrange functions.
Differentiate between the terms lumped loads and consistent loads.
Write short notes on:
(a) Effect of element aspect ratio on accuracy
(b) Numbering nodes for band width minimization
(c) Mesh refinement vs higher order elements.
Discuss the various points to be considered while descretizing a structure for finite
element analysis.
Differentiate between a bar element and a truss element
Explain the elimination method and penalty method of imposing boundary conditions.
Comment on the two methods

## Plane stress/strain modelling techniques, Trusses, Definition and stiffness matrix,

Verification of results, Some examples, 2Dtruss, 2Dtruss with different, two dimensional
problems, Plane stress and plane strain, Axisymmetric Plates and shells,

1.

## State and explain the principle of minimum potential energy.

Explain terms Plane Stress and Plane Strain and its significance in FEA
What is meant by P method and h method used in FEA Analysis
Explain the isoparametric concept in finite element analysis.

The various elements so far we have seen are having straight edges. To take care of
curved boundaries refined meshes are to be used when straight edged elements are
employed. Even with refined meshes analysts were not happy with the results since
unnecessary stress concentrations are introduced. Higher order elements also do not
overcome the problem of suitably approximating curved boundaries. The isoparametric
concept brought out by Taig revolutionized the finite elements analysis and it also helped
in properly mapping the curved boundaries. They brought out the concept of mapping
regular triangular and rectangular elements in natural coordinate system, to arbitrary
shapes in global system as shown in Figure.

## Isoparametric concept is developed based on the following three basic theorems:

Theorem I: If two adjacent elements are generated using shape functions, then there is
continuity at the common edge.

It may be observed that in the parent element, for any point on edge AB, shape functions
Ni = 0 for nodes not on the edge and Ni exists for nodes on the edge. Hence the final
function is the same for the common edge
AB in any two adjacent elements, when we give the same coordinate values for the nodes
on common edge.
Hence edge AB is contiguous in the adjacent elements.
In the finite element analysis with isoparametric elements, shape functions are used for
defining the geometry as well as displacements. If the shape functions defining the
boundary and displacements are the same, the element is called as isoparametric element.

Theorem II: It states, if the shape functions used are such that continuity of
displacement is represented in the parent coordinates, then the continuity requirement,
will be satisfied in the isoparametric elements also.

Theorem III: The constant derivative conditions and condition for rigid body are
satisfied for all isoparametric elements if,

( N i )=1

State and explain the three basic laws on which isoparametric concept is developed.
Same as Above
Explain the terms isoparametric, subparametric and superparametric elements.
In the finite element analysis with isoparametric elements, shape functions are used for
defining the geometry as well as displacements. If the shape functions defining the
boundary and displacements are the same, the element is called as isoparametric element.

u=[ N ]{ }e ,

x=[N ]{x }e

and

## y=[N ]{ y }e where [N] is quadratic shape

function of serendipity family. The elements in which more number of nodes are used to
define geometry compared to the number of nodes used to define displacement are known
as superparametric element. One such element is shown in Figure (b) in which 8 nodes are
used to define the geometry and displacement is defined using only 4 nodes. In the stress
analysis where boundary is highly curved but stress gradient is not high, one can use these
elements advantageously. Figure (c) shows a subparametric element in which less number
of nodes are used to define geometry compared to the number of nodes used for defining
the displacements. Such elements can be used advantageously in case of geometry being
simple but stress gradient high.
Derive the stiffness matrix for a beam element.

Derive the general equation for determining the stiffness of an element with usual
notations in the form

## (i) Explain the principle of RayleighRitz method.

(ii) Write short note on variational principles.
(iii) Derive EulerLagrange equation for an integral function using variational
principle.
(iv) Using principle of minimum potential energy derive the expressions for consistent
loads for body forces and surface forces.

## Explain the term Shear locking. How this problem is overcome?

Write short notes on numerical integration and stress smoothening in the case of
four noded quadrilateral plate element.
Write short notes on
(i) Triangular plate bending elements
(ii) Conforming and non-conforming plate bending elements
(iii) Mindlins C0continuity element
(iv) Shear locking and
(v) Stress smoothening as applied to plate bending analysis.
Explain the different types of non-linearities encountered in structural analysis
Briefly explain the structure of a finite element analysis program.
Solving axial member problems, Beam stiffness matrix, Different loading conditions,
Formulation using Algor, Verification of results, Frames, Plane frame, Space frame,
Verification of results
Postprocessing, Stresses, Strains, Displacement, Animation, Plotting, Interfacing with
CAD and 3D analysis, Modeling techniques, Solid elements, Element refinement,
Formulation of problem, Interfacing with CAD systems, Examples with ProEngineer,
Inventor

## Skyline Storage Techniques and Memory Optimization Methods

Nonlinearities in FEM Analysis
Advantages of Polynomial function for shape function in FEA Analysis