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The term environment refers to all the components of the earth such as land, water and air, all
living and non-living organisms and interactions among them.

1.1. Types of Environment:

Natural Environment: Includes physical, chemical and biological things that occur naturally
in our surrounding (i.e., air, water, food, soil).
Man-made Environment: Includes physical structure where people live, work and play and
the consequences of human alteration to natural environment (e.g. Pollution).

2. Ecosystem
An ecosystem is all the living and nonliving things in a certain area. All the plants and animals,
even the microorganisms that live in the soil, are living parts of an ecosystem. Air, water, and
rocks are nonliving parts of an ecosystem.

2.1. Components of an Ecosystem

(a) Biotic Components Living things


Autotrophs: Produce their own food by photosynthesis or chemosynthesis

( e.g.; Plants )


Heterotrophs: Feed on Autotrophs on food; cannot produce their own food

(e.g. Animals)

(b) Abiotic Components Non- living things (e.g. Soil, sunlight, water, air,

3. Definition of Pollution
Pollution can be defined as any undesirable change in the physical, chemical, biological
characteristics of any component of the environment which can cause harm to life and property.

3.1. Types of Pollution

The different types of pollution are:

(i) Air pollution
(ii) Water pollution
(iii) Land pollution
(iv) Noise pollution

3.1.1. Air Pollution

Air pollution is defined as the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological
materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the
natural environment into the atmosphere.

Causes of Air Pollution:

Air pollution is caused by


Automobiles and Domestic fuels.


High Proportion of undesirable gases like

Sulphur dioxide.

Carbon monoxide.

Effects of Air Pollution:

Respiratory and heart problems.

Global warming.

Effect on Wildlife.

Depletion of Ozone layer.

Acid rain.

Controlling air pollution:

Maintaining a healthy distance between the industrial and residential areas.

The chimneys should be constructed tall in size so that the emissions must be
released higher up in the environment.

The Sulphur must be removed after burning.

The mining area should be planted with trees.

The coal fuel should be replaced with gas fuel to control the air pollution.

The automobiles must be designed with emission control system.

The wastes must be removed and recycled in the industrial plants and refineries.

Plants like pine and ribs need to be planted to metabolize the nitrogen oxides
and other pollutants.

3.1.2. Water pollution

Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers and
groundwater. Water pollution occurs when pollutants are directly or indirectly discharged into
water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds.

Causes of Water Pollution

Marine Dumping

Industrial Waste

Sewage mainly from households.

Nuclear waste.

Oil pollution.

Underground storage leaks.

Effects of Water Pollution

Diseases like Cholera, Malaria.

Typhoid (spread during the rainy season), Aquatic life gets destroyed.

Preventing Water Pollution:

Conserve water by turning off the tap.

Dont throw paints and oils in water channels.

Use environment friendly household products, such as washing powder, household

cleaning agents etc.

Take great care not to overuse pesticides and fertilizers.

Dont throw litter into rivers, lakes or oceans.

Help clean up any litter you see on beaches or in rivers and lakes, make sure it is
safe to collect the litter and put it in a nearby dustbin.

Suspended, solid particles and inorganic material can be removed by the use of

Use of biological filters and processes can naturally degrade the organic waste

After above two steps chemical additives are supplied to get rid of any left-over

3.1.3. Noise Pollution

Noise pollution is displeasing human, animal or machine-created sound that disrupts the
activity or balance of human or animal life.

Causes of Noise Pollution:

Noise Pollution is caused by:
Traffic Noise.
Air craft Noise.
Noise from construction and civil engineering works.
Noise from the Industries.
Noise from other sources.

Effects of Noise Pollution:

Hearing Loss.
High Blood Pressure.
Sleep Disturbance.
Preventing Noise Pollution

The government should ensure the new machines are noise proof.

Airports should be away from residential areas.

No horn boards should be put on/near school areas.

We should talk less and work more.

3.1.4. Land Pollution

It is the destruction of Earth's land surfaces through misuse of land resources by human
activities. Polluted land has deposits of liquid and solid waste such as rubbish, garbage, paper,
glass and plastic objects.

Causes of Land Pollution:

Accidental Spills
Industrial Accidents
Landfill and illegal dumping
Agricultural practices
Mining and other industries
Oil and fuel dumping
Buried wastes
Drainage of contaminated surface water into the soil.

Effects of Land Pollution:

Cause problems in the human respiratory system.
Cause problems on the skin.
Cause various kinds of cancers.
The toxic materials that pollute the soil can get into the human body directly by
into contact with the skin.
washed into water sources like reservoirs and rivers.
Eating fruits and vegetables that have been grown in polluted soil.
Breathing in polluted dust or particles.
Preventing Land pollution:
More and more land should be brought under farming.
Trees should be planted everywhere.
Waste matter should be disposed immediately Avoid drilling lands for underground
Avoid using fertilizer and pesticides for farming.

4. Role of Teacher in Promoting Conservation of Environment

Teachers play a vital role in nurturing attitude and values among children for developing a
better environment and making them realise their duties and role in preserving the earth.

To bring an awareness programme to protect the environment.

Teaching the students about the 3Rs: Reuse, Reduce and Recycle would really make an

Develop awareness among students and educating the students on how to conserve the
environment would mold them into better environmental stewards.

Students may be taught how to conserve energy, paper recycling, waste segregation or

Impart quality education on environment to the students and generate awareness among
them for promoting sustainable development.

Making visits to zoos, wildlife reserves and national parks also inhibit a close
familiarity with the students for nature and wildlife.

Activities like best out of waste should be organized in schools where children should
participate and learn how to use waste and used things to make new things.

Organizing nature related documentaries in school and discuss them in classrooms.

Organizing some environment-oriented programs and competitions on occasions like

World Environment Day, World Water Day, World Wildlife Day.

Teach students to switch off all switches when not in use to save electricity.

Guiding students to save water and not to leave the taps running in washrooms.

Students should be encouraged to plant trees and take care of them.

Tube lights in the classrooms should be replaced with CFLs to reduce electricity
consumption, and students should be made aware of it.

Schools should have solar power plants and teach the students about them at operational
and theoretical level.

Teach students about water harvesting and its importance in conserving the

The importance of greenery and cleanliness should be taught.

Save water, Save Earth campaigns should be held in school and students of all
grades should be encouraged to participate in the campaigns.



Thus by promoting environmental education, exposing students to issues related to the

environment, making them aware of green living and adopting an eco-friendly life, we can
assure a safer and responsible generation.