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Coordinates:37.33182N122.03118W

AppleInc.
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

AppleInc.isanAmericanmultinationaltechnology
companyheadquarteredinCupertino,California,that
designs,develops,andsellsconsumerelectronics,
computersoftware,andonlineservices.Itshardware
productsincludetheiPhonesmartphone,theiPadtablet
computer,theMacpersonalcomputer,theiPodportable
mediaplayer,andtheAppleWatchsmartwatch.Apple's
consumersoftwareincludestheOSXandiOSoperating
systems,theiTunesmediaplayer,theSafariwebbrowser,
andtheiLifeandiWorkcreativityandproductivitysuites.
ItsonlineservicesincludetheiTunesStore,theiOSApp
StoreandMacAppStore,andiCloud.
ApplewasfoundedbySteveJobs,SteveWozniak,and
RonaldWayneonApril1,1976,todevelopandsell
personalcomputers.[5]ItwasincorporatedasApple
Computer,Inc.onJanuary3,1977,andwasrenamedas
AppleInc.onJanuary9,2007,toreflectitsshiftedfocus
towardconsumerelectronics.Apple(NASDAQ:AAPL
(http://www.nasdaq.com/symbol/aapl))joinedtheDow
JonesIndustrialAverageonMarch19,2015.[6]
Appleistheworld'slargestinformationtechnology
companybyrevenue,theworld'slargesttechnology
companybytotalassets,[7]andtheworld'ssecondlargest
mobilephonemanufacturer.[8]InNovember2014,in
additiontobeingthelargestpubliclytradedcorporationin
theworldbymarketcapitalization,Applebecamethefirst
U.S.companytobevaluedatoverUS$700billion.[9]The
companyemploys115,000permanentfulltime
employeesasofJuly2015[4]andmaintains475retail
storesinseventeencountriesasofMarch2016.[1]It
operatestheonlineAppleStoreandiTunesStore,the
latterofwhichistheworld'slargestmusicretailer.There
areoveronebillionactivelyusedAppleproducts
worldwideasofMarch2016.[10]
Apple'sworldwideannualrevenuetotaled$233billionfor
thefiscalyearendinginSeptember2015.[3]Toputthis
intoperspectivethisrevenuegenerationaccountsfor
approximately1.25%ofthetotalUnitedStatesGDP.[11]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_Inc.

AppleInc.

AppleCampus(1InfiniteLoop,Cupertino,
California)
Type

Public

Tradedas

NASDAQ:AAPL(http://w
ww.nasdaq.com/symbol/aap
l)
DowJonesIndustrial
Averagecomponent
NASDAQ100component
S&P500component

Industry

Computerhardware
Computersoftware
Consumerelectronics
Digitaldistribution
FablessSiliconDesign

Founded

April1,1976,inCupertino,
California,U.S.

Founders

SteveJobs
SteveWozniak
RonaldWayne

Headquarters AppleCampus,Cupertino,
California,U.S.
Numberof
locations

478Appleretailstoresin17

Areaserved

Worldwide

countries(asofMarch2016)[1]

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Thecompanyenjoysahighlevelofbrandloyaltyand,
accordingtothe2014editionoftheInterbrandBest
GlobalBrandsreport,istheworld'smostvaluablebrand
withavaluationof$118.9billion.[12]Bytheendof2014,
thecorporationcontinuedtoreceivesignificantcriticism
regardingthelaborpracticesofitscontractorsandits
environmentalandbusinesspractices,includingthe
originsofsourcematerials.

Contents
1 History
1.1 197684:Foundingandincorporation
1.2 198491:SuccesswithMacintosh
1.3 199197:Decline,restructuring,
acquisitions
1.4 19972007:Returntoprofitability
1.5 200711:Successwithmobiledevices
1.6 201115:PostJobsera
1.7 2015present:"Theonlythingthathas
changediseverything"andfortieth
anniversary
2 Products
2.1 Mac
2.2 iPod
2.3 iPhone
2.4 iPad
2.5 AppleWatch
2.6 AppleTV
2.7 Software
2.8 Electricvehicles
3 Corporateidentity
3.1 Logo
3.2 Advertising
3.3 Brandloyalty
3.4 Homepage
3.5 Headquarters
3.6 Stores
4 Corporateaffairs
4.1 Corporateculture
4.2 Customerservice
4.3 Manufacturing
4.3.1 Laborpractices
4.4 Environmentalpracticesandinitiatives
4.4.1 Energy
4.4.2 Toxins
4.5 Finance
4.5.1 Taxpractices
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_Inc.

Keypeople

ArthurD.Levinson,Ph.D.
(Chairman)[2]
TimCook(CEO)
JonathanIve(CDO)
LucaMaestri(CFO)
JeffWilliams(COO)

Products

MaciPodiPhoneiPadApple
WatchAppleTVOSXiOS
watchOSiLifeiWork

Services

ApplePayAppleStoreonline
AppleStoreiTunesStoreiOS
AppStoreMacAppStore
iBooksStoreiCloudApple
Music

Revenue

US$233.715billion(2015)[3]

Operating
income

US$71.230billion(2015)[3]

Netincome

US$53.394billion(2015)[3]

Totalassets

US$305.277billion(2Q2016)[3]

Totalequity

US$174.820billion(2Q2016)[3]

Numberof
employees

115,000(asofJuly2015)[4]

Subsidiaries

FileMakerInc.Anobit
BraeburnCapitalBeats
Electronics

Website

www.apple.com(http://www.appl
e.com)

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5
6
7
8

4.6 Litigation
4.7 PrivacyStance
4.8 Charitablecauses
Seealso
References
Furtherreading
Externallinks

History
197684:Foundingandincorporation

TheAppleI,Apple'sfirstproduct,
wassoldasanassembledcircuit
boardandlackedbasicfeaturessuch
asakeyboard,monitor,andcase.The
ownerofthisunitaddedakeyboard
andawoodencase.

TheAppleII,introducedin1977,
wasamajortechnological
advancementoveritspredecessor.

Applewasestablishedon
April1,1976,bySteveJobs,
SteveWozniakandRonald
Wayne[13][14]tosellthe
AppleIpersonalcomputer
kit.TheAppleIkitswere
computerssinglehandedly
designedandhandbuiltby
Wozniak[15][16]andfirst
HomeofPaulandClaraJobs,on
showntothepublicatthe
CristDriveinLosAltos,California.
HomebrewComputer
SteveJobsformedAppleComputer
[17]
initsgaragewithSteveWozniakand
Club. TheAppleIwas
RonaldWaynein1976.
soldasamotherboard(with
CPU,RAM,andbasic
textualvideochips),which
waslessthanwhatisnowconsideredacompletepersonal
computer.[18]TheAppleIwentonsaleinJuly1976andwasmarket
pricedat$666.66($2,772in2016dollars,adjustedfor
inflation).[19][20][21][22][23][24]
ApplewasincorporatedJanuary3,1977,[25]withoutWayne,who
soldhisshareofthecompanybacktoJobsandWozniakfor$800.[14]
MultimillionaireMikeMarkkulaprovidedessentialbusiness
expertiseandfundingof$250,000duringtheincorporationof
Apple.[26][27]Duringthefirstfiveyearsofoperationsrevenuesgrew
exponentially,doublingabouteveryfourmonths.Between
September1977andSeptember1980yearlysalesgrewfrom
$775,000to$118m,anaverageannualgrowthrateof533%.[28]

TheAppleII,alsoinventedbyWozniak,wasintroducedonApril16,1977,atthefirstWestCoastComputer
Faire.Itdifferedfromitsmajorrivals,theTRS80andCommodorePET,becauseofitscharactercellbased
colorgraphicsandopenarchitecture.WhileearlyAppleIImodelsusedordinarycassettetapesasstorage
devices,theyweresupersededbytheintroductionofa51/4inchfloppydiskdriveandinterfacecalledthe
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DiskII.[29]TheAppleIIwaschosentobethedesktopplatformforthefirst"killerapp"ofthebusiness
world:VisiCalc,aspreadsheetprogram.[30]VisiCalccreatedabusinessmarketfortheAppleIIandgave
homeusersanadditionalreasontobuyanAppleII:compatibilitywiththeoffice.[30]BeforeVisiCalc,Apple
hadbeenadistantthirdplacecompetitortoCommodoreandTandy.[31][32]
Bytheendofthe1970s,Applehadastaffofcomputerdesignersandaproductionline.Thecompany
introducedtheAppleIIIinMay1980inanattempttocompetewithIBMandMicrosoftinthebusinessand
corporatecomputingmarket.[33]JobsandseveralAppleemployees,includingJefRaskin,visitedXerox
PARCinDecember1979toseetheXeroxAlto.XeroxgrantedAppleengineersthreedaysofaccesstothe
PARCfacilitiesinreturnfortheoptiontobuy100,000shares(800,000splitadjustedshares)ofAppleatthe
preIPOpriceof$10ashare.[34]
Jobswasimmediatelyconvincedthatallfuturecomputerswoulduseagraphicaluserinterface(GUI),and
developmentofaGUIbeganfortheAppleLisa.[35]In1982,however,hewaspushedfromtheLisateam
duetoinfighting.JobstookoverJefRaskin'slowcostcomputerproject,theMacintosh.Aracebrokeout
betweentheLisateamandtheMacintoshteamoverwhichproductwouldshipfirst.Lisawontheracein
1983andbecamethefirstpersonalcomputersoldtothepublicwithaGUI,butwasacommercialfailure
duetoitshighpricetagandlimitedsoftwaretitles.[36]
OnDecember12,1980,Applewentpublicat$22pershare,[37]generatingmorecapitalthananyIPOsince
FordMotorCompanyin1956andinstantlycreatingmoremillionaires(about300)thananycompanyin
history.[38]

198491:SuccesswithMacintosh
In1984,ApplelaunchedtheMacintosh,thefirstpersonalcomputer
tobesoldwithoutaprogramminglanguageatall.[39]Itsdebutwas
signifiedby"1984",a$1.5milliontelevisioncommercialdirectedby
RidleyScottthatairedduringthethirdquarterofSuperBowlXVIII
onJanuary22,1984.[40]Thecommercialisnowhailedasa
watershedeventforApple'ssuccess[41]anda"masterpiece".[42][43]
TheMacintoshinitiallysoldwell,butfollowupsaleswerenot
ThefirstMacintosh,releasedin1984,
strong[44]duetoitshighpriceandlimitedrangeofsoftwaretitles.
wasthefirstmassmarketpersonal
Themachine'sfortuneschangedwiththeintroductionofthe
computerfeaturinganintegral
LaserWriter,thefirstPostScriptlaserprintertobesoldata
graphicaluserinterfaceandmouse.
reasonableprice,andPageMaker,anearlydesktoppublishing
package.Ithasbeensuggestedthatthecombinationofthesethree
productswereresponsibleforthecreationofthedesktoppublishingmarket.[45]TheMacintoshwas
particularlypowerfulinthedesktoppublishingmarketduetoitsadvancedgraphicscapabilities,whichhad
necessarilybeenbuiltintocreatetheintuitiveMacintoshGUI.
In1985,apowerstruggledevelopedbetweenJobsandCEOJohnSculley,whohadbeenhiredtwoyears
earlier.[46]TheAppleboardofdirectorsinstructedSculleyto"contain"Jobsandlimithisabilitytolaunch
expensiveforaysintountestedproducts.RatherthansubmittoSculley'sdirection,Jobsattemptedtooust
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himfromhisleadershiproleatApple.SculleyfoundoutthatJobshadbeenattemptingtoorganizeacoup
andcalledaboardmeetingatwhichApple'sboardofdirectorssidedwithSculleyandremovedJobsfrom
hismanagerialduties.[44]JobsresignedfromAppleandfoundedNeXTInc.thesameyear.[47]

TheMacintoshPortable,releasedin
1989,wasApple'sfirstbattery
poweredportableMacintoshpersonal
computer.

AfterJobs'departure,theMacintoshproductlineunderwentasteady
changeoffocustohigherpricepoints,thesocalled"highright
policy"namedforthepositiononachartofpricevs.profits.Jobs
hadarguedthecompanyshouldproduceproductsaimedatthe
consumermarketandaimedfora$1000pricefortheMacintosh,
whichtheywereunabletomeet.Newermodelssellingathigher
pricepointsofferedhigherprofitmargin,andappearedtohaveno
effectontotalsalesaspoweruserssnappedupeveryincreasein
power.Althoughsomeworriedaboutpricingthemselvesoutofthe
market,thehighrightpolicywasinfullforcebythemid1980s,
notablyduetoJeanLouisGasse'smantraof"fiftyfiveordie",
referringtothe55%profitmarginsoftheMacintoshII.[48]

Thispolicybegantobackfireinthelastyearsofthedecadeasnew
desktoppublishingprogramsappearedonPCclonesthatoffered
someormuchofthesamefunctionalityoftheMacintoshbutatfar
lowerpricepoints.Thecompanylostitsmonopolyinthismarket,andhadalreadyestrangedmanyofits
originalconsumercustomerbasewhocouldnolongeraffordtheirhighpricedproducts.TheChristmas
seasonof1989wasthefirstinthecompany'shistorythatsawdecliningsales,andledtoa20%dropin
Apple'sstockprice.[49]Gasse'sobjectionswereoverruled,andhewasforcedfromthecompanyin1990.
Laterthatyear,Appleintroducedthreelowercostmodels,theMacintoshClassic,MacintoshLCand
MacintoshIIsi,allofwhichsawsignificantsalesduetopentupdemand.
In1991AppleintroducedthePowerBook,replacingthe"luggable"MacintoshPortablewithadesignthat
setthecurrentshapeforalmostallmodernlaptops.Thesameyear,AppleintroducedSystem7,amajor
upgradetotheoperatingsystemwhichaddedcolortotheinterfaceandintroducednewnetworking
capabilities.ItremainedthearchitecturalbasisforMacOSuntil2001.ThesuccessofthePowerBookand
otherproductsbroughtincreasingrevenue.[46]Forsometime,Applewasdoingincrediblywell,introducing
freshnewproductsandgeneratingincreasingprofitsintheprocess.ThemagazineMacAddictnamedthe
periodbetween1989and1991asthe"firstgoldenage"oftheMacintosh.
ApplebelievedtheAppleIIserieswastooexpensivetoproduceandtookawaysalesfromthelowend
Macintosh.[50]In1990,ApplereleasedtheMacintoshLC,whichfeaturedasingleexpansionslotforthe
AppleIIeCardtohelpmigrateAppleIIuserstotheMacintoshplatform[50]theAppleIIewasdiscontinued
in1993.

199197:Decline,restructuring,acquisitions
ThesuccessofApple'slowercostconsumermodels,especiallytheLC,alsoledtocannibalizationoftheir
higherpricedmachines.Toaddressthis,managementintroducedseveralnewbrands,sellinglargely
identicalmachinesatdifferentpricepointsaimedatdifferentmarkets.ThesewerethehighendQuadra,the
midrangeCentrisline,andtheillfatedPerformaseries.Thisledtosignificantmarketconfusion,as
customersdidnotunderstandthedifferencebetweenmodels.[52]
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Applealsoexperimentedwithanumberofotherunsuccessful
consumertargetedproductsduringthe1990s,includingdigital
cameras,portableCDaudioplayers,speakers,videoconsoles,the
eWorldonlineservice,andTVappliances.Enormousresourceswere
alsoinvestedintheproblemplaguedNewtondivisionbasedonJohn
Sculley'sunrealisticmarketforecasts.Ultimately,noneofthese
productshelpedandApple'smarketshareandstockpricescontinued
toslide.
ThePenlitewasApple'sfirstattempt

Throughoutthisperiod,Microsoftcontinuedtogainmarketshare
atatabletcomputer.Createdin1992,
withWindowsbyfocusingondeliveringsoftwaretocheap
theprojectwasdesignedtobringthe
commoditypersonalcomputers,whileApplewasdeliveringarichly
MacOStoatouchscreendisplay
[53]
butwasshelvedinfavourofthe
engineeredbutexpensiveexperience. Applereliedonhighprofit
marginsandneverdevelopedaclearresponseinstead,theysued
Newton. [51]
MicrosoftforusingaGUIsimilartotheAppleLisainApple
Computer,Inc.v.MicrosoftCorp..[54]Thelawsuitdraggedonfor
yearsbeforeitwasfinallydismissed.Atthistime,aseriesofmajorproductflopsandmisseddeadlines
sulliedApple'sreputation,andSculleywasreplacedasCEObyMichaelSpindler.[55]
Bytheearly1990s,Applewasdevelopingalternativeplatformsto
theMacintosh,suchasA/UX.TheMacintoshplatformitselfwas
becomingoutdatedbecauseitwasnotbuiltformultitaskingand
becauseseveralimportantsoftwareroutineswereprogrammed
directlyintothehardware.Inaddition,Applewasfacingcompetition
fromOS/2andUNIXvendorssuchasSunMicrosystems.The
Macintoshwouldneedtobereplacedbyanewplatformorreworked
torunonmorepowerfulhardware.[56]

TheNewtonwasApple'sfirstforay
intothePDAmarkets,aswellasone
ofthefirstintheindustry.Despite
beingafinancialflopatthetimeof
itsrelease,ithelpedpavethewayfor
thePalmPilotandApple'sown
iPhoneandiPadinthefuture.

In1994,ApplealliedwithIBMandMotorolaintheAIMalliance
withthegoalofcreatinganewcomputingplatform(thePowerPC
ReferencePlatform),whichwoulduseIBMandMotorolahardware
coupledwithApplesoftware.TheAIMalliancehopedthatPReP's
performanceandApple'ssoftwarewouldleavethePCfarbehindand
thuscounterMicrosoft.Thesameyear,AppleintroducedthePower
Macintosh,thefirstofmanyApplecomputerstouseMotorola's
PowerPCprocessor.[57]

In1996,SpindlerwasreplacedbyGilAmelioasCEO.Ameliomade
numerouschangesatApple,includingextensivelayoffsandcutcosts.[58]Afternumerousfailedattemptsto
improveMacOS,firstwiththeTaligentprojectandlaterwithCoplandandGershwin,Ameliochoseto
purchaseNeXTanditsNeXTSTEPoperatingsystemandbringSteveJobsbacktoApple.[59]

19972007:Returntoprofitability
TheNeXTdealwasfinalizedonFebruary9,1997,[60]bringingJobsbacktoAppleasanadvisor.OnJuly9,
1997,Ameliowasoustedbytheboardofdirectorsafteroverseeingathreeyearrecordlowstockpriceand
cripplingfinanciallosses.JobsactedastheinterimCEOandbeganrestructuringthecompany'sproductline
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itwasduringthisperiodthatheidentifiedthedesigntalentof
JonathanIve,andthepairworkedcollaborativelytorebuild
Apple'sstatus.[61]
Atthe1997MacworldExpo,JobsannouncedthatApple
wouldjoinMicrosofttoreleasenewversionsofMicrosoft
OfficefortheMacintosh,andthatMicrosofthadmadea$150
millioninvestmentinnonvotingApplestock.[62]On
November10,1997,AppleintroducedtheAppleOnline
Store,whichwastiedtoanewbuildtoordermanufacturing
strategy.[63][64]

PowerMacwasalineofAppleMacintosh
workstationclasspersonalcomputersbased
onvariousmodelsofPowerPC
microprocessorsthatweredevelopedfrom
March1994untilAugust2006.

OnAugust15,1998,Appleintroducedanewallinone
computerreminiscentoftheMacintosh128K:theiMac.The
iMacdesignteamwasledbyIve,whowouldlaterdesignthe
iPodandtheiPhone.[65][66]TheiMacfeaturedmoderntechnologyandauniquedesign,andsoldalmost
800,000unitsinitsfirstfivemonths.[67]

Duringthisperiod,Applecompletednumerousacquisitionstocreateaportfolioofdigitalproduction
softwareforbothprofessionalsandconsumers.In1998,ApplepurchasedMacromedia'sKeyGripsoftware
project,signalinganexpansionintothedigitalvideoeditingmarket.Thesalewasanoutcomeof
Macromedia'sdecisiontosolelyfocusuponwebdevelopmentsoftware.Theproduct,stillunfinishedatthe
timeofthesale,wasrenamed"FinalCutPro"whenitwaslaunchedontheretailmarketinApril
1999.[68][69]ThedevelopmentofKeyGripalsoledtoApple'sreleaseoftheconsumervideoeditingproduct
iMovieinOctober1999.[70]Next,ApplesuccessfullyacquiredtheGermancompanyAstarte,whichhad
developedDVDauthoringtechnology,aswellasAstarte'scorrespondingproductsandengineeringteamin
April2000.Astarte'sdigitaltoolDVDirectorwassubsequentlytransformedintotheprofessionaloriented
DVDStudioProsoftwareproduct.ApplethenemployedthesametechnologytocreateiDVDforthe
consumermarket.[70]In2002,ApplepurchasedNothingRealfortheiradvanceddigitalcompositing
applicationShake,[71]aswellasEmagicforthemusicproductivityapplicationLogic.Thepurchaseof
EmagicmadeApplethefirstcomputermanufacturertoownamusicsoftwarecompany.Theacquisitionwas
followedbythedevelopmentofApple'sconsumerlevelGarageBandapplication.[72]ThereleaseofiPhoto
inthesameyearcompletedtheiLifesuite.[73]
MacOSX,basedonNeXT'sOPENSTEPandBSDUnix,wasreleasedonMarch24,2001afterseveral
yearsofdevelopment.Aimedatconsumersandprofessionalsalike,MacOSXaimedtocombinethe
stability,reliabilityandsecurityofUnixwiththeeaseofuseaffordedbyanoverhauleduserinterface.Toaid
usersinmigratingfromMacOS9,thenewoperatingsystemallowedtheuseofOS9applicationswithin
MacOSXviatheClassicEnvironment.[74]
OnMay19,2001,AppleopenedthefirstofficialAppleRetailStoresinVirginiaandCalifornia.[75]On
October23ofthesameyear,AppledebutedtheiPodportabledigitalaudioplayer.Theproduct,whichwas
firstsoldonNovember10,2001,wasphenomenallysuccessfulwithover100millionunitssoldwithinsix
years.[76][77]In2003,Apple'siTunesStorewasintroduced.Theserviceofferedonlinemusicdownloadsfor
$0.99asongandintegrationwiththeiPod.TheiTunesstorequicklybecamethemarketleaderinonline
musicservices,withover5billiondownloadsbyJune19,2008.[78]
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TheMacBookPro,Apple'sfirst
laptopwithanIntelmicroprocessor,
introducedinJanuary2006.

AppleInc.Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

AttheWorldwideDevelopersConferencekeynoteaddressonJune
6,2005,JobsannouncedthatApplewouldbeginproducingIntel
basedMaccomputersin2006.[79]OnJanuary10,2006,thenew
MacBookProandiMacbecamethefirstApplecomputerstouse
Intel'sCoreDuoCPU.ByAugust7,2006,Applemadethetransition
toIntelchipsfortheentireMacproductlineoveroneyearsooner
thanannounced.[79]ThePowerMac,iBookandPowerBookbrands
wereretiredduringthetransitiontheMacPro,MacBook,and
MacBookProbecametheirrespectivesuccessors.[80][81]OnApril
29,2009,TheWallStreetJournalreportedthatApplewasbuilding
itsownteamofengineerstodesignmicrochips.[82]Applealso
introducedBootCampin2006tohelpusersinstallWindowsXPor
WindowsVistaontheirIntelMacsalongsideMacOSX.[83]

Apple'ssuccessduringthisperiodwasevidentinitsstockprice.Betweenearly2003and2006,thepriceof
Apple'sstockincreasedmorethantenfold,fromaround$6pershare(splitadjusted)toover$80.InJanuary
2006,Apple'smarketcapsurpassedthatofDell.[84]Nineyearsprior,Dell'sCEOMichaelDellhadsaidthat
ifheranApplehewould"shutitdownandgivethemoneybacktotheshareholders."[85]AlthoughApple's
marketshareincomputershadgrown,itremainedfarbehindcompetitorsusingMicrosoftWindows,
accountingforabout8%ofdesktopsandlaptopsintheUS.
Since2001,Apple'sdesignteamhasprogressivelyabandonedtheuseoftranslucentcoloredplasticsfirst
usedintheiMacG3.ThisdesignchangebeganwiththetitaniummadePowerBookandwasfollowedbythe
iBook'swhitepolycarbonatestructureandtheflatpaneliMac.[86][87]

200711:Successwithmobiledevices
DuringhiskeynotespeechattheMacworldExpoonJanuary9,2007,JobsannouncedthatAppleComputer,
Inc.wouldthereafterbeknownas"AppleInc.",becausethecompanyhadshifteditsemphasisfrom
computerstoconsumerelectronics.[89][90]ThiseventalsosawtheannouncementoftheiPhoneandthe
AppleTV.[91][92][93][94]Thefollowingday,Appleshareshit$97.80,analltimehighatthatpoint.InMay,
Apple'ssharepricepassedthe$100mark.[95]ApplewouldachievewidespreadsuccesswithitsiPhone,iPod
TouchandiPadproducts,whichintroducedinnovationsinmobilephones,portablemusicplayersand
personalcomputersrespectively.[96]Furthermore,byearly2007,800,000FinalCutProuserswere
registered.[97]
InanarticlepostedonApple'swebsiteonFebruary6,2007,JobswrotethatApplewouldbewillingtosell
musicontheiTunesStorewithoutdigitalrightsmanagement(DRM),therebyallowingtrackstobeplayed
onthirdpartyplayers,ifrecordlabelswouldagreetodropthetechnology.[98]OnApril2,2007,Appleand
EMIjointlyannouncedtheremovalofDRMtechnologyfromEMI'scatalogintheiTunesStore,effectivein
May2007.[99]OtherrecordlabelseventuallyfollowedsuitandApplepublishedapressreleaseinJanuary
2009toannouncethecorrespondingchangestotheiTunesStore.[100]

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InJuly2008,ApplelaunchedtheAppStoretosellthirdparty
applicationsfortheiPhoneandiPodTouch.[101]Withinamonth,the
storesold60millionapplicationsandregisteredanaveragedaily
revenueof$1million,withJobsspeculatinginAugust2008thatthe
AppStorecouldbecomeabilliondollarbusinessforApple.[102]By
October2008,Applewasthethirdlargestmobilehandsetsupplierin
theworldduetothepopularityoftheiPhone.[103]
OnDecember16,2008,Appleannouncedthat2009wouldbethelast
yearthecorporationwouldattendtheMacworldExpo,aftermorethan
20yearsofattendance,andthatseniorvicepresidentofWorldwide
ProductMarketingPhilipSchillerwoulddeliverthe2009keynote
addressinlieuoftheexpectedJobs.Theofficialpressreleaseexplained
thatApplewas"scalingback"ontradeshowsingeneral,including
MacworldTokyoandtheAppleExpoinParis,France,primarily
becausetheenormoussuccessesoftheAppleRetailStoresandwebsite
hadrenderedtradeshowsaminorpromotionalchannel.[104][105]

AfifthgenerationiPod,oneof
JonathanIve'smostrecognised
industrialdesigns.iPodhasbeen
phenomenallysuccessfulwith
over390millionunitssold

OnJanuary14,2009,aninternalmemofromJobsannouncedthathe
worldwide. [88]
wouldbetakingasixmonthmedicalleaveofabsencefromAppleuntil
theendofJune2009andwouldspendthetimefocusingonhishealth.
Intheemail,Jobsstatedthat"thecuriosityovermypersonalhealthcontinuestobeadistractionnotonlyfor
meandmyfamily,buteveryoneelseatAppleaswell",andexplainedthatthebreakwouldallowthe
company"tofocusondeliveringextraordinaryproducts".[106]DespiteJobs'sabsence,Applerecordedits
bestnonholidayquarter(Q1FY2009)duringtherecessionwithrevenueof$8.16billionandprofitof
$1.21billion.[107][108]
Afteryearsofspeculationandmultiplerumored"leaks",Apple
announcedalargescreen,tabletlikemediadeviceknownastheiPad
onJanuary27,2010.TheiPadranthesametouchbasedoperating
systemastheiPhone,andmanyiPhoneappswerecompatiblewith
theiPad.ThisgavetheiPadalargeappcatalogonlaunch,despite
verylittledevelopmenttimebeforetherelease.Laterthatyearon
April3,2010,theiPadwaslaunchedintheUS.Itsoldmorethan
300,000unitsonitsfirstday,and500,000bytheendofthefirst
week.[109]InMayofthesameyear,Apple'smarketcapexceeded
thatofcompetitorMicrosoftforthefirsttimesince1989.[110]

Wikinewshasrelated
news:
Appleunveils
iPhone4,iOS4at
Worldwide
Developers
Conference2010
Appletogivefree
cases,refundsto
iPhone4owners
Appleunveilsnew
iPods,AppleTV
updatesiOS,
iTunes
Appleunveilsnew
MacBookAir
laptops,iLife'11
softwaresuite

InJune2010,ApplereleasedtheiPhone4,[111]whichintroduced
videocalling,multitasking,andanewuninsulatedstainlesssteel
designthatactedasthephone'santenna.Laterthatyear,Appleagain
refresheditsiPodlineofMP3playersbyintroducingamultitouch
iPodNano,aniPodTouchwithFaceTime,andaniPodShufflethat
broughtbackthebuttonsofearliergenerations.[112][113][114]
Additionally,onOctober20,AppleupdatedtheMacBookAirlaptop,iLifesuiteofapplications,and
unveiledMacOSXLion,thelastversionwiththenameMacOSX.[115]
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InOctober2010,Appleshareshitanalltimehigh,eclipsing$300.[116]
OnJanuary6,2011,thecompanyopeneditsMacAppStore,a
digitalsoftwaredistributionplatformsimilartotheiOSApp
Store.[117]
AlongsidepeerentitiessuchasAtariandCiscoSystems,Applewas
featuredinthedocumentarySomethingVenturedwhichpremieredin
2011andexploredthethreedecadeerathatledtotheestablishment
anddominanceofSiliconValley.[118]
AppleStoreinYonkers,NewYork

OnJanuary17,2011,JobsannouncedinaninternalApplememo
thathewouldtakeanothermedicalleaveofabsence,foran
indefiniteperiod,toallowhimtofocusonhishealth.ChiefoperatingofficerTimCookassumedJobs'sday
todayoperationsatApple,althoughJobswouldstillremain"involvedinmajorstrategicdecisions".[119]
Applebecamethemostvaluableconsumerfacingbrandintheworld.[120]InJune2011,Jobssurprisingly
tookthestageandunveilediCloud,anonlinestorageandsyncingserviceformusic,photos,filesand
softwarewhichreplacedMobileMe,Apple'spreviousattemptatcontentsyncing.[121]
ThiswouldbethelastproductlaunchJobswouldattendbeforehisdeath.IthasbeenarguedthatApplehas
achievedsuchefficiencyinitssupplychainthatthecompanyoperatesasamonopsony(onebuyer,many
sellers)andcandictatetermstoitssuppliers.[122][123][124]InJuly2011,duetotheAmericandebtceiling
crisis,Apple'sfinancialreserveswerebrieflylargerthanthoseoftheU.S.Government.[125]
OnAugust24,2011,JobsresignedhispositionasCEOofApple.[126]HewasreplacedbyCookandJobs
becameApple'schairman.Priortothis,Appledidnothaveachairmanandinsteadhadtwocolead
directors,AndreaJungandArthurD.Levinson,whocontinuedwiththosetitlesuntilLevinsonbecame
ChairmanoftheBoardinNovember.[127]

201115:PostJobsera
OnOctober5,2011,AppleannouncedthatJobshaddied,markingtheendofaneraforApple.[128][129]The
firstmajorproductannouncementbyApplefollowingJobs'spassingoccurredonJanuary19,2012,when
Apple'sPhilSchillerintroducediBooksTextbooksforiOSandiBookAuthorforMacOSXinNewYork
City.[130]Jobshadstatedinhisbiographythathewantedtoreinventthetextbookindustryandeducation.
From2011to2012,ApplereleasedtheiPhone4SandiPhone5,whichfeaturedimprovedcameras,an
"intelligentsoftwareassistant"namedSiri,andcloudsourceddatawithiCloud[131][132][133]thethirdand
fourthgenerationiPads,whichfeaturedRetinadisplays[134][135][136]andtheiPadMini,whichfeatureda
7.9inchscreenincontrasttotheiPad's9.7inchscreen.[137]Theselaunchesweresuccessful,withthe
iPhone5(releasedSeptember21,2012)becomingApple'sbiggestiPhonelaunchwithover2millionpre
orders[138]andsalesof3millioniPadsinthreedaysfollowingthelaunchoftheiPadMiniandfourth
generationiPad(releasedNovember3,2012).[139]Applealsoreleasedathirdgeneration13inchMacBook
ProwithaRetinadisplayandnewiMacandMacMinicomputers.[136][137][140]
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OnOctober29,2011,ApplepurchasedC3Technologies,amappingcompany,for$240million,becoming
thethirdmappingcompanyApplehaspurchased.[141]OnJanuary10,2012,Applepaid$500millionto
acquireAnobit,anIsraelihardwarecompanythatdevelopedandsuppliedaproprietarymemorysignal
processingtechnologythatimprovedtheperformanceoftheflashmemoryusediniPhonesand
iPads.[142][143]OnJuly24,2012,duringaconferencecallwithinvestors,TimCooksaidthathelovedIndia,
butthatApplewasgoingtoexpectlargeropportunitiesoutsideofIndia.Cookcitedthereasonasthe30%
sourcingrequirementfromIndia.[144][145][146][147]
OnAugust20,2012,Apple'srisingstockrosethecompany'svaluetoaworldrecord$624billion.Thisbeat
thenoninflationadjustedrecordformarketcapitalizationsetbyMicrosoftin1999.[148]OnAugust24,
2012,aUSjuryruledthatSamsungshouldpayApple$1.05billion(665m)indamagesinanintellectual
propertylawsuit.[149]Samsungappealedthedamagesaward,whichtheCourtreducedby$450million.[150]
TheCourtfurthergrantedSamsung'srequestforanewtrial.[150]OnNovember10,2012,Appleconfirmeda
globalsettlementthatwoulddismissalllawsuitsbetweenAppleandHTCuptothatdate,infavorofaten
yearlicenseagreementforcurrentandfuturepatentsbetweenthetwocompanies.[151]Itispredictedthat
Applewillmake$280millionayearfromthisdealwithHTC.[152]
ApreviouslyconfidentialemailwrittenbyJobsayearbeforehisdeath,waspresentedduringthe
proceedingsoftheAppleInc.v.SamsungElectronicsCo.lawsuitsandbecamepubliclyavailableinearly
April2014.Withasubjectlinethatreads"Top100A,"theemailwassentonlytothecompany's100most
senioremployeesandoutlinesJobs'svisionofAppleInc.'sfutureunder10subheadings.Notably,Jobs
declaresa"HolyWarwithGoogle"for2011andschedulesa"newcampus"for2015.[153]
InMarch2013,Applefiledapatentforanaugmentedreality(AR)systemthatcanidentifyobjectsinalive
videostreamandpresentinformationcorrespondingtotheseobjectsthroughacomputergenerated
informationlayeroverlaidontopoftherealworldimage.[154]Laterin2013,AppleacquiredEmbarkInc.,a
smallSiliconValleybasedmappingcompanythatbuildsfreetransitappstohelpsmartphoneusersnavigate
publictransportationinU.S.cities,[155]andPrimeSense,anIsraeli3DsensingcompanybasedinTel
Aviv.[156]InDecember2013,AppleInc.purchasedsocialanalyticsfirmTopsy.Topsyisoneofasmall
numberoffirmswithrealtimeaccesstothemessagesthatappearonTwitterandcan"dorealtimeanalysis
ofthetrendsanddiscussionshappeningonTwitter".[157]Thecompanyalsomadeseveralhighprofilehiring
decisionsin2013.OnJuly2,2013,ApplerecruitedPaulDeneve,BelgianPresidentandCEOofYvesSaint
LaurentasavicepresidentreportingdirectlytoTimCook.[158]AmidOctober2013announcementrevealed
thatBurberryexecutiveAngelaAhrendtswillcommenceasaseniorvicepresidentatAppleinmid2014.
AhrendtsoversawBurberry'sdigitalstrategyforalmosteightyearsand,duringhertenure,salesincreasedto
aboutUS$3.2billionandsharesgainedmorethanthreefold.[159]
AttheWorldwideDeveloper'sConferenceonJune10,2013,AppleannouncedtheseventhiOSoperating
systemalongsideOSXMavericks,thetenthversionofMacOSX,andanewInternetradioservicecalled
iTunesRadio.[160][161][162]iTunesRadio,iOS7andOSXMaverickswerereleasedfall2013.[160][161][163]
OnDecember6,2013,AppleInc.launchediBeaconacrossits254U.S.retailstores.UsingBluetooth
wirelesstechnology,iBeaconsensestheuser'sexactlocationwithintheApplestoreandsendstheuser
messagesaboutproducts,eventsandotherinformation,tailoredtotheuser'slocation.[164]

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AlongsideGooglevicepresidentVintCerfandAT&TCEORandallStephenson,Cookattendedaclosed
doorsummitheldbyPresidentObamaonAugust8,2013,inregardtogovernmentsurveillanceandthe
InternetinthewakeoftheEdwardSnowdenNSAincident.[165][166]OnFebruary4,2014,Cookmetwith
AbdullahGl,thePresidentofTurkey,inAnkaratodiscussthecompany'sinvolvementintheFatih
project.[167]CookalsoconfirmedthatTurkey'sfirstAppleRetailStorewouldbeopenedinIstanbulinApril
2014.[168]
AnanonymousAppleemployeerevealedtotheBloombergmediapublicationthattheopeningofaTokyo,
Japan,storewasplannedfor2014.AJapaneseanalysthasstated,"ForApple,theJapanesemarketis
appealingintermsofquantityandprice.ThereisroomtoexpandtabletsalesandapossibilitytheJapanese
marketexpandsifApplesmobilecarrierpartnersincrease."[169]AsofJune13,2014,Appleoperatedthree
storesinTokyo.[170]OnOctober1,2013,AppleIndiaexecutivesunveiledaplantoexpandfurtherintothe
Indianmarket,followingCook'sacknowledgmentofthecountryinJuly2013whensalesresultsshowed
thatiPhonesalesinIndiagrew400%duringthesecondquarterof2013.[171]
AppleInc.reportedthatthecompanysold51millioniPhonesintheQ1of2014(analltimequarterly
record),comparedto47.8millionintheyearagoquarter.Applealsosold26millioniPadsduringthe
quarter,alsoanalltimequarterlyrecord,comparedto22.9millionintheyearagoquarter.TheCompany
sold4.8millionMacs,comparedto4.1millionintheyearagoquarter.[172]OnMay28,2014,Apple
confirmeditsintenttoacquireDr.DreandJimmyIovine'saudiocompanyBeatsElectronicsproducerof
theBeatsbyDr.Drelineofheadphonesandspeakerproducts,andoperatorofthemusicstreamingservice
BeatsMusicfor$3billion,andtoselltheirproductsthroughApple'sretailoutletsandresellers.Iovinefelt
thatBeatshadalways"belonged"withApple,asthecompanymodeleditselfafterApple's"unmatched
abilitytomarrycultureandtechnology."[173][174][175]InAugust2014,anApplerepresentativeconfirmedto
themediathatAnandLalShimpi,editorandpublisheroftheAnandTechwebsite,hadbeenrecruitedby
ApplewithoutelaboratingonLalShimpi'srole.[176]

2015present:"Theonlythingthathaschangediseverything"andfortieth
anniversary
In2016,itwasrevealedthatApplewouldbemakingitsfirstoriginalscriptedseries,[177]asixepisode
dramaaboutthelifeofDr.Dre.MusicVideodirectorPaulHunterwilldirecttheseries.[177]
OnMay12,2016,AppleInc.,invested$1billionUSDinDidiChuxing,aChinesecompetitorto
Uber.[178][179][180]

Products
Mac
Macsthatarecurrentlybeingsoldare:
MacBook:Consumerultrathin,ultraportablenotebook,introducedin2006andrelaunchedin2015.
MacBookAir:Consumerultrathin,ultraportablenotebook,introducedin2008.
MacBookPro:Professionalnotebook,introducedin2006.
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MacMini:Consumersubdesktopcomputer,introducedin2005.
iMac:Consumerallinonedesktopcomputer,introducedin1998.
MacPro:Workstationdesktopcomputer,introducedin2006.
ApplesellsavarietyofcomputeraccessoriesforMacs,includingThunderboltDisplay,MagicMouse,
MagicTrackpad,WirelessKeyboard,BatteryCharger,theAirPortwirelessnetworkingproducts,andTime
Capsule.

iPod
OnOctober23,2001,AppleintroducedtheiPoddigitalmusic
player.Severalupdatedmodelshavesincebeenintroduced,andthe
iPodbrandisnowthemarketleaderinportablemusicplayersbya
significantmargin.Morethan350millionunitshaveshippedasof
September2012.[181]ApplehaspartneredwithNiketoofferthe
Nike+iPodSportsKit,enablingrunnerstosynchronizeandmonitor
theirrunswithiTunesandtheNike+website.
ApplecurrentlysellsthreevariantsoftheiPod:
iPodShuffle:Ultraportabledigitalaudioplayer,currently
availableina2GBmodel,introducedin2005.
iPodlineasof2014.Fromleftto
iPodNano:Portablemediaplayer,currentlyavailableina
right:iPodShuffle,iPodNano,iPod
16GBmodel,introducedin2005.Earliermodelsfeaturedthe
Touch.
traditionaliPodclickwheel,butthecurrentgenerationfeatures
amultitouchinterfaceandincludesanFMradioanda
pedometer.
iPodTouch:PortablemediaplayerthatrunsiOSandiscurrentlyavailablein16,32,64,and128GB
models,introducedin2007.ThecurrentgenerationfeaturestheAppleA8processor,aRetinadisplay,
Sirianddualcamerasonthefront(1.2megapixelsensor)andback(8megapixeliSight).Thelatter
camerasupportsHDvideorecordingat1080pandslowmotionvideoat120fpsin720p.[182]

iPhone
AttheMacworldConference&ExpoinJanuary2007,SteveJobsintroducedthelonganticipated[183]
iPhone,aconvergenceofanInternetenabledsmartphoneandiPod.[184]ThefirstgenerationiPhonewas
releasedonJune29,2007for$499(4GB)and$599(8GB)withanAT&Tcontract.[185]OnFebruary5,
2008,itwasupdatedtohave16GBofmemory,inadditiontothe8GBand4GBmodels.[186]Itcombineda
2.5GquadbandGSMandEDGEcellularphonewithfeaturesfoundinhandhelddevices,runningscaled
downversionsofApple'sMacOSX(dubbediPhoneOS,laterrenamediOS),withvariousMacOSX
applicationssuchasSafariandMail.ItalsoincludeswebbasedandDashboardappssuchasGoogleMaps
andWeather.TheiPhonefeaturesa3.5inch(89mm)touchscreendisplay,Bluetooth,andWiFi(both"b"
and"g").[184]
Asecondversion,theiPhone3G,wasreleasedonJuly11,2008withareducedpriceof$199forthe8GB
versionand$299forthe16GBversion.[187]Thisversionaddedsupportfor3Gnetworkingandassisted
GPSnavigation.Theflatsilverbackandlargeantennasquareoftheoriginalmodelwereeliminatedinfavor
ofaglossy,curvedblackorwhiteback.SoftwarecapabilitieswereimprovedwiththereleaseoftheApp
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Store,whichprovidediPhonecompatibleapplicationstodownload.OnApril
24,2009,theAppStore[188]surpassedonebilliondownloads.[189]OnJune8,
2009,AppleannouncedtheiPhone3GS.Itprovidedanincrementalupdateto
thedevice,includingfasterinternalcomponents,supportforfaster3Gspeeds,
videorecordingcapability,andvoicecontrol.
AttheWorldwideDevelopersConference(WWDC)onJune7,2010,Apple
announcedtheredesignediPhone4.[190]Itfeatureda960x640display,the
AppleA4processor,agyroscopeforenhancedgaming,a5MPcamerawith
LEDflash,frontfacingVGAcameraandFaceTimevideocalling.Shortlyafter
itsrelease,receptionissueswerediscoveredbyconsumers,duetothestainless
steelbandaroundtheedgeofthedevice,whichalsoservesasthephone's
cellularsignalandWiFiantenna.Theissuewascorrectedbya"BumperCase"
distributedbyAppleforfreetoallownersforafewmonths.InJune2011,
AppleovertookNokiatobecometheworld'sbiggestsmartphonemakerby
volume.[191]OnOctober4,2011,AppleunveiledtheiPhone4S,whichwasfirst
releasedonOctober14,2011.[192]ItfeaturestheAppleA5processorandSiri
voiceassistanttechnology,thelatterofwhichApplehadacquiredin2010.[193]
Italsofeaturesanupdated8MPcamerawithnewoptics.Applebegananew
accessibilityfeature,MadeforiPhoneHearingAidswiththeiPhone4S.[194]
MadeforiPhoneHearingAidsfeatureLiveListen,itcanhelpyouheara
conversationinanoisyroomorhearsomeonespeakingacrosstheroom.[195]
Applesold4millioniPhone4Sphonesinthefirstthreedaysofavailability.[196]

Thefirstgeneration
iPhone,3G,4,5,5Cand
5Stoscale.

OnSeptember12,2012,AppleintroducedtheiPhone5.[197]Ithasa4inch
display,4GLTEconnectivity,andtheupgradedAppleA6chip,amongseveralotherimprovements.[198]
TwomillioniPhonesweresoldinthefirsttwentyfourhoursofpreordering[199]andoverfivemillion
handsetsweresoldinthefirstthreedaysofitslaunch.[200]UponthelaunchoftheiPhone5SandiPhone5C,
Applesetanewrecordforfirstweekendsmartphonesalesbysellingoverninemilliondevicesinthefirst
threedaysofitslaunch.[201]ThereleaseoftheiPhone5Sand5CwasthefirsttimethatApple
simultaneouslylaunchedtwomodels.[202]
ApatentfiledinJuly2013revealedthedevelopmentofanewiPhonebatterysystemthatuseslocationdata
incombinationwithdataontheuser'shabitstomoderatethehandsetspowersettingsaccordingly.Appleis
workingtowardsapowermanagementsystemthatwillprovidefeaturessuchastheabilityoftheiPhoneto
estimatethelengthoftimeauserwillbeawayfromapowersourcetomodifyenergyusageandadetection
functionthatadjuststhechargingratetobestsuitthetypeofpowersourcethatisbeingused.[203]
InaMarch2014interview,AppledesignerJonathanIveusedtheiPhoneasanexampleofApple'sethosof
creatinghighquality,lifechangingproducts.Heexplainedthatthephonesarecomparativelyexpensivedue
totheintensiveeffortthatisusedtomakethem:
Wedonttakesolongandmakethewaywemakeforfiscalreasons...Quitethereverse.The
bodyismadefromasinglepieceofmachinedaluminium...Thewholethingispolishedfirstto
amirrorfinishandthenisveryfinelytextured,exceptfortheApplelogo.Thechamfers
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[smoothedoffedges]arecutwithdiamondtippedcutters.Thecuttersdontusuallylastvery
long,sowehadtofigureoutawayofmassmanufacturinglonglastingones.Thecameracover
issapphirecrystal.Lookatthedetailsaroundthesimcardslot.Itsextraordinary![61]
OnSeptember9,2014,AppleintroducedtheiPhone6,alongsidetheiPhone6Plusthatbothhavescreen
sizesover4inches.[204]Oneyearlater,AppleintroducedtheiPhone6S,andiPhone6SPlus,which
introducedanewtechnologycalled3DTouch,includinganincreaseoftherearcamerato12MP,andthe
FaceTimecamerato5MP.[205]OnMarch21,2016,AppleintroducedtheiPhoneSEthathasa4inchsize
lastusedwiththe5Sandhasthesameinternalhardwareasthe6S.[206]

iPad
OnJanuary27,2010,Appleintroducedtheirmuchanticipatedmediatablet,theiPad,whichrunsamodified
versionofiOS.Itoffersmultitouchinteractionwithmultimediaformatsincludingnewspapers,ebooks,
photos,videos,music,wordprocessingdocuments,videogames,andmostexistingiPhoneappsusinga9.7
inchscreen.[207]ItalsoincludesamobileversionofSafariforwebbrowsing,aswellasaccesstotheApp
Store,iTunesLibrary,iBookstore,Contacts,andNotes.ContentisdownloadableviaWiFiandoptional3G
serviceorsyncedthroughtheuser'scomputer.[208]AT&TwasinitiallythesoleU.S.providerof3Gwireless
accessfortheiPad.[209]
OnMarch2,2011,AppleintroducedtheiPad2,whichhadafasterprocessorandacameraonthefrontand
back.Italsoaddedsupportforoptional3GserviceprovidedbyVerizoninadditiontoAT&T.[210]The
availabilityoftheiPad2wasinitiallylimitedasaresultofadevastatingearthquakeandtsunamiinJapanin
March2011.[211]
ThethirdgenerationiPadwasreleasedonMarch7,2012andmarketedas"thenewiPad".ItaddedLTE
servicefromAT&TorVerizon,anupgradedA5Xprocessor,andRetinadisplay.Thedimensionsandform
factorremainedrelativelyunchanged,withthenewiPadbeingafractionthickerandheavierthanthe
previousversionandfeaturingminorpositioningchanges.[212]
OnOctober23,2012,Apple'sfourthgenerationiPadcameout,marketedasthe"iPadwithRetinadisplay".
ItaddedtheupgradedA6Xprocessorandreplacedthetraditional30pindockconnectorwiththealldigital
Lightningconnector.[213]TheiPadMiniwasalsointroduced.Itfeaturedareduced7.9inchdisplayand
muchofthesameinternalspecificationsastheiPad2.[214]
OnOctober22,2013,AppleintroducedtheiPadAirandtheiPadMiniwithRetinaDisplay,bothfeaturinga
new64bitAppleA7processor.[215]
TheiPadAir2wasunveiledonOctober16,2014.Itaddedbettergraphicsandcentralprocessinganda
cameraburstmodeaswellasminorupdates.TheiPadMini3wasunveiledatthesametime.[215]
Sinceitslaunch,iPadusershavedownloadedoverthreebillionapps.ThetotalnumberofAppStore
downloads,asofJune2015,isover100billion.[216]

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OnSeptember9,2015,AppleannouncedtheiPadPro,aniPadwitha12.9inchdisplaythatsupportstwo
newaccessories,theSmartKeyboardandApplePencil.[217]A9.7inchiPadProwasannouncedonMarch
21,2016.[218]

AppleWatch
TheAppleWatchsmartwatchwaslaunchedbyCookonSeptember
9,2014,andreleasedonApril24,2015.[220]Thewearabledevice
consistsoffitnesstrackingcapabilitiesthataresimilartoFitbit,and
mustbeusedincombinationwithaniPhonetowork(onlythe
iPhone5,orlatermodels,arecompatiblewiththeApple
Watch).[221][222][223]

AppleTV
TheAppleWatchquicklybecamethe
bestsellingwearabledevice,withthe
shipmentof11.4millionsmart
watchesinthefirsthalfof2015,
accordingtoanalystfirm

Atthe2007Macworldconference,JobsdemonstratedtheAppleTV
(previouslyknownastheiTV),[224]asettopvideodeviceintended
tobridgethesaleofcontentfromiTuneswithhighdefinition
televisions.Thedevicelinksuptoauser'sTVandsyncs,eithervia
WiFiorawirednetwork,withonecomputer'siTuneslibraryand
Canalys. [219]
streamscontentfromanadditionalfour.TheAppleTVoriginally
incorporateda40GBharddriveforstorage,includedoutputsfor
HDMIandcomponentvideo,andplayedvideoatamaximumresolutionof720p.[225]OnMay31,2007,a
160GBharddiskdrivewasreleasedalongsidetheexisting40GBmodel.[226]Asoftwareupdatereleasedon
January15,2008allowedmediatobepurchaseddirectlyfromtheAppleTV.[227]
InSeptember2009,Applediscontinuedtheoriginal40GBAppleTVandnowcontinuestoproduceandsell
the160GBAppleTV.OnSeptember1,2010,ApplereleasedacompletelyredesignedAppleTV.Thenew
deviceis1/4thesize,runsquieter,andreplacestheneedforaharddrivewithmediastreamingfromany
iTuneslibraryonthenetworkalongwith8GBofflashmemorytocachemediadownloaded.LiketheiPad
andtheiPhone,AppleTVrunsonanA4processor.Thememoryincludedinthedeviceishalfofthatinthe
iPhone4at256MBthesameastheiPad,iPhone3GS,thirdandfourthgenerationiPodTouch.[228]
IthasHDMIoutastheonlyvideooutsource.FeaturesincludeaccesstotheiTunesStoretorentmoviesand
TVshows(purchasinghasbeendiscontinued),streamingfrominternetvideosources,includingYouTube
andNetflix,andmediastreamingfromaniTuneslibrary.Applealsoreducedthepriceofthedeviceto$99.
AthirdgenerationofthedevicewasintroducedatanAppleeventonMarch7,2012,withnewfeaturessuch
ashigherresolution(1080p)andanewuserinterface.
AttheSeptember9,2015event,AppleunveiledanoverhauledAppleTV,whichnowrunsavariantofOS
X,tvOS,andcontains32GBor64GBofNANDFlashtostoregames,programs,andtocachethecurrent
mediaplaying.ThereleasealsocoincidedwiththeopeningofaseparateAppleTVAppStoreandanew
SiriRemotewithatouchpad,gyroscopeandmicrophone.

Software
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AppledevelopsitsownoperatingsystemtorunonMacs,OSX,the
latestversionbeingOSXElCapitan(version10.11).Applealso
independentlydevelopscomputersoftwaretitlesforitsOSX
operatingsystem.MuchofthesoftwareAppledevelopsisbundled
withitscomputers.Anexampleofthisistheconsumeroriented
iLifesoftwarepackagethatbundlesiMovie,iPhotoandGarageBand.
Forpresentation,pagelayoutandwordprocessing,iWorkis
available,whichincludesKeynote,Pages,andNumbers.iTunes,
QuickTimemediaplayer,andSoftwareUpdateareavailableasfree
downloadsforbothOSXandWindows.

AppleWorldwideDevelopers
ConferenceisheldannuallybyApple
toshowcaseitsnewsoftwareand
technologiesforsoftwaredevelopers.

Applealsooffersarangeofprofessionalsoftwaretitles.Theirrange
ofserversoftwareincludestheoperatingsystemOSXServerApple
RemoteDesktop,aremotesystemsmanagementapplicationand
Xsan,aStorageAreaNetworkfilesystem.Fortheprofessionalcreativemarket,thereisFinalCutPro,a
videoproductionsuiteLogicPro,acomprehensivemusictoolkitandMotion,anadvancedeffects
compositionprogram.

ApplealsooffersonlineserviceswithiCloud,whichprovidescloudstorageandsyncingforawiderangeof
data,includingemail,contacts,calendars,photosanddocuments.ItalsooffersiOSdevicebackup,andis
abletointegratedirectlywiththirdpartyappsforevengreaterfunctionality.iCloudisthefourthgeneration
ofonlineservicesprovidedbyApple,andwasprecededbyMobileMe,.MacandiTools,allwhichmet
varyingdegreesofsuccess.

Electricvehicles
AccordingtotheSydneyMorningHerald,Applewantstostartproducinganelectriccarwithautonomous
drivingassoonas2020.Applehasmadeeffortstorecruitbatterydevelopmentengineersandotherelectric
automobileengineersfromA123Systems,LGChem,SamsungElectronics,Panasonic,Toshiba,Johnson
ControlsandTeslaMotors.[229]

Corporateidentity
Logo
AccordingtoSteveJobs,thecompany'snamewasinspiredbyhisvisittoanapplefarmwhileonafruitarian
diet.Jobsthoughtthename"Apple"was"fun,spiritedandnotintimidating".[232]
Apple'sfirstlogo,designedbyRonWayne,depictsSirIsaacNewtonsittingunderanappletree.Itwas
almostimmediatelyreplacedbyRobJanoff's"rainbowApple",thenowfamiliarrainbowcoloredsilhouette
ofanapplewithabitetakenoutofit.JanoffpresentedJobswithseveraldifferentmonochromaticthemes
forthe"bitten"logo,andJobsimmediatelytookalikingtoit.However,Jobsinsistedthatthelogobe
colorizedtohumanizethecompany.[233][234]Thelogowasdesignedwithabitesothatitwouldnotbe
confusedwithacherry.[235]Thecoloredstripeswereconceivedtomakethelogomoreaccessible,andto

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representthefacttheAppleIIcouldgenerategraphicsincolor.[235]Thislogoisoften
erroneouslyreferredtoasatributetoAlanTuring,withthebitemarkareferencetohis
methodofsuicide.[236][237]BothJanoffandAppledenyanyhomagetoTuringinthe
designofthelogo.[235][238]
OnAugust27,1999[231](theyearfollowingtheintroductionoftheiMacG3),Apple
officiallydroppedtherainbowschemeandbegantousemonochromaticlogosnearly
identicalinshapetothepreviousrainbowincarnation.AnAquathemedversionofthe
monochromelogowasusedfrom1999to2003,andaglassthemedversionwasused
from2007to2013.[239]

FirstApplelogo
(April1,1976,
Prototype)

SteveJobsandSteveWozniakwereBeatlesfans,[240][241]butAppleInc.hadnameand
logotrademarkissueswithAppleCorpsLtd.,amultimediacompanystartedbythe
Beatlesin1967.Thisresultedinaseriesoflawsuitsandtensionbetweenthetwo
companies.Theseissuesendedwithsettlingoftheirmostrecentlawsuitin2007.

Advertising
Apple'sfirstslogan,"ByteintoanApple",wascoinedinthelate1970s.[242]From1997
to2002,theslogan"ThinkDifferent"wasusedinadvertisingcampaigns,andisstill
closelyassociatedwithApple.[243]Applealsohasslogansforspecificproductlines
forexample,"iThink,thereforeiMac"wasusedin1998topromotetheiMac,[244]and
"SayhellotoiPhone"hasbeenusediniPhoneadvertisements.[245]"Hello"wasalso
usedtointroducetheoriginalMacintosh,Newton,iMac("hello(again)"),andiPod.[246]
FromtheintroductionoftheMacintoshin1984withthe1984SuperBowlcommercial
tothemoremodern'GetaMac'adverts,Applehasbeenrecognizedinforitsefforts
towardseffectiveadvertisingandmarketingforitsproducts.However,claimsmadeby
latercampaignswerecriticized,particularlythe2005PowerMacads.[247][248][249]
Apple'sproductcommercialsgainedalotofattentionasaresultoftheireyepopping
graphicsandcatchytunes.[250]Musicianswhobenefitedfromanimprovedprofileasa
resultoftheirsongsbeingincludedonApplecommercialsincludeCanadiansinger
Feistwiththesong"1234"andYaelNamwiththesong"NewSoul".[250]

Firstofficial
Applelogoused
fromApril
1977[230]to
1998.

CurrentApple
logosince
1998. [231]

Brandloyalty
Apple'shighlevelofbrandloyaltyisconsideredunusualforanyproduct.Appleevangelistswereactively
engagedbythecompanyatonetime,butthiswasafterthephenomenonhadalreadybeenfirmly
established.AppleevangelistGuyKawasakihascalledthebrandfanaticism"somethingthatwasstumbled
upon,"[252]whileIveexplainedin2014that"Peoplehaveanincrediblypersonalrelationship"withApple's
products.[61]AppleStoreopeningscandrawcrowdsofthousands,withsomewaitinginlineasmuchasa
daybeforetheopeningorflyinginfromothercountriesfortheevent.[253]TheopeningofNewYorkCity's
FifthAvenue"Cube"storehadalinehalfamilelongafewMacfansusedthesettingtopropose
marriage.[254]ThelinefortheGinzaopeninginTokyowasestimatedtoincludethousandsofpeopleand
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exceededeightcityblocks.[255]Thehighlevelofbrandloyaltyhas
beencriticizedandridiculed,applyingtheepithet"Applefanboy"
andmockingthelengthylinesbeforeaproductlaunch.[256]An
internalmemoleakedin2015suggestedthecompanyplannedto
discouragelonglinesanddirectcustomerstopurchaseitsproducts
onitswebsite.[257]
FortunemagazinenamedApplethemostadmiredcompanyinthe
UnitedStatesin2008,andintheworldfrom2008to
2012.[258][259][260][261][262]OnSeptember30,2013,Applesurpassed
CocaColatobecometheworld'smostvaluablebrandinthe
OmnicomGroup's"BestGlobalBrands"report.[263]Boston
ConsultingGrouphasrankedAppleastheworld'smostinnovative
brandeveryyearsince2005.[264]
JohnSculleytoldTheGuardiannewspaperin1997:"Peopletalk
abouttechnology,butApplewasamarketingcompany.Itwasthe
marketingcompanyofthedecade."[265]Researchin2002by
NetRatingsindicatethattheaverageAppleconsumerwasusually
moreaffluentandbettereducatedthanotherPCcompanyconsumers.
Theresearchindicatedthatthiscorrelationcouldstemfromthefact
thatonaverageAppleInc.productsweremoreexpensivethanother
PCproducts.[266][267]

Appleaficionadoswaitinlinearound
theAppleStoreinanticipationofa
newproduct.

"ThescenesIwitnessedatthe
openingofthenewApplestorein
London'sCoventGardenweremore
likeanevangelicalprayermeeting
thanachancetobuyaphoneora
laptop."
AlexRiley,writingforthe
BBC[251]

InresponsetoaqueryaboutthedevotionofloyalAppleconsumers,JonathanIveresponded:
Whatpeoplearerespondingtoismuchbiggerthantheobject.Theyarerespondingto
somethingrareagroupofpeoplewhodomorethansimplymakesomethingwork,theymake
theverybestproductstheypossiblycan.Itsademonstrationagainstthoughtlessnessand
carelessness.[61]

Homepage
TheApplewebsitehomepagehasbeenusedtocommemorate,orpaytributeto,milestonesandevents
outsideofApple'sproductofferings:
2016:BillCampbell(boardmemberandfriend)
2014:RobinWilliams[268]
2013:NelsonMandela[269]
2011:SteveJobs[270]
2010:JeromeB.York(boardmember)[271]
2007:AlGore(boardmemberinhonorofhisNobelPeacePrize)[272]
2005:RosaParks[273]
2003:GregoryHines[274]
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2001:GeorgeHarrison[275]

Headquarters
AppleInc.'sworldcorporateheadquartersarelocatedinthemiddleofSiliconValley,at16InfiniteLoop,
Cupertino,California.ThisApplecampushassixbuildingsthattotal850,000squarefeet(79,000m2)and
wasbuiltin1993bySobratoDevelopmentCos.[276]
ApplehasasatellitecampusinneighboringSunnyvale,California,whereithousesatestingandresearch
laboratory.[277]AppleInsiderpublishedarticleinMarch2014claimingthatApplehasatuckedawayatop
secretfacilitywhereisdevelopingtheSG5electricvehicleprojectcodenamed"Titan"undertheshell
companynameSixtyEightResearch.[278]
In2006,AppleannounceditsintentiontobuildasecondcampusinCupertinoabout1mile(1.6km)eastof
thecurrentcampusandnexttoInterstate280.[279]ThenewcampusbuildingwillbedesignedbyNorman
Foster.[280]TheCupertinoCityCouncilapprovedtheproposed"spaceship"designcampusonOctober15,
2013,aftera2011presentationbyJobsdetailingthearchitecturaldesignofthenewbuildingandits
environs.Thenewcampusisplannedtohouseupto13,000employeesinonecentral,fourstoried,circular
buildingsurroundedbyextensivelandscape.Itwillfeatureacafwithroomfor3,000sittingpeopleand
parkingundergroundaswellasinaparkingstructure.The2.8millionsquarefootfacilitywillalsoinclude
Jobs'soriginaldesignsforafitnesscenterandacorporateauditorium.[281]
Apple'sheadquartersforEurope,theMiddleEastandAfrica(EMEA)arelocatedinCorkinthesouthof
Ireland.[282][283][284][285][286][287][288]Thefacility,whichopenedin1980,wasApple'sfirstlocationoutsideof
theUnitedStates.[289]AppleSalesInternational,whichdealswithallofApple'sinternationalsalesoutside
oftheUSA,islocatedatApple'scampusinCork[290]alongwithAppleDistributionInternational,which
similarlydealswithApple'sinternationaldistributionnetwork.[291]OnApril20,2012,Appleadded500new
jobsatitsEuropeanheadquarters,increasingthetotalworkforcefromaround2,800to3,300
employees.[281][283][292]ThecompanywillbuildanewofficeblockonitsHollyhillCampustoaccommodate
theadditionalstaff.[293]ItsUKheadquartersisatStockleyParkontheoutskirtsofLondon.[294]
InFebruary2015,Appleopenedtheirnew180,000squarefootheadquartersinHerzliya,Israel,whichwill
accommodateapproximately800employees.ThisopeningwasApple'sthirdofficelocatedwithinIsraelthe
first,alsoinHerzliya,wasobtainedaspartoftheAnobitacquisition,andtheotherisaresearchcenterin
Haifa.[295][296]

Stores
Applehas475retailstores(asofMarch2016)in17countries[1]andanonlinestoreavailablein39
countries.[297]Eachstoreisdesignedtosuittheneedsofthelocationandregulatoryauthorities.Applehas
receivednumerousarchitecturalawardsforitsstoredesigns,particularlyitsmidtownManhattanlocationon
FifthAvenue.[298][299]

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TheAppleStoreinRegentStreet,London,wasthefirsttoopeninEuropeinNovember2004,andisthe
mostprofitableshopinLondonwiththehighestsalespersquarefoot,taking60,000,000pa,or2,000per
squarefoot.[300]TheRegentStreetstorewassurpassedinsizebythenearbyAppleStoreinCoventGarden,
whichwassurpassedinsizebytheGrandCentralTerminalAppleStore,NewYorkCity,inDecember2011.
Ofthe43,000AppleemployeesintheUnitedStates30,000workatAppleStores.AppleStoreemployees
makeaboveaveragepayforretailemployeesandareofferedmoneytowardcollegeaswellasgym
memberships,401kplans,healthcareplans,productdiscounts,andreducedpriceonpurchaseofstock.[301]

FifthAvenue,NewYork
City

Sydney

HongKong

Paris

Barcelona

London

Corporateaffairs
Corporateculture
Applewasoneofseveralhighlysuccessfulcompaniesfoundedinthe1970sthatbuckedthetraditional
notionsofcorporateculture.JobsoftenwalkedaroundtheofficebarefootevenafterApplebecamea
Fortune500company.Bythetimeofthe"1984"televisioncommercial,Apple'sinformalculturehad
becomeakeytraitthatdifferentiateditfromitscompetitors.[302]Accordingtoa2011reportinFortune,this
hasresultedinacorporateculturemoreakintoastartupratherthanamultinationalcorporation.[303]
Asthecompanyhasgrownandbeenledbyaseriesofdifferentlyopinionatedchiefexecutives,ithas
arguablylostsomeofitsoriginalcharacter.Nonetheless,ithasmaintainedareputationforfostering
individualityandexcellencethatreliablyattractstalentedworkers,particularlyafterJobsreturnedtothe
company.NumerousAppleemployeeshavestatedthatprojectswithoutJobs'sinvolvementoftentakelonger
thanprojectswithit.[304]Torecognizethebestofitsemployees,ApplecreatedtheAppleFellowsprogram
whichawardsindividualswhomakeextraordinarytechnicalorleadershipcontributionstopersonal
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computingwhileatthecompany.TheAppleFellowshiphassofarbeenawardedtoindividualsincluding
BillAtkinson,[305]SteveCapps,[306]RodHolt,[305]AlanKay,[307][308]GuyKawasaki,[307][309]AlAlcorn,[310]
DonNorman,[307]RichPage,[305]andSteveWozniak.[305]
AtApple,employeesarespecialistswhoarenotexposedtofunctionsoutsidetheirareaofexpertise.Jobs
sawthisasameansofhaving"bestinclass"employeesineveryrole.Forinstance,RonJohnsonSenior
VicePresidentofRetailOperationsuntilNovember1,2011wasresponsibleforsiteselection,instore
service,andstorelayout,yethadnocontroloftheinventoryinhisstores(thiswasdonebyCook,whohada
backgroundinsupplychainmanagement).[311][311]Appleisalsoknownforstrictlyenforcingaccountability.
Eachprojecthasa"directlyresponsibleindividual,"or"DRI"inApplejargon.[303]Asanexample,when
iOSseniorvicepresidentScottForstallrefusedtosignApple'sofficialapologyfornumerouserrorsinthe
redesignedMapsapp,hewasforcedtoresign.[312]UnlikeothermajorU.S.companiesAppleprovidesa
relativelysimplecompensationpolicyforexecutivesthatdoesnotincludeperksenjoyedbyotherCEOslike
countryclubfeesorprivateuseofcompanyaircraft.Thecompanytypicallygrantsstockoptionsto
executiveseveryotheryear.[313]

Customerservice
In1999AppleretainedEightInc.asastrategicretaildesignpartnerandbegancreatingtheAppleretail
stores.TimKobeofEightInc.preparedan"AppleRetail"whitepaperforJobs,outliningtheabilityof
separateAppleretailstorestodirectlydrivetheApplebrandexperienceKobeusedtheirrecently
completedworkwithTheNorthFaceandNikeasabasisforthewhitepaper.ThefirsttwoAppleStores
openedonMay19,2001inTysonsCorner,Virginia,andGlendale,California.Morethan7,700people
visitedApplesfirsttwostoresintheopeningweekend,spendingatotalofUS$599,000.[314]AsofJune
2014,Applemaintains425retailstoresinfourteencountries.[315][316]InadditiontoAppleproducts,the
storessellthirdpartyproductslikesoftwaretitles,digitalcameras,camcordersandhandheldorganizers.[317]
AmediaarticlepublishedinJuly2013provideddetailsaboutApple's"AtHomeAppleAdvisors"customer
supportprogramthatservesasthecorporation'scallcenter.TheadvisorsareemployedwithintheU.S.and
workremotelyafterundergoingafourweektrainingprogramandtestingperiod.Theadvisorsearnbetween
US$9and$12perhourandreceiveintensivemanagementtoensureahighqualityofcustomersupport.[318]

Manufacturing
Thecompany'smanufacturing,procurementandlogisticsenableittoexecutemassiveproductlaunches
withouthavingtomaintainlarge,profitsappinginventories.In2011,Apple'sprofitmarginswere40
percent,comparedwithbetween10and20percentformostotherhardwarecompanies.Cook'scatchphrase
todescribehisfocusonthecompany'soperationalarmis:Nobodywantstobuysourmilk.[124][319]
DuringtheMac'searlyhistoryApplegenerallyrefusedtoadoptprevailingindustrystandardsforhardware,
insteadcreatingtheirown.[320]Thistrendwaslargelyreversedinthelate1990s,beginningwithApple's
adoptionofthePCIbusinthe7500/8500/9500PowerMacs.Applehassincejoinedtheindustrystandards
groupstoinfluencethefuturedirectionoftechnologystandardssuchasUSB,AGP,HyperTransport,WiFi,
NVMe,PCIeandothersinitsproducts.FireWireisanAppleoriginatedstandardthatwaswidelyadopted
acrosstheindustryafteritwasstandardizedasIEEE1394andisalegallymandatedportinallCableTV
boxesintheUnitedStates.[321]
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Laborpractices
ThecompanyadvertiseditsproductsasbeingmadeinAmericauntilthelate1990showever,asaresultof
outsourcinginitiativesinthe2000s,almostallofitsmanufacturingisnowhandledabroad.Accordingtoa
reportbytheNewYorkTimes,Appleinsiders"believethevastscaleofoverseasfactoriesaswellasthe
flexibility,diligenceandindustrialskillsofforeignworkershavesooutpacedtheirAmericancounterparts
thatMadeintheU.S.A.isnolongeraviableoptionformostAppleproducts".[322]
In2006,theMailonSundayreportedontheworkingconditionsoftheChinesefactorieswherecontract
manufacturersFoxconnandInventecproducedtheiPod.[323]Thearticlestatedthatonecomplexoffactories
thatassembledtheiPodandotheritemshadover200,000workerslivingandworkingwithinit.Employees
regularlyworkedmorethan60hoursperweekandmadearound$100permonth.Alittleoverhalfofthe
workers'earningswasrequiredtopayforrentandfoodfromthecompany.[324][325][326]
Appleimmediatelylaunchedaninvestigationafterthe2006mediareport,andworkedwiththeir
manufacturerstoensureacceptableworkingconditions.[327]In2007,Applestartedyearlyauditsofallits
suppliersregardingworker'srights,slowlyraisingstandardsandpruningsuppliersthatdidnotcomply.
Yearlyprogressreportshavebeenpublishedsince2008.[328]In2011,Appleadmittedthatitssuppliers'child
laborpracticesinChinahadworsened.[329]
TheFoxconnsuicidesoccurredbetweenJanuaryandNovember2010,when18[330]Foxconn(Chinese:
)employeesattemptedsuicide,resultingin14deathsthecompanywastheworldslargestcontract
electronicsmanufacturer,forclientsincludingApple,atthetime.[330][331][332]Thesuicidesdrewmedia
attention,andemploymentpracticesatFoxconnwereinvestigatedbyApple.[333]Appleissuedapublic
statementaboutthesuicides,andcompanyspokespersonStevenDowlingsaid:
[Appleis]saddenedandupsetbytherecentsuicidesatFoxconn...AteamfromAppleis
independentlyevaluatingthestepstheyaretakingtoaddressthesetragiceventsandwewill
continueourongoinginspectionsofthefacilitieswhereourproductsaremade.[334]
Thestatementwasreleasedaftertheresultsfromthecompany'sprobeintoitssuppliers'laborpracticeswere
publishedinearly2010.Foxconnwasnotspecificallynamedinthereport,butAppleidentifiedaseriesof
seriouslaborviolationsoflaborlaws,includingApple'sownrules,andsomechildlaborexistedinanumber
offactories.[334]Applecommittedtotheimplementationofchangesfollowingthesuicides.[335]
Alsoin2010,workersinChinaplannedtosueiPhonecontractorsoverpoisoningbyacleanerusedtoclean
LCDscreens.Oneworkerclaimedthatheandhiscoworkershadnotbeeninformedofpossible
occupationalillnesses.[336]AfterahighsuiciderateinaFoxconnfacilityinChinamakingiPadsand
iPhones,albeitalowerratethanthatofChinaasawhole,[337]workerswereforcedtosignalegallybinding
documentguaranteeingthattheywouldnotkillthemselves.[338]WorkersinfactoriesproducingApple
productshavealsobeenexposedtonhexane,aneurotoxinthatisacheaperalternativethanalcoholfor
cleaningtheproducts.[339][340][341]

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A2014BBCinvestigationfoundexcessivehoursandotherproblemspersisted,despiteApple'spromiseto
reformfactorypracticeafterthe2010Foxconnsuicides.ThePegatronfactorywasonceagainthesubjectof
review,asreportersgainedaccesstotheworkingconditionsinsidethroughrecruitmentasemployees.While
theBBCmaintainedthattheexperiencesofitsreportersshowedthatlaborviolationswerecontinuingsince
2010,ApplepubliclydisagreedwiththeBBCandstated:Weareawareofnoothercompanydoingas
muchasAppletoensurefairandsafeworkingconditions".[335]
InDecember2014,theInstituteforGlobalLabourandHumanRightspublishedareportwhichdocumented
inhumaneconditionsforthe15,000workersataZhenDingTechnologyfactoryinShenzhen,China,which
servesasamajorsupplierofcircuitboardsforApple'siPhoneandiPad.Accordingtothereport,workers
arepressuredinto65hourworkweekswhichleavesthemsoexhaustedthattheyoftensleepduringlunch
breaks.Theyarealsomadetoresidein"primitive,darkandfilthydorms"wheretheysleep"onplywood,
withsixtotenworkersineachcrowdedroom."Omnipresentsecuritypersonnelalsoroutinelyharassand
beattheworkers.[342][343]

Environmentalpracticesandinitiatives
Energy
FollowingaGreenpeaceprotest,ApplereleasedastatementonApril17,2012,committingtoendingitsuse
ofcoalandshiftingto100%renewablecleanenergy.[344][345]By2013Applewasusing100%renewable
energytopowertheirdatacenters.Overall,75%ofthecompany'spowercamefromcleanrenewable
sources.[346]
In2010,ClimateCounts,anonprofitorganizationdedicatedtodirectingconsumerstowardthegreenest
companies,gaveAppleascoreof52pointsoutofapossible100,whichputsAppleintheirtopcategory
"Striding".[347]ThiswasanincreasefromMay2008,whenClimateCountsonlygaveApple11pointsoutof
100,whichplacedthecompanylastamongelectronicscompanies,atwhichtimeClimateCountsalso
labeledApplewitha"stuckicon",addingthatAppleatthetimewas"achoicetoavoidfortheclimate
consciousconsumer".[348]
Asof2014,100%ofApple'sU.S.operationsrunonrenewableenergy,100%ofApple'sdatacentersrunon
renewableenergyand87%ofApple'sglobaloperationsrunonrenewableenergy.[349]TheElectronic
ProductEnvironmentalAssessmentTool(EPEAT)allowsconsumerstoseetheeffectaproducthasonthe
environment.EachproductreceivesaGold,Silver,orBronzerankdependingonitsefficiencyand
sustainability.EveryAppletablet,notebook,desktopcomputer,anddisplaythatEPEATranksachievesa
Goldrating,thehighestpossible.[350]
InMay2015,GreenpeaceevaluatedthestateoftheGreenInternetandcommendedAppleontheir
environmentalpracticessaying,"Applescommitmenttorenewableenergyhashelpedsetanewbarforthe
industry,illustratinginveryconcretetermsthata100%renewableInternetiswithinitsreach,andproviding
severalmodelsofinterventionforothercompaniesthatwanttobuildasustainableInternet."[351]
DuringaneventonMarch21,2016,Appleprovidedastatusupdateonitsenvironmentalinitiativetobe
100%renewableinallofitsworldwideoperations.LisaP.Jackson,Apple'svicepresidentofEnvironment,
PolicyandSocialInitiativeswhoreportsdirectlytoCEO,TimCook,announcedthatasofMarch2016,
93%ofApple'sworldwideoperationsarepoweredwithrenewableenergy.Alsofeaturedwasthecompany's
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effortstousesustainablepaperintheirproductpackaging99%ofallpaperusedbyAppleintheproduct
packagingcomesfrompostconsumerrecycledpaperorsustainablymanagedforests,asthecompany
continuesitsmovetoallpaperpackagingforallofitsproducts.[352]Appleworkinginpartnershipwith
ConservationFund,havepreserved36,000acresofworkingforestsinMaineandNorthCarolina.Another
partnershipannouncediswiththeWorldWildlifeFundtopreserveupto1,000,000acresofforestsinChina.
Featuredwasthecompany'sinstallationofa40MWsolarpowerplantintheSichuanprovinceofChinathat
wastailormadetocoexistwiththeindigenousyaksthateathayproducedontheland,byraisingthepanels
tobeseveralfeetoffofthegroundsotheyaksandtheirfeedwouldbeunharmedgrazingbeneaththearray.
ThisinstallationalonecompensatesformorethanalloftheenergyusedinApple'sStoresandOfficesinthe
wholeofChina,negatingthecompany'senergycarbonfootprintinthecountry.InSingapore,Applehas
workedwiththeSingaporeangovernmenttocovertherooftopsof800buildingsinthecitystatewithsolar
panelsallowingApple'sSingaporeoperationstoberunon100%renewableenergy.Liamwasintroducedto
theworld,anadvancedroboticdisassemblerandsorterdesignedbyAppleEngineersinCalifornia
specificallyforrecyclingoutdatedorbrokeniPhones.Reusesandrecyclespartsfromtradedinproducts.[353]
Toxins
FollowingfurthercampaignsbyGreenpeace,[354]in2008,Applebecamethefirstelectronicsmanufacturer
tofullyeliminateallpolyvinylchloride(PVC)andbrominatedflameretardants(BFRs)initscomplete
productline.[355][356]InJune2007,Applebeganreplacingthecoldcathodefluorescentlamp(CCFL)backlit
LCDdisplaysinitscomputerswithmercuryfreeLEDbacklitLCDdisplaysandarsenicfreeglass,starting
withtheupgradedMacBookPro.[357][358][359][360]Appleofferscomprehensiveandtransparentinformation
abouttheCO2e,emissions,materials,andelectricalusageconcerningeveryproducttheycurrentlyproduce
orhavesoldinthepast(andwhichtheyhaveenoughdataneededtoproducethereport),intheirportfolio
ontheirhomepage.Allowingconsumerstomakeinformedpurchasingdecisionsontheproductstheyoffer
forsale.[361]InJune2009,Apple'siPhone3GSwasfreeofPVC,arsenic,andBFRs.[357][362]AllApple
productsnowhavemercuryfreeLEDbacklitLCDdisplays,arsenicfreeglass,andnonPVCcables.All
AppleproductshaveEPEATGoldstatusandbeatthelatestEnergyStarguidelinesineachproduct's
respectiveregulatorycategory.[357][363]
InNovember2011,ApplewasfeaturedinGreenpeace'sGuidetoGreenerElectronics,whichranks
electronicsmanufacturersonsustainability,climateandenergypolicy,andhow"green"theirproductsare.
Thecompanyrankedfourthoffifteenelectronicscompanies(movingupfiveplacesfromthepreviousyear)
withascoreof4.6/10downfrom4.9.[364]GreenpeacepraisesApple'ssustainability,notingthatthe
companyexceededits70%globalrecyclinggoalin2010.Itcontinuestoscorewellontheproductsrating
withallAppleproductsnowbeingfreeofPVCplasticandBFRs.However,theguidecriticizesAppleon
theEnergycriteriafornotseekingexternalverificationofitsgreenhousegasemissionsdataandfornot
settingoutanytargetstoreduceemissions.[364]InJanuary2012,Applerequestedthatitscablemaker,
Volex,beginproducinghalogenfreeUSBandpowercables.[365]

Finance
Appleistheworld'slargestinformationtechnologycompanybyrevenueandtheworld'ssecondlargest
mobilephonemanufacturer.[8]Itisalsothelargestpubliclytradedcorporationintheworldbymarket
capitalization,withanestimatedmarketcapitalizationof$446billionbyJanuary2014.[366]OnFebruary17,
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2015,ApplebecamethefirstUScorporationtobevaluedatover$750B.[367]AsofMarch2016,Apple
maintains475retailstoresinseventeencountries,ofwhich207areoutsidetheU.S.,[1]aswellastheonline
AppleStoreandiTunesStore,thelatterofwhichistheworld'slargestmusicretailer.[368]Itemploys115,000
permanentfulltimeemployeesasofJuly2015[4]and3,300temporaryfulltimeemployeesasofSeptember
2012worldwide.
InitsfiscalyearendinginSeptember2011,AppleInc.reportedatotalof$108billioninannualrevenuesa
significantincreasefromits2010revenuesof$65billionandnearly$82billionincashreserves.[369]On
March19,2012,Appleannouncedplansfora$2.65persharedividendbeginninginfourthquarterof2012,
perapprovalbytheirboardofdirectors.[370]OnSeptember2012,Applereachedarecordsharepriceof
morethan$705andclosedatabove700.[371]With936,596,000outstandingshares(asofJune30,
2012),[372]
Thecompany'sworldwideannualrevenuein2013totaled$170billion.[373]InMay2013,Appleenteredthe
toptenoftheFortune500listofcompaniesforthefirsttime,rising11placesaboveits2012rankingtotake
thesixthposition.[374]Asof2016,ApplehasaroundUS$234billionofcashandmarketablesecurities,of
which90%islocatedoutsidetheUnitedStatesfortaxpurposes.[375]
Appleamassed65%ofallprofitsmadebytheeightlargestworldwidesmartphonemanufacturersinquarter
oneof2014,accordingtoareportbyCanaccordGenuity.[376]Inthefirstquarterof2015,thecompany
garnered92%ofallearningsmadebytheeightlargestglobalsmartphonemakers.[376]
Taxpractices
ApplehascreatedsubsidiariesinlowtaxplacessuchasIreland,theNetherlands,Luxembourgandthe
BritishVirginIslandstocutthetaxesitpaysaroundtheworld.AccordingtoTheNewYorkTimes,inthe
1980sApplewasamongthefirsttechcompaniestodesignateoverseassalespeopleinhightaxcountriesina
mannerthatallowedthecompanytosellonbehalfoflowtaxsubsidiariesonothercontinents,sidestepping
incometaxes.Inthelate1980sApplewasapioneerofanaccountingtechniqueknownasthe"DoubleIrish
withaDutchsandwich,"whichreducestaxesbyroutingprofitsthroughIrishsubsidiariesandthe
NetherlandsandthentotheCaribbean.[377]
BritishConservativePartyMemberofParliamentCharlieElphickepublishedresearchonOctober30,
2012,[378]whichshowedthatsomemultinationalcompanies,includingAppleInc.,weremakingbillionsof
poundsofprofitintheUK,butwerepayinganeffectivetaxratetotheUKTreasuryofonly3percent,well
belowstandardcorporationtax.HefollowedthisresearchbycallingontheChancelloroftheExchequer
GeorgeOsbornetoforcethesemultinationals,whichalsoincludedGoogleandTheCocaColaCompany,to
statetheeffectiverateoftaxtheypayontheirUKrevenues.Elphickealsosaidthatgovernmentcontracts
shouldbewithheldfrommultinationalswhodonotpaytheirfairshareofUKtax.[379]InJune2014the
EuropeanCommissionerforCompetitionlaunchedaninvestigationofApple'staxpracticesinIreland,as
partofawiderprobeofmultinationalcompanies'taxarrangementsinvariousEuropeancountries.[380]
ItisamatterofpublicrecordthatAppleInc.isthesinglelargesttaxpayertotheDepartmentoftheTreasury
oftheUnitedStatesofAmericawithaneffectivetaxrateofapproximatelyof26%asoftheSecondQuarter
oftheAppleFiscalYear2016.[381]
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In2015ReutersreportedthatApplehadearningsabroadof$54.4billionwhichwereuntaxedbytheIRSof
theUnitedStates.UnderU.S.taxlawgovernedbytheIRC,corporationsdon'tpayincometaxonoverseas
profitsunlesstheprofitsrepatriatedintotheUnitedStatesandassuchApplehasthefiscalresponsibilityto
itsshareholderstoleaveitoverseasuntilarepatriationholidayorcomprehensivetaxreformtakesplacein
theUnitedStates.[382][383]

Litigation
Applehasbeenaparticipantinvariouslegalproceedingsandclaimssinceitbeganoperation.[384]In
particular,Appleisknownforandpromotesitselfasactivelyandaggressivelyenforcingitsintellectual
propertyinterests.SomelitigationexamplesincludeApplev.Samsung,Applev.Microsoft,Motorola
Mobilityv.AppleInc.,andAppleCorpsv.AppleComputer.Applehasalsohadtodefenditselfagainst
chargesonnumerousoccasionsofviolatingintellectualpropertyrights.Mosthavebeendismissedinthe
courtsasshellcompaniesknownaspatenttrolls,withnoevidenceofactualuseofpatentsinquestion.[385]

PrivacyStance
ApplehasmadeclearitsstanceonPrivacyandassuchhasmadeavailableTransparencyReportsonthe
GovernmentalRequestsitreceives.Applestatesplainly,"OndevicesrunningiOS8andlaterversions,your
personaldataisplacedundertheprotectionofyourpasscode.[305]ForalldevicesrunningiOS8andlater
versions,ApplewillnotperformiOSdataextractionsinresponsetogovernmentsearchwarrantsbecause
thefilestobeextractedareprotectedbyanencryptionkeythatistiedtotheuserspasscode,whichApple
doesnotpossess."[386]
InitslatestWhoHasYourBack?report,onceagaintheElectronicFrontierFoundation(EFF)awarded
Apple5outof5starscommend[ing]Appleforitsstrongstanceregardinguserrights,transparency,and
privacy.[387]

Charitablecauses
Asof2016,AppleisapartnerofProductRed,acampaignwhosemissionistopreventthetransmissionof
HIVfrommothertochildby2015.[388]InJune2014,Apple'scontributionstothecampaignreached$75
million,makingthecompanyProductRed'slargestpartner.[389]
InNovember2012,Appledonated$2.5milliontotheAmericanRedCrosstoaidreliefeffortsafter
HurricaneSandy.[390]
OnApril14,2016,AppleandtheWorldWideFundforNature(WWF)announcedthattheyhaveengaged
inapartnershipto,"helpprotectlifeonourplanet."ApplereleasedaspecialpageintheiTunesAppStore,
AppsforEarth.Inthearrangement,ApplehascommittedthatthroughApril24,WWFwillreceive100%of
theproceedsfromtheapplicationsparticipatingintheAppStoreviaboththepurchasesofanypaidapps
andtheInAppPurchases.[391][392]

Seealso
Applemediaevents
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Pixar

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Furtherreading
GilAmelio,WilliamL.Simon(1999),OntheFiringLine:My500DaysatAppleISBN9780887309199
JimCarlton,Apple:TheInsideStoryofIntrigue,EgomaniaandBusinessBlundersISBN9780887309656
AlanDeutschman(2000),TheSecondComingofSteveJobs,Broadway,ISBN9780767904322
AndyHertzfeld(2004),RevolutionintheValley,O'ReillyBooksISBN9780596007195
PaulKunkel,AppleDesign:TheWorkoftheAppleIndustrialDesignGroupISBN9781888001259
AdamLashinsky(2013).InsideApple:HowAmerica'sMostAdmiredandSecretiveCompanyReallyWorks.
ISBN9781455512164.
StevenLevy(1994),InsanelyGreat:TheLifeandTimesofMacintosh,theComputerThatChangedEverything
ISBN9780140291773
OwenLinzmayer(2004),AppleConfidential2.0,NoStarchPressISBN9781593270100
MichaelS.Malone(1999),InfiniteLoopISBN9780385486842
FrankRose(1990),WestofEden:TheEndofInnocenceatAppleComputer,PenguinBooksISBN978014
0093728
JohnSculley,JohnA.Byrne(1987)Odyssey:PepsitoApple,HarperCollins,ISBN9780060157807
SteveWozniak,GinaSmith(2006),iWoz:FromComputerGeektoCultIcon:HowIInventedthePersonal
Computer,CoFoundedApple,andHadFunDoingIt,W.W.Norton&Company,ISBN9780393061437
JeffreyS.Young(1988).SteveJobs,TheJourneyistheReward,LynxBooks,ISBN9781558023789
JeffreyS.Young,WilliamL.Simon(2005),iConSteveJobs:TheGreatestSecondActintheHistoryofBusiness,
JohnWiley&Sons,ISBN9780471720836

Externallinks
Officialwebsite(https://www.apple.com)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_Inc.

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BusinessdataforAppleInc.:Hoover's(http://www.hoovers.com/companyinformation/cs/company
profile.Apple_Inc.4c9baa063908dbd8.html)Reuters(http://www.reuters.com/finance/stocks/overvie
w?symbol=AAPL)SECfilings(https://www.sec.gov/cgibin/browseedgar?action=getcompany&CI
K=320193)
AppleInc.companies(https://opencorporates.com/corporate_groupings/Apple)groupedat
OpenCorporates
GeographicdatarelatedtoAppleInc.headquarters(http://www.openstreetmap.org/browse/way/33
463538)atOpenStreetMap
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