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Article I.

Quantity of water
Section I.1 Introduction
Water is a chemical compound and may occur in a various state (liquid, solid, and gaseous).
All these forms of water are extremely useful to man, providing him the luxuries and
comforts in addition to fulfilling his basic necessities of life. No life can exist without water.
Therefore, planning and constructing suitable water supply schemes, which may provide
adequate quantity of good quality water is almost imperative in a modern society. The
provision of such scheme shall ensure a constant and reliable water supply to the community
for which it has been designed. Such a scheme shall not only help in supplying safe
wholesome water to the people for drinking, cooking, bathing, washing etc so as to keep the
disease away and thereby promoting better health, but would also help in supplying water for
fountains, gardens, etc and thus helping in maintaining better sanitation of surroundings.
Besides promoting overall hygiene and public health, it shall further help for fire fighting and
The function of a water supply system is to provide water from a source, treat the water to
render it suitable for its intended use, and deliver the water to the user at the time and in the
quantity desired. Since such factors as the yield and quality of raw water sources;
topography, geology, and population density of service areas; and intended uses of water may
vary, it is obvious that not all water systems will be alike.
A reasonably accurate estimate of the amount of water that must be supplied is needed early
on in the planning stage of project development. The average daily demand is especially
important since it may be used to assess the ability of available sources to meet continuing
demands and to size raw water storage facilities that may be required to meet sustained
demands during dry periods. Later, during the actual design process, the peak demand must
be known to properly size pumps and pipelines, estimate pressure losses, and determine
finished water storage requirements so that sufficient water can be supplied during peak
demand periods. As a general rule, the smaller the water system, the greater the ratio of peak
to average demand rates. Thus, design of small water systems is often influenced more by
peak demand than average use.

1.2 Water Demand

The first step in the planning and designing of a water supply scheme is to examine carefully
the various types of demand. It is self evident that a large population will use more water
than a small one and that water use must be, in some measure, related to population. An
analysis of the future demand of a particular community should always begin by considering
present use. To the extent possible, consumption should be broken down by classes of users,
area of the city, economic level of the users, season of the year, etc.
The different classes of water users may be classified into the following categories.



Domestic water demand

Industrial water demand
Institutional and commercial water demand
Fire demand
Water required to compensate losses

Domestic demand: - This includes the water required in private buildings for
drinking, cooking, bathing, gardening, sanitary purposes, etc. The amount of
domestic water consumption per person shall vary according to the living
standard of consumers. The amount required ranges from 20 LPCD for
developing countries like Ethiopia to over 350 LPCD for developed countries.
The total domestic demand generally accounts to 50 to 60% of the total water
Industrial water demand: - This includes water furnished to industries. The water
requirement for this purpose will depend upon the number, nature, and size of

Table 1.1 Water demands of certain important industries

S. No Name of industry and Unit of production or Approximate quantity of water
raw material used
required per unit of production x
103 liters
Distillery (alcohol)
Kilo liter
Special quality paper
Straw board
Petroleum refinery


Institutional demand: - this also sometimes known as public demands and it

includes the quantity of water required for various public utility purposes. The
water required for various public buildings and institutions, public parks,
playgrounds, gardening, sprinkling on roads, street foundations etc will come
under this demand.
Fire demand: - it is the quantity of water required for fitting a fire out-breaks.
Water requirement is particularly essential in high value district. This quantity is
normally obtained on the basis of certain empirical formulae. The following are
some these formulae:

Kuichling formula
Q=3182 p
Where Q is amount of water required


Freeman formula

P is population in thousands

Q 1136 10


American Insurance association

Q 4637 P 1 0.01 P


Water required to compensate losses:- this includes the quantity of water due to
wastage, losses, etc. Some water is lost due to leakages at the joints and valves.
Some loss may be take place due to illegal and unauthorized connection.
Provision for these losses should be provided while designing water supply
systems. For a well managed water works this quantity should not exceed 20% of
the total water supply. But in unmet red system it may reach up to 50%

After assessing and estimating all demands, it is necessary to find out the total yearly water
demand and the required flow rates. It is also necessary to analyses the variations in these
rates of flows while planning and designing a water supply system. The following quantities
are therefore generally assesses and recorded.
Total annual volume of water required
Annual average rate of flow in l/day
Annual average rate of draft in Lpcd
Fluctuations in flows expressed in terms of percentage ratios of maximum or
minimum yearly, monthly, daily, and hourly
There are certain factors which control the water consumption rate. For making a reliable
assessment of water requirement they should be identified and considered.
The following are some of the factors that affect the rates of water consumption. These are:
The size of the community
Climatic condition
Standard of living
Quality of water
System of sanitation
Pressure in the distribution system
Use of meters
System of supply
Cost of water

Section I.2

Estimating per capita demand

Estimating the per capita demand is required for finding out the total water requirement of a
town or city or village. The per capita demand is estimated by finding out water needed for
each demand category and summing up all these demands. Both the domestic and non
domestic needs are expressed with relation to population. Water demand of different heads
may be summed up, and the figure may be divided by the population of the concerned area,

which will give equivalent per capita water demand. The following example may illustrate
the situation.
Domestic need---------------------------60 lpcd
Institutional demand --------------------15 lpcd
Industrial demand------------------------15 lcpd
Fire demand-------------------------------10 lpcd
Water unaccounted for -------------------20
120 lpcd
The per capita values used above are only for illustration purpose. The common procedure of
dividing total use by total population to derive a per capita consumption should be applied
only with great care, since
the entire population may not be served by the municipal system
there may be large industrial users which will not change with population, and
The characteristics as well as the size of the population may be changing.

Section I.3 Variation in Demand and Their Effect in the Design of

Various Components of a Water Supply Scheme
The annual average demand is not sufficient, although very useful for the design of various
components of a water supply scheme. There are wide variations in the use of water in
different seasons, in different months of the year, in different days of the month, and in
different hours of the day. These normal variations in the demand should be assessed and
known in order to design rising mains, service reservoirs, distribution systems, pumping
stations etc.
Hourly demand rates are considered in the design of distribution systems, whereas daily
variation is useful for designing rising main, pumping and treatment units. Seasonal variation
is considered for estimating the capacity of impounding reservoir.
There is no clearly defined relationship between average and peak flow which is applicable
in all communities. For this reason each community should be carefully studied to determine
variations in rate with time and location. Pumping records, that is, the flows measured at the
pumping station or water source, are extremely important in evaluating variations in demand.
In the absence of data it may be necessary to estimate the maximum rates. The maximum
daily consumption is likely to be 180 percent of the annual average and may reach 200
percent. i.e.
Maximum daily consumption =180 percent of the average daily demand
=1.8 * average daily demand
Good rich formula is sometimes used to for estimating consumptions:
P 180t 0.1


In this equation P is the percentage of the annual average rate and t is the length of the
periods in days. The formula predicts the maximum daily rate to be 180 percent of the annual
average rate, weekly maximum to be 148 percent of the annual average rate, and the monthly
maximum to be 128 percent of the annual average.
The maximum hourly rate is likely to be about 150 percent of the average for that day. i.e.
= 1.5*average hourly demand of the maximum day
= 1.5 *

1.8 * Q
2.7 *

Hourly peaks as high as 1000 percent of the annual average have been recorded in suburban
areas and peaks of 300 to 400 percent are not uncommon in residential areas of large cities.
Residential areas have high ratios of peak to average flow because of lawn watering, air
conditioning, and major water using appliances such as washing machines, and dishwashers.
The ratio of peaks to average flow increases with decreasing population density.

Average demand

Figure 1.1

Variation of Demand

Demand variation effects of on the design of the capacities of different components of a

water supply scheme.
1) The source of supply such as wells, springs, etc may be designed for maximum daily
consumption or sometimes for average daily consumption.
2) The pipe mains taking water from the source to the treatment plant and the service
reservoir may be designed for maximum daily demand. Or in some cases it can be
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Section I.4

designed based on the provision of economical conveyance at average daily flow at

the end of the design period with suitable velocities under all anticipated flow
The filter and other units at the treatment plant may be designed for maximum daily
draft. But most treatment units will be designed on the basis of average daily flow at
the end of the design period, since overloads do not result in major losses of treatment
The Pump lifting the water is designed for the maximum daily draft plus some
additional reserve for breaking down and repairs.
The distribution system should be designed for the maximum hourly draft of the
maximum day
The service reservoir is designed to take care of the hourly fluctuation, fire demands,
emergency reserve, and the provision required when pumps have to pump the entire
days water demand in fewer hours than 24 hours.

Design periods and population forecasting


Design Periods

A water supply scheme includes huge and costly structures which can not be replaced or
increased in their capacities easily and conveniently. The number of years for which a
provision is made in designing the capacities of the various components of the water supply
scheme is known as design period. It should be neither too long nor too short. The following
are the factors governing the economic design period of the components of a water supply
Useful life of component
Easy and difficulty that is likely to be faced in expansion
Amount and availability of additional investment likely to be incurred for
additional provision
The rate of interest
Anticipated rate of population growth
Inn order to design parts of a water supply system, the flow at the end of the design period
must be estimated. The Design periods recommended for designing the various components
of a water supply project are listed below.
Storage by dam
Infiltration works
Pump house
Electric motors and pumps
Water treatment units
Pipes and fittings
Service reservoir

Design period in years



1.5.2 Population forecasting

Since population is always a relevant factor in estimating future water use, it is necessary to
predict what the future population will be. The date in the future the projection is made
depends on the particular component of the system which is being designed. Elements of the
system which are relatively easy to expand tend to have shorter design lives; hence
population projections periods may range from as little as 5 to as long many as 50 years.
Thorough knowledge of the community and external factors which may affect its growth are
very important in population estimation. Generally population growth of a town or a city is
affected by the following factors
Births, It increases population
Deaths, it decreases population
Migration, it increase/ decrease population
The present population of a town or city can be best determined by conducting an official
enumeration, called census. However, the possible future population of the town/ city can be
estimated by use of the following methods.
a) Arithmetic increase method
b) Incremental increase method
c) Geometric increase method
d) Decrease rate of growth method
e) Simple graphical method
Comparative graphical method
g) Master plan or zoning method
h) Logistic curve method

Arithmetic increase method: - This is the simplest method of population

forecast. In this method, the increase in population from decade to decade is
assumed constant. Mathematically it can be expressed as :

Where dP/dt is the rate of change of population and K is a constant. K is determined

graphically or from populations in successive censuses as:
K= p/t
The arithmetic average of the population increase for the past 3 or 4 decades is used
as the design growth rate. The population in the future is then estimated from
pt Po Kt

Where Pt is the population at some time in the future, Po is the present population,
and t is the period of the projection. It gives relatively lower result and suitable for
old and saturated cities.
Geometric increase method: - In this method, it is assumed that the percentage
increase in population from decade to decade is constant and the increase is
compounded over the existing population every decade. It can be expressed as:


p1 p o 1

p3 p 2

p1 po

p2 p1


p 2 p o 1


p 3 p o 1


It can be generalized as:


p n p o 1


Where n is number of decade, Pn is future population, and r is growth rate (%)

It gives higher value and suitable for new/ young industrial cities. The percentage growth rate
( r ) can be estimated by computing the average growth rates of several known decades of the
past as:

increasein population

Knowing r1, r2, ,rn for each decade, the average value can be found either by arithmetic or
geometric average method.
r1 r2 .... rn
Geometricaverage n r1 * r2 * ...rn
Arithemeti caverage


Incremental increase method: - It is based on the assumption that the decade

growth rate is progressively increasing or decreasing depending upon whether the
average of the incremental increases in the past data is positive or negative. The
population for the future decade is worked out by adding the mean arithmetic say
(x) to the last known population as in the arithmetic increase method and to this is
added the average of the incremental increase say (y), once for the first decade
and twice for the second decade and so on. Thus the method assumes that the
growth rate in the first, second, a third etc. decades is (x+y), (x+2y), (x+3y) etc
respectively. Mathematically it can be written as:
P1 Po x

P2 P1 x 2 y
po x y x 2 y
po 2 x 3 y
n(n 1)
Po nx

P3 P2 x 3 y

= po 2 x 3 y +x+3y
p o nx

n( n 1)

This can be generalized as:

Pn po nx

n(n 1)



Decrease rate of growth method: - This method is applicable only in cases,

where the rate of growth shows a downward trend. In this method the average
decrease in the percentage increase is worked out and is then subtracted from the
latest percentage increase for each successive decade.

Example 1
The population of a town for five decades from 1960to 2000 is given below as
shown in Table 1 Estimate the population that will be expected after one, two, and three
decades beyond the last decade by using
Arithmetic increase method
Geometric increase method
incremental increase method
decrease rate of method
Table 1 Population amount from 1960 to 2000



Year Population Population
1960 25000




% increase




11 .9





1980 34000


1990 42000
2000 47000
Total 22000
Average Value



12-21.4 = -9.4
21.4-23.5= -2.1

12 * 21.4 * 23.5 * 11 .9 0.10 0.03



Forecasted Population


1970 28000



Formula used

pt Po Kt
Arithmetic = 47000 +5500





=47000(1+0.1637) =47000(1+.01637)2 =47000(1+.01637)3




pt Po (1

r t

Pt p o nx
p n Pn 1 (1

n( n 1)

Reading Assignment: Read and develop you note for the following population forecasting
1) Simple graphical method
2) Comparative graphical method
3) Master plan method
4) Logistic curve method

Article II. Sources of Water Supply

General: - After estimating the water requirement for the proposed water supply scheme,
the designers of the scheme must go for search of near by water sources, which may be able
to supply the required amount of water. The following important factors are generally
considered in selecting a particular source for supplying water to a city or town.
The quantity of available water
The quality of available water
Distance of the source of supply
General topography of the intervening area
Elevation of the source of supply
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The various source of water available on the earth can be classified into surface and
subsurface sources. The selection of a source of supply will be based on water availability,
adequacy, quality, cost of development and operation, and the expected life of the project to
be served. In general, all alternative sources of supply should be evaluated to the extent
necessary to provide a valid assessment of their value for a specific installation. A
combination of surface and ground water, while not generally employed, may be
advantageous under some circumstances and should receive consideration


Surface Water Sources

2.1.1 General: -Water that does not infiltrate to the ground is called surface water. Or
Surface sources are those sources of water in which the water flows over the surface of the
earth, and is thus directly available for water supplies. It includes streams, lakes, ponds, and
impounding reservoirs. Surface water is available without major digging or use of extensive
machinery and some times can be delivered to users without pumping. The quality of water
available is easy to determine by simple measurements. However, the development of surface
water sources is not simple and careful planning is necessary. Surface water is subject to runoff and human and animal contact and may be contaminated with feces or other wastes.
Surface waters are generally characterized by their variability in both quantity and quality.
The investigations of surface water sources will cover the following items, as well as others,
as circumstances warrant.
a. Topographic maps showing pertinent drainage areas.
b. Hydrologic data, as required for project evaluations, e .g. rainfall, runoff,
evaporation, assessment of ground water resources and their potential as the sole
source or supplementary source of supply.
c. Sanitary survey findings.
d. Intake location.
e. Water quality data at or near proposed intake site.
f. Feasibility of developing supply without reservoir construction.
g. Reservoir location if reservoir is required.
h. Plans for other reservoirs on watershed.
i. Pertinent geological data that may affect dam foundation or ability of reservoir to
hold water.
j. Locations for pump stations, supply lines, treatment plant.
k. Energy requirements for proposed system.
l. Water laws, rules and regulations, procedure for obtaining right to use water, impact
of proposed use on rights of other users.
m. Disposition of sludge from water treatment plant.

2.1.2 Methods of Developing Surface water: - Surface waters are available in

rivers, ponds, impounding reservoirs, and lakes. Because most surface waters are feed by
surface run-off, treatment is necessary. Other requirements of surface water sources are the
provision of appropriate intake and adequate storage facilities called impounding reservoir.
Impounding reservoir is used commonly in rivers and streams because they have variable
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Impounding Reservoir: - They are also called storage reservoirs and formed by
construction a dam or dike across a flowing stream. The storage reservoirs will store water
during high rates of flow and will supply it during high rates of demand. So the decision for
the construction of dam is based on:

When the rate of flow in the stream is always greater than the rate of demand,
there is no need of storage reservoir.
When the average annual flow is lower than the average annual demand, then
also dam should not be constructed as the deficit of the dry season can not be
compensated by the surplus of wet season.
When the average flow is higher than the average demand, but in dry season the
discharge is lower than the water demand, then only it is advisable to construct a
dam and have storage reservoir.

Case Three

The capacity of the storage or impounded reservoir may be calculated by:

Graphical (Mass Curve) method and,
Analytical Method

Mass Curve Method: - This involves the following procedure.

First mass curves for the run-off and the cumulative draft are plotted.

Then tangents to the run-off curve are plotted parallel to the draft line.

The maximum ordinate inside the loops is found out. That gives the required

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Start of
dry period

capacity of

Draft curve

2.1.3 Intakes for Collecting Surface Waters: - Intakes are masonry or RC

structures built at the surface sources for the purpose of withdrawing water safely from the
source over a predetermined range of pool levels and then to discharge this water into the
withdrawal conduit.
An intake structure constructed at the entrance of the conduit and thereby helping in
protecting the conduit from being damaged or clogged by ice, debris, trash, etc. vary from a
simple concrete block supporting the end of the conduit pipe to huge concrete towers housing
intake gates, screens, and pumps e.t.c.
The following considerations shall be made in selecting the site of an intake.
As far as possible, the site should be near the treatment plant
The intake must be located in the purer zone of the source
It should not be located at the downstream side of the point of waste water disposal.
There should be sufficient space for further expansion.
The site should permit greater withdrawal of water.
It should be easily accessible during floods
In meandering rivers, it should not be located on curves or at least on sharp curves. If
they have to be located on curves, it is better to locate them on concave banks.
Depending on the nature of sources, the following types of intakes are generally used.
I. River intakes
II. Reservoir intakes
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River intakes are towers usually circular in cross-section and constructed on the bank of the
river. The intake tower itself serve as a sump well at the lower part and the upper half act as
pump house and also as control room. For letting water into the sump well, a number of
openings or ports are provided at different levels. For small water supply scheme the water is
avoided and only pipe is kept in the water with suitable protection.
Reservoir intakes are similar to river intakes but they are constructed inside the
reservoir/lake/pond i.e. in deep water near the upstream toe of the dam. The intake is
provided with inlet ports at different levels. The inlet ports at different levels may be operated
from the gate house with the fluctuation of water levels. Access to the intake tower for
operation of gates, pumps and other purposes is made by means of foot bridges.


Ground Water Sources

2-2-1 General: - Ground water is water contained in beds of rock, gravel, and sand,
termed "aquifers," beneath the land surface. The principal source of ground water is rainfall,
and aquifers are replenished, or recharged, by seepage of rainfall into the ground. An
aquifer's recharge area may be close to or distant from a well location. Geology controls the
abundance of ground water. In general, wells drilled into dense rocks, such as granite, do not
yield large quantities of ground water. On the other hand, wells that penetrate unconsolidated
formations of loose sand and gravel will often yield large quantities of water.
An aquifer may be defined as a formation that contains sufficient saturated permeable
material to yield significant quantities of water to wells and springs. This implies an ability to
store and transmit water; unconsolidated sands and gravels are a typical example. Many types
of geologic formations can serve as aquifers. The key requirement is their ability to store
water in the rock pores. Aquifers are generally really extensive and may be overlain or
underlain by a confining bed, which may be defined as a relatively impermeable material
stratigraphically adjacent to one or more aquifers.
Water enters an aquifer from natural or artificial recharge; it flows out under the action of
gravity or extracted by wells. Aquifers may be classified as unconfined or confined
depending on the presence or absence of a water table; while a leaky aquifer represents a
combination of the two types. The following figures show the schematic representation of
aquifer types.

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Figure: 2.1

Schematic cross section illustrating unconfined and confined aquifers.

a. Availability: - Ground water is found in most parts of the world and can be a reliable
source of drinking water. Sources of groundwater are usually free from disease causing
bacteria. There is usually less seasonal variation in ground water quantities than in surface
water. Within a given area, there may be considerable variation from place to place in the
yield of aquifers. Before an appraisal of the cost of a ground water supply system can be
prepared, information is needed regarding well location, depth, productivity, and spacing.
Sometimes reliable information can be obtained from a study of existing wells in the same
vicinity. Various investigation techniques (Surface and Subsurface), including a test-drilling
program in some important and large scale projects, are often required to determine well
location and probable productivity. A test drilling program will provide reliable information
about the following matters; location of wells, depth of wells, well spacing, well design,
probable productivity of completed wells, probable water quality, materials of well
construction, and pumping equipment. Existing wells, drilling contractors familiar with the
area and related regional or district offices can serve as sources of information regarding well
location, depth, and capacity.
b. Quality: - Generally ground has less suspend impurities and high dissolved minerals and
metals as compared to surface waters. Many ground waters have high levels of hardness and
may require softening. Iron and manganese are also troublesome constituents of many
ground waters; if concentrations in excess of 1 .0 mg/l iron and/or .15 mg/l manganese are
encountered, treatment will be a requirement for domestic uses. Other common constituents
of ground water are chloride and sulfate. Chloride is objectionable if present in excess of
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about 400 mg/l and, for sulfate, 500 mg/l. Ground waters contain varying amounts of
dissolved carbon dioxide. Minor concentrations are not harmful; excessive amounts can be
readily removed by aeration processes. Hydrogen sulfide is a noxious constituent of some
ground waters. It has an extremely unpleasant odor, is corrosive, and causes disinfection
difficulties. Treatment, usually by some form of aeration, is required for its removal. In spite
of the relatively high concentration of dissolved impurities in groundwater, it is the first and
most often choice of source of water supply for domestic supply with no or minimum
treatment. Most urban and rural areas in Ethiopia are getting their supply from groundwater
e.g. Bahirdar.
c. Economy: - Where water requirements are moderate, ground water may prove economical
if the supply can be obtained from a few high-capacity wells. However, if the yield of
available aquifers is limited, a number of low-capacity wells will be required, resulting in
greatly increased capital costs for well construction. System operating and maintenance costs
will also be considerably increased. Under such conditions, the economy of a ground water
versus surface water supply needs to be carefully examined. The study should include an
appraisal of operating and maintenance costs as well as capital costs. No absolute rules can
be given for choosing between ground and surface water sources. In general, wells requiring
minimum or no treatment or only disinfection will be the preferred supply method when
compared with surface sources. Each situation must be examined on its merits with due
consideration to treatment as well as installation and pumping costs.

2.2.2 Important considerations in locating well site: - Both well location and
construction are of major importance in protecting the quality of water derived from a well.
Sanitary survey: - Prior to a decision as to well or well field location, a thorough
sanitary survey of the area should be undertaken. Such effort will usually provide a good
picture of the pollution problems in the area and their possible impact on the ground water as
well as an assessment of the probable quality of the water that will be obtained from new
wells in the area. Such a survey will involve interviewing personnel from state and local
health departments and other state agencies as well as Federal agencies having knowledge of
water quality and water use in the area. Also, data related to the following should be obtained
and analyzed .Locations and characteristics of sewage and industrial waste disposal.
Locations of sewers, septic tanks, and cesspools.
Chemical and bacteriological quality of ground water, especially the quality of water
from existing wells.
Industrial and municipal landfills and dumps.
Direction and rate of travel of usable ground water.
b. Well location: - The well or wells should be located on the highest ground practicable,
certainly on ground higher than nearby potential sources of pollution. The well casing should
be carried at least 12 inches above the elevation of the ground surface at the site and the
surface near the site should be built up, by fill if necessary, so that surface drainage will be
away from the well in all directions. Where flooding is a problem, special well design will be
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necessary to insure protection of wells and pumping equipment from contamination and
damage during flood periods and to facilitate operation during a flood.
c. Minimum distance from pollution sources: - Minimum distances from known potential
sources of pollution should be carefully considered in deciding upon well location.
Recommended minimum distances for well sites, under favorable geological conditions,
from commonly encountered potential sources of pollution are as shown in Table 2-1. It is
emphasized that these are minimum distances which can serve as rough guides to good
practice when geological conditions are favorable. Conditions are considered favorable when
the earth materials between the well location and the pollution source have the filtering
ability of fine sand. Where the terrain consists of coarse gravel, limestone, or disintegrated
rock near the surface, the distance guides given above are insufficient, and greater distances
will be required to provide safety. Because of the wide geological variations that may be
encountered, it is impossible to specify the distance needed under all circumstances.
Consultation with local authorities will aid in establishing safe distances consistent with the
Table 2.1
Building Sewer
Septic Tank
Disposal Field
Seepage Pit
Dry Well

Minimum Distances from Pollution Sources.

Horizontal Distance
15.0 meter
15.0 mete
30.0 mete
30.0 mete
15.0 mete
45.0 mete

2.2.3 Methods of Developing Sources of Ground water: - The most commonly

used methods for the development of ground water are:
Water well construction
Spring Development
Other methods like infiltration wells and galleries could also be used at some appropriate
Water supply wells: - A well is a hydraulic structure that permits the withdrawal
of water from the interstices of a water bearing formation. A water supply well can be
considered to consist of two basic components (1) a conduit section that houses pumping
equipment and provides piping for upward flow of water to the ground surface, (2) the intake
section equipped to promote free entry of water from the aquifer into the well. In rock
formations, the conduit portion is usually cased from the surface to the top of the aquifer. The
remainder, or intake portion, of the well is uncased. In sand-gravel aquifers, the conduit
section is cased and the intake portion consists of a screen or a screen plus a gravel pack. The
function of the screen and gravel pack is to prevent fine aquifer material, such as sand, from
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entering the well while permitting the inflow of water. Those responsible for planning and
designing water supply wells should recognize the following principles:
Methods of well location
Methods of well design and construction
Well completion
Well development
Many methods exist for constructing wells. Selection of a particular method depends on the
purpose of the well, the quantity of water required, depth to groundwater, geologic conditions
and economic factors. Generally well can be classified based on their depth and method of
construction as:
Shallow wells and,
Deep wells
Attention to proper design will ensure efficient and long lived wells. After a well has been
drilled, it should be completed, developed for optimum yield, and tested

Well design and construction: - Wells are constructed as dug wells, driven wells,
jetted wells, bored wells, drilled wells, or collector wells. There is no single correct method
of well construction. The choice depends on size, depth, formations encountered, and
experience of local well contractors. Detailed guidance on water supply well design and
construction is contained in the book Ground water Hydrology written by Devied. K. Todd.
It contain detailed information on drilling-methods, types of wells, well casings and screens,
testing for yield and drawdown, grouting and sealing, disinfection, samples and records,
protection of water quality, and sealing of abandoned wells . Summary of some of the
important points are presented below.

Shallow Wells

Shallow wells are generally less than 15m in depth. They are constructed by digging, boring,
driving, or jetting.
I. Dug Wells
Depth range up to 20metres or more
Diameters are usually fromm1 to 5 meters
Excavated by hand
Concrete, Brick, or stone lining be employed
Most wells yield less than 500m3/day
Gravel is backfilled around the curb and bottom of the well to control sand
entry and possible caving.
The series limitation of dug wells is pollution by surface water.
II. Bored wells
They are constructed with hand operated or power driven earth augers
Hand- Bored wells seldom exceed 20cm in diameter and15meres in depth
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 18

Power driven augers will bore holes up to 1meter in diameter and 30meters in
Augers work best in formations that do not cave
III. Driven wells
It consists of a series of connected lengths of pipe driven by repeated impacts into the
ground to below the water table.

The lower end of the well consists of a screened cylindrical section that allow
entrance of water into the well
Diameter ranges from 3 to 10cm and depth usually lass than 15meters
Water table must be near the ground surface (with in 3 to 5 meters below the
ground surface)
Yields range from 100 to 250m3/day
They can be constructed in short time at minimum cost.

Fig 2.2
dug well with a rock curb, concrete seal, and hand pump.
IV. Jetted wells
Are constructed by a cutting action of downward-directed stream of water
Diameter range from 3 to 10cm and depth up to 15m
Are best adopted to unconsolidated formation
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 19

Simplification can be obtained by using a self jetting well point.

Article III. Deep wells

Most deep and high capacity wells are constructed by drilling. A large number of methods
e.g. cable tools, hydraulic rotary or reverse rotary methods are in use for boring or drilling
deep wells.


Cable tool method

It drills by lifting and dropping the tools alternatively in the drilled hole to break
up the formation.
The lifting and dropping of drilling bit and bailer can be accomplished by hand or
percussion rigs
In soft formation it is possible to bore 10 to 25cm diameter well up to a depth of
90 to 120 meters by hand boring set
The average [performance of hand boring set is 1.5 to 3.0meters per 8 hours
Percussion rig used normally range from light type (weight of tools 250 to 750kg)
which can drill 15 to 25cm hole up to a depth of 90 to 120 meters in soft and
medium hard formation, to medium type (weight of tools 1000kg ) which can drill
holes of 20 cm to a depth of 200meters in soft, hard or boulder formation. The
average drilling rate may range between 1.5 and 4.5 meters per 8hours. Heavy
rigs are required for drilling deep holes in boulder or other difficult formation.
In unconsolidated formation the drilled hole has to be lined with a casing pipe that
is let down as the drilling progresses.
Rotary Method
it is a rapid method in drilling in unconsolidated formation
The method operates continuously with a hollow rotating bit through which a
mixture of clay and water or drilling mud is forced.
Materials loosen by the bit is carried upward in the hole by the rising mud.
No casing is ordinary required during drilling since the mud forms clay lining or
mud case on the wall of the well.
Deep wells up to 45ch in diameters can be drilled.
Rotary rigs are able to drill 5 to 30 meters per 8 hours.
Advantages are a rapid drilling rate, the avoidance of placement of casing during
Disadvantages are high equipment cost, more complex operation.


Spring Development: - There are two categories of spring:

1. Gravity
2. Artesian
Within the gravity category, there are three principal types of springs:

Contact spring

Depressed spring, and

Tabular or fractured spring.

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Springs are developed by constructing a spring box around the spring outlet. A small area is
dug out around the spring and lined with gravel. A concrete box with a removable cover is
placed over the spring to collect and store the water. The cover prevents outside
contamination and should be heavy enough not to be displaced by people. A tap and an over
flow should be provided to prevent backup in the aquifer. Fig 2.3 Show the details of spring


Distribution systems

3.1. General
Water, whether it is drawn from surface or groundwater supplies, must be conveyed to the
community and distributed to the users. Conveyance from the source to the point of treatment
may be provided by aqueducts, pipelines, or open channels, but once the water has been
treated it is distributed in pressurized closed conduits. To deliver water to individual
consumers with appropriate quality, quantity, and pressure in a community requires an
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extensive system of pipes, distribution (service) reservoirs, pumps, and related

appurtenances. The term distribution system is used to describe collectively the facilities used
to supply water from its source to the point of usage. It consist a transmission line and pipe
network for distribution of water.

3.2. Transmission Line

Transmission main, is the pipe line or conduit that carries water from the intake to the service
reservoir or treatment plant. It is some times called as supply main or rising main. Conduits
used for transmission of water may be divided into two types based on the condition and
characteristics of flow.
Gravity conduit
Pressure conduit
Gravity conduits: - are those in which the water flows under the mere action of
gravity. In such cases the water is at the atmospheric pressure. The hydraulic gradient line is
parallel to the bed of the conduit. They can be in the form of canals, flumes, or aqueducts and
usually used to transport water from the source to the treatment plant.

Pressure Conduits: - are closed conduits and the water flows under pressure above
atmospheric pressure. They have the following advantages:
a. They are very economical hence they can be laid at the shorter routes.
b. The flowing water has no chance or very less chances of getting polluted.
Thus pressure pipes are invariably and universally used for water supply.
Pressure pipes are used in the following situations.
To transport water from the surface sources to treatment plants
To transport water from wells to service reservoirs
To transport water from treatment plants to service reservoir
In the distribution network.
The hydraulic gradient should be such as to generate velocities which are neither so small as
to require large size diameter pipe, nor so large as to cause excessive loss of pressure head.
The velocity should be non-silting and non-scouring. The flow velocities are normally kept
between 0.9 to 1.5m/s.
It is a normal practice to design the pipes in such a way that the available pressure head
between the source and supply points is just lost in overcoming the frictional resistance
offered to the flow by the pipe interior.
The head loss caused by the pipe friction can be found by using either of the following
Darcy-Weisbach Formula: - Darcy, Weisbach, and others proposed that, on the basis
of experiment that the energy loss resulting from friction varies as:
HL f

L V 2

d 2 g

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in which f is a friction factor, L is the pipe length, d its internal diameter, and V2/2g the
velocity head. f depends on the Reynolds number N R and the relative roughness e/d, where e
is the height of surface roughness on the wall of the pipe and depends on the pipe material.
Hazen-Williams equation:- In addition to the Darcy-Weisbach equation, a numbr of
more or less empirical equations which are more easily silved have been developed for use in
pipe flow problems. The Hazen Williamss equation is one of such a relation and has the
V 0.85CR 0.63 S 0.54

in which C is a factor depend on relative roughness, R is the hydraulic radius, Sis the slope of
the energy grade line (HL/L)
The Darcy-Weisbach and Hazen-Williams equations can be shown to give comparable results
at moderately high Reynolds numbers when appropriate values are chosen for C. Some
values of c for pipes of different materials are presented in Table 3.1.
Table 3.1 Hazen- Wiliams coefficients for various materials
Description of Pipe
Value of C
Cast Iron
5 years old
10 years old
20 years old
30 years old
Cement lined
Asbestos cement
A Monogram which permits graphical solution of the Hazen-Williams equation is available.
The graph will yield either discharge, pipe size, or energy slope given the other two

Mannings Formula: - The Mannings equation can also be used in the solution of
pipeline problems.


n 2V 2 L

3.2.1 Economic Diameter of Rising Main

Economic diameter is a particular size of the rising main, which while passing a given
discharge of water, makes total annual expense to be minimum.
Total annual expense = cost of pipe + cost of pumping
Lea has developed an empirical equation relating the economic size and the flowrate
(discharge). The equation has the form:
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 23

To D 1.22
Where D= economic diameter in meter
Q = Discharge in m3/s

C o st

D 0.969 Q

P ip e c o s t

P u m p in g c o s t

E c o n o m ic D i a m e t e r
S iz e
F ig 3 . 1 E c o n o m i c s i z e o f a r i s i n g m a in

3.3. Distribution Network

Water collected from the selected sources through the provision of appropriate intakes, made
safe by various treatment processes, and transported to the service reservoir by supply main
has to be supplied to the consumer via the distribution network. A distribution network may
consist of:
Pipe lines for carrying the water
Various types of Valves for flow regulation and network maintenance
and proper functioning.
Meters for measuring discharge
Service reservoir for storing water
Pumps for lifting water
Fire hydrants
The distribution system may supply water to the public either continuously for 24 hours of
the day, or it may supply intermittently during certain fixed hours of the day.
The following are some of the requirements of good distribution system.
It should be capable of supplying water for all required purposes with
sufficient pressure.
It should be simple and easy to operate and repair.
It should be safe against pollution.

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Distribution Reservoir/Service Reservoir

Distribution reservoirs also called service reservoirs are the storage reservoirs made of steel,
RC or masonry, which store water for supplying it during emergency such as fire, and also to
help in absorbing the hourly fluctuations in the normal water demand.
Main functions served by the distribution reservoirs are:
To equalize supply and demand
To furnish water for emergency
To reduce size of treatment plants and number of wells
To reduce pumping capacity
To maintain uniform pumping rate
To reduce size of transmission lines e.t.c.
In the design of water supply schemes, provisions should be made for adequate capacity
distribution reservoir.
Capacity of distribution reservoir depends upon a number of factors. These include:
1. Variation between demands
2. the reserve required for fire protection
3. The stand by pumping capacity
4. Interconnection in the distribution mains
Capacity of the reservoir is usually between 1/4th to 1/3rd i.e. 6 to 8 hours of maximum day
demand in case of large community or city water supply and or 12 hours of the maximum
day demand for small community or rural water supply.


Layout and Design of a Distribution Networks

The networks of conduits that convey water to the point of use from the service reservoir/
supply main are known as the distribution networks. Street plan, topography and location of
supply work and distribution storage establish the type of distribution system and character
of flow through it. The following are the types of distribution systems:
A. Dead end system
B. Grid iron system
C. Ring system
D. Radial system
Any one of these either singly or in combination, can be used for a particular place,
depending upon the local conditions and orientation of roads.

Dead end system: - in the dead end system which is also sometimes called tree
system; there is one main supply pipe, from which a number of sub main pipes
originates. Each sub main then divides into several branch pipes, called laterals.

This system is suitable for localities which expand irregularly and where the water pipes have
to be laid at random due to absence of any planned road networks. The system has the
following advantages and disadvantages.
It is cheap and simple to expand and extend
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 25

Easy to design
Lesser number of cutoff valves are required

Stagnation of water and accumulation of sediments at dead ends
Water supply has to be cutoff to large area during repair
During emergency such as firefighting the discharge is limited.

Main Pipe

Grid Iron system: - in this system the mains, sub mains, and branches are all
interconnected with each other. The system is more suitable for all planned towns and cities.

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The system has the following advantages and disadvantages.

Water reaches at different places through more than one routes
In case of repair very small area is affected
Water remains in continuous circulation
More water can be diverted during emergency to the affected area
The system requires more length of pipes and large number of valves
Its construction is costlier
The design difficult

Ring system: - in this system, a closed ring of the main pipe, either circular or
rectangular, is formed around the area to be served.

The system has the same advantage and disadvantage with the grid iron system. Some times
the system is used as a looped feeder placed centrally around a high demand area along with
the grid iron system. In such a case, it enhances the capacity of the grid iron system and will
improve the pressure at various points.

Main pipe

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 27


Radial system: - if a city or town is having a system of radial roads emerging from
different centers, the pipe line can be best laid in a radial method by placing the
distribution reservoir at these centers. This system gives quick service with out
much loss of head.

Design calculations are also simple. However, cost of distribution reservoir may be more.

Design of Distribution Network

The design of a distribution system involves the determination of size of pipes that ensures
availability of water at the end points of the pipe with the minimum allowable pressure at the
time of maximum demand.
The design of a water distribution system for a new area can be outlined as follows.
1. Obtain a detailed map of the area to be served on which topographic contours and the
locations of present and future streets and lots are identified.
2. Based on the topography, select possible locations for distribution reservoirs. If the
area to be served is large, it may be divided into several sub areas to be served with
separate distribution systems.
3. Estimate the water demand for each area.
4. Estimate pipe sizes on the basis of water demand and local code requirements.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 28

5. Lay out a skeleton system of supply mains leading from the distribution reservoir or
other source of supply.
6. Accomplish hydraulic analysis of the distribution system.
7. Adjust pipe sizes to reduce pressure irregularities in the distribution system.
8. Locate the necessary valves and fire hydrants.
The purpose of a hydraulic analysis of a distribution system is to assess flows (including
direction) and the associated pressure distribution that develops within the system under
various conditions of withdrawal. Several methods are available. These include:
The circle method
Pipe equivalence
Digital computer analysis, and
Electric analogy
Adequate terminal pressure should be available at all end points in the distribution system.
The following pressure may be satisfactory.

Up to three story 2kg/cm2

Three to six storey height 2 to 4kg/cm2

six to ten storey height 4 to 5.5kg/cm2

above ten storey 5.5 to 7kg/cm2

In order to compute the terminal pressures in all the pipes, the head loss through each pipe
should be estimated using either Darcy-Weisbach or Hazen-Williams formula.
For the design of simple distribution networks such as dead end, simple methods of
calculating the head losses in the different pipe sections can be used. This involves
calculating the terminal pressure at various points by moving from the known pressure point.
However, for complicated networks, such as the grid iron system, other methods of analysis
like the Hardy-cross method or digital computer analysis will be used.
In the analysis of pipe flow the following two conditions must be satisfied.
1. The algebraic sum of the pressure drops around a closed loop must be zero.
2. The flow entering a junction must be equal to the flow leaving the same
a dead end type distribution system as shown in the figure below has been
adopted for supplying water to a small town from an over head tank located at point A the RL
of the water in the tank at its minimum level is 200m, The minimum pressure head to be
maintained at any point in the distribution system is 6m.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 29

The average rate of per capita demand is assumed to be 100l/day. Peak factors for the
maximum hourly demand and the maximum day demand are 4 and 1.8 respectively. The
length each pipe section and reduce level of the ends of the pipe sections are given in the
table below.
Pipe section
Reduced Level
Beginning of section
End of Section


Pumps for Lifting Water


Types of Pump and Their Selection Criteria

In a water supply scheme pumps are required at one or more of the following stages.
To lift the water from the source to either the treatment plant or the service
To lift the water from the treatment plant to the service reservoir
To lift the water in the distribution system
To lift the water from one treatment plant to the other
With respect to the principle of operation pumps may be classified as kinetic-energy pumps
and positive displacement pumps. The principal types of pumps included under these two
classifications are shown in the Figure below.

Radial flow
Mixed flow

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Axial flow







Single stage
Jet, Hydraulic

Piston plunger

Blow Case

Figure 4.1 Types of pumps
The principal sub classifications of kinetic-energy pumps is centrifugal, which, in turn, is
divided into three groups.
Radial-flow pumps
Mixed flow pumps
Axial flow pumps
The selection of a particular type of pump depends upon the following factors.
a) Capacity of pump
b) Initial cost of pumping arrangement
c) Maintenance cost
d) Number of unit required
e) Space requirements for locating the pumps
f) Total lift of water required
g) Quality of water to be pumped
Generally for all ordinary conditions of pumping the centrifugal pumps are frequently used,
as they provide satisfactory and economic service. However, pumps other than those of
centrifugal types may be used in some cases. For very small discharges, the rotary pumps
may prove to be equally satisfactory as the centrifugal pumps and less costly if the water to
be pumped is free of sediments.

4.1.1 Advantage and Disadvantage of centrifugal pumps

Their initial and maintains costs are low
Less skilled labour is required for their operation and repair
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 31

Their size is compact and require very limited space

The discharge obtained is steady
They can be used to pump water containing silt, sand etc.
They are quite durable and safe against high pressures

Absence of self priming arrangement
For high heads the efficiency is low
Their ordinary suction head is limited


Head, Power, and Efficiency of Pump

Pressure and discharge are inversely related in pump design so pumps which produce high
pressure have a relatively small discharge and pumps which produce a large discharge are
capable of relatively low pressures.
The capacity (flow rate) of a pump is the volume of fluid pumped per unit of time which
usually is measured in cubic meters per second (m 3/s). The term head refers to the elevation
of a free surface of water above or below a reference datum.
The total dynamic head (H) is the head against which a pump has to work when water is
being pumped. It consists of:

Static suction head (hs) which is the difference between the suction
liquid level and the centerline of the pump impeller. If the suction liquid level is
below the centerline of the pump impeller, it is a static suction lift.
Static discharge head (hd) which is the difference in elevation between
the discharge liquid level and the centerline of the impeller.
Friction head (hf) which is the head of water that must be supplied to
overcome the frictional head loss caused by the flow of fluid through the pipe system.
The frictional head loss in the suction and discharge piping system may be computed
with the Hazen-Williams and Darcy-Weisbach equations.

The total dynamic head on a pump can be determined by considering the static suction head
(hs), the discharge head (hd), and the frictional head (hf). The expression for the determining
the total dynamic is
H = h s + hd + h f
The energy (Bernoullis) equation can also be applied to determine the total dynamic head on
the pump. The energy equation written between the suction and the discharge nozzle of the
pump is
p s Vs2

Pd Vd

Z s


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 32

The power required to operate a pump is directly proportional to the flow rate, discharge
pressure head, and the specific gravity of the fluid, and inversely proportional to the pump
efficiency. This power must be supplied by a motor to the pump drive shaft so the pump
impeller can impart the power to the water at the relevant pump efficiency.
Pump performance is measured in terms of the capacity that a pump can discharge against a
given head and at given efficiency. Pump efficiency , the ratio of the useful power output to
the power input, is given by
Pump efficiency usually range from 60 to 85 percent. In practice, power input to the pump is
computed using the following equation:




Pi = power input to pump, KW (KN.m/s)

= unit weight of liquid, KN/m3
Q = capacity (flow rate or discharge) m3/s
H = Total dynamic head (m)
= Pump efficiency


Pipes, Fittings, and Joints



A pipe is a circular closed conduit through which the water may flow either under gravity or
under pressure. They are mostly used for the transportation and distribution of water. Pipe
can be divided into different type depending upon the type of material they are made. These
Iron pipes: - Iron pipes are extremely durable and may be expected to have a
service life in excess of 100 years. It is, however, subject to corrosion, which
may produces a phenomena called tuberculation, in which scales of rust coat
the inside of the pipe, reducing its diameter and increasing its relative
roughness. Iron pipes can be cast Iron or ductile Iron pipes. Ductile Iron is
nowadays used mostly, since for a given strength it is lighter and is less
brittle. Cast Iron pipes have the following advantages.
o They have moderate cost
o Their joining is easier
o They have long life
o Service connection can be easily made in them.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 33

The have on the other hand the following disadvantages

o They are subject to tuberculation
o They are heavier
o They are likely to break during transportation
o They can not be used for pressures greater than 7kg/cm2.

Steel pipes: - Steel pipes may be used for water lines,

particularly in circumstances where diameters are large and pressures are
high. Steel has economic advantages in such circumstances, since it is
stronger and thus lighter for give strength. Steel pipe has relatively thin wall
that makes it likely to be structurally damaged by corrosion than iron pipes.

Plastic Pipes: - Since plastic pipe is far easier to handle and

install and generally cheaper than other pipes such as iron they are widely
used both in domestic plumbing and in water distribution systems. They
have the following advantage and disadvantages
o Advantages:

They are free form corrosion

They are cheaper
Their joining, bending, and installation is easy
They are highly resistant to acidic water
They are smooth and possess low hydraulic resistance
They are good electric insulators
They are durable and unaffected by age, sunlight or
They have low resistance to heat

Concrete pipes, and Asbestos cement pipes

Selection of pipe depends on:

Hydraulic properties
Resistance to Corrosion
Durability and period of life
Handling and joining


Valves and Appurtenances

A variety of valves and specialized appurtenances are used in water distribution systems.
These may include:
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 34

Section III.1

Gate Valves: - These are the most commonly used valves for on-off service.
They are located at regular intervals through out the distribution systems and
at junctions. So that breaks in the systems can be readily isolated. Most gate
valves will operate properly only when installed in a vertical position.
Check Valves: - These valves permit water to flow in only one direction and
are commonly used to prevent reversal of flow when pumps are shut off.
Check valves installed at the end of a suction line are called foot valves. These
prevent draining of the suction line and loss of prime when the pump is shut
down. Check valves are also installed on the discharge side of pumps to
reduce hammer forces on the pump mechanisms.
Pressure regulating Valves: - They automatically reduce the pressure on the
down stream side to any desired level. They function by using the upstream
pressure to throttle the flow through an opening. The throttling valve will
close (or open) until the down stream pressure reaches the preset value.
Blow off Valves: - At low points in the system, blow off valves are provided to
drain the pipe line and permit removal of sediment.
Vacuum and Air relief valves: - High points should be provided with vacuumand air-relief valves to admit air when the line is being emptied and to release
air which is initially in the line or which accumulates during use. Admitting
air is particularly important with thin walled pipe (such as steel pipe) which
may buckle under compressive load. High points in the line should be kept
below the hydraulic grade line, since negative pressure at such locations will
lead to accumulation of gases which eventually may block the flow.

Construction and maintenance of water distribution system

Pipe lines are normally installed along the streets. There are several steps in installing pipe.
These are:
i. Trenching and stringing
ii. Bedding
iii. Pressure testing
iv. Back filling
v. Disinfecting
Trenching and Stringing: - as a general rule do not excavate a trench too far a head of
laying the pipe. Avoiding long stretches of open trench will minimize the risk of flooding and
caving and will reduce hazards that might cause accidents. Trenches should be no wider than
necessary to permit workmen easy access to install the pipe and required fittings. Clearance
of about 150mm on either side is normally adequate. Pipes must be buried deep enough to
prevent it from surface activity, vehicle loads, and high temperature. Normally a minimum
depth cover of 60cm will provide adequate protection. Trench excavation can be done by
hand labour or motorized equipment. It is a common practice to deliver pipe directly along
the route of the trench and unload it along the trench line. This called stringing and saves
double handling of the pipe.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 35

Bedding: - In rock formation for the purpose of providing uniform support along the
underside of the pipe trench bottoms should be leveled and bedded with selected materials.
Pressure testing: - After a pipe line has been installed, it should be tested for leaks and
pressure resistance. This will ensure that pipes and joints are free from leakages and also
sound enough to with stand the maximum pressure likely to be developed under the working
conditions. This can be done by filling the section to be tested with water under pressure.
Backfilling: - Proper backfilling is essential in order to protect the pipe, prevent erosion, and
avoid too much settlement of the filled trench. Dry soil that is free from rocks and organic
materials should be used. If the excavated material is not free of rocks, then selected
materials should be used.
Disinfecting the System: - When installation has been completed, the entire system should
be flushed with clean water to remove dirt and sediment and then disinfected. This can be
done by filling the system with water containing at least 50mg/liter of chlorine and leaving it
in the main for 24hours.
Maintenance of distribution systems includes occasional cleaning, servicing of valves and
hydrants, leak surveys, repairs, and disinfection of repaired section.

Part Two: Sewerage

Article IV. Source and types of sewage
Important definitions
Sewage: - Sewage is the liquid waste conveyed by a sewer and may include domestic and
industrial discharges as well as storm sewage, infiltration, and inflow. Domestic is that which
originates in the sanitary conveyances of dwelling, commercial and institutional facilities.
Industrial waste includes the liquid discharges from industrial processes. A combination of
domestic and industrial sewage is called sanitary sewage. Storm sewage is flow derived from
rainfall events and deliberately introduced into sewers intended for its conveyance.
Infiltration is water which enters the sewers from the ground through leaks. Inflow is water
which enters the sewers from the surface, during rainfall events through defects in the
system, or through connections to roof or basement drains.
A sewer is pipe or conduit, generally closed, but normally not flowing full, which carries
sewage. A common sewer serves all abutting properties A sanitary sewer carries sanitary
sewage and is designed to exclude storm sewage, infiltration, and inflow. A storm sewer
carries storm sewage and any other wastes which may be discharged into the streets or onto
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 36

the surface of the ground. A combined sewer carries both domestic and storm sewage. A
system composed of combined sewers is called a combined system. While one which
segregates the storm water is called a separate system.
Sewerage system: - It is the system of sewers including all appurtenances required for
sewage collection, treatment, and disposal. A sewage system will consist of mainly:
Collection works
Treatment works
Disposal works
The sewerage system can be:
Separate system it collects transport and disposes safely either sanitary sewage
or storm water.
Combined system which collects and dispose safely both sanitary sewage and
storm waters.
Partially separate is that type of sewerage system which collects sanitary
sewage and a portion of storm waters specially those from roof gutters and
street drains.
The aim of providing either of this system or a combination of them in a city is to create
good sanitary environmental system that results from the safe collection, treatment, and
disposal of sewage.

Section IV.1


Every community produces both liquid and solid wastes. The liquid portion, wastewater or
sewage is essentially the water supply of the community after it has been used for a variety of
What will happen if untreated waste water is allowed to accumulate?
There will be environmental pollution
Untreated waste water usually contains numerous pathogenic or disease
causing microorganisms
The decomposition of the organic materials it contains produce large
quantities of gases which have objectionable smell
It also contains nutrients which can stimulate the growth of aquatic plants and
may contain toxic compounds.
For the above reasons the immediate and nuisance free removal of wastewater from its
source of generation followed by treatment and disposal is not only desirable but also
The following table discusses the major elements of wastewater management system and
associated engineering task.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 37

Source of Generation

Source control

Collection and transmission


Disposal and reuse

Section IV.2

Estimation of the quantity of waste water

Evolution of techniques for wastewater reduction and
determination of wastewater characteristics.
Design of on site system to provide partial treatment of
the wastewater before it is discharged to collection
Design of sewers used to collect wastewater from
various sources of generation and to transport it to
treatment facilities or to other locations for processing.
Selection, analysis, and design of treatment operations
and processes to meet specified treatment objectives.
Design of facilities used for the disposal and reuse of
treated effluent.

Sewer Layout

For collections and disposal of sewage a net work of sewers has to be laid. The pattern of
ewer layout system depends on the following factors.
a) Type of sewerage system whether combined, separate, or partially separate
b) Topography of the area.
c) Location of disposal point.
d) Hydrological feature of the area.
The following are the various types of sewer layouts.
Perpendicular pattern: - Here a number of sewers re laid in such a way
that each reaches to the respective outfall point through the shortest route. The sewers
are useful for carrying storm water in separate system, otherwise the river will get
polluted in several points.
Interceptor pattern: - In this system a number of main sewers are laid
serving different zones. Again the mains at their outfall ends are connected by a large
size intercepting sewer which leads the sewers to treatment plant. Intercepting sewers
at the junctions of main sewers may be provided with overflows which will carry the
excess and less polluted storm water to the river.
Zone pattern: - This pattern is used where different zones with respect
to different elevations exist. Here several intercepting sewers are laid according to
elevations of the zone. Storm overflow can be discharged directly to the river but
sewage is brought to a common point for treatment. This type of system may be
useful in combined flow.
Fan pattern: - Here all the sewers are directed to one point i.e. towards
the outfall sewer after covering the entire area with branches, laterals, etc. This type
of system is used where natural topography is lower towards outfall point. This
system is used for partially combined sewers or for sanitary sewerage alone.
Radial pattern: - this type is used for sanitary sewage in a place where
central part of area is high and going down all round towards the outskirts. This type
of layout pattern can only be used where several disposal points are available.
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Article V. Type and Quantity of Sewage

7.1. Estimating the Quantity of various wastewater
As pointed out in chapter 6 wastewater (sewage) collected from a community may include
the following.
1. Domestic wastewater.
2. Industrial wastewater
3. Storm wastewater
4. Infiltration/inflow.
Domestic Wastewater Source and Flow rates: - The principal sources of domestic
wastewater in a community are the residential areas, commercial districts, institutional, and
recreational facilities. For areas already served with sewers, wastewater flow rates are
commonly determined from existing records or by direct field measurements. For new
developments, wastewater flow rates are derived from an analysis of population data and
corresponding projected unit rates of water consumption of r\from estimates of percapita
wastewater flow rates from similar communities.
Residential areas: - For many residential areas, wastewater flowrates are commonly
determined on the basis of population density and the average per capita contribution of
wastewater. Where possible, these rates should be based on actual flow data from selected
similar residential areas. In many cases design flows are fixed by water and wastewater
agencies. If these data are not available an estimate of 70 to 80% of the domestic water
consumption may be taken as wastewater.
Commercial districts: - Commercial waste water flowrates are generally expressed in
m3/ha.d and are based on existing or anticipated future development. Average flowrate
allowances for commercial developments normally range from 7.5 to 14 m3/ha.d. Because
flowrates can vary widely for commercial facilities, every effort should be made to obtain
records from similar facilities. The Table below shows wastewater flows from commercial
Flow L/unit/day
Air port
Automobile service station
Vehicle served

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Institutional Facilities:- Actual records of similar institutions are the best source of flow data
for design purpose. When records are not available, the flow from institutional facilities can
be estimated with the data given below.
Hospital Medical
Hospital Mental


School day with cafeteria, gymnasium, and

with cafeteria only student
Without cafeteria, and gymnasium student
School boarding

Flow L/unit/day


Industrial wastewater: - Wastewater flowrates from industrial sources vary with the
type and size of the industry, the degree of water reuse, and the onsite wastewater treatment
method if any. Extremely high peak flowrates may be reduced by the use of detention tanks
and equalization basins. For industries without internal recycling or reuse programs, it can be
assumed that about 85 to 95% of the water used in the various operations and processes will
become wastewater.
Estimating Wastewater Flowrates form Water supply Data
If field measurements of wastewater flowrates are not possible and actual wastewater flow
rate data are not available, watersupply records can often be used as an aid to estimate
wastewater flowrates. Because wastewater consists primarily of used water, the portion of the
water supplied that reaches the collection system must be estimated. Theoretically the
quantity of sanitary sewage that is likely to enter the sewers under design should be equal to
the quantity of water supplied to the contributing area. But in actual practice, this is not the
precise quantity which appears as sewage, there are some additions and subtractions due to:
Unaccounted private water supply
Water losses
Waters not entering the system
Generally about 70 to 80 percent of the water supplied becomes wastewater.
In some cases, however, excessive infiltration, roof water and water used by industries from
privately owned water supplies make the quantity of wastewater larger than the water
consumption from the public water supply.

Infiltration/ Inflow (I/I):-

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Infiltration:- water entering a sewer system, including sewer service connection, from the
ground through such means as defective pipes, pipe joints or manhole walls.
Inflow:- this consists of water discharged into sewer pipes from sources such as foundation
drains, roof leaders, yard and area drains, other clean water discharges from commercial and
industrial establishments etc.
The rate and quantity of infiltration depends on the length of sewers, the area served, the soil
and topographic conditions and to a certain extent the population density (which affects the
number and total length of house connections).
Infiltration and inflow should be reduced as much as possible. Otherwise there will be
additional cost of collection and treatment of I/I water.
Infiltration rates in old systems have been measured to be from 35 to 115m 3/ ( per
(mm) of diameter. Specification for new sewer projects now limit infiltration to 45L/
( per mm of diameter. Since sewers deteriorate with age, estimates of infiltration,
even for new systems, should be reasonably generous.
Example 7.1 Calculate the infiltration and compare this quantity to the average daily
domestic wastewater flow for the following data.
Sewered population =240,000
Average domestic contribution =170Lpcd
Infiltration rate = 45
l/ per mm of diameter
The sanitary sewer system consists of
100 mm dia of building sewers of 58km
200 mm dia of street laterals of 38km
250 mm dia of sebmains of 10km
300 mm dia of trunk sewer of 10km
Infiltration (L/day) = rate (L/ (mm)) * length (km) * dia (mm)
= 45* (100*58+200*38+250*10+300*10)
= 850,000
Average domestic flow = 240,000*170
= 4,080,000 L/day
Inflitrati on

Averagedomesticcontribution 40,800,000

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Section V.1

Variation in the Quantity of Sewage Flow

The quantity of sewage as calculated by the average per capita contribution will be purely
hypothetical and can not be used directly for the design purpose, because practically the
average sewage never flows in the sewer. It continuously varies from hour to hour and season
to season.
Sewage flow, like water consumption, will vary with time of day, day of the week, season of
the year, and weather conditions. The variations from the mean are less than those observed
in water supply because the sewers do not flow full and thus provide a degree of
To design a sewerage system for a previously unsewered town or section of a city, an
estimate must be made of the fluctuations to be expected in the flow. Because the hydraulic
design of both collection and treatment facilities is affected by variations in wastewater
flowrates. The flowrate characteristics have to be analyzed carefully from existing records.
Observations of fluctuations in various cities indicate that the peak flow for small residential
areas is likely to be about 225% of the average for that day. For commercial areas the peak
may reach 150% of the average and for industrial areas some what less.
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The following empirical formulae may be also used for estimating maximum rate of
domestic sewage flow from small areas.

18 p

4 p

By Harmon



5 p

By Babbit

Where M= peak factors (the ratio of peak rate to average)

P = Population served in thousands.
Low flow in sewers is observed during nights. The effect of this low flow is maximum in the
laterals and minimum in main and trunk sewers. The minimum flow rate is critical in fixing
the flattest possible slope of a sewer so that the velocity is sufficient to prevent deposition of
grit, silt, and accumulation of grease in the sewer wall.
Velocities in sewers are selected with the goal of keeping the solids in the sewage in
suspension or at least in traction. Sanitary sewers should be sized to provide minimum self
cleansing velocity of 0.6m/s which is adequate to keep grit in traction when flowing full.
Storm sewer velocities are normally higher than those in sanitary sewers because of the
relatively coarse solids which they must convey. Velocities flowing full are generally kept
between 0.75 to 2.5m/sec. The maximum velocity is limited to reduce the potential for
abrasive damage to the maximum the sewer.
Some regulatory agencies specify minimum slopes for sewers of various diameters. These
slopes are those which are calculated to give the minimum self cleansing velocity when the
sewers are flowing full.

Section V.2

Quantity of Storm Sewage

When rain falls over the ground surface apart percolates into the ground, apart is evaporated
to the atmosphere and the remaining part overflow as flood water. The quantity of the storm
water overflowing on the ground surface and reaching the sewers or drains is called storm
sewage (surface runoff) and is very large as compared with sanitary sewage.
The following factors mainly affect the quantity of storm sewage.
Area or size of the catchment
Slope and shape of the catchment
Nature of the soil
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Land use and coverage

Intensity and duration of rain fall
The quantity of storm sewage may be determined for storm water sewer design by different
methods. This may include:

cal formulae
The following may be mentioned as an example.
i. Fullers formula

ii. Fannings Formula

CM 0.8

Q 12.8M

iii. Talbots Formula Q 22.4 M

iv. Burkli-Zeigler formula


CAI 4 s

Where Q= runoff in m3/sec

C= Runoff coefficient
S= slope of the area
A= drainage area in ha
M= drainage area in km2
I= intensity of rainfall
The SCS Technique
The SCS technique hinges on determination of curve number, CN which depends
primarily upon soil type, but which may be modified to account for degree of
development and antecedent moisture conditions. The curve number is a runoff
coefficient of sorts which includes the effects of infiltration and detention storage.
Curve numbers for areas of different descriptions are available in tabular forms. Thus
For a given rainfall depths and curve numbers, one may then determine the total
depth of runoff using table.


Hydrograph Techniques
The unit hydrograph has been defined as the hydrograph of surface runoff resulting
from effective rainfall for a unit of time. The usefulness of the unit hydrograph is
based on the observation that all single storms on a watershed which have equal
duration will produce runoff during equal lengths of time. Further more the ordinates
of the runoff hydrograph will be proportional to the rainfall excess. A unit hydrograph
may be constructed from existing records of rainfall and stream flow.
The concept of unit hydrograph may be applied to small urban areas (0.04 to 38km 2).
In this case, parametric equations have been developed which permit definition of the
unit hydrograph shape based upon physical characteristics of the catchment.
The equations are:
TR 4.1L0.23 S 0.25 I 0.18 1.57

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Q 13.27 A 0.96TR


TB 71.21AQ 0.95
W50 12.08 A 0.93Q 0.92
W75 7.21A0.79Q 0.78

Where TR = Rise time of hydrograph, min

Q = peak discharge, m3/s per mm net rainfall
TB = time base of hydrograph, min
W50 = width of hydrograph, min, at 50%Q
W75 = width of hydrograph, min, at 75%Q
L = Total distance along main channel, m
S = main channel slope
I = imperviousness, %
= dimensionless conveyance factor (0.6 to 1.3)
A= watershed area, km2

Section V.3

Computer simulation Technique


The Rational Formula

The rational formula for estimating peak runoff rates is the most widely used method for
designing drainage facilities for small urban and rural watersheds. In this method peak flow
is calculated as the product of rainfall intensity, drainage area, and a coefficient which
reflects the combined effect of surface storage, infiltration, and evaporation.

Q= peak runoff rate (m3/s)

I= the average rainfall intensity (mm/hr)
C= the runoff coefficient
A= Size of the drainage area (km2)
The total volume of water which falls upon area A per unit time under a rainfall intensity I


The actual amount which appears as runoff may then be calculated as


The methods should not be applied to areas larger than 3km2. Average values of (runoff
coefficients) used for various surfaces are presented in Table shown below.
Type of Surface
Water tight roofs
Asphaltic cement streets
Portland cement streets

Runoff coefficient C

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Paved driveways and walks

Gravel drive ways and walks
Lawns, sand soil
Lawns heavy soil


The steps involved in determining peak flow rates using the rational formula are:
1. Estimate the time of concentration of the drainage area.
2. Estimate the runoff coefficient
3. Select a return period T and find the intensity of rainfall that will be equaled
or exceeded, on average once every T years.
4. Determine the desired peak flow Q.

Time of Concentration

When rainfall event occurs upon an area served by a storm sewer, the runoff will flow over
roof, yards, streets, and eventually reach into the sewer inlets, which require measurable
time. The maximum rate of runoff for a given rainfall intensity will occur when rainfall has
continued for a period sufficient to permit flow to reach the inlet from the remotest point of
the drainage area. The time required for the maximum runoff rate to develop is called the
time of concentration.

S ew er

The Figure above illustrates a rectangular watershed discharging into an inlet I. If it is

assumed that it takes 5 minutes for water to flow from the boundary of one zone to the next,
it is clear that at the end of 5 minutes only zone C will contribute flow at point I. Similarly
after 10 minutes only zones B and C will contribute, and 15 minute will be required before
the entire area is contributing flow. If the rainfall continues for only 10minutes the water
arriving from zone A during period 10 to 15 minutes would be offset in part by declining
from area C.

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S ew er 1

S ew er 2

For an area served by the laterals of sewers the concentration time will be computed as
illustrated below. The flow from area A enters at inlet I 1 and that from area B at inlet I2 The
time of concentration at I2 is either the time of concentration for area B or the time of
concentration of area A plus the time of flow in sewer from I1 to I2, which ever is greater.
The time of concentration for each sewer is determined in similar fashion, by comparing the
time of concentration for the area immediately tributary to the sewer inlet and the time of
concentration plus time of flow for upstream tributary areas. When there is more than one
upstream tributary area, the time of concentration is the longest of those possible.

Article VI.

Sewer design


The hydraulics design of sewers, which means finding out their cross-sections and gradients,
is generally carried out on the same lines as that of the water supply pipes. However, there
are two major differences between the characteristics of flows in sewers and water supply
pipes. These differences are:
1. Water supply pipes carry relatively pure water but sewer lines carry sewage
containing main impurity. In order to prevent the clogging of sewers and
deposition of suspended materials in sewer, it is necessary to provide sewer pipes
having sizes and gradients sufficient enough to generate self cleansing velocity.
2. Water supply pipes carry water under pressure, and hence, they may be carried up
and dawn the hills and the valley; whereas, sewers carry sewage are gravity
conduits (or open channels), and they must, therefore, be laid at a continuous
gradient in downward direction up to the outfall point.
Sewers are generally designed as open channels except when it is required to design them as
flowing under pressure, as in the case of inverted siphons and discharge lines from pumping
stations. The common open channel uniform flow empirical formulae can be used to
determine the necessary cross-sections and gradients. These may include:
Mannings Formula

1 2 3 12
R s

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Chezys Formula
v c Rs

Where v is velocity of flow in the channel

R is hydraulic mean radius
S is hydraulic gradient

Section VI.1

Flow in Partially filled sewer

Circular sewer pipes are most widely adopted in sewerage system. The sewers are usually run
in partially full except in some cases. Therefore, the hydraulic performance of partially filled
as well as filled section must be well understood. The concern is specially on how to
maintenance self cleansing velocities in both cases.
When sewers run full, their hydraulic properties will be as given below.
Area of cross-section A
Wetted perimeter P D

D 2
where D is diameter of sewer

Hydraulic mean depth R p 4

When sewers run partially full at a depth, say d, as shown in the Figure below, the hydraulic
elements can be worked out as follows.



Depth at partial flow=d



1 cos

Proportionate depth=



(1 cos )
D 2

Area of partially filled section=a

A= area of sector area of triangle

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D 2
. sin
4 360 2 2
D sin

4 360
D 2

4 360


Wetted perimeter of partially filled section=p
p D.

Proportionate area=


Proportionate perimeter=

P 360

Hydraulic mean depth of partially filled section =r

D 2

4 360


360 sin


Proportionate hydraulic mean depth= r/R

360 sin


Velocity of flow is given by Mannings formula as

1 2 3 0.5
1 2
V R 3 S 0.5

For partially filled

For full flow

Proportionate velocity =v/V


v N r 3

V n R 23
Assuming that roughness coefficient does not vary with depth (i.e. n=N)

v r
r 3 360 sin
2 1

V R 3 R

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Discharge in partially filled section = q

q av

Proportionate discharge= Q
a v
360 sin

A V 360

In all the above derived equations, except , every thing is constant, and hence by giving
different values to all the six proportionate elements can be easily calculated.
By taking proportionate depth (d/D) as reference values of other elements, the remaining can
be found quickly from diagram called partial flow diagram which is shown below.

Example 1 Design an outfall circular sanitary sewer for a town with a population of
150,000 and average per capita sewage contribution of 80l/day. Studies of similar town show
that the minimum and maximum flows can be estimated to be as 50% and 200% of the
average flow respectively. The sewer can be laid at a slope of 1 in 1000 with n= 0.012 and a
self cleansing velocity of 0.65 m/sec should be developed during the minimum flow
condition. The following additional data may be used as design guide.
Proportional depth

Proportional velocity

Proportional velocity

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Example 2 Design a sanitary outfall sewer running 0.7times the full depth at a maximum
discharge, which will serve a town with a design population of 100,000. Water is supplied to
the town at a rate of 120liters per day per capita. Studies from similar towns show that almost
80% of the supplied water will appear as sewage. The minimum and maximum sewage flow
is assumed to be 70% and 180% of the average flow respectively. Topography of the town
will allow laying of the sewer at a slope of 1 in 700 at moderate excavation cost. The sewer is
intended to be made of brick work plastered smooth with cement mortar (n=0.013). The
variation of n with depth may be neglected.
A 915mm sewer is laid on a slope of 0.003.
What will the depth of flow and velocity be when the flow is 8.5m3/min?

A 915mm sewer is installed on a slope of 0.001.

The sewer is 100mmlong and runs from a manhole at which its invert is at 98.75m to
a river discharge at which its invert is at 98.65m. The pipe is to carry a flow of
0.28m3/s.What is the depth of the water at the upstream manhole when the down
stream water surface is at 98m? At 100m?

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Article VII.

Sewer Materials and Sewer Appurtenances

The pipe materials which are used to transport water may also be used to collect wastewater.
It is more usual, however, to employ less expensive materials since sewers rarely are required
to with stand any internal pressure. The most commonly used sewer materials are clay pipes
and concrete pipes.

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Sewer systems require a variety of appurtenances. These include:

Sewer outlets and outfalls
Pumping stations
Inverted siphons

Manholes: - they are used as means of access for inspection repair and cleaning.
They are placed at intervals of 90 to 150m and at point where there is change in
direction, change in sewer size, and substantial change in grade. The design of
manholes is fairly well standardized. A typical brick manhole, shown in Figure
9.2 has a cast iron frame and cover with a 500 to 600mm opining. The walls are
typically 200mm thick for depths up to 4m and increase by 100mm for each
additional 2m of depth. The interior of brick manholes is often plastered with
Portland cement. The bottom of the manhole is normally concrete, sloping toward

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 53

an open channel which is an extension of the lowest sewer. The open channel is
sometimes lined with half-round or split sections of sewer pipe. The channel
should be sufficiently well defined and deep enough to prevent sewage from
spreading over the bottom of the manhole.

Inlets: - they are structures through which storm water enters the sewers. Their
design and location require consideration of how far water will be permitted to
extend into the street under various conditions with minimum interference to both
pedestrian and vehicular traffic. They are placed at gutters, at street intersections
and at intervals of 150m.


Sewer outlets and Outfall: - storm water and treated wastewater may be
discharged to surface drainage or to bodies of water such as lake, or ocean.
Outlets to small streams are similar to the outlets of highway culverts, consisting
of a simple concrete headwall and apron to prevent erosion. Sewers discharging
into large bodies of water are usually extended beyond the banks into fairly deep
water where dispersion and diffusion will aid in mixing the discharge with the
surrounding water.


Pumping stations: - sewage is required to be lifted up from a lower level to a

higher level at various places in a sewage system. Sewage may have to be lifted
by pumps under the following circumstances.
When the area is flat, the laying of sewers at their designed gradients may
involve deeper excavation in the forward direction of flow.
For disposing of the sewage from building basement which are below the
grade of the sewer.
When the outfall sewer is lower than the level of treatment plant.
To discharge treated wastewater to streams which are above the elevation
of the treatment plant.
With in sewage treatment plants.


Inverted siphons: - It is a section of sewer which is dropped below the hydraulic

grade line in order to avoid an obstacle such as a railway or highway, or a stream.
An inverted siphon is thus a sewer section constructed lower than the adjacent
sewer sections and it runs full under gravity with pressure greater than the

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Figure 9.2 Brick manhole

Figure 9.3 Concrete manhole with junction of branch sewer

Inverted siphons are designed to develop relatively high self cleansing velocities
(at least 0.9m/s) even during minimum discharge to prevent deposition of solids
in locations which would be very difficult or impossible to clean.
Since sewage flow is subject to large variations, a single pipe will not serve
adequately in this application. Inverted siphons normally include multiple pipes
and an entrance structure designed to divide the flow among them so that the
velocity in those pipes in use will be adequate to prevent deposition of solids.

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