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BENT 3163
TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM ENGINEERING
CHAPTER 1: RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION
Part 1

02 -2015/2016

Chapter Contents
Introduction to Frequency Spectrum
Introduction to radio wave propagation

Mobile radio propagation:


Large-scale path loss
Prediction model:
Free space / Plane earth
Statistical
Okumura / Hata / Lee

Small-scale fading & multipath


Fading
Large-scale/Small-scale
Doppler Shift
Rayleigh & Ricean Distributions

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References
Wireless Communication:
Principle and Practice 2nd Edition
Theodore S. Rappaport
Prentice Hall

Electronic Communication
Systems: Fundamentals through
Advanced, 5th Edition
Tomasi W.,
Prentice Hall

References
Wireless Communications, 2nd
Edition,
Andreas F. Molisch,
Wiley IEEE Press

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FREQUENCY SPECTRUM
Communication between locations realised by:
Converting information signal to electromagnetic energy
Receiving station convert back to original form.
Electromagnetic energy distributed throughout almost infinite

frequency ranges.

The spectrum is divided into bands (subsections).


Each band have different name and boundary.
Radio frequency (RF) spectrum divided into narrower bands.

ELECTROMAGNETIC FREQUENCY SPECTRUM

Radio Spectrum (services) provided by ITU

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ELECTROMAGNETIC FREQUENCY SPECTRUM


Band
Number

Frequency Range

30 Hz ~ 300 Hz

3
4

Designations

Applications

ELF

AC Power distribution, telemetry

0.3kHz ~ 3kHz

VF

Telephone

3 kHz ~ 30 kHz

VLF

Navigation, submarine comm.

30 kHz ~ 300 kHz

LF

Marine, aeronautical navigation

0.3 MHz ~ 3 MHz

MF

AM radio broadcasting

3 MHz ~ 30 MHz

HF

2 way radio, amateur radio, CB

30 MHz ~ 300 MHz

VHF

Mobile radio, TV/FM broadcasting

300 MHz ~ 3 GHz

UHF

TV, mobile phone, navigation system

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3 GHz ~ 30 GHz

SHF

Microwave, satellite radio system

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30 GHz ~ 300 GHz

EHF

Specialised applications (& expensive)

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0.3 THz ~ 3 THz

Infrared Light Astronomy, heatseeking system

FREQUENCY SPECTRUM

Wavelength:
Radio waves:
Wavelength rather
than frequency.

The length that one


cycle of an
electromagnetic wave
occupies in space.

Low frequencies vs
high frequencies.

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FREQUENCY SPECTRUM
BANDWIDTH OF:

INFORMATION:

COMMUNICATION
CHANNEL:

Difference between the


highest and lowest
frequencies contained in the
information.

Difference between the


highest and the lowest
frequencies that channel
will allow to pass through it

STANDARDS
To ensure no conflicts to spectrum (or frequency) allocations, users are

governed by these organisation standards:


STANDARDS

European
Telecommunications
Standards Institute
(ETSI)
International Special Committee on
Radio Interference (Comit
international spcial des perturbations
radiolectriques - CISPR)

International
Telecommunication Union (ITU)

European Conference of Postal


and Telecommunications
Administrations (CEPT)

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STANDARDS
How about Malaysia?
Spectrum allocations are controlled by MCMC (Malaysian Communications &

Multimedia Commission)
All radio wave use for communication are govern by standards

Spectrum

Frequency (MHz)

Medium and Short Wave

< 30

Band I

47 ~ 68

Band II

87.5 ~ 108

Broadcasting

Band III

174 ~ 230

Band IV & V

470 ~ 806

L Band

1452 ~ 1492

STANDARDS
GSM 900 (source from MCMC)

Band

Lower

TELCO

Frequency (MHz)

Maxis

800 ~ 886

Digi

886 ~888

Celcom

Mobile
Communication
Upper

888 ~ 890
890 ~ 905

Maxis

925 ~ 931

Digi

931 ~ 933

Celcom
Maxis

933 ~ 935
935 ~ 950
950 ~ 960

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STANDARDS
GSM 1800 (source from MCMC)

Band

Mobile
Communication

Lower

Upper

TELCO

Frequency (MHz)

Maxis

1710 ~ 1735

Celcom

1735 ~ 1760

Digi

1760 ~ 1785

Maxis

1805 ~ 1830

Celcom

1830 ~ 1855

Digi

1885 ~ 1880

TELCO

Frequency (MHz)

U Mobile

1920 ~ 1935

UMTS

1935 ~ 1950

Celcom

1950 ~ 1965

Digi

1965 ~ 1980

Reserved

1980 ~ 2010

U Mobile

2010 ~ 2125

UMTS

2125 ~ 2140

Celcom

2140 ~2155

Digi

2155 ~ 2170

Reserved

2170 ~ 2200

STANDARDS
IMT2000 FDD (source from MCMC)

Band

Lower
International
Mobile
Tele
communication
Upper

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STANDARDS
IMT2000 TDD (source from MCMC)

International
Mobile
Telecommunication

TELCO

Frequency (MHz)

U Mobile

1915 ~ 1920

Digi

2010 ~ 2015

UMTS

2015 ~ 2020

Celcom

2020 ~ 2025

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Introduction to Radio Wave Propagation


Electromagnetic wave propagation can be generally attributed to:
Reflection
Diffraction
Scattering

Reflection occurs when a propagating electromagnetic wave

impinges upon an object which has very large dimensions when


compared to the wavelength, e.g., buildings, walls.
Diffraction occurs when the radio path between the transmitter
and receiver is obstructed by a surface that has sharp edges.
Scattering occurs when the medium through which the wave
travels consists of objects with dimensions that are small
compared to the wavelength.

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Introduction to Radio Wave Propagation

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Introduction to Radio Wave Propagation


Most cellular radio systems operate in urban areas
No direct line-of-sight
Observing the power at a separation of several km, a steady decrease
in power is observed, this is simple attenuation
High-rise buildings causes severe diffraction loss
Multipath fading due to different paths of varying lengths
Caused by multiple reflections from various objects
Strength of the wave decrease as the distance between Tx & Rx increases

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Propagation Model
Propagation model predicting average received signal

strength at a given distance from the transmitter


Large-scale propagation models predict the mean signal

strength for an arbitrary T-R separation distance.


Useful in estimating radio coverage area of a transmitter
Characterize signal strength over large T-R separation distances

(several hundreds or thousands of meters)

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Propagation Model
Small-scale propagation models characterize the rapid

fluctuations of the received signal strength over very short


travel distance or short time duration.
Also known as fading models

As a MS moves over very small distances, the instantaneous

received signal strength may fluctuate rapidly giving rise to


small-scale fading
Because received signal is a sum of many contributions from different

directions with different phases


Random phases cause the sum varying widely (ex: Rayleigh fading
distribution)

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Types of Radio Propagation Model


Prediction
Calculation of the path loss (attenuation)
Exact prediction is possible only for simpler cases,
Example: Free space propagation or the Plane-earth model.

Statistical methods (empirical)


Based on measured and averaged losses along typical classes of radio links.
Example: Young, COST-231 Okumura-Hata, Lee, etc.
Based on large collections of data collected for the specific scenario.
For any model, the collection of data has to be sufficiently large to provide enough likeliness (or
enough scope) to all kind of situations that can happen in that specific scenario.

Deterministic methods
Based on the physical laws of wave propagation
Example: Ray tracing
Expected to produce more accurate and reliable predictions of the path loss than the empirical
methods but more expensive in computational effort and depend on the detailed and accurate
description of all objects in the propagation space, such as buildings, roofs, windows, doors, and
walls.

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Free Space Propagation Model


The free space propagation model is used to predict received

signal strength when the transmitter and receiver have a


clear line-of-sight path between them.
satellite communication
microwave line-of-sight radio link

ht
hr
Transmitter

Distance, d

Receiver

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Free Space Propagation Model


Friis free space equation

L are usually due to transmission line attenuation, filter losses and antenna losses
L = 1 indicates no loss in the system hardware

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Free Space Propagation Model


The gain of the antenna:
Ae: effective aperture (related to the physical size of the antenna)

The wavelength, is related to the carrier frequency by:

f : carrier frequency in Hertz


c : carrier frequency (radians/second)
c : speed of light (meters/s)

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Free Space Propagation Model


Example 1:
If Pt = 10W, Gt = 0dB, Gr = 0dB and fc = 900 MHz, find Pr in

Watts at a free space distance of 1 km.

Example 2:
Assume a receiver is located 10 km from a 50 W transmitter.

The carrier frequency is 6 GHz and free space propagation is


assumed, Gt = 1 and Gr = 1. Find the power at the receiver.

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Free Space Path Loss


Loss in signal strength of an electromagnetic wave
resulting from a line-of-sight path through free space (usually air)
with no obstacles nearby to cause reflection or diffraction.
It does not include factors such as:
the gain of the antennas used at the transmitter and receiver
any loss associated with hardware imperfections
4 2

FSPL

FSPL (dB)

= 32.4 + 20 + 20
fc: carrier frequency in MHz
d : distance in km

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Free Space Propagation Model


FSPL = 32.4 + 20 + 20

[dB]

= + +

[dBm]

= +

[dBm]

= +

[dBm]

Effective isotropic radiated power maximum radiated power available from


transmitter in the direction of maximum
antenna gain as compared to an isotropic
radiator

Pr: power received


Pt: power transmitted
Gr: gain at mobile station
Gt: gain at base station
Ls: path loss
Lm: medium loss (urban/suburban/rural area)

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Free Space Propagation Model


The power received at any distance, d can be calculated from

knowledge of a reference power, Pr(d0) measured at some


reference distance, d0
d
Pr d Pr d 0 0
d

P d
d
Pr d dBm 10 log r 0 20 log 0
d
1mW
Pr d 0 in Watts

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Free Space Propagation Model


Example 3:
If a transmitter produces 50 W of power, express the

transmit power in units of dBm and dBW. If 50 W is applied


to a unity gain antenna with a 900 MHz carrier frequency,
find the received power in dBm at a free space distance of
100 m from the antenna.
What is Pr(10 km)? Assume unity gain for the receiver

antenna.

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Carrier to Noise Ratio (C/N or CNR)


In telecommunications, the C/N is the SNR of a modulated signal.
CNR is defined as the ratio of the received modulated carrier signal power, C
to the received noise power, N after the receive filters

= CNR = Cdbm Ndbm

[dB]

C = carrier signal power or Pr


N = minimum signal level
= kTBF
k = Boltzmann constant, 1.38x10-23
T = temperature [K]
B = bandwidth of system, eg: GSM ,B = 200kHz
F = noise factor

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Carrier to Noise Ratio (C/N or CNR)


Example 4:
Suppose you received license to operate at a GSM1800
transmitting 5W into a 10 dB gain antenna. Your portable
receiver having an antenna gain of 2 dB. The total medium
loss is 10 dB. Calculate:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

Power received at portable Rx located 1km away


Minimum signal level, N if 5 dB noise figure
C/N
whether the portable receiver can be used at a distance of 5 km
from RBS

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Plane Earth Propagation Model


Considers both direct path and a ground reflected

propagation path between Tx and Rx

Also known as two-way ground reflection model

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Plane Earth Propagation Model

2
2

= + + + 20

[watt]

2

[dBm]

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Plane Earth Propagation Model


Example 5:
Consider a GSM system with 50 W of EIRP transmitting from
a RBS. Gain of the mobile antenna is 2dB. Calculate:
i. power receive in watt that would be available at the mobile unit at a

distance of 5 km from RBS for plane earth condition. Assume the


height of antenna at RBS equal to 200m and at the mobile unit equal
to 3m
ii. C/N if NF = 2dB

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