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PRINCIPLES OF

EDUCATION AND
TEACHING
LEARNING
PROCESS
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EDUCATION

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MEANING OF EDUCATION
The term education has its origin in the
Latin words educo, educare & educatum.
Etymologically, the word education is
derived from the Latin words educo
where e means out of duco means I
lead.
Accorsing to this view, education means
I lead out darkness into brightness.

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DEFINITION OF EDUCATION
Education means the training for the country
& love for the nation.
-Chanakya
Education is realization of self
-Shankaracharya
Education is an all-round drawing out of the
best in child & man-body, mind & spirit.
-Mahatma Gandhi
Education is the natural, harmonious &
progressive development of mans innate
power.
- Pestalozzi
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DEFINITION OF NURSING
EDUCATION
Nursing education is a professional education
which is consciously & systematically planned
& implemented through instruction &
discipline & aims the harmonious development
of the physical, intellectual, social, emotional,
spiritual & aesthetic powers or abilities of the
students in order to tender professional
nursing care to people of all ages, in all phases
of health & illness, in a variety of setting, in
the best or highest possible manner.

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AIMS OF EDUCATION

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AIMS OF EDUCATION
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Individual

aim:
Development as an individual of a human being.
Moral & spiritual development.
Cultural development.
Harmonious development
Promote positive physical development
Development of a right personality
Development of good citizenship
Development of good leadership
Emotional & mental development
Character building, etc.
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AIMS OF EDUCATION
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Social aim:
Through
education the
individual child
should be
provided with the
require assistance
to become a
useful member of
the society,
irrespective of the
socio-economic
status.

Intellectual
aim:
Development
of intelligence
through
education will
enable the
child to lead an
independent
life with
confidence.

Vocational
aim:
Education
should
prepare the
child to earn
his livelihood
so that he can
lead a
productive life
in the society.

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AIMS OF EDUCATION
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Moral aim:
Cultural aim:
Moral values
By undergoing
like honesty,
education child
loyalty,
becomes cultured
tolerance,
& civilized.
justice, self
Cultural
control &
development is
sincerity
through
promote the
development of
social
aesthetic sense &
efficiency of
respect for
an individual
others culture

Citizenship
Education
enable the
children to
grow as
productive
citizens by
following the
social & moral
standards set
by the society.

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AIMS OF EDUCATION
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Education for
leisure:
Education
prepares the
child to use his
leisure time for
doing
something
useful.

Physical
health &
well being:
Education
prepare the
child to lead a
healthy life
through
providing the
knowledge
required for a
healthy living.

Character
development:
Education assist
the child to
develop certain
human values,
attitudes &
habits which are
essential for
building a
desirable
character.

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AIMS OF EDUCATION
Count

Aims of education as stated by


Secondary Education Commission
Development of democratic citizenship
Improvement of vocational efficiency
Development of personality
Development of qualities leadership

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AIMS OF NURSING EDUCATION

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FUNCTIONS OF EDUCATION
Individual functions

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Individual function

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National functions
Ensuring national development

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Social functions

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PHILOSOPHY
OF
EDUCATION
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PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION
The

term philosophy has a Greek


origin, i.e. philosophia, which is
made up of two words, viz. phileo &
.
Phileo means love & sophia means
wisdom.
The literal meaning of philosophy is
love of wisdom or passion of
learning.
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Definition of philosophy
Philosophy

is the science of
knowledge.

- Fitch
Philosophy is the science of sciences.
- Coleridge
Philosophy is a search for
comprehensive view of nature, an
attempt at a universal explanation of
the nature of things.
- Alfred Weber
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Classification of educational
philosophy
Educational
philosophies
Traditional philosophies

Modern contemporary
philosophies
Perennialism

Naturalism

Essentialism

Idealism

Existentialism
Pragmatism

Reconstructionis
m

Realism

Progressivism
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Traditional philosophies
Naturalism
Chief proponents: Rabindranath Tagore, Jean
Jacques Rousseau, Johann Heinrich
Concept: Educating the human generation
about & in the nature rather than artificial
environment by keeping in mind the
individuality of each child.
Organization & Aims of education: Nature is
considered the classroom. Emphasis on open
air schools to teach through direct experience
with nature.
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Curriculum: Basis of curriculum
development was childs nature, interest &
needs. Stressed on subjects dealing with
nature such as physics, chemistry, biology,
language & mathematics. Tagore also
stressed on teaching spiritual values of
nature.
Methods of Education: As natural as
possible considering individual differences.
Noble efforts for planned living with nature.
Direct experience of nature through
observation, excursion, experimentation,
play-way.

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Role

of teacher: Teacher is an observe


& facilitator of the child to develop in
nature; teacher facilitates best
possible natural environment for
prompt learning.
Discipline: No emphasis on external
rigid discipline; recommended free
discipline to child in nature for
optimum desired learning.

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Traditional philosophies
Idealism
Chief proponents: Dr. Radhakrishan, Sir
Auurobindo, Plato, Ross & Socrates
Concept: It believes that the act of knowing
takes place within the mind for three values,
i.e. intellectual, aesthetic & moral values & the
purpose of education is the development of the
students mind & self
Organization & Aims of Education: Well-planned
formal classrooms or formal place of teachinglearning activity is recommended.

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Curriculum: The basis of curriculum is inculcating
intellectual, aesthetic & moral values or discipline.
The intellectual value is represented by subjects
such as language, literature, science,
mathematics, history & geography; aesthetic
through arts & poetry & moral through religion,
ethics. Dr. Radhakrishan also advocated for
physical education.
Methods of Education: Idealism recommended
formal classroom teaching methods such as
lecture, discussion, presentation, & group
interaction. Knowledge is transferred from the
more mature person (teacher) to less mature
person (pupil) through formal & well-planned
teaching-learning methods.

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Role of teacher: Teacher is considered as centre


of education where pupil catches fire from
teacher who is himself a flame teacher must be
ideal & a role model for the child both
intellectually & morally. The teacher should
exercise great creative skills in providing
opportunity for the pupils mind to discover,
analyze, unify, synthesize & creative application
of knowledge to life.
Discipline: Idealism believes in interconnection of
discipline & interest. Advocates discipline for selfrealization of individual. It does not favor rigid
discipline but advocates spontaneous & self
discipline.
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Traditional philosophies
Pragmatism
Chief proponents: Williams James, John
Dewey, Charles Sanders Pierce
Concept: It considers self-activity as the
basis of all teaching-learning processes in
context of cooperative activity; to create
optimistic men, who are the architects of
their own fate by the process of their efforts.
Education should be according to the childs
aptitudes & abilities; where he is respected
& education is planned to cater to his
inclinations & capacities.
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Organization & Aims of Education: Aims of


education is to teach one how to think so that
one can adjust to an ever-changing society. In
order to produce creative resourceful &
adaptable children we should have conditions in
the school which are conducive to the creation
of these qualities of mind. Recommends formal
schools to have activity oriented learning based
on the needs, interest, aptitude & capabilities
of the individual student.
Curriculum: Pragmatists believe in a broad &
diversified curriculum, which is composed of
both content & process & subjects ranging from
humanities to geography & science.
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Methods of education: Teaching-learning process is


a social process where the sharing of experiences
between the teacher & the student takes place.
Preferred methods are project method & activity
oriented learning.
Role of teacher: Role of a teacher is not that of a
dictator or a task master but as a leader of group
activities. Teacher acts as catalyst where he
suggests a problem to students & stimulates them
to find a solution. Teacher is a mentor with
resources to guide the students
Discipline: Pragmatism does not believe in
traditional firm discipline. It advocates for freedom
of self-discipline in a free & conducive teachinglearning environment.
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Traditional philosophies
Realism
Chief proponents: Aristotle, Johann Friedrich
Herbart, Herbert Spencer
Concept: Realism makes the human being
understand & enjoy society in the true
sense by getting the multidimensional real
joy of life in reality. It also aims for
education to make the life of a man useful;
where a man can enjoy his activities &
comfort in reality. Education should equip
individuals to a best possible meaningful life
through vocational skills.
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Organization & Aims of Education: Realism


emphasizes on scientific attitude based on realistic
principles, where the child can extend his
knowledge, which he learns through books. It has
given due emphasis on formal schools, which
provides adequate opportunity for learners to learn
the vocational skills through observation,
experimentations & examinations.
Curriculum: Selection of the curriculum for the
students must based on their abilities, interest &
capabilities so that education helps the student to
adjust to changing circumstances of the society. It
also emphasis on subject matter of real-life use
such as science, mathematics, hygiene &
vocational subjects.

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Methods of Education: Realism believe in objectivity,
knowledge of scientific evidences & reality. Methods of
teaching should be according to needs, interest &
capabilities of students. Vocational education should
equip the individual with capacities to earn livelihood
such as experimentation, examination & observation,
etc.
Role of Teacher: Teacher must focus on the development
of vocational skills in the learners, so that they can be
equipped with qualities of race preservation & vocational
behavior activities. Teacher acts as a mentor, & must be
a role model & skilled to demonstrate vocational skills to
the learners
Discipline: Realism believes in an optimum level of
discipline without imposing undue stress on the
learners

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Modern Contemporary
Educational Philosophies

Perennialism
Chief proponents: Thomas Aquinas, Robert
Hutchins & Mortimer Adler
Concept: Education ensures that students
acquire an understanding about the great ideas
of civilization. These ideas have the potential for
solving problems in any era. The focus is to
teach ideas that are everlasting to seek ensuring
truths which are constant, as the natural &
human worlds at their most essential level.

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Organization & Aims of Education: The aim of
education is to develop the rational person, who
has intellectual abilities to uncover universal
truth. Character training is also important for
moral & spiritual development of an individual
Curriculum: Accepts little flexibility in the
curriculum that emphasizes on language,
literature, mathematics, arts & sciences.
Common curriculum for all the students with
minimal opportunities for elective subjects.
Teaching-learning process must create
liberalism, tolerance & discretion among
learners.

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Methods of Education: Perennialism portages for the
educational methods, which promotes constant
teacher-taught interaction such as oral exposition,
lecture & explication. Emphasis is placed on teacherguided seminars, where students & teachers engage
in mutual inquiry sessions. Students may also learn
directly from reading & analyzing the great books.
Role of teacher: Teacher must be competent &
master of his subject so that he can help their
students to develop the power to think deeply,
analytically, flexibly & imaginatively. Teacher is also
authoritative & a guide of the students.
Discipline: Education should be organized &
conducted in a manner that problem of indiscipline
does not arise at all.
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Modern Contemporary Educational


Philosophies
Essentialism
Chief proponents: William Bagley, Arthur
Bestor, Admiral Hyman Rickover, James D.
Koermer
Concept: Essentialism believe that there is
common core of knowledge that needs to e
transmitted to students in a systematic,
disciplined way. The emphasis placed on
intellectual & moral standards that schools
should teach & preparing students to become
valuable members of society.
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Organization & Aims of Education: Essentialism
has recommended for the formal schools or
teaching-learning places. The aims of
education is to promote intellectual growth &
academic competitiveness of the individual to
become a model citizen.
Curriculum: This philosophy recommended
intellectual content with quality & capacity of
the learner. The recommended subjects are
English, mathematics, natural science, history
& foreign languages.

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Methods of Education: Essentialism
recommended formal & well-planned
classroom teaching methods such as
lectures, discussions, presentations & group
interaction
Role of Teacher: Teacher must be a master of
subject matter & role model for learners with
high level of authority & control over
teaching-learning process & learner.
Discipline: Essentialism believes in rigid
discipline & devoted hard work of learners in
his studies.

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Modern Contemporary Educational


Philosophies

Existentialism
Chief proponents: Soren Kierkegaard, Friedrich
Nietzsche, Maxine Greene
Concept: This philosophy believes that education
must develop the consciousness about the freedom of
choices among learners because a man becomes
what he chooses for his self. Education must equip the
individual for better choices
Organization & Aims of Education: The ultimate aim of
education is to develop childs knowledge about
human conditions & the choices that person has to
make for self. Therefore organization of education
must be formal with sufficient opportunities of choices
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Curriculum: Curriculum must be that which provides the


free opportunities for children to select from many
available learning situations & choosing the subjects that
learner wish to learn. Humanities are commonly given
tremendous emphasis, which helps the student to unleash
their own creativity & self-expression.
Methods of Education: Existentialism promotes the
methods of education which emphasizes on self-activity of
the learner such as self-expressive activities,
experimentation, methods & media that illustrate
emotions feelings & insight
Role of Teacher: Teacher must promote freedom for a
learner to make personal choices & individual selfdefinition
Discipline: Existentialism believe in self-discipline but not
in the strict discipline. Teacher creates an environment in
which students may freely choose their own preferred way
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Modern Contemporary Educational


Philosophies
Reconstructionism

Chief proponents: Theodore Brameld, George Counts


& Paulo Freire
Concept: This philosophy of education believes on
reorganizing & restructuring the process of education
to being about social & cultural contrastive changes
in community, society & country, where emphasis is
placed on cultural pluralism, equality, futurism,
national interest oriented education
Organization & Aims of Education: This philosophy
recommended for formal as well as informal ways of
organizing the education so that desired aim of
education can be achieved to bring the
reconstruction of the society.
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Curriculum: Curriculum should be conceived with a new


socioeconomic & political interest. The subject content
must be oriented towards aspects of new changes
expected social, economic & political discipline such as
sociology, economics, science & technology, etc.
Methods of Education: This philosophy of education
believes that teaching methods must be organized in
manner that student become self-reliant, education
must be activity oriented to develop necessary activities
& abilities
Role of Teacher: The role of a teacher is to take the
social responsibilities & along with students must
become the agent to improve society.
Discipline: This philosophy of education propagates
about optimum level of discipline but not a rigid
discipline
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Modern Contemporary Educational


Philosophies
Progressivism

Chief proponents: Horace Mann, Henry Barnard &


Johan Dewey
Concept: Progressivism believe that learning must
be through problem solving & scientific inquiry in a
cooperative & self-discipline way, which promote
democratic living & transmits the culture of society
while preparing students to adapt in changing world
Organization & Aims of Education: Progressivism
recommended democratic school procedures, which
promote the community & social reforms. The aim
of education is to promote the democratic social
living
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Curriculum: Progressivism recommended


curriculum, which is interdisciplinary in nature,
which promotes written textbooks subject content
that are the part & process of learning rather than
ultimate source of knowledge. Further curriculum is
based on childs interest, problems & life affairs
Methods of Education: Child is considered as
learner rather than subject, who primarily learned
through cooperative group activities & experiences
Role of Teacher: Teacher must act as guide for
problem solving, leader for group activities &
partner in planning the learning activities
Discipline: Has not recommended any sort of
specific formal discipline

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LEARNING

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DEFINITION OF LEARNING
Any activity can be called learning so far
as it develops the individual & makes
his/her behavior & experiences different
from what that would otherwise have
been.
-Woodworth R. S.
Learning is a process that result in the
modification of behavior.
-J. F. Travers

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NATURE OF LEARNING
Behaviorist

view: Learning is a change in behavior


as a result of experience. Men & other living being
react to the environment.
Gestalt view: According to this, learning depends on
gestalt or configuration (wholeness of the situation).
Learning is a total reaction to the total situation.
Hormic view: This view was developed by
McDougall. It stresses on the purposeful nature of
learning, i.e. learning is a goral-directed activity.
Trail & error view: This view was put forward by
Thorndike. He conducted many experiments on
dogs, cats & fish & concluded that most learning
takes place by trial & error.
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Learning

is a process which involves a series of

steps:

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Learning

is cooperative process:

Elements of cooperative learning

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CHARACTERISTICS OF LEARNING

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TEACHING

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MEANING OF TEACHING
Teaching is a form of interpersonal influence
aimed at changing the behavior potential of
another person.
-American Educational Research Association
Commission
Teaching is stimulation, guidance, direction &
encouragement of learning.
-Burton

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NATURE OF TEACHING
Teaching is a tripolar process
Teaching is an interactive process
Teaching takes place at multiple levels
Teaching must be planned
Teaching needs effective reciprocal
communication
Teaching is the motivation to learn
Teaching is guidance
Teaching is a professional activity
Teaching is an art as well as science
Teaching helps attain information, knowledge &
skills
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PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING
Teaching principles help teachers develop
an insight regarding their strength &
weakness & provide information pertaining
to teaching.
The principles of teaching are discussed
under two subheadings:
General principles of teaching
Psychological principles of teaching

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General principles of teaching

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General principles of teaching

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General principles of teaching

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Psychological principles of teaching

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Psychological principles of teaching

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MAXIMS OF TEACHING

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MAXIMS OF TEACHING

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MAXIMS OF TEACHING

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MAXIMS OF TEACHING

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FORMULATION
OF
EDUCATIONAL
OBJECTIVES
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MEANING OF EDUCATIONAL
OBJECTIVES
Educational objectives are the results sought
by the learner at the educational program that
is what the student should be able to do at the
end of a leaning period that they could not be
beforehand.
- J.J Guilbert
Educational objectives are the behaviors to be
learner, aims are for the teacher & the
objectives are for the learners to achieve
through the support & guidance of the teacher.

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CHARACTERISITICS OF
EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES
The well-stated objective should be SMART &
FOCUSED

Specific

Measurable

Attainable

Realistic

Time bound

Feasible
Observable
Centered on student
Unequivocal
Sequentially appropriate
Ever relevant
Developmentally
appropriate

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TYPES OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES


According to level of educational objectives

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TYPES OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES


According to taxonomy of educational objectives

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TOXONOMY OF EDUCATIONAL
OBJECTIVES
The taxonomy for the educational objectives
points out that they are concerned with
intended behavior or the behavior to be
learned by students rather than the actual
behavior learned from an educational
objective.
In other words, taxonomy means a set of
classification principles or structure & domains
simply means category.
Blooms taxonomy divides educational
objectives into three domains: cognitive,
affective & psychomotor.

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Cognitive domain
The aspects of the cognitive domain resolve
around, comprehension & critical thinking on
a particular topic.
This domain focuses on thinking skills.
Traditional education tends to emphasize on
skills in this domain, particular the lower-order
objectives.
These are six levels in the cognitive domain,
moving from the lowest order processes to the
highest.

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Action verbs used for writing objectives in


cognitive domain
Knowled
ge

Comprehe
nsion

Application

Analysis

Synthesis

Evaluati
on

Count
Define
Describe
Draw
Identify
Labels
List
Match
Outlines
Point out
Read
Recognize
Record
Repeat
Selects
State
Write

Associate
Compute
Convert
Defend
Discuss
Distinguis
h
Estimate
Explain
Extend
Extrapolat
e
Generalize
Give
examples
Infer
Paraphras
e
Predict
Rewrite

Add
Apply
Calculate
Change
Classify
Complete
Compute
Demonstrat
e
Discover
Divide
Examine
Graph
Manipulate
Modify
Operate
Prepare
Produce
Show
Solve

Analyze
Arrange
Breakdow
n
Combine
Design
Detect
Develop
Diagram

Categorize
Combine
Compile
Compose
Create
Drive
Design
Devise
Explain
Generate
Integrate
Modify
Order
Organize
Plan
Prescribe
Revise
summariz
e

Appraise
Assess
Compare
Conclude
Contrast
Citizen
Critique

Differentiat
e
Discriminat
e

Illustrate
Infer
Outline
Relate
Select
Separate
Subdivide

Determine

Grade
Interpret
Judge
Justify
Measure
Rank
Rate
Support
Test

Affective domain
The aspects in the affective domain describe
the way people react emotionally & their
ability to feel another living things pain or joy.
Affective objectives typically target the
awareness & growth in attitudes, emotion,
motivation & feelings.
There are five levels in the affective domain,
moving from the lowest order processes to the
highest.

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Action verbs used for writing objectives in Affective


domain
Receiving

Responding

Valuing

Accept
Acknowledg
e
Attend
Follow
Listen
Meet
Observe
Receive

Agree
Allow
Answer
Ask
Assist
Choose
Communicat
e
Comply
Confront
Cooperate
Demonstrate
Describe
Discuss
Display
Exhibit
Follow
Give
Help
Identify
Offer

Adopt
Aid
care
Complete
Contribute
Delay
Encourage
Evaluate
Guide
Interact
Join
Justify
Maintain
Monitor
Praise
Present
Propose
Share
Study
Suggest

Organizing

Anticipate
Collaborate
Consider
Consult
Coordinator
Design
Direct
Establish
Facilitate
Follow
Though
Investigate
Judge
Manage
Modify
Organize
Plan
Submit
Test
Vary

Characterizati
on by value

Act
Administer
Advance
Advocate
Challenge
Change
Commit
Counsel
Criticize
Debate
Defend
Disagree
Enhance
Influence
Motivate
Negotiate
Object
Praise
Reject
Seek
75

Psychomotor domain
The psychomotor domain describes about
obtaining the skills or abilities to carry out
physical tasks such as the skills of a nurse
in catheterizing a patient or operating a
mechanical ventilator.
Psychomotor educational objectives usually
focus on the expected changes in skills of
an individual.

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Action verbs used for writing objectives in


Psychomotor domain
Absorb
Add
Adsorb
Adjust
Apply
Aspirate
Assemble
Balance
Build
Calculate
Change
Choose
Classify
Clean
Collate
Collect
Combine
Connect
Construct
control
Combine

Confirm
Connect
Correct
Count
Create
Cut
Decant
Demonstra
te
Describe
Design
Differentia
te
Dispose
Drain
Draw
Dry
Estimate
Examine
Operate
Expel
Fill

Frame
Freeze
Grade
Grasp
Ground
Guide
Handle
Observe
Obtain
Open
Identify
Illustrate
Inject
Input
Insert
Investiga
te
Isolate
Label
Locate
Maintain
Make

Manipulat
e
Mark
Measure
Mix
Mount
Pack
Palpate
Participat
e
Perform
Place
Position
Prepare
Press
Process
Produce
Standardi
ze
Start
Read
Release

Retest
Rinse
Roll
Rotate
Save
Score
Screen
Select
Sensitiz
e
Separat
e
Set
Shake
Stop
Stopper
Store
Suspend
Take
Test
Thaw
Tilt

Time
Tip
Trim
Touch
Transfer
Turn
Type
Use
Utilize
View
Warm
Wash
Watch
Weigh
Withdra
w
wrap

78

LESSON
PLANNING
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INTRODUCTION
Lesson planning is an important activity of
daily teaching.
The lesson plan might include the main
points to be covered in the lesson activities
for the students to do, questions related to
the topic being taught & some from of
assessment for the realization of stipulated
instructional objectives.
Lesson planning is the heart of effective
teaching.

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DEFINITION OF LESSON
PLAN
Lesson plan is the title given to a statement of
achievement to be realize & specific meanings
by which these are to be attained as a result of
the activities engaged during the period.
-N.L. Bossing
Daily lesson planning involves defining the
objectives, selecting & arranging the subject
matter & determining the method of
procedure.
-Bining & Bining

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FUNCTIONS OF A LESSON
PLAN
It ensure a definite objective for the days work & a

clear visualization of that objective.


It helps for adequate & appropriate use of
resources in an efficient way.
It keeps the teacher on track.
It help clarify ideas about what, how, where & when
& whom to teach.
It directs the teaching-learning process &
procedures in the right direction.
Helps review the subject matter & gives up-to-date
knowledge
It helps the teacher delimit the teaching.
It provide confidence, self-reliance. Ease & freedom
to teacher in teaching.
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SIGNIFICANCE & IMPORTANCE OF A


LESSON PLAN
It

provides guidelines to students & the teacher


during their teaching-learning practices.
It helps in achieving the definite objectives.
It makes teaching systematic, orderly &
economical.
It gives confidence to face the class.
It link new knowledge with previous knowledge.
It prepare pivotal questions & illustrations.
It enables the teacher evaluate his work as the
lesson proceeds.
It helps the teacher use a wider variety of
teaching material & learning activities.
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PREREQUISITES OF A LESSON PLAN


Knowledge & mastery of subject matter

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ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF
A GOOD LESSON PLAN
Clarity written
Definite aim & objectives
Extension of existing knowledge
Simple & comprehensive
Flexible
Ensure active teaching-learning process
Division with essence of wholesomeness
Individualized & customized
Feasibility & significance
Processed from general to specific
Completeness
Inclusion of summary, recapitalization, bibliography &
student assignment.

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STEPS OF LESSON
PLANNING

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STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE


IMPLEMENTATION OF THE
LESSON PLAN
The lesson plan must be efficiently written,
prepared & designed with a complete sense of
confidence.
The presenter or teacher must be clear about
the aim & objectives of the lesson plan.
Use of A-V aids must be well planned, judicious
& efficient.
Introduction of the lesson must create interest
in the students & they must be well motivated
to receive the subject content.

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Count
It is essential to use the right methods of
teaching ensuring the active involvement of
students.
There must be careful use of blackboard &
other audiovisual methods.
Questions planned & presented in a lesson
plan must be definite, clear, stimulating &
thought provoking.
Content must be delivered in a simple
language with a clear & audible voice with
complete sense of confidence.
Provide enough time to the students for
clarifying their doubts.

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Count
Individual student attention while taking & giving
regular feedback on the understanding of subject
content is vary essential for effective
implementation of the lesson plan.
Efficient time management, appropriate
recapitalization of the subject matter & relevant
thought provoking questioning & continuous
feedback are key aspects of effective
implementation of the lesson plan.
End recapitalization, discussion of refeence,
bibliography & further reading & expected
students exercise assignments are also considered
to be important in the success of a lesson plan.

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FORMAT OF A LESSON PLAN


I.

II.

Cover Page: This page must include topic of


lesson, date of submission, name of
supervisor & name & details of the
presenting teacher.
First page: This must include the following
basic information

Basic lesson plan information:


Subject
: Communication & Education
Technology
Name of topic
: Assessment of learning needs
Name of student teacher
: Mr. Chirag sharma
Name of Supervisor
: Dr. Jayesh Patidar
Date of teaching
: _____________
Time of teaching
: _____________
Venue of teaching

: Lecturer Hall No. 2


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Count

Basic lesson plan information:


Group : BSc (N) 2nd year students
Size of group : 46
Method of teaching : Lecture cum discussion
Duration : _____ minutes
AV Aids
: Power Point Presentation
Previous knowledge : The group has some knowledge about the
topic: Assessment of learning needs
General Objective : At the end of the class, students will be
able to acquire knowledge about assessment of learning needs
Specific objectives: At the end of teaching, students will be able to
Define various terms related to assessment of learning needs.
Explain about historical perspective.
Enlist types of assessment.
Enumerate principles of assessment for learning.
Describe purposes of conducting assessment of learning needs.
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Count
III. Main body of lesson plan:
Sr.
No
.

Time

Contributo
ry
Objective

Content

TeachingLearning
Activities

AV
Aids

Evaluatio
n

IV. Appendix of lesson plan: This includes giving


the assignment to students & recommending
further reading, writing the bibliography &
references.
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CLASSROOM
MANAGEMEN
T
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DEFINITIONS OF CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
Classroom management is an organizational
function in which tasks are performed in a
variety of settings, resulting in the inculcation of
certain values such as human respect, personal
integrity, self-direction & group cohesion etc.
-Johanson & Brooks
Classroom management is a system of action &
activities are managed in classroom to induce
learning through teacher-taught relationship.
Teacher & students are the basic components for
managing classroom activities.
-Operational meaning
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DIMENSION OF CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT

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PRINCIPLES OF THE CLASSROOM


MANAGEMENT
General principles of classroom management

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PRINCIPLES OF THE
CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
Specific principles of classroom management

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General principles of classroom management

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CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
PROBLEM
Inadequate light & ventilation

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STRATEGIES FOR CLASSROOM


MANAGEMENT
Promotion of rhythm in teaching-learning activities

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ROLE OF A TEACHER IN CLASSROOM


MANAGEMENT

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