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a normal stress, and to define and discuss something called nominal stress or

engineering stress, and to define and discuss true stress. We left off last clas

s with the

3-dimensional state of stress at a point. If we let the out of

plane stresses go to zero then this became a 2-dimensional or

plane stress problem. And it looked like this. Now, if we only look at axial loa

ding, that's a special case of two-dimensional,

or plane stress. And so, here's a clip of an axial

test being done on a specimen. And you can see it stretches out. And it starts t

o neck down,

and eventually it would fail. Here's another member, and so again, if I were abl

e to put enough force

on this member, it would stretch and the area, the cross-sectional

area would start to get smaller. You can see a little bit better

on some other material here. This is a softer material and so,

here I can actually stretch it down and you may be able to see the cross section

al

area become a little bit smaller. Here's a rubber band type material. And so if

I pull it you can see how

the cross section area, it's very thin, its got a width and a length,

but you can see how the cross-sectional area will become

smaller and that the length stretches. And so, the same thing happens for

all these materials if they're isotropic. And we'll talk about isotropic later a

nd

homogenous. And if I pull on them,

that same sort of effect, it's actually called the pwasons effect. And we'll tal

k about

that more later as well. And so, our L becomes now L plus delta. So, I'm stretch

ing them out. And we can do a cut inside that

member to see what's going on. Let's do a transverse cut. It reveals a normal fo

rce and

a shear force. If we sum forces in the y direction

we can see that the shear force for our transverse cut equals zero,

and if we sum forces in the x direction we see that the normal force is

actually equal to the external force p. And so as we recall, this is a review. W

e can say that the stress will assume

it to be uniformly distributed across the cross section, and so

that's the definition of normal stress. Force per unit area perpendicular

to the cut surface. And this is the formula for it and

this is the sign convention. Positive stress for tension,

negative stress for compression. Now, we can also talk about something

called engineering stress or nominal stress. As we stretched this thing, we saw

that

the cross-sectional area got smaller. And so the engineering stress Is based on

the initial

cross-sectional area of our specimen. True stress however, is based on

the actual area, and so as we stretch the member out, the actual area becomes

smaller as the specimen gets closer and closer to failure, so the true stress

can actually be a larger number. Now in most engineering applications,

we use and we'll solve problems using the engineering stress, because the change

in the area for most materials and the change of the stresses between

nominal stress, engineering stress a[SOUND] Hi, and welcome to module two of Mec

hanics of Materials part one. Today's learning outcomes are to

first calculate the internal forces due to external loads applied to

a real word engineering structure, and then to classify what we're gonna

call axial centric loading. So I showed this general

outline of the approach, the announced approach

we'll take in the course. We start with an engineering structure. And this is a

Applications of Engineering Mechanics. The structure we're gonna look at is,

in this case, a truss bridge. And back in modules eight and nine of my

applications in engineering mechanics, we analyzed this by doing first

a free body diagram to show external loads being applied to something like

the trust structure, that I have here, and we cut into that structure and

found the internal forces and moments, if there are any in each of

the members for the structure. And now we're going to go on and from those inter

nal forces and

moments, look at stresses and strains developed in the member and

evaluate structural performance. Is the member, is the engineering structural me

mber going

to perform as we would like it to do. And so we're going to start by applying

axial centric loads to these members. And so here's our section cut of

the truss showing whether each member is intention or compression and

how what the magnitude of that force is. I'll show it as a round cross

section at this point but the cross section can be square,

it can be rectangle, it can be an I-beam. As long as we just apply an axial load

and

by axial loading, I mean that the load is parallel to

the longitudinal axis of the member and the loading is centric,

which means that the line of action or the resultant force passes through

the centroid of that section. And so, that's where we'll get

started in the next module. [SOUND]nd true stress are so small that we just go

with the initial cross-sectional area. And so let's do a worksheet. I'll let you

do the worksheet on your own. I've put the solution in

the module hand outs, but we've got a flat alloy bar,

it's got a thickness of 10mm and a width of 60 mm, so

it's a rectangular cross section. We subject it to a tensile load of 60 kN, and

I want you to find the nominal Or

engineering axial stress in the bar. And once you've done that, you can check

your solution and we'll see you next time. [SOUND] [MUSIC]

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