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[SOUND] [MUSIC] Welcome to module seven of Mechanics and

Materials Part One. Today's learning outcomes are to review

a normal stress, and to define and discuss something called nominal stress or
engineering stress, and to define and discuss true stress. We left off last clas
s with the
3-dimensional state of stress at a point. If we let the out of
plane stresses go to zero then this became a 2-dimensional or
plane stress problem. And it looked like this. Now, if we only look at axial loa
ding, that's a special case of two-dimensional,
or plane stress. And so, here's a clip of an axial
test being done on a specimen. And you can see it stretches out. And it starts t
o neck down,
and eventually it would fail. Here's another member, and so again, if I were abl
e to put enough force
on this member, it would stretch and the area, the cross-sectional
area would start to get smaller. You can see a little bit better
on some other material here. This is a softer material and so,
here I can actually stretch it down and you may be able to see the cross section
area become a little bit smaller. Here's a rubber band type material. And so if
I pull it you can see how
the cross section area, it's very thin, its got a width and a length,
but you can see how the cross-sectional area will become
smaller and that the length stretches. And so, the same thing happens for
all these materials if they're isotropic. And we'll talk about isotropic later a
homogenous. And if I pull on them,
that same sort of effect, it's actually called the pwasons effect. And we'll tal
k about
that more later as well. And so, our L becomes now L plus delta. So, I'm stretch
ing them out. And we can do a cut inside that
member to see what's going on. Let's do a transverse cut. It reveals a normal fo
rce and
a shear force. If we sum forces in the y direction
we can see that the shear force for our transverse cut equals zero,
and if we sum forces in the x direction we see that the normal force is
actually equal to the external force p. And so as we recall, this is a review. W
e can say that the stress will assume
it to be uniformly distributed across the cross section, and so
that's the definition of normal stress. Force per unit area perpendicular
to the cut surface. And this is the formula for it and
this is the sign convention. Positive stress for tension,
negative stress for compression. Now, we can also talk about something
called engineering stress or nominal stress. As we stretched this thing, we saw
the cross-sectional area got smaller. And so the engineering stress Is based on
the initial
cross-sectional area of our specimen. True stress however, is based on
the actual area, and so as we stretch the member out, the actual area becomes
smaller as the specimen gets closer and closer to failure, so the true stress
can actually be a larger number. Now in most engineering applications,
we use and we'll solve problems using the engineering stress, because the change
in the area for most materials and the change of the stresses between
nominal stress, engineering stress a[SOUND] Hi, and welcome to module two of Mec
hanics of Materials part one. Today's learning outcomes are to
first calculate the internal forces due to external loads applied to
a real word engineering structure, and then to classify what we're gonna
call axial centric loading. So I showed this general
outline of the approach, the announced approach
we'll take in the course. We start with an engineering structure. And this is a

lot of review for my course,

Applications of Engineering Mechanics. The structure we're gonna look at is,
in this case, a truss bridge. And back in modules eight and nine of my
applications in engineering mechanics, we analyzed this by doing first
a free body diagram to show external loads being applied to something like
the trust structure, that I have here, and we cut into that structure and
found the internal forces and moments, if there are any in each of
the members for the structure. And now we're going to go on and from those inter
nal forces and
moments, look at stresses and strains developed in the member and
evaluate structural performance. Is the member, is the engineering structural me
mber going
to perform as we would like it to do. And so we're going to start by applying
axial centric loads to these members. And so here's our section cut of
the truss showing whether each member is intention or compression and
how what the magnitude of that force is. I'll show it as a round cross
section at this point but the cross section can be square,
it can be rectangle, it can be an I-beam. As long as we just apply an axial load
by axial loading, I mean that the load is parallel to
the longitudinal axis of the member and the loading is centric,
which means that the line of action or the resultant force passes through
the centroid of that section. And so, that's where we'll get
started in the next module. [SOUND]nd true stress are so small that we just go
with the initial cross-sectional area. And so let's do a worksheet. I'll let you
do the worksheet on your own. I've put the solution in
the module hand outs, but we've got a flat alloy bar,
it's got a thickness of 10mm and a width of 60 mm, so
it's a rectangular cross section. We subject it to a tensile load of 60 kN, and
I want you to find the nominal Or
engineering axial stress in the bar. And once you've done that, you can check
your solution and we'll see you next time. [SOUND] [MUSIC]