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In this diagram the velocity boundary layer is shown to grow with distance x [marked by
vel(x)], where as the growth of the temperature and concentration profiles are marked as
temp(x) and conc(x). Depending on the transport characteristics of velocity, vorticity,
temperature, and concentration these boundary layers may grow at different rates. When
we speak about velocity changes in the boundary layer the fluid property that influences
them is viscosity, whereas for temperature and concentration boundary layers, the
y
y
u(y)
vel
T(y)
conc
tem
vel(x
)
CA(y)
conc(x)
temp(x)
TS
C AS
corresponding properties are the convective heat transfer and mass transfer coefficients.
The governing equations for velocity boundary layers, thermal boundary layers, and
concentration boundary layers all follow similar patterns. Rather than deriving the
thermal and concentration boundary layer equation we simply present them below. For a
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fluid such as air that may be treated as an ideal, incompressible gas or, for an
incompressible liquid such as water,
T
T
T
T
C u
v
k
q
k
y
x x y y
x
and,
(A)
C
C
C
C
v
N
D
D
x
y
x
x y
y
A
AB
AB
(B)
u 2 v 2
u v
2 u v
y
y x
3 x y
(C)
Similarly in the equation (B), DAB represents the binary diffusion coefficients and N
represents the rate of generation of the concentration CA. In deriving the above relations
some additional constitutive relations must be recalled. For example if the fluid is an
ideal gas, the gas law gives:
p RT or, p C A RT
A
[Q M A C A ]
q k
T
y y 0 in
the wall. But heat convected into the fluid is given by the Newtons law of cooling:
q h (TS T )
where, h = heat transfer coefficient (or, coefficient of heat convection)
TS = Surface temperature = T ( y) y 0
T = Temperature of the ambient fluid
kA S
T
y y 0
h (TS T )
where, AS = surface area through which heat flows. Therefore the heat transfer
coefficient may be expressed as
T
y y 0
TS T
k
h
(D)
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Similar to the heat transfer case the mass transfer constitutive relations are given by
as
Ficks law, which specifies molar flux, N A
D AB
N A
C A
y y 0
D AB
hm
(E)
Remember that h and hm are variables defined by the above laws. For a finite size flat
plate we may define (similar to the overall skin friction coefficient, Cf discussed in the
the velocity boundary layers)
h
1
h dA S
AS A
S
and, h m A h m dA S
S AS
A,S = M A C A, S , etc
The above law shows striking similarity between the velocity boundary layer, thermal
boundary layer, and the concentration boundary layer.
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Nondimensional #
Expression
Physical Meaning
UL
Inerta force
Viscous force
C p
Viscous Dissipation
Thermal Diffusion
hL
R
hmL
R
hmL
D AB
hL
Rf
Viscous Diffusion
Mean Diffusion
Convective Mass Transfer
Surface Mass Transfer
By the use of the expressions (D) and (E) before, Sh and NuL may be also seen as the
nondimensional concentration gradient and nondimensional temperature gradient
respectively. The nondimensional velocity, temperature, and concentration problems
may be summarized in functional forms as
u* = f1 (x*, y*, ReL, dp*/dx)
T* = f2 (x*, y*, ReL, Pr, dp*/dx)
and,
CA = f3 (x*, y*, ReL, Sc, dp*/dx)
These equations are solved to yield
Cf =
2 u *

Re y *
L
y *0
Cf = f4 (x*, ReL)
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Nu =
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hL
k
T *

y *
y * 0
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and,
h L
Sh =
D
m
AB
C

=
y
*
y * 0
In other words, when we wish to solve the above problems in practice, we match the
corresponding nondimensional numbers in parenthesis to solve for the desired physical
variables. In some problems of complex physics it is important to know the relationships
connecting the above nondimensional parameters. For example, Stanton number (St),
defined as
St =
Vc
=
p
Similarly, Stm =
Nu
Re Pr
h
V
Sh
Re Sc
Cf /2 = Stm . Pr 2/3 = jm ,
where, jH and jm are known as the Colburn j factors for heat and mass transfer.
The problems associated with these areas will now be illustrated.
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