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Muralla St. Intramuros Manila




ALEJO, Christian Allen J.

AQUINO, Laurean Lainsley D.
BENITEZ, Pauline A.
BENOSA, Audriel L.
BERNABE, Michael Eriko A.


4Q 2015-2016
2 May 2015




A granular material, such as sand, gravel, crushed stone, crushed
hydraulic-cement concrete, or iron blast-furnace slag, used with a
hydraulic cementing medium to produce either concrete or mortar;
A broad category of coarse particulate material used in
construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, recycled
concrete and geosynthetic aggregates;
Are the most mined materials in the world, are a component of
composite materials such as concrete and asphalt concrete; the
aggregate serves as reinforcement to add strength to the overall
composite material.
Due to the relatively high hydraulic conductivity value as compared
to most soils, aggregates are widely used in drainage applications
such as foundation and French drains, septic drain fields, retaining
wall drains, and road side edge drains;
Aggregates are also used as base material under foundations,
roads, and railroads; and
In other words, aggregates are used as a stable foundation or
road/rail base with predictable, uniform properties (e.g. to help
prevent differential settling under the road or building), or as a lowcost extender that binds with more expensive cement or asphalt to
form concrete.
Coarse Aggregate are those particles that are predominantly
retained on the 4.75 mm (No. 4) sieve; and
Fine Aggregate are those particles passing the 9.5 mm (3/8 in.)
sieve, almost entirely passing the 4.75 mm (No. 4) sieve, and
predominantly retained on the 75 m (No. 200) sieve.
Increases the volume of concrete, thus reduces the cost;
Provide dimensional stability;
Influence hardness, abrasion resistance, elastic modulus, and other
properties of concrete to make it more durable, strong and
Concrete a mixture of aggregates, cement and water. The
purpose of the aggregates within this mixture is to provide a rigid
skeletal structure and to reduce the space occupied by the cement
paste. It is used for the foundations, walls, floors, roofs and

partitions of buildings, as well as bridges, dams, power stations and

many other kinds of physical structures;
Asphalt and Roadstone - category includes not just roads, but
also pavements, airport runways, school playgrounds, car parks,
most footpaths or cycleways, and other similar structures. Will
require some variation in the material, it is useful to look at the
basic structure of roads because they represent the bulk of the
aggregate use in this category;
Mortar - consists of sand, cement and water. In some
circumstances lime may also be added, together with admixtures
(chemicals to control setting and workability) and/or pigments if
required. There are also types of mortar that can be used as
internal plasters but these should not be confused with the more
normally used, gypsum based, plasters;
Railway Ballast very tough aggregate is needed to support
railway weight and distribute the load of a passing train to avoid
serious damage to the ground, or other structures underneath.

III. Main Classification

Lightweight Aggregates
- Contains aggregate that is natural or synthetic which weighs less
than 1100 kg/m3;
- Lightweight is due to the cellular or high internal porous
microstructure, which gives this type of aggregate a low bulk
specific gravity; and
- Have high absorption values, which requires a modified approach to
concrete proportioning.


Normal-weight Aggregates
Are obtained by draining riverbeds or mining and crunching
formational material;
Generally weighs about 144 lb/ft3;
Heavyweight Aggregates
Are natural or synthetic which typically weigh more than 2080
kg/m3 and can range up to 4485 kg/m3;
Most commonly used for radiation shielding, counterweights, and
other applications where a high mass to volume ratio is desired.
Classification According to Size
Fine Aggregate

It is the aggregate most of which passes 4.75 mm IS sieve and

contains only so much coarser as is permitted by specification;
Natural Sand - it is the aggregate resulting from the natural
disintegration of rock and which has been deposited by streams or
glacial agencies;
Crushed Stone Sand - it is the fine aggregate produced by
crushing hard stone; and
Crushed Gravel Sand - it is the fine aggregate produced by
crushing natural grave.
Coarse Aggregate
It is the aggregate most of which is retained on 4.75 mm IS sieve
and contains only so much finer material as is permitted by
Uncrushed Gravel or Stone- it results from natural disintegration
of rock;
Crushed Gravel or Stone- it results from crushing of gravel or
hard stone; and
Partially Crushed Gravel or Stone- it is a product of the blending
of the above two aggregate.
All in Aggregate
It is the aggregate composed of both fine aggregate and coarse
According to Shape
Rounded Aggregate
The aggregate with rounded shape has the minimum percentage of
voids ranging from 32 to 33%;
It gives minimum ratio of surface area to given volume and hence
requires minimum water for lubrication;
It gives good workability for the given amount of water and hence
needs less cement for a given water cement ratio; and
The only disadvantages is that the interlocking between its particles
is less and hence the development of bond is poor.
Irregular or Partly Rounded Aggregate
Has higher percentage of voids ranging from 35 to 37%;
It gives lesser workability than rounded aggregate for the given
water content;
Water requirement is higher and hence more cement is needed for
constant water cement ratio; and

The interlocking between aggregate particles is better than rounded

aggregate but not adequate to be used for high strength concrete
and pavements subjected to tension.
Angular Aggregate
Has the maximum percentage of void ranging from 38 to 45%;
It requires more water for lubrication and hence it gives least
workability for the given water cement ratio;
For constant water cement ratio and workability the requirement of
cement increase;
The interlocking between the aggregate particles is the best and
hence the development of bond is very good; and
This is why angular aggregate is very suitable for high strength
concrete and for pavements subjected to tension.

Flaky Aggregate
When its least dimension is less than 3/5th (or 60%) of its mean
Mean dimension is the average size through which the particles
pass and the sieve size on which these are retained; and
Tends to be oriented in one plane which affects the durability.

Elongated Aggregate
When its length is greater than 180% of its mean dimension.

Flaky and Elongated Aggregate

Particles in excess of 10 to 15% are not desirable in dimension.

According to Nature of Formation

Natural Aggregate
These aggregates are obtained from natural deposit of sand and
gravel or from quarries by cutting rocks;
Cheapest among them will be the natural sand and gravel which
have been reduced to their present size by natural agents such as
water, wind and snow etc.;
River deposits are the most common and have good quality;
The second most commonly used source of aggregates is quarried
bed rock material; and
Crushed aggregates are made by breaking down natural bed rocks
into requisite particles through a series of blasting, crushing and
screening, etc.


Artificial Aggregate
Brick ballast and air cooled blast furnace slag are most common;
Broken brick may be used for mass concrete but is not used for
reinforced concrete work unless the crushing strength is high;
Blast furnace slag is not commonly used on account of the possible
corrosion of steel due to the sulpher content of slag;
Concrete made with blast furnace slag aggregate has good fire
resisting qualities; and
Other artificial aggregates such as foamed slag, expanded clay,
shale and salte are also used for producing light weight concrete.
Test of Aggregates

a. Unit Weight
The unit weight is defined as weight per unit bulk volume for bulk
Besides the pores inside each aggregate, the bulk volume also
includes the space among the collection of particles.
According to the weight measured at different conditions, the unit
weight can be divided into UW (SSD) and UW (OD).
Moisture Conditions
SSD = Saturated Surface Dry
In this situation the pores of the aggregate are fully filled with
water and the surface is dry. This condition can be obtained by
immersion in water for 24 hours following by drying of the
surface with wet cloth.
OD = Oven Dry
This condition is obtained by keeping aggregates at temperature
of 1100 C for a period of time long enough to reach a constant
The density of sand and gravel aggregates depends on:
1. Grain size
2. Moisture content
3. How tightly the grains are bound
Sand with Gravel, dry 1650 kg/m3
Sand with Gravel, wet 2020 kg/m3
UW ( SSD )=

UW ( OD )=


The percentage of spacing (voids) among the aggregates can be

calculated as
Spacing ( Void )=

b. Specific Gravity
Aggregate Specific Gravity Test and Absorption Test
1. Oven-dry
2. Saturated Surface-dry
3. Submerged in water
Needed to determine weight to volume relationships and to
calculate various volume-related quantities such as voids in
mineral aggregate (VMA) and voids filled by asphalt (VFA).
Bulk Specific Gravity=
Apparent SpecificGravity=


x 100

A = mass of oven-dry sample in air (grams)
B = mass of saturated surface dry in air (grams)
C = mass of saturated surface dry in water (grams)

c. Absorption
Water Absorption Test
This test helps to determine the water absorption of coarse
aggregates; and
For this test a sample not less than 2000g should be used.
d. Moisture Content
Four Moisture State
1. Oven-dry (OD) - All moisture is removed from the
aggregate by heating in an oven at 105 oC to

constant weight (overnight heating usually is

sufficient). All pores are empty;
2. Air-dry (AD) - All moisture removed from surface,
but internal pores partially full;
3. Saturated-surface-dry (SSD) - All pores filled with
water, but no film of water on the surface; and
4. Wet - All pores completely filled with water with a
film on the surface.
Absorption Capacity
x 100
Effective Absorption
x 100
W water absorbed=EA x W aggregate
Surface Moisture
SM =
x 100
W additional water =Sm x W aggregate

e. Sieve Analysis
Helps to determine the particle size distribution of the coarse and
fine aggregates; and
This is done by sieving the aggregates
Retained= Sieve x 100
W Total
f. Fineness Modulus
Defined as an empirical figure obtained by adding the
percentage of the sample of an aggregate retained on each
specified series of sieves, and dividing the sum by 100; and
The sieve sizes are 150, 300, 600, 1.18 mm, 2.36 mm,
mm, 9.5 mm, 19.0 mm, 38.1 mm and larger increasing in the
of 2:1.
g. Abrasion Test

of a

This test helps to determine the abrasion value of coarse

aggregates; and
The apparatus used in this test are Los Angles abrasion testing
machine, IS Sieve of size 1.7mm, Abrasive charge 12 nos. cast
iron or steel spheres approximately 48mm dia. and each weighing
between 390 and 445g ensuring that the total weight of charge is
5000 +25g and Oven.
h. Wash Test
It is process of washing and sieving the aggregates simultaneously.
i. Size Gradation
One of the most influential aggregate characteristics in determining
how it will perform as a pavement material;
In HMA, gradation helps determine almost every important property
including stiffness, stability, durability, permeability, workability,
fatigue resistance, frictional resistance and moisture susceptibility;
In PCC, gradation helps determine durability, porosity, workability,
cement and water requirements, strength, and shrinkage.
Size Gradation or particle size distribution is one of the most
important and influential aggregate characteristics because it tells
us how it will perform as a construction or pavement material. In
Hot Mix Asphalt, gradation helps determine almost every important
property including stiffness, stability, durability, permeability,
workability, fatigue resistance, frictional resistance and moisture
susceptibility. In Portland Cement Concrete, gradation helps
determine durability, porosity, workability, cement and water
requirements, strength, and shrinkage.
Ideally coarse and fine aggregate should be graded in such a way
as to minimise the voidage. After compaction the volume of the
cement paste must be more than the voidage between particles.
Underfilling will result in entrapped air and an unworkable mix. An
extreme example of this is a no-fines concrete where the sand
fraction is minimised, the course aggregate interlocks, but nothing
fills the voids. This will not protect the reinforcement from corrosion
or provide a weather tight structure. Similarly achieving a paste
volume to just fill the voids will result in a mix where the coarse
aggregate will interlock but not necessarily in an optimum
compacted state making placing difficult and leaving voids. Some
overfilling of the void space between the coarse particles by the

sand fraction and between the sand particles by a cement paste is

necessary for workability, placeability and durability of the concrete.
i. Size Analysis
- The gradation and size test is used to determine
aggregate particle size distribution. Size distribution is
perhaps the single most important aggregate quality
associated with the control of HMA mixtures. Aggregate
gradation and size affect HMA volumetric properties as
well as mixture permeability and workability.
- The sieve analysis, commonly known as the gradation
test, is a basic essential test for all aggregate
technicians. The sieve analysis determines the
gradation (the distribution of aggregate particles, by
size, within a given sample) in order to determine
requirements, and verification specifications. The
gradation data may be used to calculate relationships
between various aggregate or aggregate blends, to
check compliance with such blends, and to predict
trends during production by plotting gradation curves
graphically, to name just a few uses.
- A known weight of material, the amount being
determined by the largest size of aggregate, is placed
upon the top of a group of nested sieves (the top sieve
has the largest screen openings and the screen opening
sizes decrease with each sieve down to the bottom
sieve which has the smallest opening size screen for the
type of material specified) and shaken by mechanical
means for a period of time. After shaking the material
through the nested sieves, the material retained on
each of the sieves is weighed.
- The cumulative method requires that each sieve
beginning at the top be placed in a previously weighed
pan (known as the tare weight), weighed, the next
sieve's contents added to the pan, and the total
weighed. This is repeated until all sieves and the
bottom pan have been added and weighed.

ii. Maximum Aggregate Size

- In the August 2003 version of CT 382, nominal
maximum aggregate size is defined as one sieve size
smaller than the maximum aggregate size.
maximum aggregate size is defined as the smallest
sieve size that requires 100% passing;
- 3/4" : 100%
- 1/2" : 95%
- 3/8" : 89%
- #4 : 63%
- #8 : 39%
- By the CT 382 definition, the maximum aggregate size is
3/4" and the nominal maximum aggregate size is 1/2".
In the November 2011 version of CT 202, nominal
maximum aggregate size is defined as "one sieve size
larger than the first size to retain more than 10%." By
this definition the nominal maximum aggregate size for
the material example above is also 1/2". However, if
there were only 91% passing the 3/8" the nominal
maximum aggregate size for that material would be
3/8", not 1/2".
However, in AASHTO T2 these are the definitions:


For the same strength or workability, concrete with large size
aggregate will require lesser quantity of cement than concrete
with a smaller size aggregate. In a mass concrete work the use
of larger size aggregate will be useful due to the lesser
consumption of cement. This will also reduce the heat of
hydration and the corresponding thermal stresses and shrinkage
cracks. But in practice the size of aggregate cannot be increased
to any limit on account of the limitation in the mixing, handling
and placing equipment. In large size aggregates surface area to
be wetted per unit weight is less, and the water cement ratio is
less which increases the strength. On the other hand in smaller
size aggregates the surface area is increased which increases
w/c ratio and lower strength is achieved. In general for strength
up to 200 kg/cm2 aggregates up to 40 mm may be used and for
strength above 300 kg/cm2 aggregate up to 20 mm may be



1. It should not be more than one fourth of the minimum thickness

of the member provided that the concrete can be placed without
difficulty so as to surround all reinforcement thoroughly and fill
the corner of the form.
2. Plump (large undressed stone embedded with others in concrete
on large work) above 160 mm and up to any reasonable size
may be used in plain concrete work up to a maximum limit of 20
percent by volume of concrete.
3. For heavily reinforced concrete members the nominal maximum
size of the aggregate should be usually restricted to 6 mm less
than the minimum clear distance between the main bar or 5 mm
less than the minimum cover to the reinforcement, whichever is
4. Where the reinforcement is widely spaced as in solid slabs,
limitations of the size of the aggregate may not be so important
and the nominal maximum size may sometime be as great as or
greater than the maximum cover except where porous aggregate
are used.
5. For reinforced concrete work aggregates having a maximum size
of 20 mm are generally considered satisfactory.
iii. Grading Curves
- Ideally coarse and fine aggregate should be graded in
such a way as to minimise the voidage;
- After compaction the volume of the cement paste must
be more than the voidage between particles; and
- Underfilling will result in entrapped air and an
unworkable mix.
- Fuller and Thompsons Equation

Regardless of its practical use, a maximum density

gradation provides a convenient reference. In 1907,
Fuller and Thompson developed a widely used equation
to describe a maximum density gradation for a given
maximum aggregate size. This equation is:

- P = percent finer than an aggregate size
- d = aggregate size being considered
- D = maximum aggregate size
- n = parameter which adjusts curve for fineness or
coarseness (for maximum particle density n 0.5
according to Fuller and Thompson)
0.45 Power Maximum Density Graph
- In the early 1960s, the FHWA introduced the standard
gradation graph used in the HMA industry today. This
graph uses Fuller and Thompsons equation with n = 0.45
and is convenient for determining the maximum density
line and adjusting gradation (Roberts et al., 1996 [1]). This
graph is slightly different than other gradation graphs
because it uses the sieve size raised to the nth power
(usually 0.45) as the x-axis units. Thus, a plot of Fuller and
Thompsons maximum density equation with n = 0.45
appears as a straight diagonal line. This straight line goes
from zero to the maximum aggregate size for the
gradation being considered. There is some debate as to
whether this line should end at maximum aggregate size
or nominal maximum aggregate size or somewhere in
between, however the most commonly accepted practice is
to end it at the maximum aggregate size.

Gradation Types

Dense or well-graded. Refers to a gradation that is

near the FHWAs 0.45 power curve for maximum
density. The most common HMA mix designs in the U.S.
tend to use dense graded aggregate. Typical gradations
are near the 0.45 power curve but not right on it.
Generally, a true maximum density gradation (exactly

on the 0.45 power curve) would result in unacceptably

low VMA.
Gap graded. Refers to a gradation that contains only a
small percentage of aggregate particles in the mid-size
range. The curve is flat in the mid-size range. Gap
graded mixes can be prone to segregation during
placement. Stone matrix asphalt (SMA) is a gap graded
Open graded. Refers to a gradation that contains only
a small percentage of aggregate particles in the small
range. This results in more air voids because there are
not enough small particles to fill in the voids between
the larger particles. The curve is near vertical in the
mid-size range, and flat and near-zero in the small-size
Uniformly graded. Refers to a gradation that contains
most of the particles in a very narrow size range. In
essence, all the particles are the same size. The curve is
steep and only occupies the narrow size range specified

iv. Other Grading Requirements

- For a good concrete mix, aggregates need to be clean,
hard, strong particles free of absorbed chemicals or
coatings of clay and other fine materials that could
cause the deterioration of concrete;