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Case 3:16-cv-00247-DJH Document 9 Filed 05/20/16 Page 1 of 2 PageID #: 48

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT


WESTERN DISTRICT OF KENTUCKY
LOUISVILLE DIVISION

KASHIYA NWANGUMA, ET AL.

CASE NO.: 3:16-cv-247-DJH

PLAINTIFFS,
v.
DONALD J. TRUMP, ET AL.
DEFENDANTS.
Filed Electronically
MOTION TO DISMISS
Defendants Donald J. Trump, individually and Donald J. Trump for President, Inc., through
counsel, and pursuant to Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 12(b)(6), move this Court to dismiss the
Complaint as to Mr. Trump and Donald J. Trump for President, Inc. of the Plaintiffs Kashiya
Nwanguma, Molly Shah and Henry Brousseau in its entirety, with prejudice. Attached hereto is a
Brief in Support of the Defendants Motion to Dismiss.
Respectfully submitted,
LANDRUM & SHOUSE
/s/ R. Kent Westberry
R. Kent Westberry
LANDRUM & SHOUSE, LLP
220 W. Main St., Ste. 1900
Louisville, KY 40202-1395
Ph: (502) 589-7616
Fx: (502) 589-2119
kwestberry@landrumshouse.com
COUNSEL FOR DEFENDANT
Donald J. Trump for President, Inc.
and Donald J. Trump, Individually

Case 3:16-cv-00247-DJH Document 9 Filed 05/20/16 Page 2 of 2 PageID #: 49

CERTIFICATE OF SERVICE
I hereby certify that a true and correct copy of the foregoing document has been served on
the 20th day of May, 2016 via CM/ECF.
I further certify that on the 20th day of May, 2016 I served a copy of the foregoing document
on the following party of record by U.S. mail.
Matthew Warren Heimbach
222 Mable Street, Apt 2
Paoli, IN 47454
Defendant
/s/ R. Kent Westberry
COUNSEL FOR DEFENDANT
Donald J. Trump for President, Inc.
and Donald J. Trump, Individually

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UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT


WESTERN DISTRICT OF KENTUCKY
LOUISVILLE DIVISION

KASHIYA NWANGUMA, ET AL.

CASE NO.: 3:16-cv-247-DJH

PLAINTIFFS,
v.
DONALD J. TRUMP, ET AL.
DEFENDANTS.

BRIEF IN SUPPORT OF MOTION TO DISMISS


Political speech at a political rally lies at the core of the First Amendment. Here,
Plaintiffs admit they attended Donald Trumps speech in order to protest the speech and harass
the people who had gathered to hear Mr. Trump. And now, despite attending Mr. Trumps
gathering for the admitted purpose of heckling Mr. Trump and his supporters, those protestors
accuse Mr. Trump of incit[ing] a riot, causing protesters to be violently assaulted, and
sanction[ing] the physical abuse of attendees. Compl. 46, 103, 113. Plaintiffs allegations
threaten fundamental constitutional protections and must be dismissed. They cannot survive the
motion-to-dismiss standard because they fall far short of raising a right to relief above the
speculative level. Bell Atl. Corp. v. Twombly, 550 U.S. 544, 555 (2007). Because Plaintiffs
have failed to state [any] claim to relief that is plausible on its face as to Mr. Trump and
Donald J. Trump for President, Inc. (Campaign), the claims against Mr. Trump and the
Campaign must be dismissed. Ashcroft v. Iqbal, 556 U.S. 662, 678 (2009) (quoting Twombly,
550 U.S. at 570)

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STATEMENT OF FACTS
Nearly a year ago, Donald Trump announced his candidacy for President. Since then he
has given speeches across the country. While the vast majority of people who attend Mr.
Trumps speeches are there to support Mr. Trump, a small minority come to heckle Mr. Trump
and his supporters and otherwise cause disruptions.
On March 1, 2016, several thousand people gathered to hear Mr. Trump speak in
Louisville, Kentucky. According to Plaintiffs, among the thousands of attendees were three
individuals who came with the express purpose of protesting Mr. Trumps speech: Ms.
Nwanguma, Ms. Shah, and Mr. Brousseau. All three admit they attended the speech to protest.
Compl. 37 (Nwanguma attended the Rally with the intention of peacefully protesting
Trump); id. 51, 61. And protest they did. Several times during the speech, these protesters,
intent on shutting Mr. Trump down, caused disturbances in the crowd. As a letter quoted by
Plaintiffs Complaint revealed, when Mr. Trump took the stage, [p]rotestors in the crowd
became vocal and began pushing and shoving their way toward the stage. Letter from A.
Bamberger to L. Kinard (Mar. 8, 2016).1 Mr. Bamberger, who allegedly pushed a protester,
continued, At one point I was physically knocked down and fell to the ground, losing my jacket
(which was eventually returned to me). The protestors were holding up signs, chanting black
lives matter and pushing and shoving Trump supporters. Id. Ms. Nwanguma admits she held a
poster of Mr. Trumps face transposed on the body of a pig. Compl. 44.
The disruptions were loud enough to distract Mr. Trump from his position on the dais.
Upon noticing the protesters attempting to disrupt his speech, Mr. Trump said, Get them out of

Because Plaintiffs have relied on that letter in their Complaint, it is proper for this Court
to look to the whole letter. A copy is available at http://eaglecountryonline.com/localarticle/203434/.
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here. Plaintiffs state without factual support that this directive was issued to the crowd writ
large, but it is more plausible that Mr. Trump was simply instructing security to remove those
individuals who were making it impossible for others to hear his speech.
Plaintiffs claim that after Mr. Trump said, Get them out of here, members of the crowd
hurled insults, pushed them, and even punched them. Whatever the accuracy of those claims,
Plaintiffs identify only three people responsible for the alleged physical assaultsMatthew
Heimbach, Alvin Bamberger, and an unknown defendant. It is clear from Plaintiffs own
Complaint that these individuals, who have no connection whatsoever to Mr. Trump or the
Campaign, acted on their own. According to Plaintiffs, Mr. Heimbach showed up to the speech
in a Traditionalist Worker Party t-shirtsignaling his allegiance to the white supremacist
groupin hopes of recruiting more members from among Trumps supporters. Compl. 66
67. Mr. Bamberger was there because [o]ne of my favorite things to do is attend political rallies
particularly Presidential rallies. Letter from A. Bamberger to L. Kinard (Mar. 8, 2016). And
Mr. Bamberger admits that my emotions got the best of me, after he was pushed to the ground.
Id. As to the third person who supposedly assaulted the protesters, Plaintiffs have failed to
identify that person, but claim that he, too, is associated with the Traditionalist Worker Party.
Compl. 57. These portions of the Complaint confirm that the individuals who engaged in the
alleged physical altercations were not acting for or at the direction of Mr. Trump or the
Campaign, but were instead acting on their own initiative and for their own purposes.
Plaintiffs have sought to paint a shocking scene, but they allege no actual injury. As to
Ms. Nwanguma, the Complaint says she was subjected to shoving and striking, but does not
allege she suffered any actual damage from these acts. Id. 50. The Complaint claims Ms. Shah
experienced pain and difficulty sleeping for several days. Id. 60. But it does not identify

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what sort of pain she suffered, whether she was ever treated for the pain, or how her lack of sleep
had any effect on her job or caused any other physical or financial damage. And Mr. Brousseau
allegedly experienced anxiety and nightmares after Mr. Trumps speech, but he has evidently
yet to seek professional help; nor has Mr. Brousseau alleged that these lingering effects caused
him any physical or financial damage. Id. 65.
STANDARD OF REVIEW
Mr. Trump and the Campaign move to dismiss Plaintiffs Complaint against them
pursuant to Rule 12(b)(6) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. The standard under Rule
12(b)(6) is well-known. A complaint must be dismissed when it fails to state a claim upon
which relief can be granted. Fed. R. Civ. P. 12(b)(6). A claim should be dismissed if it asserts
a legal theory that is not cognizable as a matter of law, or if it fails to state sufficient facts to
establish a legally recognized claim. See Kreipke v. Wayne State Univ., 807 F.3d 768, 774 (6th
Cir. 2015).

While the court should accept all well-pleaded factual allegations as true,

Gunasekera v. Irwin, 551 F.3d 461, 467 (6th Cir. 2009), [f]actual allegations must be enough to
raise a right to relief above the speculative level. Twombly, 550 U.S. at 555. Thus, a complaint
must contain sufficient factual matter, accepted as true, to state a claim to relief that is
plausible on its face. Iqbal, 556 U.S. at 678 (quoting Twombly, 550 U.S. at 570).
ARGUMENT
Plaintiffs have brought numerous claims against Mr. Trump and the Campaign, but none
have merit. Neither Mr. Trump nor the Campaign condoned or incited violence of any kind at
the Louisville speech. To hold either liable for the actions of a few alleged bad apples would set
a dangerous precedent that would chill core political speech by empowering hecklers to provoke
violence at a political rally and then file suit against the candidate they dislike for the results of
their provocation. It is inconceivable that a politician would be held responsible for the actions
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of everyone who attends his speeches. Moreover, even setting aside the merits of Plaintiffs
accusations, their allegations fall short of the 12(b)(6) standard. For all these reasons, Plaintiffs
claims should be dismissed.
I.

PLAINTIFFS

HAVE NOT PLAUSIBLY ALLEGED THAT


INCITED A RIOT

MR. TRUMP

OR THE

CAMPAIGN

At bottom, Plaintiffs claim Mr. Trumps statement Get them out of here incited others
to harm Plaintiffs. That claim fails for numerous reasons: (1) it is not plausible that Mr. Trumps
statement was directed at the crowd or condoned violence; (2) plaintiffs have not alleged there
was a riot at all (because no riot occurred); and (3) the alleged statement is protected by the First
Amendment.
A.

Plaintiffs Incitement Claim Is Not Plausible.


[O]nly a complaint that states a plausible claim for relief survives a motion to dismiss.

Iqbal, 556 U.S. at 679 (emphasis added). Plaintiffs allegation of incitement is implausible for at
least two reasons. First, it is illogical that Mr. Trump directed his statement to civilians who
were attending his rally. For Plaintiffs claim to survive, the Court would have to accept the
claim that Mr. Trump was deputizing the entire audience to perform security for his event. Far
more plausible is the obvious alternative explanation that Mr. Trump was calling on the Secret
Service, event security, and local law enforcement to enforce the law and remove hecklers who
were ruining the event for others. Id. at 682. And given [this] more likely explanatio[n],
Plaintiffs allegations do not plausibly establish a claim for incitement. Id. at 681.
Second, Mr. Trumps alleged statement Get them our of here makes no suggestion
whatsoever that anyone should use physical force. And that is the only statement by Mr. Trump
that Plaintiffs allege led to violence. Compl. 32, 33, 34, 45, 56, 63, 76, 81, 82, 112, 115, 121.
The statement merely says to Get them out of [the convention center]. It no more calls for
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violence than did President Obamas campaign statement If they bring a knife to the fight, we
bring a gun.2 Indeed, as Plaintiffs Complaint admits, Mr. Trump explicitly said, Dont hurt
them. Compl. 34. Thus, even if some causal link could be inferred between Mr. Trumps call
to have the protesters removed and the actions of three people in the crowd, Mr. Trumps
directive not to harm anyone severed the connection.
In sum, it is mistaken to convert Mr. Trumps statement to remove those who were trying
to disrupt his speechdirected at professional security personnel to do their jobinto a general
call for members of the crowd to harm the protesters. And given the implausibility of this claim,
it must be dismissed. Iqbal, 556 U.S. at 681.
B.

Plaintiffs Have Failed To Allege There Was A Riot.


Plaintiffs have also failed to allege that Mr. Trump actually incited a riot. And indeed,

there was no riot. Kentucky law makes it a crime to incit[e] or urg[e] five (5) or more persons
to create or engage in a riot. KRS 525.040. Kentucky defines riot to mean a public
disturbance involving an assemblage of five (5) or more persons which by tumultuous and
violent conduct creates grave danger of damage or injury to property or persons or substantially
obstructs law enforcement or other government function. KRS 525.010. Plaintiffs fail to allege
two key elements of that offense.
First, Plaintiffs identify only three persons that allegedly engaged in violence: Mr.
Bamberger, Mr. Heimbach, and an unknown defendant. Three does not make five. For that
reason alone, defendants have not plead a viable claim. Though they allege at various places in
their Complaint that they were assaulted by a group, Compl. 57, or pushed by multiple

Obama: If They Bring A Knife To The Fight, We Bring A Gun, THE WALL STREET
JOURNAL BLOG (Jun 14, 2008), available at http://blogs.wsj.com/washwire/2008/06/14/obamaif-they-bring-a-knife-to-the-fight-we-bring-a-gun/#:v4VizqN-P9BD8A.
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crowd members, id. 59, nowhere do they specify a number of individuals. Plaintiffs have thus
failed to make factual allegations sufficient to satisfy this five-person element.
Second, to constitute a riot there must be tumultuous and violent conduct that
creates grave danger of damage or injury to property or persons. KRS 525.010. Nowhere in
their Complaint do Plaintiffs allege there was tumultuous and violent conduct or grave
danger. Tumultuous means marked by tumult: full of commotion and uproar. Websters
Third International Dictionary 2462. But Plaintiffs do not allege the rally reached that extreme
level of disturbance.
Third, Plaintiffs fail to allege that Mr. Trump intended for any tumultuous and violent
conduct to occur. Thus, their claim for inciting a riot should be dismissed.
Against these pleading deficiencies, Plaintiffs cannot seek refuge in their formulaic
recitation of the elements of a riot under Kentucky law. See Compl. 104. A pleading must go
beyond labels and conclusions or a mere formulaic recitation of the elements of a cause of
action. SFS Check, LLC v. First Bank of Delaware, 774 F.3d 351, 355 (6th Cir. 2014) (quoting
Twombly, 550 U.S. at 555. Plaintiffs naked assertions devoid of further factual enhancement
contribute nothing to the sufficiency of the complaint. 16630 Southfield Ltd. Pship v. Flagstar
Bank, F.S.B., 727 F.3d 502, 506 (6th Cir. 2013) (quoting Iqbal, 556 U.S. at 678). Plaintiffs
failure to allege facts giving rise to a plausible allegation that Mr. Trump intended his statement
to incite a riot (tumultuous and violent acts by five or more), means the claim must be dismissed.
C.

Mr. Trumps Alleged Statements Are Protected By The First Amendment.


But even assuming Plaintiffs claim that Mr. Trumps statement contributed to the

physical altercations were plausible, the First Amendment provides complete protection for Mr.
Trump and the Campaign.

The right to freedom of speech means the state cannot proscribe

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advocacy of the use of force or of law violation except where such advocacy is directed to
inciting or producing imminent lawless action and is likely to incite or produce such action.
Brandenburg v. Ohio, 395 U.S. 444, 447 (1989) (per curiam). If the law were otherwise,
political speech would be chilled.
In Brandenburg, the Supreme Court erected an incredibly high bar to proving incitement.
See James v. Meow Media, Inc., 300 F.3d 683, 698 (6th Cir. 2002) (en banc). That test requires
proof that (1) the speech explicitly or implicitly encouraged the use of violence or lawless
action, (2) the speaker intends that his speech will result in the use of violence or lawless action,
and (3) the imminent use of violence or lawless action is the likely result of his speech. Bible
Believers v. Wayne Cty., Mich., 805 F.3d 228, 246 (6th Cir. 2015). The problem with Plaintiffs
allegations is that [a]dvocacy for the use of force or lawless behavior, intent, and imminence,
are all absent. Id. at 244. Thus, [t]he doctrine of incitement has absolutely no application to
this case. Id.
1.

First, as already discussed, Mr. Trumps statement did not advocateor even

mentionthe use of any force whatsoever.

Because [t]he mere tendency of speech to

encourage unlawful acts is not a sufficient reason for banning it, Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coal.,
535 U.S. 234, 253 (2002), it is all the more true that a statement that fails to specifically
advocate for the crowd to take any action cannot constitute incitement. Bible Believers, 805
F.3d at 244 (quoting Hess v. Indiana, 414 U.S. 105, 109 (1973)).

Because Mr. Trumps

statement was most plausibly directed at professional security personnel, there was no cause for
the crowd to take any action at all. And even if some in the crowd mistakenly understood his
statement to be directed at them (which is irrelevant), his statement does not call for any physical

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contact whatsoever. Indeed, he quickly followed his statement with a specific admonition not to
harm the protesters. Compl. 34.
Mr. Trumps request to remove some protesters falls short of the type of speech that may
be punished as incitement. As the Sixth Circuit has already recognized, [i]t is not an easy task
to find that speech rises to such a dangerous level that it can be deemed incitement to riot. Id.
And unsurprisingly, [t]here will rarely be enough evidence to create a jury question on whether
a speaker was intending to incite imminent crime. Eugene Volokh, CrimeFacilitating Speech,
57 STAN. L. REV. 1095, 1190 (2005). Take Hess v. Indiana, where a protester yelled, Well
take the fucking street again, to a crowd that was already agitated and resisting police. 414 U.S.
at 107. The Court held that speech could not be punished. Id. Or take NAACP v. Claiborne
Hardware Co., where a speaker told a crowd that anyone who failed to boycott businesses would
be disciplined, and said, If we catch any of you going in any of them racist stores, were
gonna break your damn neck. 458 U.S. 886, 902 (1982). The Court held that this speech was
not incitement. Id. at 92829.

If these incendiary statements do not rise to the level of

incitement then surely Mr. Trumps request (again, to professional security) to remove unruly
protesters from a private speech is not incitement.
2. Even if Mr. Trumps statement could be understood as a call for members of the
crowd to remove the hecklers, that statement is still constitutionally protected speech. In order
for a speaker to be liable for incitement, his call to use force must be a call for imminent lawless
action.

Brandenburg, 395 U.S. at 447 (emphasis added).

There is nothing illegal about

removing trespassers from a private event, even if physical force must be used. Under Kentucky
law, a landowner or possessor may use that degree of force necessary, or that appears to him to
be reasonably necessary under the circumstances to eject an unwelcome trespasser from his

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premises. McCoy v. Taylor Tire Co., 254 S.W.2d 923, 924 (Ky. 1953); accord Feld v. Feld,
688 F.3d 779, 783 (D.C. Cir. 2012) ([T]he right to exclude another from ones property includes
the right to use reasonable force.). Indeed, that venerable rule comes from the common law.
See Feld, 688 F.3d at 783; see also 13 D. LEIBSON, Defense of Property, KY. PRAC. TORT LAW
9:7 (2015).
It is indisputable that the protesters were trespassing and Mr. Trump and the Campaign
had the right to remove them (by force if necessary). First, Plaintiffs admit in their Complaint
that Mr. Trump and the Campaign were possessors of the property (the Kentucky International
Convention Center) at the time. Compl. 29. Thus, Mr. Trump and the campaign had the right
to exclude the unwelcome trespassers from the center. Second, though the protesters may have
entered the area in question by lawful permission, once they began their protests [t]hey knew
then that they were in a place they had no right to be. OLeary v. Com., 441 S.W.2d 150, 157
(Ky. 1969). And a refusal to leave the property, though lawfully and peacefully entered in the
first instance, invites the owner to eject the intruder by force. Id. at 157.
In OLeary, students protested the presence of government recruiters at the University of
Kentucky. Though they initially gained approval from the school, when the protest became too
large, the dean ordered everyone to leave. All but four students complied, and those four
students were physically removed from the building and eventually convicted of breaching the
peace. The court recognized that those students were trespassers once they refused to leave,
even though they had permission to enter the premises, and the college had the right to
physically remove them. Id.
The same is true here. The protesters may have been permitted to enter the convention
center, but once they began their protests they were trespassing, and, indeed, committing a crime

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by breaching the peace. That gave Mr. Trump and the Campaign the legal right to remove the
protesters by force. Of course, neither Mr. Trump nor the Campaign had the opportunity to
actually remove the protestors because members of the crowd took matters into their own hands.
But the point is that even if Mr. Trumps statement Get them out of here was directed at the
crowd (and it was not), it was not advocating illegal activity. Instead, it was advocating legal
activity: the peaceable removal of trespassers from private property. The claim of incitement
therefore must be dismissed.
3. Finally, Plaintiffs incitement claim fails to allege that the likely result of Mr. Trumps
statement was imminent physical violence. See Brandenburg, 395 U.S. at 447. At worst the
statement advocates the removal of trespassers from private property. There was no reason to
suspect that violence would follow from that statement. And Plaintiffs suggestion that Mr.
Trumps other statements about protesters served to somehow inspire violence misses the mark.
First, Plaintiffs only point to three prior speeches where Mr. Trump supposedly incite[d] and
endorse[d] violence. Compl., at p. 12. Any statements after the Louisville speech are
irrelevant. But even viewing Mr. Trumps statements at other rallies in the most negative light,
they were, at most, only an abstract discussion of physical force.

[T]he mere abstract

teaching . . . of the moral propriety or even moral necessity for a resort to force and violence, is
not the same as preparing a group for violent action and steeling it to such action. Noto v.
United States, 367 U.S. 290, 298 (1961). And specifically as to Mr. Trumps statements about
the Birmingham, Alabama rally, Plaintiffs leave out the key fact that after Mr. Trump said to
have the protester removed, it was Mr. Trumps security team who removed the protester.3 That

J. Johnson & M. Jordan, Trump on Rally Protester, WASHINGTON POST (Nov. 22,

2015).
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deeply undercuts Plaintiffs claim that Mr. Trumps statement in Louisville was directed at the
members of the crowd.
As to the other two speeches where Plaintiffs claim Mr. Trump discussed using physical
force against protesters, Plaintiffs fail to identify any violence or even physical altercations that
occurred.

Thus, even if Mr. Trump discussed violence in the abstract, there remains an

important distinction between a proposal to engage in illegal activity and the abstract advocacy
of illegality. United States v. Williams, 553 U.S. 285, 29899 (2008).
There was thus no reason to expect that Mr. Trumps statement at the Louisville speech
to get [the protesters] out would lead to any injury to the protesters. Moreover, even if one
could posit that the likely response to that statement would have been imminent lawless action,
Brandenburg, 395 U.S. at 447, Mr. Trump corrected any such misunderstanding by immediately
saying (by Plaintiffs own admission) Dont hurt them. Compl. 34.
Finally, the subject matter of this lawsuit favors dismissal.

The protesters were

attempting to silence Mr. Trumps political speech. Now, having failed to thwart Mr. Trumps
attempt to speak to his supporters, Plaintiffs seek to tie him up in prolonged litigation. If the
First Amendment protects anything, it protects statements by political candidates for the highest
office in the land to the voters who wish to hear them in the face of attempts by political
opponents to silence that speech.
II. PLAINTIFFS FAILED TO PLAUSIBLY ALLEGE MR. TRUMP OR THE CAMPAIGN ARE
VICARIOUSLY LIABLE FOR THE ACTIONS OF INDIVIDUALS IN THE CROWD
Plaintiffs also fail to plausibly allege that Mr. Trump or the Campaign are vicariously
liable for the injuries Plaintiffs supposedly suffered. Plaintiffs first theory of vicarious liability
is that Messrs. Heimbach, Bamberger, and the unknown defendant were acting as agents of
Defendant Trump and/or the Trump Campaign. Compl. 108. Such a bald allegation of
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agency is by itself a mere legal conclusion and is therefore insufficient to withstand a motion to
dismiss. Prochaska & Associates, Inc. v. Merrill Lynch Pierce Fenner & Smith, Inc., 798
F.Supp. 1427, 1433 (D. Neb. 1992). A complaint relying on agency must plead facts which, if
proved, could establish the existence of an agency relationship. It is insufficient to merely plead
the legal conclusion of agency. Bird v. Delacruz, 2005 WL 1625303, at *4 (S.D. Ohio July 6,
2005); see also Nuevo Mundo Holdings v. PriceWaterhouseCoopers LLP, 2004 WL 112948, at
*6 (S.D.N.Y. 2004).
Under Kentucky law, agency is the fiduciary relation which results from the
manifestation of consent by one person [the principal] to another [the agent] that the other shall
act on his behalf and subject to his control, and consent by the other so to act. Phelps v.
Louisville Water Company, 103 S.W.3d 46, 50 (Ky. 2003); see also Papa Johns Intl, Inc. v.
McCoy, 244 S.W.3d 44, 5152 (Ky. 2008); RESTATEMENT (THIRD) OF AGENCY 707. And the
right to control is considered the most critical element in determining whether an agency
relationship exists. CSX Transportation, Inc. v. First National Bank of Grayson, 14 S.W.3d
563, 567 (Ky. App. 1999) (quotation marks omitted). In other words, [t]here is no agency
relationship where the alleged principal has no right of control over the alleged agent. Morgan
Guar. Trust Co. of N.Y. v. Republic of Palau, 657 F.Supp. 1475, 1481 n.2 (S.D.N.Y. 1987).
Plaintiffs fail to allege any facts that would suggest Mr. Trump had the right to control
the individuals who supposedly harmed Plaintiffs. If anything, their allegations compel the
opposite conclusiondespite Mr. Trumps admonition not to hurt any of the protesters, certain
members of the crowd allegedly did so anyway. Compare Compl. 34 with id. 97. Plaintiffs
have pointed to no preexisting relationship between Mr. Trump and the alleged perpetrators
(because there is none). Nor have they identified an agreement between Mr. Trump and the

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alleged perpetrators (because there is none). There is simply no connection between Mr. Trump
and these Defendants and nothing Plaintiffs allege shows otherwise.
Beyond a vague reference to agency (which Plaintiffs fail to plead any facts to support),
Plaintiffs exhume the phrase respondeat superior. But that doctrine is confined to employment.
See Patterson v. Blair, 172 S.W.3d 361, 364 (Ky. 2005) (quoting Osborne v. Payne, 31 S.W.3d
911, 915 (Ky. 2000) (The critical analysis is whether the employee or agent was acting within
the scope of his employment at the time of his tortious act.). As Kentuckys Supreme Court has
written, [u]nder the doctrine of respondeat superior, an employer can be held vicariously liable
for an employees tortious actions if committed in the scope of his or her employment. Papa
Johns, 244 S.W.3d at 56 (emphasis added). There is not (and cannot be) any contention that
Mr. Trump or the Campaign employed the other defendants.
In any event, even if this doctrine had some relevance to this case, it is inapplicable
unless the intentional wrongs of the agent were calculated to advance the cause of the principal
or were appropriate to the normal scope of the operators employment. Osborne, 31 S.W.3d at
915. Since the men who carried out the alleged attacks on Plaintiffs were not employees, it is
nearly impossible to say what the hypothetical scope of the employment was. But even if the
men were somehow tasked with removing Plaintiffs from the convention center, they committed
intentional torts, which means liability turns on the purpose or motive of the employee in
determining whether he or she was acting within the scope of employment. Papa Johns, 244
S.W.3d at 56; OBryan v. Holy See, 556 F.3d 361, 383 (6th Cir. 2009). The other defendants
purposes vary but they were definitely not trying to help Mr. Trump.
Based on the allegations in the Complaint, it might be inferred that Mr. Heimbach was
punching Ms. Nwanguma (assuming he was) out of racial animus, given he is alleged to be a

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white supremacist. Compl. 67. That is confirmed by the epithets he and others in his group are
alleged to have shouted at her (before Mr. Trump ever spoke).

Id. 4049.

And Mr.

Bamberger has admitted that his emotions got the best of him after he was pushed to the ground.
See Letter from A. Bamberger to L. Kinard (Mar. 8, 2016). Thus, any actions on his part were
emotional retaliation for those acts rather than an attempt to help Mr. Trump. Plaintiffs claims
as to vicarious liability must therefore be dismissed.
III. PLAINTIFFS HAVE NOT PLAUSIBLY ALLEGED THAT MR. TRUMP OR THE CAMPAIGN ARE
LIABLE UNDER EVEN A NEGLIGENCE STANDARD
Plaintiffs final attempt to hold Mr. Trump and the Campaign liable for the actions of
unaffiliated third parties is a claim that Mr. Trump and the Campaign failed to provide adequate
security in order to ensure the safety of those attending the speech. Compl. 117. That claim
likewise fails. Plaintiffs allege no facts about what type or what amount of security was present.
Nor have they alleged what sort of security should have been provided or what the cost of such
security would have been. And Plaintiffs certainly have provided no indication that any amount
of security would have prevented an alleged, avowed white supremacist from punching an
African-American protestor. It is simply not plausible that more security (in addition to local
police, event security, and Secret Service agents) would have prevented Mr. Heimbach from
engaging in the violence he is alleged to have engaged in. After all, Plaintiffs Complaint alleges
that Heimbach was there not to support Mr. Trump but to recruit people to the Traditionalist
Workers Party. Id. 67.
But Plaintiffs claim fails for even more basic reasons. It is black-letter law that, to
succeed on a claim of negligence, a plaintiff must establish: (1) a duty on the part of the
defendant; (2) a breach of that duty; and (3) consequent injury. Murphy v. Second St. Corp., 48
S.W.3d 571, 57374 (Ky. Ct. App. 2001). Plaintiffs claims fail at each step.
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First, neither Mr. Trump nor the Campaign owed Plaintiffs a duty. Under Kentucky law,
[a] proprietor is not the insurer of the safety of its guests. Id. at 574. So even assuming Mr.
Trump and the Campaign were proprietors (which they were notthe actual owners of the
convention center were), Mr. Trump and the Campaign are not liable because they were not
responsible for insuring the safety of attendees.
But even if there were a duty owed to Plaintiffs, that duty was only to exercise ordinary
care. Grisham v. Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., 929 F.Supp. 1054, 1056 (E.D. Ky. 1995), affd sub
nom., 89 F.3d 833 (6th Cir. 1996). Here, that means that if defendants knew of activities or
conduct of other patrons or third persons which would lead a reasonably prudent person to
believe or anticipate that injury to a patron might be caused, it is the proprietors duty to stop
such conduct, if he reasonably can. Id. at 1057 (quoting Napper v. Kenwood Drive-In Theatre
Co., 310 S.W.2d 270, 27172 (Ky. 1958)). Of course, what constitutes ordinary care or
reasonable foreseeability varies with the particular circumstances. It is proportionate to the
danger to be apprehended. Napper, 310 S.W.2d at 271. But [t]he mere fact that some of the
patrons are boisterous does not alone warrant the belief that they may likely physically attack
other patrons. Id.; see also Sidebottom v. Aubrey, 101 S.W.2d 212, 21314 (Ky. App. 1937).
Plaintiffs point to only one incident of alleged violence at a speech by Mr. Trump prior to
his speech in Louisville. Kentucky law is clear that neither a single incident nor sporadic
incidents are sufficient to establish foreseeability.

Grisham, 929 F.Supp. at 1058.

Take

Napper, 310 S.W. 2d 270. There the court found that merely because a group of boys had been
smarting off earlier, it was not foreseeable that they would assault a particular patron. Id. at
271. And in Grisham, even though there had been four robberies in the area, it was not
reasonably foreseeable that a shopper would be shot in Wal-Marts parking lot. 929 F.Supp. at

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1057. One of the few cases where a Kentucky court concluded criminal conduct was reasonably
foreseeable was Waldon v. Housing Authority of Paducah, 854 S.W.2d 777 (Ky. App. 1991).
There the court held that a landlord could be liable for failing to take action to protect a tenant
who had been shot and killed. The court noted the landowner was aware the decedent repeatedly
threatened to kill the victim, the assailant was living at the apartment complex, and the defendant
took no steps to evict him from the premises. Id. at 779.
This case is much more similar to Napper and Grisham. Plaintiffs can only point to one
prior incident of alleged violence at a speech by Mr. Trump. Compl. 85. But as Grisham held,
neither a single incident nor sporadic incidents are sufficient to establish foreseeability. 929
F.Supp. at 1058. This case is a far cry from the sort of prolonged, specific threats that rendered
the landowner in Waldon potentially liable. In Waldon, the landlord was aware that the assailant
had repeatedly threatened to kill the victim. 854 S.W.2d at 779. But here, Plaintiffs do not even
allege any history between the alleged assailants and the Plaintiffs, much less history that Mr.
Trump or the Campaign knew about. Instead, it is undisputed that Mr. Trump and the Campaign
were unaware that members of a white supremacist group would be present at the speech. Thus,
Mr. Trump and the Campaign could not possibly have known more security might be needed.
In sum, neither Mr. Trump nor the Campaign owed any duty to Plaintiffs. It was not
reasonably foreseeable that an alleged, avowed white supremacist would attend the rally with the
express purpose of recruiting members for his cause. It was equally unforeseeable that Mr.
Bamberger would let [his] emotions [get] the best of [him] after being pushed to the ground.
And since none of these acts were foreseeable, there was no duty to breach.
Further, even if these events were somehow foreseeable, neither Mr. Trump nor the
Campaign breached their duty because they provided adequate security. If security is necessary,

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it needs only be proportionate to the danger to be apprehended. Napper, 310 S.W.2d at 271.
Even the events that allegedly transpired would not warrant massive security. Sometimes people
in crowds become disorderly and no reasonable amount of security can categorically prevent
that. Indeed, Plaintiffs have not even made allegations regarding what sort of security they
believe was needed, or about whether adding police officers would have prevented the incidents
they allege took place.
That deficiency leads to another reason why Plaintiffs negligence claim about lack of
security fails. Plaintiffs fail to plausibly allege proximate cause, a necessary element of any
negligence claim. See Spivey v Sheeler, 514 S.W.2d 667, 671 (Ky. App. 1974). The actions of
individuals in the crowd were independent of anything Mr. Trump said on the stage, and were
most likely occurring before Mr. Trump said, Get them out of here. There is thus no causal
link in the Complaint from the statement to the acts. Moreover, Mr. Trumps statement was
likely not directed at the crowd, despite Plaintiffs unsubstantiated claims to the contrary. The
more likely scenariowhich is the proper test on a motion-to-dismissis that Mr. Trump was
asking security to remove the protesters. Thus, his statement could not have been the proximate
cause of any violence.
More to the point, even if Mr. Trumps statement were directed at members of the crowd,
Get them out of here is not a call to violence. Mr. Trump had a right under Kentucky law to
have protesters removed from his private event. Nothing about invoking that right is a signal
that individuals should engage in violence against the trespassers. And, again, any causal
connection that might be drawn from Mr. Trumps statement to the acts carried out by the crowd
was severed by Mr. Trumps clear instruction that nobody was to hurt any of the protesters.

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Finally, if Plaintiffs are correct that it was foreseeable that violence could occur at the
speech, then Plaintiffs are barred from recovering from Mr. Trump or the Campaign by the
doctrine of assumption of the risk. See Dean v. Martz, 329 S.W.2d 371, 374 (Ky. 1959). For
example, a spectator at a baseball game who chooses to sit in an unscreened grandstand or area,
assumes the risk of being hit by a thrown or foul ball, for he voluntarily subjected himself to the
hazards attendant upon and usually incident to and inherent in the game. Id. Plaintiffs admit
they went to Mr. Trumps speech to cause trouble; they likely hoped that some form of violence
would break out as way to publicize their protest of Mr. Trumps message and to publicize their
counter-message. By coming to the speech with the express purpose of protesting, they assumed
the risk of provoking others. If it is true that Mr. Trump and the Campaign knewbased on past
isolated incidentsthat violence was possible (and they did not), then the protesters who held up
signs depicting Mr. Trump as a pig with the admitted purpose of protesting his speech knew
there was a possibility of violence. They thus cannot recover. Hibbs v. Brown Hotel Co., 302
S.W.2d 127, 128 (Ky. 1957); Kelly v. Forester, 311 S.W.2d 547, 54950 (Ky. 1958).
CONCLUSION
The Court should dismiss Plaintiffs Complaint as to Mr. Trump and the Campaign for
failure to state a claim upon which relief can be granted.

Respectfully submitted,
LANDRUM & SHOUSE
/s/ R. Kent Westberry
R. Kent Westberry
LANDRUM & SHOUSE, LLP
220 W. Main St., Ste. 1900
Louisville, KY 40202-1395
Ph: (502) 589-7616
Fx: (502) 589-2119
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kwestberry@landrumshouse.com
COUNSEL FOR DEFENDANT
Donald J. Trump for President, Inc.
and Donald J. Trump, Individually

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UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT


WESTERN DISTRICT OF KENTUCKY
LOUISVILLE DIVISION

KASHIYA NWANGUMA, ET AL.

CASE NO.: 3:16-cv-247-DJH

PLAINTIFFS,
v.
DONALD J. TRUMP, ET AL.
DEFENDANTS.
Filed Electronically
PROPOSED ORDER
This matter having come before the Court on the Motion of Defendants Donald J. Trump,
individually and Donald J. Trump for President, Inc. to dismiss the Complaint filed by Plaintiffs
Kashiya Nwanguma, Molly Shah, and Henry Brousseau as to these Defendants on March 31, 2016,
and the Court being otherwise sufficiently advised,
IT IS HEREBY ORDERED that the Complaint dated March 31, 2016 is hereby
DISMISSED as to Mr. Trump and Donald Trump for President, Inc. with prejudice.