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The purpose and role of DNA in a protein synthesis

To understand the role of DNA, lets first understand what is DNA. Deoxyribonucleic
acid or DNA is the primary genetic material which differentiate ones characteristics
with another. It is found in your cells and in nearly all organisms. Its used to
produce proteins during the protein synthesis, which is a multi-step process that
takes the coded message of DNA and converts it into usable protein molecule.
Since we know what DNA is, we now need to understand its role in the protein
synthesis. With the modern science and technology, increasing demand of artificial
protein to fill the deficit of the natural protein is fulfilled with the protein synthesis.
The protein synthesis allows the scientists to get artificial protein by using bio
chemical substances.
The role of DNA in protein synthesis is that of a blueprint. It is what sets up as guide
to the structure of the protein being produced. Without DNA, the ribosomes in any
given cell would not know what order to put amino acid in. DNA has similar
functions in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, although there are fine
differences.
DNA is a sequence of nucleic acids arranged into two polymer or strands. Each of
the polymers has one set of amino acids that joins to a contrary amino acid on the
other strand to create a structure that is similar to a window cleaners ladder. The
way amino acids are arranged it gives genetic maps of information that tells the cell
how it is to be structured and also the cells how to combine to create a large
organism. The information is thus can be used directly to build cell components
such as ribonucleic acid (RNA) and protein.
DNA is vital in protein synthesis. The usage of DNA ensures that protein synthesis
takes place. The process of protein synthesis is an act to create a new protein within
a cell. The whole process of synthesis takes place within a ribosome, a kind of
protein factory, within the cell. Whereas, in free ribosomes in eukaryotic cells and all
ribosomes in prokaryotic cells synthesize proteins in the cytoplasm.
There are many different steps for the protein synthesis process. Amino acid synthesis is the first
stage of the protein synthesis where DNA is used. The second stage is called transcription, while the
third and final stage of the synthesis is where ribosome translates the information into protein.

Helicase is a kind of protein which splits apart both polymers of DNA during protein
synthesis. The split then has one strand which contains the protein blueprint the cell
requires. This very strand is then copied into messenger RNA (mRNA) and then
mRNA is organized to make up the opposite amino acids to those present in the
DNA section being copied.

Organisms are not capable of synthesizing all amino acids. There are approximately
twenty (20) amino acids in the world, and only around 12 can be synthesized of
them. The rest are ingested through food and sometimes drinks.
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