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UNIT-5
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UNIVERSITY SYLLABUS
Environmental Issues: Environmental Pollution various management techniques to control
Environmental pollution Various control acts for Air, Water, Solid waste and Noise pollution.
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Environmental Pollution
SOURCES OF ENVRIONMENT POLLUTION
The pollution is of five main types:
a) Air pollution
b) Water pollution
c) Land and soil pollution
d) Noise pollution
e) Radioactive pollution
WATER POLLUTION
Effects such as typhoid, hepatitis, jaundice, cholera, diarrhoe and dynasty are caused due to
polluted water.
(A) Surface Water
1. Industries: Water is required in large quantities in industrial processes for cooling,, washing,
diluting of chemicals or cleaning purposes. Many fertilizer and other factions dump wastes into
rivers or seas.
2. Sewage: Community wastes (sewage and garbage) from urban and rural settlements account
for four times as much waste as industrial wastes. Most of these are discharged untreated into the
water streams.
3. Cultivated Fields: Water flowing on the surface of cultivated fields pickup fertilizers,
pesticides, insecticides and other agrochemicals. It contributes much to the pollution of water.
4. Power Plants:
5. Oil
6. Acid Water
7. Rain Water
(B) Underground Water
1. Ordinary bacteria and decay-causing fungi present in the soil, heavy metals, nitrates, chlorides,
etc.
2. Certain industries may run waste water into a pit.
3. Wastes are buried in deep well.

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May 2014

IENGINEERS- CONSULTANTS LECTURE NOTES SERIES


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4. Excessive use of fertilizers in the fields also seep down to the ground water.

AIR POLLUTION
Types of pollutions:
i.
Carbon monoxide
ii.
Hydrocarbons
iii.
Particulates
iv.
Sulphur dioxide
v.
Nitrogen oxides
(i) Carbon Monoxide : Effect the oxygen carrying capacity of blood.
(ii) Hydrocarbons: Effect oily film on the surface of water.
(iii) Particulate Matter: Effect fire particles of carbon, enter the lunge and cause cancer and other
respiratory.
(iv) Sulphur Dioxide: Effect combines of water in the atmosphere to form acid, can corrode lung
tissues.
(v) Oxides of Nitrogen: Effect oxides of nitrogen produce photochemical smog.
Effect of Air Pollution
1. Visibility reduction due to scattering of light from the surface of air-born particles.
2. Material damage such as structural metals, surface coatings, fabrics and other materials.
3. Agricultural damaged due to air pollutants.
4. Physiological effects of man and animals can be bronchitis, long carcinoma, changes in blood
chemistry.
5. Psychological effects due to fear in the public.
NOISE PULLUTION
1. Effect reduction of productivity, efficiency, accuracy and safety of work.
2. Flush the skin, constrict the stomach muscles, shortens tempers reduction of blood flow.
3. Deafness and madness.
4. Above 150 dB can cause immediate permanent deafness.
5. Above 200 dB proves fatal instantly.
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Pollution Control Equipment


Various air pollution control devices are:
1. Mechanical collection
2. Electrostatic Precipitators
3. Filters
4. Wet scrubbers
5. Absorbers towers
6. Adsorbers
WATER POLLUTION CONTROL
1. Thermal Pollution
2. Prohibition
3. Judicious use
4. Reuse of water
5. Legislation
Self Purification of Natural Water
1. Physical Process
2. Chemical Process
3. Biological Process
Waste Water Treatment
1. Noise Control at Receivers End

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2. Suppression of Noise at Source


3. Accoustic Zoning
4. Sound Insulation of Buildings
5. Tree Planting
6. Legislative Measures
The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974
Objective
Functions of Central Board
Functions of State Board
Power of Board
Penalties
Limitation
The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981
Object
Definitions
Functions of Central Boards
Functions of State Boards
Power of the Board

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