You are on page 1of 5

4/27/2016

G.R.No.91490

TodayisWednesday,April27,2016

RepublicofthePhilippines
SUPREMECOURT
Manila
SECONDDIVISION
G.R.No.91490May6,1991
PEOPLEOFTHEPHILIPPINES,plaintiffappellee,
vs.
DELFINCASTROyLOZADA,defendantappellant.
TheSolicitorGeneralforplaintiffappellee.
EduardoI.Advinculafordefendantappellant.

PADILLA,J.:
Thisisanappealinterposedbytheaccused,DelfinCastroyLozada,fromthedecision*oftheRegionalTrialCourtofPasay
City,Branch110,imposinguponhimthepenaltyofreclusionperpetuaforstatutoryrapedefinedunderArt.335,paragraph3oftheRevisedPenalCode.
rape

Onthewitnessstand,six(6)yearoldDianaRoseCastronarratedhow,whileplayingwithaneighborsometime
on 4 October 1986, she was pulled by the accused inside a bathroom, prevented from going out, and made to
standonthetoiletbowl.AccusedisafirstcousinofDianaRose'smother.KuyaDelfin,asDianaRosereferredto
theaccused,thenputupherclothes,tookoffherpanty,madeherleanonthewalland,despitehereffortstopull
awayheinsertedhisprivatepartintohercausingpain.Thenshewastoldbytheaccusedtogohome.Athome,
sherefusedtohaveherprivatepartwashedbyherAuntieAlicebecauseitwashurtingandpainful.1
Mrs.JacintaCastro,Diana'sgrandmother,testifiedthaton6October1986,inherhouseatNo.1692,F.Muoz,
Tramo,PasayCity,shewasaskedbyherhusbandtofindoutwhyDianawascrying.Hertestimonyfollows.2
COURT:
QWasthereanythingunusualthathappenedonOct.6particularlyinyourhouse?
AOnOct.6Iwasdownstairsandtherewasacallbymyhusband.
xxxxxxxxx
FISCAL:
xxxxxxxxx
QNow,whatwasthereasonwhyyourhusbandcalledyou?
AHeaskedmetofineoutwhymygranddaughterdoesnotwanttoeatandjustkeepsoncrying.
QAndwhatdidyoudowen(sic)yourhusbandtoldyoutoseeyourgranddaughter?
AIwentupstairsandfoundoutwhatwaswring(sic)withherwhethershehasfever.
QAndwhatdidyoufindout
A At first she said she was complaining that her private property was painful and when I investigated I
discoveredthatitswollen(sic).
QThenwhathappenedafteryoufoundoutthattheprivatepropertyofyourgranddaughterwasswollen?
AIaskedherwhy.
http://www.lawphil.net/judjuris/juri1991/may1991/gr_91490_1991.html

1/5

4/27/2016

G.R.No.91490

Q(sic).Andwhatdidyourgranddaughtertellyou?
AAtfirstshetoldmethat"nasabitsahiyero."
QAndwhatdidyoudoafterthat?
xxxxxxxxx
AWhatIdidwastoexaminehercarefullyherprivatepartIliftedhertwo(2)legsandIdiscoveredthather
privatepropertywasreddenedasswollen.
QDidyouaskheragainwhathappenedtoherprivateproperty?
AYes,sir,shetoldmethatshewasinvitedbyherKuyaDelfintothebathroom.
QAndwhatelsedidshetellyou?
AShetoldmethatshewasaskedbyherKuyatostandontopofthetoiletbowlandheremovedherpanty
andhis(sic)KuyaDelfinalsoremovedhispants.
QWhatelsedidshetellyou?
AShetoldmethathis(sic)KuyaDelfinhadsexualintercoursewithher.
COURT:
QDidyouaskDianeCastrohowDelfinallegedlyhadsexualintercoursewithher?
AYes,YourHonor.
QWhatdidsheanswer?
AShewasstandingandshewasmadetoleanonthewall,YourHonor...
Because of Diana's revelation, the grandmother brought her to the National Bureau of Investigation for
examinationon8October1986.3
Dr.RobertoGarcia,theNBImedicolegal,hadthisexplanation:
xxxxxxxxx
AUnderthesingleheadingof"genitalexamination"themoreinsignificantfindingswillbethecontusedor
bruisedvetibular(sic) meaning the area inside the genital organ of the subject person the hymen of the
subjectpersonwasnotedtobebruisedorcontused...
QNowwhatdoyoumeanwhenyousaythatthegenitalpartsyoumentionedwerecontusedorbruised?
ATheareawasnotedtobepurplishorreddarkerthanthenormalappearanceofthesaidportionbeing
bruised or contused it would mean that this particular portion was subject to some amount of force or it
couldhavecomeincontactwithahardobject,thecontractmusthavebeendonewithacertainamountof
force.
QUnderNo.2oftheconclusionofthisreportitreads"signsofrecentgenitaltrauma,present,consistent
withtheallegeddateofinfliction."
Wouldyouexplainthis?
Thiswitnessmeantthattheappearanceofthegenitalorpriorofthosementionedwasseenbythiswitness
whichbroughtaboutthetraumaandthatithastoberecent,meaningitcouldhavebeensustainedbythe
subjectpersoninamatterofdayspriortothedateoftheexamination.
ANow,wasthehymenofthesubjectlacerated?
ANo,sir.
QNowthisgenitaltraumawhichyousaidtohavebeensufferedbythesubjectfromwhatcouldthisinjury
ortrauman(sic),whatwasthecause?
AAnyhardobjectwouldhaveproducedthisbruiseorcontusion.
http://www.lawphil.net/judjuris/juri1991/may1991/gr_91490_1991.html

2/5

4/27/2016

G.R.No.91490

QNow,thisisacaseofrape,Doctor,wouldyouventuretostatefromwhatobjectthiscouldhavebeen
rape
inflicted?
AUnderthenormalcourseofeventsinjuriesofthisnatureinvolvingthisparticularportionofthebodyofa
femaleorwomanisproducedbytheinsertionofamaleorgan.4
xxxxxxxxx
AsworncomplaintforrapewasfiledagainstDelfinCastroyLozada.Itchargedasfollows:
rape
Thatonoraboutthe4thdayofOctober,1986inPasayCity,Philippinesandwithinthejurisdictionoftills
Honorable Court, the above named accused, Delfin Castro y Lozada, with lewd designs and taking
advantageofhismoralascendancyovertheundersignedcomplainantwhoishisniece,didthenandthere
wilfully,unlawfullyandfeloniouslyhavesexualintercoursewithorcarnalknowledgeoftheundersigned.5
Accusedpleadednotguiltyandpostedbailforhisprovisionalliberty.
Delfin's alibi begins on 3 October 1986 in 1692 Muoz, Pasay City, where he lives two (2) houses away from
complainant's. At about 12:00 P.M., Diana went to his house while he was taking a bath. She was crying and
wentinsidethebathroom.Whenaskedbytheaccusedwhy,sherepliedthatwhilegoingdownthestairs,adog
whosetwo(2)hindlegswerelimping,chasedherandsoshetripped.TheaccusedtoldDianatogooutbecause
theirdogmightbiteher.Heproceededtodressupandsawthevictimplayingoutside.
1 w p h i1

Inthemorningof4October1986,hewokeupataboutquartertoseven, 6 left the house at 7:30 7 took a jeep


plyingthePasayTaftLunetaroute,arrivedinschool(AdamsonUniversity)at8:15inthemorning.Heproceeded
toseeDoloresRivera,agodsisterwhoworkedinthetreasurer'sofficeoftheuniversitytoaskthelattertotypea
term paper which was due that day.After submitting the term paper, he treated his godsister to lunch.Around
1:00o'clockintheafternoon,hewenthome.
Mrs. Teresita Castro's testimony dovetails with her son Delfin's saying that at around 12:30 P.M. on 4 October
1986,hearrivedandatelunchathome. 8MotherandsontalkedofenmitybetweenMrs.JacintaCastro,Diana's
grandmother and their family. This rape
rape case against Delfin is a result allegedly of the envy of Diana's said
grandmotheroverhis(Delfin's)finescholasticperformance.9
Delfin further narrated that on or about 8 October 1986, he was invited to the Pasay Police Headquarters for
questioning. Whilethere,hewasaskedtoundress,wasblindfoldedandbeatenbyaround7to10policemenfor
abouthalfanhourandmadetoadmitthatherapedDiana.Sincehecouldnolongerstandthetorture,hetold
rape
themthatheusedhissmallfingertotouchherprivatepart. 10Aftertheincident,Delfinlefttheirhouseinorderto
avoidtroubleoccasionallyhewouldvisithisparents.11
1 w p h i1

Finding the testimony of Diana positive, clear and credible, the RegionalTrial Court disregarded the alibi of the
accusedandconvictedhim.Thetrialcourt,interalia,stated:
...Theaccused'sclaimthathewas,inthemorningofOctober4,1986,atAdamsonUniversitywaitingfor
his term paper engenders disbelief. By his evidence, he was enrolled at theAdamson University for the
secondsemesterofschool19861987classesforwhichusuallystartinOctober.Termpapersareusually
submitted at the end of the semester, not at the beginning of the semester. In any event, Delfin was not
shownthatitwasphysicallyimpossibleforhimtobeattheplaceoftheincidentonOctober4,1986as,by
hisevidence,hereturnedtohishouseafternoontime,restedforawhile,thenleftandreturnedagaininthe
afternoon. His suggestion that Diana's genital bruises could have resulted from trippling down the stairs
when she was chased by a limping dog is ridiculous.A dog whose two hind legs are limping chasing her
(wheredidthedogcomefrom?)whileshewasgoingdownthestairs?Grantedthatwerepossibleorthat
actually happened, the fall would cause abrasions, not hymenal contusions. Finally the defense's
insinuationthatDiana'sgrandmotherJacintawhowaspicturedtobesuperciliousandenviouswasbehind
the filing of this case is difficult to believe, there being no concrete proof thereof. Besides, it would be
unthinkableforJacintatoalienateherrelationswithallherinlaws,theCastros,whoarestayingindifferent
housesofthesamecompound,byfabricatingachargeagainsttheaccused.
Finally, the accused's flight from his house after the filing of the present case is not consistent with his
professedinnocence.Hedidnot,accordingtohim,haveanygoodrelationshipwithDiana'sgrandmother
evenbeforeOctober4,1986.Sowhatwashefleeingfrom?Hisanswer,thathewantedtoavoidtrouble,
tellsitall...
xxxxxxxxx
Fromthesaiddecisionsentencinghimtosufferthepenaltyofreclusionperpetuaandindemnifythevictiminthe
amountofP20,000.00bywayofdamages,theaccusedappealedtothisCourtpointingoutthefollowingalleged
http://www.lawphil.net/judjuris/juri1991/may1991/gr_91490_1991.html

3/5

4/27/2016

G.R.No.91490

errors:
1.thereisnorapebecause
rape
a.thehymenofthevictimwasnotlacerated.
b.thevictimwasallegedlystandingwhilethecrimewasbeingcommitted.
c.thevictimisstillavirgin.
2.relianceontheconflictingtestimonyofthevictimandnotthatoftheaccused.
A recent decision of this Court in a case of statutory rape
rape observed that, usually, the average adult's hymen
measures 2.8 to 3 centimeters in diameter, making it compatible with, or easily penetrable by an average size
penis.Thevictimbeingoftenderage,thepenetrationofthemaleorgancouldgoonlyasdeepasthelabia.In
anycase,forrapetobecommitted,fullpenetrationisnotrequired.Itisenoughthatthereisproofofentranceof
rape
themaleorganwithinthelabiaorpudendumofthefemaleorgan.Eventheslightestpenetrationissufficientto
consummatethecrimeofrape.
rape 12
Perfect penetration, rupture of the hymen or laceration of the vagina are not essential for the offense of
consummated rape
rape. Entry, to the least extent, of the labia or lips of the female organ is sufficient. 13 Diana's
remainingavirgindoesnotnegaterape.
rape
Sexual intercourse in a standing position, while perhaps uncomfortable, is not improbable. The RTC decision
explained:
...Forheraccountthatshewasmadetostandonthetoiletbowlmadeiteasyfortheaccusedtodothe
act as she was too small and their private parts would not align unless she was elevated to a higher
position.Thesuggestionofthedefensecounselthatafingercouldhavebeenusedisabsurd.Forifitwere
onlyafingertherewouldhavebeennoneedtoletDianastandonthetoiletbowl....14
The Solicitor General's brief, in turn, asserts that the position Diana was forced to take, made it easier for
appellanttoaccomplishinsertionofhisorganthanifDianahadbeenmadetoliedown.15
Experience has shown that unfounded charges of rape
rape have frequently been proffered by women actuated by
somesinister,ulteriororundisclosedmotive.Convictionsinsuchcasesshouldnotbesustainedwithoutclearand
convincingproofofguilt,16consideringthegravityoftheoffenseandthepenaltyitcarries.
On the alleged sinister motive of Diana's grandmother engendered by envy, we find this incredulous. For, what
grandmother would exact vengeance on her enemies at the perpetual humiliation and disrepute of her six (6)
yearoldgranddaughter?
Finally,theissueofcredibility.Whoamongthecontendingpartiesistellingthetruth?Theprosecution'sevidence
issimpleandstraightforward.Appellant'salibimustfall.Claimsofhisscholasticachievements,assumingtheyare
relevant,wereunsubstantiated.Hiscounseldidnotevenformallyoffertheexhibitsattestingtohisenrollmentat
AdamsonUniversitywherehewassupposedtohavesubmittedinthemorningof4October1986atermpaper.
His credibility is dubious he was not able to even identify the topic of his alleged term paper. To discredit the
victimhetestifiedonherallegedpropensitytotelllies.17Thetrialcourt,however,categoricallyheld:
WhileDiana'stestimonywasinsomeinstancesflawed,theflawwasminorandonlywithrespecttodates.
She is a young girl. She sat at the witness stand four times, yet she survived the rigors of testifying,
unwaveringinherclaimthatshewasraped.
rape 18
1 w p h i1

AccusedappellantclaimshewascoercedandtorturedbyPasaypolicementoadmittherape,showingtothetrial
rape
court bodily signs of said abuse. 19 Aside from his selfserving assertion, the truth of such allegation was not
proven. Besides, this allegedly coerced admission of guilt cannot affect the prosecution's case which has been
establishedbyotherpositiveevidencepointingtohisguiltbeyondreasonabledoubt.
Findingnoreversibleerrorinthedecisionsubjectofthisappeal,weaffirmthesameinitsentirety.
WHEREFORE, the decision is AFFIRMED. Accusedappellant is sentenced to suffer the penalty of reclusion
perpetua and to indemnify the victim, Diana Rose Castro in the amount of P30,000.00 in line with prevailing
jurisprudence.Costsagainsttheappellant.
SOORDERED.
MelencioHerrera,Paras,SarmientoandRegalado,JJ.,concur.
http://www.lawphil.net/judjuris/juri1991/may1991/gr_91490_1991.html

4/5

4/27/2016

G.R.No.91490

Footnotes
*

PennedbyJudgeConchitaCarpioMorales.

TSN,22June,17July,26October,21December1987.

TSN,7April1987,pp.3and4.

TSN,7April1987,p.4.

TSN,11March1987,pp.4and5.

Records,p.1.

TSN,5April1988,p.4.

TSN,28July1988,p.2.

TSN,28July1988,p.3.

Ibid.,p.1.

10

TSN,9May1988,pp.3and4.

11

TSN,5April1988,p.18.

12

Peoplevs.MangalinoyLumanog,G.R.No.79011,15Feb.1990,182SCRA330.

13

Peoplevs.CatalinoOscar,48Phil.527Peoplev.Lomibao,55Phil.616PPvs.Pastores,40SCRA498
PPvs.Royeras,56SCRA666Peoplevs.BacaniyPolioscoG.R.No.77854,24January1990.
14

RTCdecision,pp.78.

15

Page17,par.3.

16

Peoplevs.Bay,27Phil.495Peoplevs.PantaleonRamos,35Phil.679.

17

TSN,9May1988,p.3.

18

RTCdecision,p.8.

19

TSN,8May1988,p.4.

TheLawphilProjectArellanoLawFoundation

http://www.lawphil.net/judjuris/juri1991/may1991/gr_91490_1991.html

5/5