Journal of Shanghai University (English Edition), 2007, 11(1): 17–21 Digital Object Identiﬁer(DOI): 10.1007/s 11741-007-0102-5
ZHAO Wei (
),
HUHE Ao-de ( )
Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, P. R. China
Abstract
In practical problems, the variation of the free surface around a circular pier is severe. For the Fluent CFD, the
multiphase ﬂow models cannot be used together with the LES model to calculate the free surface. Present paper provides a two-step method which joints the 2D compressible ideal-gas equations and the LES model to calculate the 3D ﬂow ﬁeld with
free surface around the pier. The eﬀects of the free surface on the ﬂow structures are studied in detail.
Keywords
large eddy simulation, free surface, Fluent CFD, ﬂow structures, two-step method.
2000 Mathematics Subject Classiﬁcation 76D17, 76D25
1 Introduction
The turbulent ﬂow ﬁeld around a circular pier is a complex three-dimensional unsteady ﬂow including a ﬂow separation, the formation of the horseshoe vor- tex, the wake vortex shedding and its interaction with the horseshoe vortex. The numerical studies on this ﬂow ﬁeld are carried out mostly based on the Reynolds- averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with statisti- cal turbulence models ^{[}^{1}^{−}^{5}^{]} . In [6], the calculations of the ﬂow past a square cylinder for ﬂat bed with LES model and RANS equations were compared with the experi- mental measurements. It is shown that in all RANS calculations with various versions of statistical turbu- lence models the turbulent ﬂuctuations were strongly underpredicted. The LES approach gave a better result. We simulated the ﬂow ﬁeld around a circular cylinder for ﬂat bed by the LES model and the RANS equations with standard k − ε turbulence model. In Fig.1 the sim- ulation results of the mean turbulent kinetic energy are compared with the experimental measurement ^{[}^{7}^{]} . It can be seen that the results of the LES model are in good agreement with the measurement, and the RANS equa- tion result is severely low. Meanwhile in most of the previous numerical investigations, the water surface is assumed to be the ﬂat surface. Salaheldin, et al. ^{[}^{4}^{]} cal- culated the variation of the free surface with the multi- phase ﬂow model.
In this paper, the Fluent CFD software is applied to calculate the three-dimensional (3D) ﬂow ﬁeld with free surface. Because the LES approach cannot be used together with the multiphase ﬂow models, a two-step method is introduced to calculate the free surface and the ﬂow ﬁeld around the pier.
Received Sep.13, 2006 Corresponding author ZHAO Wei, PhD, E-mail: hsei@sohu.com
Fig.1
Comparison of the mean turbulent kinetic energy calculated with the LES approach and the RANS equations at Re =7040
2 Mathematical model
The mathematical model contains two steps, the ﬁrst one is to calculate the variation of the free surface with the two-dimensional (2D) ideal-gas compressible equa- tions which are analogous to the shallow-water equa- tions; the second step is to simulate the 3D ﬂow ﬁeld. The 2D simulation provides pressure boundary for the top ﬂat surface in the 3D simulation. The two steps
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Journal of Shanghai University
can be jointed with the user-deﬁned function (UDF) of
ﬂuent. The UDF can complete the transient transfer of
the water surface data between the calculation of the
2D free surface and the 3D ﬂow ﬁeld.
2.1
2D free surface calculation equations
To integrate the three dimensional Navier-Stokes
equations along ﬂow depth, we can obtain the follow-
ing shallow water equations:
∂H
∂t
∂ U
∂t
+
∇ · (H U )=0,
+ (U · ∇)U = −g ∇η + ν ∇ ^{2} U ,
(1)
(2)
where H is the ﬂow depth with H = h + η (see Fig.2).
Let density ρ˜ = ρH (ρ is density of water), pressure
˜
P
= g ρ˜ ^{2} /(2ρ), then (1) and (2) can be written in the
following forms:
∂ ρ˜
∂t
+ ∇ · (˜ρU )=0,
∂ (˜ρU )
∂t
˜
+ (˜ρU · ∇)U = −∇ P + ρg˜ ∇h + ρν˜ ∇ ^{2} U .
(3)
(4)
Thus the shallow-water equations can be analogous to
the 2D ideal-gas compressible equations of γ =2(γ is
speciﬁc heat ratio). The gas density is corresponding to
the ﬂow depth.
Fig.2
Coordinate of the bed form and the water surface
2.2
3D ﬂow governing equations
In LES approach, the spatially-ﬁltered 3D Navier-
Stokes equations can be written as
∂ u¯ _{i}
∂x
_{i}
= 0,
∂
_{∂}_{t} (ρu¯ _{i} ) +
∂
∂x _{j}
(ρu¯ _{i} u¯ _{j} ) =
∂x _{j} ^{μ} ∂x
∂
∂ u¯
i
j
(5)
^{−}
∂ p¯
∂x _{i}
−
∂τ ij
∂x _{j}
,
(6)
where ρ and μ is density and viscosity coeﬃcient respec-
tively. τ _{i}_{j} is the subgrid-scale stress,
τ _{i}_{j} = ρu _{i} u _{j} − ρu¯ _{i} u¯ _{j} .
(7)
The eﬀect of the unresolved small-scale motion is
simulated with the subgrid-scale model. In the present
simulations, the Smagorinsky-Lilly eddy viscosity model
has been applied as
τ ij − ^{1}
_{3} τ kk δ ij =
−2μ t
¯
S _{i}_{j} ,
μ _{t} = ρL ^{2} 2
s
¯
S ij
¯
S _{i}_{j} ,
¯
S ij =
1
∂ u¯ _{i}
^{(} ∂x _{j}
∂ u¯ _{j}
2
∂x
_{i}
_{+}
),
L _{s} = min(κd, C _{s} V ^{1}^{/}^{3} ),
(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
where μ _{t} is the subgrid-scale turbulent viscosity, κ =
0.42, C _{s} = 0.1, d is the distance to the closest wall, and
V is the volume of the computational cell.
The governing equations are discretized using
a second-order accurate, cell-centered ﬁnite-volume
method with upwinding scheme. A second-order im-
plicit scheme is used for all time dependent terms, which
is unconditionally stable with respect to time step size.
The pressure-velocity coupling scheme of the pressure-
implicit with splitting of operators (PISO) is used which
can dramatically decrease the number of iterations re-
quired for convergence.
2.3 Calculation domain and boundary con- ditions
The calculation domain is 30D × 12D × 3D . In order
to investigate the ﬂow ﬁeld near bed in detail, the un-
structured grids are used and the near-wall mesh spacing
is Z ^{+} < 5. The total grid number is 1390820.
In the 2D simulation, at the inlet (X =−10D ) and the
outlet (X =20D ) boundary the pressure-far-ﬁeld condi-
tions are applied and the pressure (p = gH ^{2} /2), tem-
perature (T = p/(ρR) = gH/(2R)) and Mach number
(M = U/ ^{√} gH ) are speciﬁed; the symmetry boundary
is applied at the two sides (Y = ±6D ).
For the 3D simulation, at the inlet boundary the
transverse velocity is set to zero and the longitudinal ve-
locity is composed with mean and ﬂuctuating velocity;
a vanishing gradient of velocity is applied at the outlet
boundary; on the top ﬂat surface, a pressure boundary
condition is prescribed which is obtained from the 2D
simulation (p = ρgH ); symmetry boundaries are used at
two sides; at the bed and the cylinder surface, a non-slip
and no-penetration boundary conditions are speciﬁed.
3 Results and discussion
The change of the water level around a circular pier is
closely related to the approaching velocity. Fig.3 shows
the shape of the free surface around the pier at Re =7040
(the approaching velocity U =0.22 m/s) and Re =12800
(U =0.4 m/s). It can be seen that the water level in-
creases gradually in the area ahead of the pier until it
reaches the maximum at the stagnation point of the up-
stream face. At the two sides of the pier the water level
Vol. 11
No. 1
Feb. 2007
ZHAO W, et al. :
Numerical study of the turbulent ﬂow around a circular pier
19
decreases rapidly. In the wake region, the water level
increases away from the pier until it reaches the ﬂow
depth not inﬂuenced by the presence of the pier. As
the approaching velocity increases, the variation of the
water level around the pier is large.
The mean vorticities at the water surface and the
bed bottom are shown in Fig.4. At the water surface,
the maximum vorticity, the aﬀected region of the high
vorticity and the aﬀected degree of the free surface in-
crease as the approaching velocity increases (Fig.4(a)
and Fig.4(b)). At Re =7040, the eﬀect of the free sur-
face on the vorticity of the bed bottom is lower for the
present ﬂow depth (Fig.4(c)). But at Re =12800, the free
surface has obvious eﬀect on the bed bottom vorticity
all around the pier (Fig.4(d)).
Fig.3
Contours of the water level around the pier (averag- ing ﬂow depth Z = 3D )
Fig.4
Comparison of the mean vorticities at the water surface and the bed bottom
The calculation results of the turbulent kinetic en-
ergy are shown in Fig.5. At Re =7040, the eﬀect of
the
free surface is small and restricted in the region near
the water surface. As the incoming velocity increases,
the range of the high turbulent kinetic energy expands
(Fig.5(a) and Fig.5(b)).
Fig.6 shows the mean bed shear stress. For Re =7040,
the inﬂuence of the free surface variation on the bed
shear stress is low. In the wake of the pier, the position
of the higher bed shear stress moves downstream slightly
for the free surface (Fig.6(a)). While at Re =12800, the
bed shear stress for the free surface increases more ob-
viously than that for ﬂat surface at the side of the pier.
The
mean pressure coeﬃcient (C _{p} = (p − p _{0} )/
(2ρU ^{2} )) in the symmetry plane of the pier is shown in
Fig.7. At Re =7040, the aﬀection of the free surface is
restricted in the range of the water surface downstream
of the pier (Fig.7(a)). As the approaching velocity in-
creases, the aﬀected range is all around the pier and
the eﬀect of the free surface variation on the pressure
increases in the near wake (Fig.7(b)).
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Journal of Shanghai University
Fig.5
Comparison of the mean turbulent kinetic energy in the symmetry plane of the pier
Fig.6
Comparison of the mean bed shear stress
Fig.7
Comparison of the mean pressure coeﬃcient in the symmetry plane of the pier
Vol. 11
No. 1
Feb. 2007
ZHAO W, et al. :
Numerical study of the turbulent ﬂow around a circular pier
21
4 Conclusions
In practical problems, the variation of the free sur-
face under the action of the wave or the current is severe.
In Fluent CFD, the multiphase ﬂow models cannot be
used together with the LES model for the free surface
calculation. Present paper provides a two-step calcula-
tion method, which is simple and eﬃcient to solve the
3D ﬂow ﬁeld with free surface by the LES.
The results show that for the shallow water, at the
incoming velocity U =0.22 m/s, the inﬂuence of the free
surface is small. As the approaching velocity increases,
the free surface variation has more eﬀects on the ﬂow
structures, for example the vorticity, the turbulent in-
tensity, the bed shear stresses and the pressure ﬁeld.
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(Editor WANG Hai-jiang )