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2007 SECTION II, PART A

SA-426

SPECIFICATION FOR CENTRIFUGALLY CAST


FERRITIC ALLOY STEEL PIPE FOR HIGHTEMPERATURE SERVICE
SA-426
(Identical with ASTM Specification A 426-92 except for deletion of grade CP7 in Table 3.)

1.

Scope
1.1 This specification covers centrifugally cast alloy
steel pipe intended for use in high-temperature, high-pressure service.

E 446 Reference Radiographs for Steel Castings Up to 2 in.


[51 mm] in Thickness
E 709 Practice for Magnetic Particle Examination

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2.2 ANSI Standard:


B46.1 Surface Texture

1.2 Several grades of ferritic steels are covered. Their


compositions are given in Table 1.

2.3 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code:


Section IX Welding Qualifications

1.3 Supplementary requirements (Sections S1 through


S12) are provided. The supplementary requirements provide for additional tests of an optional nature and when
desired shall be so stated in the order (Section 4).

3.

General Requirements for Delivery


3.1 Material furnished under this specification shall
conform to the applicable requirements of the current edition of Specification A 530/A 530M unless otherwise provided herein.

1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be


regarded as the standard.

2.

Referenced Documents
2.1 ASTM Standards:
A 370 Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products
A 530/A 530M Specification for General Requirements for
Specialized Carbon and Alloy Steel Pipe
A 609/A 609M Practice for Castings, Carbon, Low-Alloy,
and Martensitic Stainless Steel, Ultrasonic Examination
Thereof
E 44 Definitions of Terms Relating to Heat Treatment of
Metals
E 94 Guide for Radiographic Testing
E 165 Practice for Liquid Penetrant Inspection Method
E 186 Reference Radiographs for Heavy-Walled (2 to
412 in. [51 to 114 mm] Steel Castings
E 208 Test Method for Conducting Drop-Weight Test to
Determine Nil-Ductility Transition Temperature of Ferritic Steels
E 280 Reference Radiographs for Heavy-Walled [412 to
12 in. [114 to 305 mm] Steel Castings

4.

Ordering Information
4.1 Orders for material under this specification shall
include the following, as required, to describe the desired
material adequately:
4.1.1 Quantity (feet, centimetres, or number of
lengths),
4.1.2 Name of material (centrifugally cast pipe),
4.1.3 Specification number,
4.1.4 Grade (Table 1),
4.1.5 Size (outside or inside diameter and minimum
wall thickness),
4.1.6 Length (specific or random) (Section on Permissible Variation in Length of Specification
A 530/A 530M),
4.1.7 End finish (Section on Ends of Specification
A 530/A 530M),
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SA-426

2007 SECTION II, PART A

4.1.8 Optional Requirements (S1 through S12) Section 13.1,


4.1.9 Test report required (Section on Certification
of Specification A 530/A 530M),
4.1.10 Service temperature if over 1000F [540C]
(Note), and
4.1.11 Special requirements or additions to specification.

8.2 When agreed upon between the manufacturer and


the purchaser, test coupons from which test specimens are
prepared shall be cast attached to separate blocks from the
same heat as the casting represented. The test blocks shall
be heat treated in the same manner as the casting represented.
8.3 Tension test specimens shall be machined to the
form and dimensions on the standard round 2 in. [50 mm]
gage length specimens shown in Fig. 6 of Test Methods
and Definitions A 370.

5.

Materials and Manufacture


5.1 Heat-Treatment The pipe shall be furnished in
the normalized and tempered or liquid-drenched and tempered condition (Note). The temperature for tempering
shall not be less than 1250F [677C] except for Grades
CP1, CP2, CP11, CP12, and CP15 for which the temperature for tempering shall not be less than 1100F [595C].
5.1.1 Heat treatment shall be performed after the
pipe has been allowed to cool below the transformation
range. Definition of heat-treatment terms shall be as given
in Definitions E 44.

9.

Number of Tests
9.1 One tension and one hardness test shall be made
from each heat.
9.2 If a specimen is machined improperly or if flaws
are revealed by machining or during testing, the specimen
may be discarded and another substituted from the same
heat.

NOTEIt is recommended that the temperature for tempering should


be at least 100F [56C] above, the intended service temperature. The
purchaser shall advise the manufacturer of the service temperature when
it is over 1000F [540C].

10. Retests
10.1 If the results of the mechanical tests for any heat
do not conform to the requirements specified, the castings
may be reheat-treated and retested, but may not be reaustenitized more than twice.

5.2 Machining The pipe shall be machined on the


inner and outer surfaces to a roughness value no greater
than 250 in. [6.35 m] arithmetical average deviation
(AA) from the mean line unless otherwise specified as in
B46.1.

11. Hydrostatic Test


11.1 Each length of pipe shall be hydrostatically tested
in accordance with Specification A 530/A 530M.

6.

Chemical Analysis
6.1 Heat Analysis An analysis of each heat shall be
made by the manufacturer to determine the percentages of
elements specified in Table 1. The analysis shall be made
on a test sample taken preferably during the pouring of
the heat. The chemical composition thus determined shall
conform to the requirements specified in Table 1.

11.2 When agreed to between the manufacturer and


the purchaser and so stated in the order, the hydrostatic
test may be deferred and shall be performed later by the
purchaser. Pipe furnished without the hydrostatic test shall
include with the mandatory marking the letters NH. The
manufacturer is responsible for the satisfactory performance of the casting when it is tested.

6.2 Product Analysis A product analysis may be


made by the purchaser. The sample for analysis shall be
selected so as to be representative of the pipe being analyzed. The chemical composition thus determined shall
conform to the requirements of Table 1.

11.3 When certification is required by the purchaser


and the hydrostatic test has been omitted, the certification
shall clearly state not hydrostatically tested. The specification number and material grade shown on the certification shall be followed by the letters NH.

7.

Tensile and Hardness Requirements


7.1 Steel used for the castings shall conform to the
tensile and hardness requirements specified in Table 2.

12. Visual Inspection


12.1 The surface of the casting shall be free from cracks
and hot tears as determined by visual examination. Other
surface imperfections shall be judged in accordance with
visual acceptance criteria which may be specified in the
order.

8.

Test Specimens
8.1 Test coupons from which tension test specimens
are prepared shall be removed from heat-treated casting
prolongations.
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2007 SECTION II, PART A

13.

SA-426

14. Permissible Variations in Dimensions


14.1 Thickness The wall thickness shall not vary
over that specified by more than 18 in. [3 mm]. There shall
be no variation under the specified wall thickness.

Rework and Retreatment

13.1 Defects as defined in Section 13 shall be removed


and their removal verified by visual inspection of the resultant cavities. Defects that are located by inspecting with
supplementary requirements S6, S7, S8, or S9 shall be
removed or reduced to an acceptable size.

15. Rejection
15.1 Each length of pipe received from the manufacturer may be inspected by the purchaser and, if it does
not meet the requirements of a specification based on the
inspection and test method as outlined in the specification,
the pipe may be rejected and the manufacturer shall be
notified. Disposition of rejected pipe shall be a matter of
agreement between the manufacturer and the purchaser.

13.2 If removal of the defect does not infringe upon the


minimum wall thickness, the depression may be blended
uniformly into the surrounding surface.
13.3 If the cavity resulting from defect removal
infringes upon the minimum wall thickness, weld repair
is permitted subject to the purchasers approval. The composition of the weld rod used shall be suitable for the
composition of the metal being welded.

16. Product Marking


16.1 Each length of pipe shall be legibly marked with
the manufacturers name or brand, the specification number
and grade. In addition, heat numbers or serial numbers that
are traceable to heat numbers shall be marked on each
length of pipe.

13.3.1 Only welders and procedures qualified in


accordance with ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code,
Section IX, shall be used. All repair welds will be inspected
to the same quality standards used to inspect the casting.

TABLE 1
CHEMICAL REQUIREMENTS
Composition, %
Grade

Carbon

Manganese

CP1
CP2
CP5
CP5b
CP9
CP11
CP12
CP15
CP21
CP22
CPCA15

0.25 max
0.100.20
0.20 max
0.15 max
0.20 max
0.050.20
0.050.15
0.15 max
0.050.15
0.050.15
0.15 max

0.300.80
0.300.61
0.300.70
0.300.60
0.300.65
0.300.80
0.300.61
0.300.60
0.300.60
0.300.70
1.00 max

Phosphorus, max

Sulfur, max

0.040
0.040
0.040
0.040
0.040
0.040
0.040
0.040
0.040
0.040
0.040

0.045
0.045
0.045
0.045
0.045
0.045
0.045
0.045
0.045
0.045
0.040

Silicon

Chromium

0.100.50
0.100.50
0.75 max
1.002.00
0.251.00
0.60 max
0.50 max
0.151.65
0.50 max
0.60 max
1.50 max

...
0.500.81
4.006.50
4.006.00
8.0010.00
1.001.50
0.801.25
...
2.653.35
2.002.75
11.514.0

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Molybdenum
0.440.65
0.440.65
0.450.65
0.450.65
0.901.20
0.440.65
0.440.65
0.440.65
0.801.06
0.901.20
0.50 max

SA-426

2007 SECTION II, PART A

TABLE 2
TENSILE PROPERTIES AND HARDNESS
REQUIREMENTS
Tensile strength, min, psi (MPa):
Grade CP1
Grades CP11, CP22
Grades CP5, CP9, CPCA15
All other grades
Yield strength, min, psi (MPa):
Grade CP1
Grades CP11, CP22
Grades CP5, CP9
Grade CPCA15
All other grades
Elongation, min, %:A
Grade CP1
Grades CP11, CP22
Grades CP5, CP9, CPCA15
All other grades
Reduction of area, min, %:
Grades, CP1, CP2, CP11, CP12, CP15,
CP21, CP22, CP5, CP5b, CP7, CP9
Grade CPCA15
Hardness, max, HB:
Grades CP5, CP5b, CP9, CPCA15
All other grades

65 000 (450)
70 000 (485)
90 000 (620)
60 000 (415)
35 000 (240)
40 000 (275)
60 000 (415)
65 000 (450)
30 000 (205)
24
20
18
22

35
30
225
201

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A
Elongation in 2 in. (50 mm) using a standard round specimen,
in either the transverse or longitudinal direction.

TABLE 3
RESIDUAL ELEMENTS
Total Contents
of These
Copper, Nickel, Chromium, Tungsten,
Unspecified
Grade
max
max
max
max
Elements, max, %
CP1
CP2
CP5
CP5b

0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50

0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50

0.35
...
...
...

0.10
0.10
0.10
0.10

1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

CP9
CP11
CP12
CP15
CP21
CP22
CPCA15

0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50

0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
1.00

...
...
...
0.35
...
...
...

0.10
0.10
0.10
0.10
0.10
0.10
0.10

1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.50

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2007 SECTION II, PART A

SA-426

SUPPLEMENTARY REQUIREMENTS
Supplementary requirements shall be applied only when specified by the purchaser. Details
of the supplementary requirements shall be agreed upon between the manufacturer and
purchaser. The specified tests shall be performed by the manufacturer prior to shipment of
the castings.

S1. Additional Tension Tests


S1.1 Additional tension tests shall be made at a temperature to be specified by the customer, and the properties
to be met are a matter of agreement between the purchaser
and manufacturer.

and degrees of discontinuities considered shall be judged


by Reference Radiographs E 186, E 280, or E 446. The
extent of the examination and the basis for acceptance shall
be subject to agreement between the manufacturer and the
purchaser.

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S2. Flattening Test


S2.1 The flattening test shall be made on specimens
from one or both ends of each length of pipe. If the specimen from any end of any length fails to conform to the
requirements of Specification A 530/A 530M, that length
shall be rejected.

S7. Liquid Penetrant Examination


S7.1 The castings shall be examined for surface discontinuities by means of liquid penetrant inspection. The
method of performing the liquid penetrant test shall be in
accordance with Practice E 165. The areas to be inspected,
the methods and types of liquid penetrants to be used, the
developing procedure, and the basis for acceptance shall
be as specified on the inquiry or invitation to bid and on
the purchase order or contract or both, as agreed upon
between the manufacturer and purchaser.

S3. Photomicrographs
S3.1 The manufacturer shall furnish one photomicrograph at 100 diameters from one specimen of as-finished
pipe from each heat in each heat-treatment lot. Such photomicrographs shall be suitably identified as to pipe size,
wall thickness, and heat. Such photomicrographs are for
information only, to show the actual metal structure of the
pipe as furnished. No photomicrographs for the individual
pieces furnished shall be required except as specified in
Section S4.

S8. Magnetic Particle Inspection


S8.1 The castings shall be examined by magnetic particle inspection. The inspection procedure used shall be in
accordance with Practice E 709. The extent of examination
and the basis for acceptance shall be subject to agreement
between the manufacturer and the purchaser.

S4. Photomicrographs for Individual Pieces


S4.1 The manufacturer shall furnish photomicrographs
from one or both ends of each pipe. All photomicrographs
required shall be properly identified as to heat number,
size, and wall thickness of pipe from which the section
was taken. Photomicrographs shall be further identified
to permit association of each photomicrograph with the
individual length of pipe it represents.

S9. Ultrasonic Inspection


S9.1 The castings shall be examined ultrasonically in
accordance with Practice A 609/A 609M. The extent of
the examination and the basis of acceptance shall be subject
to agreement between the manufacturer and the purchaser.

S5. Metal Structure and Etching Tests


S5.1 Etching tests shall be made on transverse sections
from the pipe and shall reveal the macrostructure of the
material. Such tests are for information only.

S10. Residual Elements


S10.1 An analysis for the elements specified in Table
3 shall be included in those analyses specified in Section
6. The chemical composition thus determined shall conform to the requirements of Table 3.

S6. Radiographic Examination


S6.1 The castings shall be examined for internal defects
by means of X rays or gamma rays. The inspection procedure shall be in accordance with Guide E 94 and the types

S11. Charpy Impact Test


S11.1 Charpy impact test properties shall be determined
on each heat from a set of three Charpy V-notch specimens.
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SA-426

2007 SECTION II, PART A

The test coupons shall be taken as specified for tension


specimens in Section 8 and tested at a test temperature
agreed upon by the manufacturer and purchaser. The
acceptance requirements shall be either energy absorbed
or lateral expansion or percent shear area, and shall be
that agreed upon by the manufacturer and purchaser. Test
specimens shall be prepared as Type A and tested in accordance with Test Methods and Definitions A 370.

S11.4 Perfect Shear Area, shall be agreed upon by the


manufacturer and purchaser.

S12.

Drop Weight Test


S12.1 Drop weight test properties shall be determined
by preparing and testing either Type P1, P2, or P3 specimens in accordance with Test Methods E 208. The test
coupons shall be taken as specified for tension specimens
in Section 8. The crack starter weld shall be deposited on
the surface of the specimen which was nearest to the casting
surface. Each test shall consist of at least two specimens
tested at a temperature agreed upon by the manufacturer
and purchaser. Each specimen shall exhibit a no break
performance.

S11.2 Absorbed Energy Value, of three specimens shall


not be less than that agreed upon by the manufacturer and
purchaser, with no more than one value permitted below
the minimum average specified and no value permitted
below the minimum specified for a single specimen.
S11.3 Lateral Expansion Value, shall be agreed upon
by the manufacturer and purchaser.

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