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BYOD - The Next Big Thing in Recruiting?


Determinants Of IT-Consumerization Adoption
From the Perspective of Future Employees
CONFERENCE PAPER AUGUST 2013

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Loose et al.

Examining the Determinants of BYOD Service Adoption Behavior

BYOD The Next Big Thing in Recruiting?


Examining the Determinants of BYOD Service Adoption
Behavior from the Perspective of Future Employees
Michael Loose
Faculty of Information Management
Neu-Ulm University
Wileystr. 1, 89231 Neu-Ulm
Germany
michael.loose@hs-neu-ulm.de

Andy Weeger
Center for Research on Service Science
Neu-Ulm University
Wileystr. 1, 89231 Neu-Ulm
Germany
andy.weeger@hs-neu-ulm.de

Heiko Gewald
Center for Research on Service Science
Neu-Ulm University
Wileystr. 1, 89231 Neu-Ulm
Germany
heiko.gewald@hs-neu-ulm.de
ABSTRACT

Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) enables employees to use their privately-owned devices for business purposes. There is an
ongoing debate on the costs, benefits and potential threats of this concept amongst practitioners. Surprisingly, employees and
their expectations and attitudes towards BYOD are rarely part of these discussions. Contributing to this research area, this
study answers questions on the determinants of BYOD adoption and acceptance behavior. For that purpose, the UTAUT
model was adapted and extended. Quantitative data was collected from students of business and engineering majors in
Germany.
Performance expectancy was found to be the strongest determinant of behavioral intention to use BYOD services. However,
'perceived threats' a newly introduced construct also showed to have a significant explanatory value. Additionally, the
significant impact of behavioral intention to use a BYOD service on employer attractiveness indicates that the offering of
BYOD can indeed be a powerful measure to recruit future employees.

KEYWORDS

Consumerization of IT, Bring Your Own Device, BYOD, UTAUT, Structural Equation Model, Employer Attractiveness

Proceedings of the Nineteenth Americas Conference on Information Systems, Chicago, Illinois, August 15-17, 2013.

Loose et al.

Examining the Determinants of BYOD Service Adoption Behavior

INTRODUCTION

IT departments have invested a lot of effort in building up standardized service offerings for their clients. These efforts have
frequently been driven by objectives such as to decrease costs, ensure manageability and IT-security (Vogel et al., 2010).
Nowadays, consumer devices such as mobile phones and tablet PCs are evolving faster than ever. Furthermore, business
mobility is becoming an essential part of business operations (Harris et al., 2012). In this regard, standardized services
offered by the IT department do frequently not cover the requirements imposed on the employees. Additionally, employees
want to use the same devices in a corporate environment as they use in their private lives (Holtsnider et al., 2012). Therefore,
IT departments are threatened by two trends which are mutually influencing each other: the need for mobile business
capabilities and the consumerization of IT (Harris et al., 2012). If these trends could not be sufficiently addressed by
corporate IT, firms may find themselves overwhelmed with innovations aimed at the consumer sector spilling over in the
corporate environment (Cummings et al., 2009; Ingalsbe et al., 2011).
Consumerization of IT refers to the trend that employees want to use the same devices, applications, and IT services in a
corporate environment as they use in their private lives (Holtsnider et al., 2012). Throughout this paper, we apply the
definition of Niehaves et al. (2012, p. 2) who regard IT consumerization as a scenario in which employees "invest their own
resources to buy, learn, and use consumer technology at their workplace". Using consumer devices for business purpose is
currently the most visible kind of IT consumerization behavior. Therefore, the current discussion of IT consumerization
primarily focusses on the usage of privately-owned computing devices at workplace (Ingalsbe et al., 2011; Holtsnider et al.,
2012; Wei et al., 2012). IT consumerization focusing on devices not on applications and services is commonly referred to
as "Bring your own Device" (BYOD), a sub-trend of consumerization.
To address the demands of their employees, an increasing number of IT organizations are offering BYOD services to their
customers (Gyry et al., 2012). Offering a BYOD service implies that firms open their networks and enable data-access to
consumer devices. Furthermore, adopting a BYOD service means that employees have to accept policies regarding the usage
of their privately-owned devices for business purposes. These policies are established in order to safeguard security and to
govern liability (Vogel et al., 2010; Harris, 2012). Subsequently, we define BYOD service as a service offered by corporate
IT that allows employees to bring privately owned device to the workplace, to connect them to the corporate network and to
use them for business purposes.
This type of service offering is subject to an extensive debate among IT executives. These debates often address the question
whether enabling employees to use their own devices does outweigh costs and risks. On the one hand, embracing a mobility
strategy and integrating consumer devices in the corporate IT infrastructure requires carefully considered investments in
security technology (Harris et al., 2012), as well as management and operation concepts (Wei et al., 2012). On the other
hand, anecdotal evidence indicates that there is a high level of motivation to use private devices in business contexts. As they
have been born into the digital age in which technology is ubiquitous (Prensky, 2001), especially young employees are
willing and sometimes even demanding to use their own devices for business related tasks. Furthermore, the use of privatelyowned devices is difficult to prevent. Therefore, offering a BYOD service could be a reasonable step to prevent the rise of
uncontrollable shadow IT infrastructures established by the users (Gyry et al., 2012).
Although it is expected that consumerization of IT will gain even more momentum in future (Fenn et al., 2011), IS research
does not yet provide adequate guidance on this phenomenon (see literature review). As young people, frequently labeled as
'digital natives' (Prensky, 2001), are supposed to be among the first to adopt new information technology, they can be seen as
the drivers of this trend. Therefore, the focus of this study has been on students in their final years of study, i.e. the future
employees. In order to gain understanding on the factors driving young employees to adopt BYOD services, we postulate the
following research question: What are the determinants of BYOD service adoption among future employees?
As a shortage of young workers results in a fierce competition in the personal recruitment market (Kchling, 2003), in
particular SMEs are looking for ways to remain and become attractive for young employees. Assuming that future employees
are likely to adopt BYOD services, we put a second research question forward: Does the attractiveness of a company for
future employees increase if they are able and permitted to use their own devices for business purpose?
This paper is structured as follows. In the next section the theoretical background is briefly discussed. Drawing on these
findings, the development of the research model and the subsequent research methodology is presented. Finally, the results
are discussed, conclusions are drawn and suggestions for future research are presented.

Proceedings of the Nineteenth Americas Conference on Information Systems, Chicago, Illinois, August 15-17, 2013.

Loose et al.

Examining the Determinants of BYOD Service Adoption Behavior

LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL BACKGROUND


Scientific Literature on IT Consumerization and BYOD

Although IT consumerization is of great interest for both scholars and practitioners, scientific literature is unexpectedly rare.
Analyzing information systems (IS) conference proceedings and journals, only few papers on BYOD appeared. This finding
is supported by the structured literature review provided by Niehaves et al. (2012) who identified only 22 scientific papers
focusing on consumerization of IT / BYOD. However, most scholars discuss IT consumerization as a result of a reversed
technology adoption life cycle, initiated by employees demanding the same ease of use with corporate IT as consumer
products offer (Cummings et al., 2009). IT consumerization is usually defined as the dual use of devices, applications, and
services for private and business purpose (Ingalsbe et al., 2011; Holtsnider et al., 2012). Harris et al. (2011, p. 2), for
instance, define consumerization of IT as the adoption of consumer application, tools, and devices in the workplace. Other
authors, such as Niehaves et al. (2012), regard the ownership as key characteristic and conceptualize IT consumerization as a
phenomenon in which employees invest their own resources in order to use consumer technology at work.
IT consumerization is expected to positively contribute to work performance (Niehaves et al., 2013) and regularly associated
with greater autonomy for employees (Niehaves et al., 2012). Additionally, employees perceive that technology which they
chose on their own is easier to use while providing increased user experience (Murdoch et al., 2010; Harris et al., 2011).
Nonetheless, the phenomenon is also seen critical. In this regard, a structured literature review points out several
disadvantages for employees and organizations (Niehaves et al., 2012). Security issues, increasing complexity, loss of control
and performance issues are potentially negative effects for organizations. In this regard, Wei et al. (2012) discuss the
impacts on corporate IT at different stages such as information management, information exchange, information systems and
information technology. They conclude that the challenges for IT management in organizations increase without a predictable
end. Other scholars expect significant cost reductions for organizations due to consumerization (Ingalsbe et al., 2011;
Holtsnider et al., 2012). On the employee level, it is supposed that consumerization increases workload while realizing
productivity gains (Ingalsbe et al., 2011; Niehaves et al., 2012).
As laid out in the introduction, using consumer devices for business purpose is currently the most visible and most discussed
kind of IT consumerization behavior. This sub-trend of IT consumerization is commonly referred to as BYOD. We define
BYOD as the act of bringing personally owned device to the workplace, connecting them to the corporate network and using
them for business purposes. The BYOD concept can be extended into a complete set of BYOD services. A BYOD service is
defined as an offering of the IT organization which allows end users to choose and use the devices that best meet their
personal and business needs, instead of getting a standardized device from the IT department. Additionally, the BYOD
services can be composed of different financial models describing who is actually paying for the device (Bocker et al., 2012).
For instance, Choose Your Own Device (CYOD) means that the employee can select a device from a predefined shopping
cart which is financed by the company and may also be used for private purposes (Lang, 2012); whereas We Sponsor Your
Device (WSYD) implies that the employee receives a financial compensation for using a privately-owned device for
business purpose (Vogel et al., 2010). For this study we adopted the following conception of a BYOD service: A BYOD
service offered by corporate IT allows employees to use their private and self-financed IT device at work, connect the device
to the corporate network, access corporate data and use it for business purposes to the same extent as devices offered by the
company. Using a BYOD service requires that the employee accept the terms of use and security policies and that he or she
assumes full responsibility for support, installation and maintenance of the respective device(s).
Theoretical Foundation: Technology Acceptance

To gain knowledge on the factors driving employees to use a BYOD service, this study builds upon prior technology
adoption research. IS research provides several theories to explain individual's technology adoption behavior. Most of these
theories are based on the premise that human beings are rational and that they consider the implications of their actions
before they decide whether to perform a certain action or not. These theories conceptualize intention as a function of beliefs
about the likelihood that performing a particular behavior will lead to a specific outcome. The stronger the intention to
engage in a behavior, the more likely that the action will be performed (Ajzen, 1991). For instance, the Technology
Acceptance Model (TAM) (Davis, 1989) proposes perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use as determinants of an
individual's intention to use a technology. These determinants account for positive outcomes associated with using a
technology. In the same vein, other technology acceptance models such as the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of
Technology (UTAUT) (Venkatesh et al., 2003) hypothesized that the advantages of using a technology and conditions
facilitating usage determines an individuals adoption behavior.
To decide if technology acceptance models are also suitable for the analysis of service adoption behavior, studies aiming to
explain individuals service adoption have been reviewed. These studies indicate that technology acceptance models are
capable to explain an individuals adoption behavior in regard to technology based services (Featherman et al., 2003; Amberg

Proceedings of the Nineteenth Americas Conference on Information Systems, Chicago, Illinois, August 15-17, 2013.

Loose et al.

Examining the Determinants of BYOD Service Adoption Behavior

et al., 2004; Pagani, 2004; Hung et al., 2005; Carlsson et al., 2006; Chen et al., 2007; Mallat et al., 2008). Almost all of the
cited studies show that perceived usefulness and ease of use are important determinants of an individuals service adoption
behavior. In particular usefulness was found to be the most significant factor (Pagani, 2004; Chen et al., 2007). On the other
hand, the role of social influences as a determinant of service adoption was found to be rather mixed. For instance, Carlsson
et al. (2006) found no significant impact of social influence on intention. In contrast, the data of Mallat et al. (2008) indicates
an impact of social influence on intention. Overall, these studies confirm the capability of technology acceptance models to
explain the determinants of service adoption. Nevertheless, Carlsson et al. (2006) as well as Featherman et al. (2003) point
out that modifications on existing technology acceptance models are necessary to explain the adoption of mobile services.
RESEARCH MODEL

As the UTAUT model has been developed through a review and consolidation of the eight most prominent technology
acceptance models (Venkatesh et al., 2003), it seems to be suitable to contribute explanations on the factors influencing
BYOD service adoption by future employees. Although, the UTAUT such as other technology acceptance models solely
focuses on the advantages of using an technology, the usage of innovative technologies must not always be beneficial
(Featherman, 2001). To address potential negative outcomes of BYOD service adoption, perceived threats (PT) was
included. Furthermore, facilitating conditions which encompasses organizational and technical infrastructure facilitating
technology usage was excluded. Excluding this construct is grounded in two reasons. First, Venkatesh et al. (2003)
hypothesize facilitating conditions to impact actual usage behavior, which is not examined in this study. Second, as this study
focuses on students in their last semesters with relevant work experience (gained in internships and/or practical semesters and
since the majority of these students are not employed in a company, they are not able to assess conditions facilitating the dual
use of devices for business and private purposes. Finally, employer attractiveness (EA) was included in order to address the
second research question. Table 1 provides the definition of all constructs within the model.
Table 1: Construct definitions
Type

Number
of items

Performance Expectancy (PE)

The degree to which an individual believes that


using the BYOD service will help him or her to
attain gains in job performance (Venkatesh et al.,
2003).

Reflective

Effort Expectancy (EE)

The degree of ease associated with the use of the


service (Venkatesh et al., 2003).

Reflective

Social Influence (SI)

The degree to which an individual perceives that


important others believe he or she should use the
service (Venkatesh et al., 2003).

Reflective

Perceived Threats (PT)

The degree to which an individual believes that the


use of a BYOD service is associated with threats
that are evoking anxious or emotional reactions
(Joshi, 1991; Compeau et al., 1999).

Formative

Perceived Business Threats (PT-B)

The degree to which an individual believes that the


usage of a BYOD service is threatening his or her
job.

Formative

Perceived Private Threats (PT-P)

The degree to which an individual believes that the


usage of a BOYD service is threatening his or her
private life.

Formative

Employer Attractiveness (EA)

The degree to which the attractiveness of a firm for


increases if the firm offers a BYOD service.

Reflective

Construct

Definition

The constructs and their proposed relationships are depicted in Figure 1. Assuming that the UTAUT model is already well
known in the IS community, only the modifications of the UTAUT model are discussed in detail below.

Proceedings of the Nineteenth Americas Conference on Information Systems, Chicago, Illinois, August 15-17, 2013.

Loose et al.

Examining the Determinants of BYOD Service Adoption Behavior

Figure 1: Research Model


Perceived Threats

Using an innovation must not always be perceived as beneficial. As the UTAUT model does not cover negative factors
inhibiting BYOD service adoption, perceived threats (PT) was added. This construct was derived from Social Cognitive
Theory (SCT) (Compeau et al., 1995; Compeau et al., 1999) and major resistance theories in IS literature (Markus, 1983;
Joshi, 1991; Cenfetelli, 2004). Building upon the concept of inhibitors of technology adoption and usage, PT is defined as the
degree to which an individual believes that the usage of a BYOD service is associated with threats that are evoking anxious
or emotional reactions. In analogy to SCTs anxieties, perceived threats are proposed to negatively impact adoption behavior.
BYOD is commonly associated with several threats which have the potential to negatively impact adoption behavior. In
accordance to Niehaves et al. (2012), these factors can be distinguished between two dimensions: threats addressing the
private life and threats addressing business life. Regarding private life, a loss of private data, the retrieval of private data by
the company and blurred boundaries between private and business are threats which have been identified by prior research
(Niehaves et al., 2012). On the business side, factors such as a loss of business data, causing corruption of the corporate
network with malware and violating company policies are seen as threats imposed by using private devices for business
purposes (Niehaves et al., 2012).
Following these arguments, it is proposed that both dimensions account on the overall threats perceived by an individual.
Subsequently, perceived threats was modelled as a second-order construct encompassing perceived business threats (PT-B)
and perceived private threats (PT-P). Furthermore, it is hypothesized that overall perceived threats negatively impacts an
individuals intention to adopt a BYOD service.
Employer Attractiveness

From a company's perspective, anecdotal evidence shows that the impact of offering a BYOD service on its attractiveness for
actual and future employees is of particular interest. If BYOD service offerings impact an individuals decision-making about
their actual or future employers, BYOD services could be used as an argument for both recruiting new employees and
retaining actual employees. To examine if a BYOD service offering contributes to the attractiveness of an employer, BYOD
influenced employer attractiveness (EA) has been introduced. EA is defined as the degree to which the attractiveness of a
firm increases if the firm offers a BYOD service. It is proposed that behavioral intention (BI) and EA correlate positively
such as individuals that tend to have a high intention to adopt a BYOD service will rate a company which is offering a
BYOD service as an attractive employer. Hence, it is hypothesized that behavioral intention to adopt a BYOD service
positively impacts an individuals employer attractiveness evaluations.
METHODOLOGY

An empirical study among German university students was conducted to measure the effects of the proposed determinants on
future employees' intention to use BYOD services. To minimize bias due to different backgrounds, the focal group consists
only of students with business and engineering specialization studying in a small German university. Facing a shortage of
young engineers and specialized managers (Kchling, 2003), these students are particularly attractive to medium-sized and
large industrial enterprises. These companies, in turn, are heavily keen on understanding BYOD service adoption to guide
their decisions whether to offer a BYOD service or not. In order to ensure that students can realistically assess BYOD, only
students with relevant work experience (due to an internship or practical semester) have been asked to participate.

Proceedings of the Nineteenth Americas Conference on Information Systems, Chicago, Illinois, August 15-17, 2013.

Loose et al.

Examining the Determinants of BYOD Service Adoption Behavior

To retain measurement validity, items were as far as possible taken from prior technology adoption research. In order to
relate the items to the BYOD context, the wording of the items was slightly altered. Prior literature constituted the basis for
developing adequate measures for construct which have not been employed in prior research (PT and EA). These items have
been intensively discussed within the research team to examine whether the measurement items are capable to capture the
constructs. Regarding the formative nature of PT, additional tests have been conducted to ensure that all indicators are clearly
distinguished and that the construct is captured in all its facets. Table 1 presents the latent variables, their types (reflective or
formative), as well as the source and the number of measurement items assigned to each.
To collect data, a standardized questionnaire was designed using the measurement items presented in Appendix A. The
questionnaire was published by using an online survey tool. A pretest within the target group has been conducted to ensure
that the questionnaire understandable and unambiguous.
At total, 177 responses have been collected (response rate of approx. 20%). The responses were reviewed to ensure that each
respondent completely finalized the survey. As a result of this analysis, we identified 93 responses with at least one missing
value (including demographics). After eliminating the missing values, 84 usable responses left, out of which 8 have been
provided from visiting international students. The key demographics are depicted in Table 2.
Table 2: Demographics (N=84)

Gender

Age

Study
Focus

Male
Female
< 18 years
18 - 21 years
22 - 25 years
26 - 29 years
> 29 years
Business Focus
Engineering Focus
Inter-disciplinary

Respondents
57
27
0
15
45
21
3
22
45
17

Percentage
68%
32%
0%
18%
54%
25%
4%
26%
54%
20%

DATA ANALYSIS

Following structural equation modeling techniques (Chin et al., 2003), SmartPLS (Ringle et al., 2005) was used to model the
latent variables and their proposed causal relationships. There were several reasons for using partial leas squarest (PLS). PLS
is a well-established algorithm for technology acceptance research (Venkatesh et al., 2003), PLS makes fewer demands on
the sample size and it is capable to analyze formative as well as reflective measurement of latent variables (Chin, 1998).
Following the recommendations of Hulland (1999), the analysis of the model was carried out in a two stages approach. First
the outer model (component measurements) and subsequently the inner model (structural causal paths) has been evaluated.

Proceedings of the Nineteenth Americas Conference on Information Systems, Chicago, Illinois, August 15-17, 2013.

Loose et al.

Examining the Determinants of BYOD Service Adoption Behavior

Table 3: Cross loadings

BI

EE

PE

EA

SI

BI1

0.926

-0.338

0.671

0.606

0.326

BI2

0.919

-0.392

0.605

0.526

0.328

BI3

0.914

-0.344

0.618

0.498

0.342

EE1

-0.309

0.790

-0.323

-0.278

-0.022

EE2

-0.365

0.853

-0.269

-0.175

0.015

EE3

-0.280

0.834

-0.304

-0.239

0.272

PE1

0.610

-0.328

0.865

0.608

0.127

PE2

0.619

-0.360

0.891

0.467

0.154

PE3

0.612

-0.314

0.812

0.424

0.284

PE4

0.457

-0.185

0.814

0.443

0.287

PEA1

0.556

-0.153

0.539

0.899

0.203

PEA2

0.490

-0.345

0.475

0.868

0.191

SI1

0.387

-0.023

0.237

0.273

0.867

SI2

0.115

0.222

0.132

0.071

0.697

SI3

0.208

0.182

0.161

0.066

0.752

To analyze the component measurements, Average Variance Extracted (AVE), Composite Reliability (CR), Cronbachs
Alpha (CA), and Cross loadings were calculated. The cross loadings provided in Table 3 were assessed according to the
guidelines of Gefen et al. (2005). All measurement items loaded greater than .707 onto their respective latent variables and
were significant at least at the 5% level. The AVE values are also above the recommended threshold of .500 (Fornell et al.,
1981). Furthermore, the internal consistency reliability of each reflective measurement item was assessed analyzing CA
values, which should be greater than .800 (Nunnally et al., 1994). Only BI and PE do exceed this cut-off value. However,
since CA does not take into account that indicators have different loadings and as it is biased against short scales of two or
three items, we followed the advice of Chin (1998) and chose CR as an additional measure. All constructs exceed the
threshold of .800 which indicates consistency reliability (Nunnally et al., 1994). To assess discriminant validity, the FornellLarcker criterion was assessed (1981). This criterion requires a latent variable (LV) to share more variance with the indicators
assigned to it than with any other LV. As depicted in Table 5, the square root of the AVE is higher than the LV's correlation
with any other LV. Therefore, discriminant validity can be assumed.
Table 4: CR, CA and AVE values of the reflective constructs

BI

Composite Reliability
(CR)
0.943

Cronbachs Alpha
(CA)
0.909

Average Variance
Extracted (AVE)
0.845

EA

0.877

0.720

0.781

EE

0.866

0.769

0.683

PE

0.910

0.868

0.716

SI

0.818

0.733

0.601

In contrast to the other latent variables, PT was measured using formative items. Furthermore, the construct includes two
meta-facets: the private dimension (PT-P) and the business dimension (PT-B). Therefore PT was modeled as a second order
construct, whereas PT-P and PT-B capture both facets of PT. The latent variables PT-P and PT-B are measured by formative
indicators. PT itself is captured by the formative indicators associated to the lower order components PT-P and PT-B. This
method is based on the recommendations for second-order constructs (repeated indicators approach) provided by Ringle et al.
(2012). The indicator weights of the measurement items and the corresponding t-values comply with the limits proposed by

Proceedings of the Nineteenth Americas Conference on Information Systems, Chicago, Illinois, August 15-17, 2013.

Loose et al.

Examining the Determinants of BYOD Service Adoption Behavior

Chin (1998). In addition, the degree of multicollinearity has been assessed by calculating the variance inflation factor (VIF).
All VIF values comply with the threshold proposed by Urbach et al. (2010).
Table 5: Latent variable correlation and Fornell-Larcker criterion

PT-B

BI

EA

EE

PT-P

PE

PT

B-PT

0.000

BI

-0.416

0.919

EA

-0.352

0.593

0.884

EE

0.185

-0.389

-0.275

P-PT

0.555

-0.416

-0.253

0.176

0.000

PE

-0.396

0.688

0.576

-0.359

-0.309

0.846

PT

0.878

-0.494

-0.355

0.230

0.877

-0.421

0.000

SI

0.056

0.361

0.223

0.095

-0.045

0.245

-0.014

SI

0.826

0.775

The square root of AVE is shown in bold

In order to assess the inner model and the hypotheses, PLS path coefficients, their statistical significance and each
endogenous LV's coefficient of determination (R) have calculated1. Results of the structural model estimation are illustrated
in Figure 2Fehler! Verweisquelle konnte nicht gefunden werden.. The significance level is above 0.01 for all path
coefficients. In total, the model accounted for a significant amount of variance in BI (R2 = 60.5%) and EA (R = 35.2%).

Figure 2: PLS structural results

DISCUSSION, LIMITATIONS AND FURTHER RESEARCH

To understand the factors which drive young employees to adopt a BYOD service and to examine if the intention to adopt a
BYOD service is correlated with the attractiveness of companies, a modified UTAUT model was proposed. In contrast to
prior UTAUT studies, this study also takes into account potential threats associated with the usage of privately-own devices
for business purposes. As the structural results depicted in

The PLS algorithms and bootstrapping has been carried out with the following properties: maximum iterations: 300;
centroid weighting scheme; individual sign changes; cases: 84; samples: 500.

Proceedings of the Nineteenth Americas Conference on Information Systems, Chicago, Illinois, August 15-17, 2013.

Loose et al.

Examining the Determinants of BYOD Service Adoption Behavior

Figure 2 provide support for almost all hypotheses, this study shows that the proposed research model is capable to explain
BYOD service adoption behavior. In addition, a highly significant correlation between the attractiveness of a company for
future employees offering the possibility to use privately-owned device and a future employees intention to adopt a BYOD
service was found.
Most of the findings regarding the factors determining BYOD service adoption among future employees are in line with prior
UTAUT studies. In particular the strong effect of performance expectancies on behavioral intention confirms previous
results. Overall, performance expectancies have the strongest influence on behavioral intention (f2 = .337, medium effect).
This finding suggests that expectancies regarding gains in job performance due to increased mobility and flexibility are the
most important factors leading future employees to adopt BYOD services. Therefore, it could be concluded, that young
employees regard the devices they choose and use in private contexts as superior to those provided by corporate IT. On the
other hand, future employees also seem to take the sacrifices of BYOD into account. Both, effort expectancies (f2 = 0.081,
weak effect) and perceived threats (f2 = 0.137, weak effect) were found to significantly contribute to their behavioural
intention. First, the findings show that future employees are aware of the efforts related with using their devices for business
purposes (e.g. setting the devices up for work). Second, the results regarding perceived threats indicate that future employees
in Germany are aware of the risks associated with BYOD. Furthermore, private and business risk perceptions are pretty much
balanced. Hence, it seems as if future employees do not differ between threats related to their private life and threats related
to their job. Nevertheless, even the sum of the effects of effort expectancies and perceived threats is weaker than the effect of
performance expectancies. This finding indicates that the performance effects expected by future employees outweigh the
efforts and the potential threats. These expectations are capable to give an explanation why especially young employees are
willing to use their privately-owned device for business purpose even if it is not permitted. In line with Mallat et al. (2008),
social influence was also found to significantly contribute to future employees behavioural intention (f2 = 0.162, weak
effect). This is an indication that young people identify with the devices they use (Swallow et al., 2005; Lin et al., 2011).
Regarding the second research questions, this study shows that the attractiveness of a company for a future employee is
positively correlated with his or her intention to adopt a BYOD service. Furthermore, descriptive data reveals that German
business and engineering students have a strong tendency to use privately-owned devices for business purposes. Taking these
findings into consideration, it can be argued that BYOD services can indeed play a vital role in recruiting these students as
future employees. Regarding the strong performance expectancies of young employees associated to BYOD, the dual use of
consumer devices could at least at an individual level also contribute to work performance.
Descriptive data reveals that business and engineering students in fact have a strong tendency towards BYOD. Subsequently,
it can be argued that BYOD services can indeed play a vital role in recruiting these students as future employees. This finding
contrasts the data captured in a recent study among 600 senior business and IT leaders in 17 countries. This study found that
only 20% of business leaders believe that BYOD services will benefit recruitment and retention efforts (Avanade, 2012).
Nevertheless, the study cited above also reports that 32% have already changed policies to make their workplace more
appealing to younger employees. As consumerization of IT will gain momentum in future (Fenn et al., 2011), the findings of
our study indicates that the effect of BYOD as a recruiting tool should not be underestimated.
Regarding implications for practice, our study encourages CIOs to consider extending their service catalogues and pushing
their BYOD efforts forward, opening their corporate infrastructure for privately-owned devices while improving their
security measures and usage policies. In addition, CIOs should be aware that especially young employees hold strong
performance expectancies regarding BYOD outweighing the potential losses. CIOs should be aware that young employees
are likely to use privately-owned devices even if it is not permitted by the enterprise. As BYOD is difficult to prevent, CIOs
and IT service provider, hence, should put an emphasis on creating secure IT infrastructures in order to prevent security and
privacy breaches caused by employees using their private devices at workplace.
Although the research model explains a large amount of the variance in behavioral intention, we are well aware of the
limitations of our approach. First, this study builds upon the UTAUT model which is intended to explain technology adoption
behavior. Although the model provides a reasonable goodness fit, further research should also concentrate on other
theoretical approaches which, for instance, also take an individuals relationship with technology into account. Second, our
data suggests that more work needs to be done to frame the perceived threats construct more concrete. We suggest that
further research could focus on theories from (service) marketing research such as the perceived risk theory (Bauer, 1967).
Third, this study solely focuses on students as future employees. Although only students with relevant work experience have
been selected (approx. 3 months), their work experience and experiences in dealing with corporate IT devices is still limited.
Fourth, the data sample does only cover German students. It would be interesting to examine if there are any cross-cultural
differences regarding the determinants of BYOD adoption behavior. Hence, further research should take a broader, crosscultural perspective.

Proceedings of the Nineteenth Americas Conference on Information Systems, Chicago, Illinois, August 15-17, 2013.

Loose et al.

Examining the Determinants of BYOD Service Adoption Behavior

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Examining the Determinants of BYOD Service Adoption Behavior

APPENDIX A
Latent Variable

Performance
Expectancy

Effort Expectancy

Code

Measurement (measured with a five-point Likert scale)

PE1

I would find the service useful in my job.

PE2

Using the service would increase my effectiveness on the job.

PE3

Using the service would increase my job motivation.

PE4

Using the service would increase my productivity on the job

EE1

Using the service would take too much time from my normal duties.

EE2

Learning to use the service would be rather difficult for me.

EE3

It would take too long to learn how to use the service to make it worth the effort.

Origin
TAM
TAM
UTAUT
IDT
MPCU
TAM
MPCU

I predict that,
Social Influence

SI1

people who are important to me think that I should use the services.

TAM

SI2

people in a company who use the services have more prestige than those who do not.

IDT

SI3

people in a company who use the services have a high profile.

IDT

Using a "Bring Your Own Device" service increase the risk that
Perceived
Business
Threats

PT-B1

I lose business data

self-designed

PT-B2

I violate company policies

self-designed

PT-B3

I corrupt the corporate network with malware

self-designed

PT-B4

I am not able to work due to a service failure

self-designed

Using a "Bring Your Own Device" service increase the risk that
Perceived
Private
Threats

BYOD
Influenced
Employer
Attractiveness
Behavioral
Intention

PT-P1

I lose private data

self-designed

PT-B2

too restrictive corporate policies limit the usage of my private device

self designed

PT-P3

private data can be viewed by my company

self-designed

PT-P4

increasingly blurred boundary between work and private life endanger my private life

self-designed

I prefer employers during the search for employment which provide a "Bring Your Own
Device" service instead of other employers which do not provide such a service.
The employer attractiveness of a company would be increased by a provided "Bring Your
Own Device" service.

self-designed

EA1
EA2

self-designed

BI1

If a "Bring your Own Device" service is offered, I intend to use the service.

UTAUT

BI2

If a "Bring your Own Device" service is offered, I predict I would use the service.

UTAUT

BI3

If a "Bring your Own Device" service is offered, I plan to use the service.

UTAUT

TAM: Technology Acceptance Model, Davis (1989)


IDT: Innovation Diffusion Theory, Moore and Benbasat (1991)
UTAUT: Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology, Venkatesh et al. (2003)
MPCU: Model of PC Utilization, Thompson et al. (1991)
Table A1: Measurement Items and Descriptive Statistical Analysis

Proceedings of the Nineteenth Americas Conference on Information Systems, Chicago, Illinois, August 15-17, 2013.

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