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Full State Feedback Control

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State-Space Systems

Full-state Feedback Control

How do we change the poles of the state-space system?

Or, even if we can change the pole locations.

Where do we change the pole locations to?

How well does this approach work?

Fall 2001

16.31 131

Assume that the single-input system dynamics are given by

x = Ax + Bu

y = Cx

so that D = 0.

The multi-actuator case is quite a bit more complicated as we

would have many extra degrees of freedom.

Recall that the system poles are given by the eigenvalues of A.

Want to use the input u(t) to modify the eigenvalues of A to

change the system dynamics.

Assume a full-state feedback of the form:

u = r Kx

where r is some reference input and the gain K is R1n

If r = 0, we call this controller a regulator

Find the closed-loop dynamics:

x =

=

=

y =

Ax + B(r Kx)

(A BK)x + Br

Acl x + Br

Cx

Fall 2001

16.31 132

A unstable, want Acl stable

Put 2 poles at 2 2j

Note that there are n parameters in K and n eigenvalues in A, so

it looks promising, but what can we achieve?

Example #1: Consider:

1

1 1

u

x+

x =

1 2

0

Then

det(sI A) = (s 1)(s 2) 1 = s2 3s + 1 = 0

so the system is unstable.

Dene u = k1 k2 x = Kx, then

1 1

1

1 k1 1 k2

Acl = ABK =

k1 k2 =

1

2

1 2

0

So then we have that

det(sI Acl ) = s2 + (k1 3)s + (1 2k1 + k2) = 0

Thus, by choosing k1 and k2, we can put i(Acl ) anywhere in

the complex plane (assuming complex conjugate pairs of poles).

Fall 2001

16.31 133

equation

(s + 5)(s + 6) = s2 + 11s + 30 = 0

with the closed-loop one

s2 + (k1 3)x + (1 2k1 + k2) = 0

to conclude that

k1 3 = 11

k1 = 14

1 2k1 + k2 = 30

k2 = 57

so that K = 14 57 , which is called Pole Placement.

must be addressed.

Example #2: Consider this system:

1 1

1

x =

x+

u

0 2

0

with the same control approach

1 1

1

1 k1 1 k2

Acl = A BK =

k1 k2 =

0

2

0 2

0

so that

det(sI Acl ) = (s 1 + k1)(s 2) = 0

So the feedback control can modify the pole at s = 1, but it cannot

move the pole at s = 2.

The system cannot be stabilized with full-state feedback control.

Fall 2001

16.31 134

It is associated with loss of controllability of the e2t mode.

Consider the basic controllability test:

1 1

1

1

Mc = B AB =

0 2

0

0

So that rank Mc = 1 < 2.

Consider the modal test to develop a little more insight:

1 1

A=

, decompose as AV = V = V 1AV

0 2

where

1

1

1 0

1 1

=

V =

V 1 =

0 1

0 2

0 1

Convert

z=V 1 x

x = Ax + Bu

z = z + V 1Bu

T

where z = z1 z2 . But:

1

1

1

1

V 1 B =

=

0 1

0

0

so that the dynamics in modal form are:

1 0

1

z =

z+

u

0 2

0

With this zero in the modal B-matrix, can easily see that the mode

associated with the z2 state is uncontrollable.

Must assume that the pair (A, B) are controllable.

Fall 2001

16.31 135

Ackermanns Formula

The previous outlined a design procedure and showed how to do it

by hand for second-order systems.

Extends to higher order (controllable) systems, but tedious.

Ackermanns Formula gives us a method of doing this entire

design process is one easy step.

K = 0 . . . 0 1 M1

c d (A)

where

Mc = B AB . . . A B

d(s) is the characteristic equation for the closed-loop poles,

which we then evaluate for s = A.

It is explicit that the system must be controllable because

we are inverting the controllability matrix.

n1

1 1

1

1 1

1

=

Mc = B AB =

1 2

0

0 1

0

So

1

2

1 1

1 1

1 1

K = 0 1

+ 11

0 1

1 2

1 2

43 14

= 14 57

= 0 1

14 57

+ 30I

Fall 2001

16.31 136

extends to any order.

a1 a2 a3

1

A=

B= 0

C = b1 b2 b3

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

See key benet of using control canonical state-space model

This form is useful because the characteristic equation for the

system is obvious det(sI A) = s3 + a1s2 + a2s + a3 = 0

a1 a2 a3

1

Acl = A BK = 1

0

0 0 k1 k2 k3

0

1

0

0

a1 k1 a2 k2 a3 k3

=

1

0

0

0

1

0

so that the characteristic equation for the system is still obvious:

cl (s) = det(sI Acl )

= s3 + (a1 + k1)s2 + (a2 + k2)s + (a3 + k3) = 0

Fall 2001

16.31 137

We then compare this with the desired characteristic equation developed from the desired closed-loop pole locations:

d(s) = s3 + (1)s2 + (2)s + (3) = 0

to get that

a1 + k1 = 1 k1 = 1 a1

...

...

an + kn = n

kn = n an

Take an arbitrary A, B and transform it to the control canonical

form (x z = T 1x)

using the formulas above for the state z

Solve for the gains K

(u = Kz)

Then switch back to gains needed for the state x, so that

1

K = KT

= Kx)

(u = Kz

most of this course.

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