You are on page 1of 112

Hydraulics

&23<5,*+7529&
$OOHUHFKWHQYRRUEHKRXGHQ1LHWVXLWGH]HXLWJDYHPDJZRUGHQYHUYHHOYRXGLJG
RSJHVODJHQLQHHQJHDXWRPDWLVHHUGJHJHYHQVEHVWDQGRIRSHQEDDUJHPDDNW
LQHQLJHYRUPRIRSHQLJHZLM]HKHW]LMHOHNWURQLVFKPHFKDQLVFKGRRUIRWRNRSLHsQRSQDPHQ
RIRSHQLJHDQGHUHPDQLHU]RQGHUYRRUDIJDDQGHVFKULIWHOLMNHWRHVWHPPLQJYDQGHXLWJHYHU
$OOULJKWVUHVHUYHG1RSDUWRIWKLVSXEOLFDWLRQPD\EHUHSURGXFHGVWRUHGLQDUHWULHYDOV\VWHP
RUWUDQVPLWWHGLQDQ\IRUPRUE\DQ\PHDQVHOHFWURQLFPHFKDQLFDOSKRWRFRS\LQJUHFRUGLQJ
RURWKHUZLVHZLWKRXWWKHSULRUZULWWHQSHUPLVVLRQIURPWKHSXEOLVKHU

6(&5(7$5,$$7529&
3267%861/%&('(
7(/()221)$;
%(=2(.22.21=(:(%6,7(:::529&1/

Versie: 15 augustus 2013

ROVC Hydrotrainer 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
ROVC Hydrotrainer 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
HYDROVITE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
SAUER DANFOSS 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
HENK SCHEUTJENS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
VECTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
DOEDIJNS PMC Parallel running . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
DOEDIJNS Speedcontrols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
REXROTH 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

ROVC
Hydrotrainer 1

Figure 1

0

7

9
&
EDU
0
5

0

&

$

$

7

'

7

'

6
6

6

0
)

9

0
7

)
EDU

0
3XPSRXWSXWIORZOPLQ

7
0

Figure 2

ROVC Hydrotrainer 1 Open system linear drive

7

Open System Linear Drive


Introduction
Hydraulic cylinders are applied to drive specific parts of equipment, for instance the jib of a
crane. The weight of the jib and the possible load determine the resistance for the hydraulic
system during the outgoing and the ingoing stroke of the cylinder. The hydrotrainer (Figure 2) )
is not equipped with a jib or other equipment that allows a load. Therefore to simulate a load for
educational purposes cylinder C1 on the hydrotrainer is connected to a second cylinder, the load
cylinder C2. A load on the working cylinder (C1) can be created by means adjusting the setting
of pressure limiting valve V2, which is mounted on the piston side of the load cylinder.
Assignments
1.

List the following components of Figure 2

M1

D1

V1

A1

F2

C1

T4

T6

Figure 3
The symbol of the non-return valve between the pressure gauges M2 through M6 and the lines
to which they are connected are quick connectors that allow oil flows in both directions once
connected.
The electric motor is running while the solenoids S1 and S2 of directional valve S are not
activated. The spring pressure of pressure limiting valve V2 is adjusted to 5 bar.
2.

Is pump P loaded or almost unloaded in this situation?

3.

Estimate the pressure readings on pressure gauges M 1 through M6 in the situation as


described in the latter.

4.

What will be the approximate readings in this situation? The maximum output of the pump
is 9 l/min.

5.

The electrical operated 4/3 valve is equipped with an open P-T connection in the midposition. What is the reason that the 4/3 valve is not equipped with a mid-position with a
closed pressure gate P instead?

Assignments
The electric motor is switched and running, solenoid S2 of the 4/3 valve is activated. Throttle
valves D1 and D2 are fully opened. Valve A1 is opened, valve A2 is closed. The spring pressure
of the pressure limiting valve V2 is adjusted to 40 bar. V1 is adjusted to 120 bar.
6.

Describe the oil flow from pump P by naming the components.

7.

What is your estimation on the pressure readings on gauge M2 through M5 in this


situation?

8.

What will be the approximate flow readings of flow meter F1 and F2 in this situation?

The spring pressure of component V2 is increased to 100 bar


9.

Describe the oil flow of pump P by naming the components in the right sequence.

10. What will be the approximate pressure readings on pressure gauge M 2 through M5 in this
situation?
11. What will be the approximate flow readings of flow meter F1 and F2 in this situation?
The piston rod of cylinder C has moved out to its end position, both throttle valves D1 and D2
are fully opened. Solenoid S1 of the 4/3 valve is activated.
12. Describe the oil flow of pump P by naming the components in the right sequence in this
situation.
13. Describe the oil flow to the piston side of cylinder C2
14. What is the purpose of the components T4 and T6?
15. What will be the approximate pressure readings on the gauges M2 through M5 during the
inward movement of the piston?

Assignments
The piston of cylinder C1 is fully retracted. Component V2 is set at 30 bar. Solenoid S2 is
activated. Throttle D2 is adjusted which allows a flow of approximately 4 l/min.
16. Try and indicate the readings of the flow meters F1 and F2 during the outward movement of
the piston C1.
17. Try and indicate the readings on the pressure gauges M2 through M5.
18. What type of speed control system is applied?
The system is adjusted as follows: :
The spring pressure of the pressure limiting valve V2 is set at 15 bar. Both throttle valves are
fully opened. Valve A1 is closed, valve A2 is opened. The piston of cylinder C1 is retracted and
solenoid S2 of the 4/3 valve is activated.
19. Explain if there is an oil flow from the pump to the cylinder in this situation.
20. Describe how the rod side of the cylinder is discharged in case the piston side of the
cylinder is supplied with oil from the pump.
21. Try and estimate the readings on the pressure gauges M2 through M5 in this situation.
22. What is the name for this type of circuit?
The remainder of the assignments can only be executed in the practice room in Ede.

10

PRACTICE HYDRAULICS
Assignment 1
Prepare the initial assignments in case you did not manage to prepare these at home.

Assignment 2
Compare your answers with the answers of your study colleagues in case you did prepare the
assignments at home.

Assignment 3
Use the schematic diagram and locate the different components on the installation. Apply the
magnetic letter codes. Follow the hydraulic pipes and preferably start at the tank. Do not
proceed with the assignments prior to locating all components even when some of these
components are not visible. Make sure that you know where each component is located. Make
note of any differences between the installation and the schematic diagram.
Important!
Consult the practical supervisor in case something is unclear or in case you desire additional information. Write your questions down in case the supervisor is occupied and
submit your questions when the supervisor is no longer occupied.

Assignment 4
Check the oil level in the reservoir and the temperature of the oil. Also check and verify that
there are no moving objects that could block the moving parts of the installation prior to starting
the installation.

Assignment 5
Adjust the installation if necessary to ensure that you start the installation unloaded. When the
installation is started unloaded you are ready to start with the following assignments.

11

0

7

9
&
EDU
0
5

0

&

$

$

7

'

7

'

6
6

6

0
)

9

0
7

)
EDU

0
3XPSRXWSXWIORZOPLQ

Figure 4

12

ROVC Hydrotrainer 1

7
0

7

Assignments
Fully open the throttle valves D1 and D2. Open valve A1 and close valve A2. Make sure that the
spring pressure of pressure limiting valve V2 is fully released (adjustment knob counterclockwise). Adjust and set pressure limiting valve V1 to minimum spring pressure.
23. Start the electric motor and write down the pressure values on the gauges during free
running.
24. Measure the efficient pump output flow of pump P (F1 and F2).
25. Compare your measurements with the answers of the initial assignments. Try and explain
the differences if any between your measurements and your assumptions. This approach
should be repeated for the remainder of the assignments.
Adjust and set pressure limiting valve V1 to 120 bar.
Adjust and set pressure limiting valve V2 to 40 bar.
26. Move cylinder C1 out and write down the values on the pressure gauges M2 through M5
during the outward movement.
27. Compare your measurement with the answer of the initial assignment.
28. Move the piston of cylinder C1 in and write down the pressure values on the gauges M2
through M5.
29. Compare the measured pressure values during the inward movement of the piston with the
assumptions of the initial assignments.

13

Assignments
Move the piston of C1 out once more and adjust the speed with D2 so that a flow of 4 l/min is
pumped to the cylinder. The load should be adjusted to approximately 30 bar. Measure the
values on pressure gauges M2 through M5 and compare this with the answer of your initial
assignment.
30. What is the maximum load that can be set with V2 (M5) so that the piston is still (just)
moving?
Move the piston of cylinder C1 in. Open fully the throttles D1 and D2. Adjust and set the load to
10 bar. Close valve A1 and open valve A2.
31. Move the piston of cylinder C1 out. During the outward movement of the piston read the
pressure form the gauges M3, M4, and M5.
32. Explain the measured pressures
33. Explain why the movement of the piston is quicker as opposed to the previous situation.
34. Try and check on the installation what the maximum load is that can be set with V2 (M5) so
that the piston is still (just) moving).
35. Explain why the pressure is much lower as opposed to the previous measured pressure.

14

Assignments
Unload fully pressure limiting valve V2 (knob counterclockwise). Adjust and set V1 at a
maximum pressure of 60 bar. Ensure that cylinder C1 is moved in. Close valve A1 and A2.
Switch the 4/3 valve so that the cylinder C1 should start the outward movement.
36. Explain why the cylinder does not move out.
37. What is the pressure at pressure gauge M4?
38. Why is this pressure higher than the maximum system pressure at set by V1?
39. Explain why this can lead to dangerous situations in practice.
Open valve A1 and close valve A2.
40. Allow free running of the pump. Write down the pressure of gauge M6 and the pressure
difference over filter E.
41. Move cylinder C1 out, and write down the pressure on pressure gauge M6 and the
pressure difference over the filter E during the outward movement.
42. Move cylinder C1 in and write down the pressure on pressure gauge M6 and the pressure
difference over the filter E during the inward movement.
43. Explain the differences.
Remove the magnetic plates from the installation.

15

16

ROVC
Hydrotrainer 2

Figure 5

17

0

0

0

9

9

$

EDU
EDU
3

3

0R

0R

$

$
0

0

'

0
6
6

)
9

)

0
3
7

EDU

0
0

Figure 6

18

ROVC Hydrotrainer 2 Open system rotating drive

7

Open system rotating drive


Introduction
Hydraulic motors are applied on machines, equipment to create a rotating movement for
instance a winch, a track drive, a wheel drive or something like that. Both hydraulic motors (Mo1
and Mo2) inFigure 6 are connected to the pumps P2 and P3. The pumps P2 and P3 combined
with the pressure limiting valves V2 and V3 allow a simulation of a load on the hydraulic motors.
The components indicated with the letter n are revolution counters.
Assignments
44. Provide the names for the following components of Figure 6.
P1

A1

F1

Mo1

V1

P2

T1

Figure 7
The non return valve between the pressure gauges M2 through M8 and the line are quick
connectors that only allow an oil flow once connected.
The electric motor is switched and running, solenoid S1 of the electric operated 4/2 valve is not
activated. Component D is fully opened.
45. What is the meaning of the small cross connected to one of the gates of the 4/2 valve?
46. What is the effect of component D when it is fully opened?
47. Estimate the pressure that you will read on the pressure gauges M1, M2, and M3 in this
situation.
48. What will the flow readings on the flow meters F1 and F2 in this situation? The pump output
flow is 9 l/min.

19

Assignments
The electric motor is switched and running, solenoid S1 of the valve is activated. Component D
is fully opened and the valves A1 and A3 are closed. The pressure limiting valves V2 and V3 are
adjusted and set at 20 bar.
49. Describe the oil flow of pump P1 by naming the components in the right sequence.
50. Estimate the pressure readings on the gauges M1 through M8 in this situation.
51. What will be the flow readings on the flow meters F1 and F2 in this situation?
52. Will the rotation speed of the hydraulic motors Mo1 and Mo2 be equal in this situation?
53. What is the name of this type of hydraulic system?
The electric motor is switched and running, the solenoid S1 of the valve is activated. Component
D is fully opened. The valves A1 and A3 are open. Valve A2 is closed. The pressure limiting
valves V2 and V3 are adjusted and set at 20 bar.
54. Describe the oil flow of pump P1 by naming the components in the right sequence.
55. Estimate the pressure readings on the gauges M1 through M8 in this situation.
56. What will be the readings of the flow meters in this situation?
57. Are the rotation speeds of both hydraulic motors equal in this situation?
58. What is the name of this hydraulic circuit?

20

Assignments
Solenoid S1 is activated; the valves A1 and A3 are closed. The load (M7) of hydraulic Mo1 is 20
bar and the load (M8) of hydraulic motor Mo2 is 60 bar. What will be the pressure readings on
the gauges M1 through M8 in this situation?
59. The load (M7) of hydraulic motor Mo1 is increasing to 70 bar while the load on hydraulic
motor Mo2 remains 60 bar. What will be the pressure readings on the gauges M1 through
M8?
60. Solenoid S1 is activated and only valve A2 is closed. The load (M7) of the hydraulic motor
Mo1 is 20 bar and the load (M8) of hydraulic motor Mo2 is 60 bar. What will be the pressure
readings on the gauges M1 through M8 in this situation?
61. The load (M7) of the hydraulic motor Mo1 is increasing to 60 bar while the load (M8) of
hydraulic motor Mo2 is maintained at 60 bar. What will be the pressure readings on gauges
M1 through M8?
62. What is the output flow of the main pump?
63. Allow free running of the installation and verify the output flow of the pump. What is your
conclusion when you compare this output flow with the output flow of the previous
assignment?
The remainder of the assignments can only be executed using hydrotrainer 2 in the
practical room in Ede.

21

PRACTICE HYDRAULICS
Assignment 1
Prepare the initial assignments in case you did not manage to prepare these at home.

Assignment 2
Compare your answers with the answers of your study colleagues in case you did prepare the
assignments at home.

Assignment 3
Use the schematic diagram and locate the different components on the installation. Apply the
magnetic letter codes. Follow the hydraulic pipes and preferably start at the tank. Do not
proceed with the assignments prior to locating all components even when some of these
components are not visible. Make sure that you know where each component is located. Make
note of any differences between the installation and the schematic diagram.
Important!
Consult the practical supervisor in case something is unclear or in case you desire additional information. Write your questions down in case the supervisor is occupied and
submit your questions when the supervisor is no longer occupied.

Assignment 4
Check the oil level in the reservoir and the temperature of the oil. Also check and verify that
there are no moving objects that could block the moving parts of the installation prior to starting
the installation.

Assignment 5
Adjust the installation if necessary to ensure that you start the installation unloaded. When the
installation is started unloaded you are ready to start with the following assignments.

22

Assignments
Ensure that the spring pressure of the pressure limiting valves V1, V2, and V3 are fully released
(adjustment knob counterclockwise). Fully open the valves A1, A2, and A3. Adjust and set the
flow control valve D so that it is fully opened (adjustment knob clockwise).
64. Start the electric motor and write down the pressure readings on the gauges M1, M2, and
M3 during free running of the pump.
65. Write down the readings of the flow meters F1 and F2.
Compare your measurements with the answers of the initial assignments. Try and explain the
differences if any between your measurements and your assumptions. Discuss with the practical
supervisor when you are unable to explain the discrepancies. This approach should be
repeated for the remainder of the assignments
Series circuit
Adjust and set the pressure limiting valve V1 to 120 bar.
Close valves A1 and A3, and open valve A2. Ensure that both hydraulic motors Mo1 and Mo2
are unloaded (M7 and M8 are 0 bar). Operate solenoid S1.
66. Measure the pressures (pressure readings) on the gauges M1 through M8 and explain the
pressure drop over both motors. Write down the values in linel 1 of Figure 8.
67. Write down the rotation speed of both motors in line 1 of Figure 9.
68. What is the flow in liters per minute through each of the motors?

Pressure

M1

M2

M3

M4

M5

M6

M7

M8

Line 1
Line 2
Figure 8

Rotation
speed

M01

M02

Line 1
Line 2
Line 3
Figure 9

23

Assignments
69. Adjust and set the load on both hydraulic motors (M7 and M8) at 10 bar. Measure the
pressure difference over both motors in this situation.
Increase the load on both motors to 20 bar.
70. Measure the pressure difference over both motors.
71. Measure the rotation speed of both motors and write these down in line 2 of Figure 9.
72. Explain why the rotation speed measured is lower than the values in line 1 of Figure 9?
73. Close V2 and V3. What is the set value?
74. Operate S1. Is there an oil flow through the valves V2 and V3 in this situation?
75. Explain how it is possible that both motors are still running on slow speed.
76. Check on the installation and find the root cause component of this phenomenon.
77. On this installation check the maximum load (pressure difference) over both motors in this
situation.
Release the load on the installation (knobs on safety valves counterclockwise). Change the
adjustment of the installation as follows:
Close valves A1 and A3, and open valve A2.
78. Measure the pressure values on the gauges M1 through M8 in this situation. Write them
down in line 2 of Figure 8.
79. Explain why the pump pressure (M2) is lower is this situation as opposed to the value in line
1 (series circuit).

24

Assignments
80. Measure the rotation speed of both hydraulic motors and write the values down in line 3 of
Figure 9 and compare these measurements with the answer of line 2 ofFigure 9.
81. What is the flow in l/min through each of the motors?
82. Explain whether the rotation speeds of both motors is equal.
83. Adjust and set the load of hydraulic motor Mo2 on 20 bar. Explain why hydraulic motor Mo2
stopped running.
Adjust and set the load of both motors on 20bar.
84. Measure the rotation speed and pressure difference over both motors.
85. Explain why the rotation speed of the motors is not equal.
86. Is this approach suitable to obtain accurate parallel running?
Increase the load on both motors as high as possible.
87. What is the pressure difference over the hydraulic motors?
88. Is there an oil flow through the valves V2 and V3?
89. The motors are switched in parallel mode. The motors are still running on low speed similar
to the situation when the motors were switched in series. Explain why the rotation speed
(with the motors in parallel) is higher than the rotation speed when the motors are switched
in series.
90. Verify on the installation where the heat generation is maximum.
Remove the magnetic plates from the installation.

25

26

HYDROVITE

Figure 10

HYDROVITE HOLLAND B.V.


This installation has been provided by:
Hydrovite Holland bv
Goeseelstraat 19 4817 MV
Breda
Tel.: 076-5815113

27

28

HYDROVITE - Closed system

)ORZGLUHFWLRQFORFNZLVH

0

)ORZGLUHFWLRQFRXQWHUFORFNZLVH

Figure 11

3

)

3

9

7

7

7(67(5

7

0
'

+9

9

+9

,,

)

0

+0

0

7

3

0DFKLQH

)

7

7

7

0

9

Inleiding
In Figure 11 the schematic diagram of the installation of Hydrovite is depicted. In practice a
hydraulic motor will drive a machine; for instance a winch, a propeller, or a wheel of a vehicle.
The hydraulic unit provided by Hydrovite is not connected to the applications as described in the
latter. The machine (the load) is simulated by means of a pump connected to a pressure limiting
valve (The pump is loaded by means of the pressure limiting valve).
Assignments
91. Provide the full description of the main pump P1.
92. Pump P1 is adjustable explain the term adjustable in relation to the pump P1.
93. P1 is a plunger pump. Explain how P1 can be adjusted.
94. Explain if P1 has an output flow when the arrow is in the mid position.
95. Is this an open or a closed system? Motivate your answer.
96. Provide the names for the filters F1 and F3.
Pump P2 has multiple functions.
97. What is the main function of this pump?
98. What is the name used for pump P2 in practice?
99. Which other functions are provided by P2?
100. What is the purpose of valve V1?
101. What is the approximate set pressure of V1?

29

Assignments
102. What is the determining factor, or what are the determining factors for the rotation direction
and the rotation speed of hydraulic motor HM?
103. Explain when non-return valve T1 allows an oil flow (and when does non-return valve T2
allow an oil flow)?
104. What is the purpose of the valves HV1 and HV2?
105. For instance, when does HV1 open?
106. The hydraulic motor HM is driving the adjustable pump P3. What is the purpose of the nonreturn valves T3 through T6?
Main pump P1 is adjusted and set to deliver an output flow in the clockwise direction. The load,
pressure limiting valve V3 is adjusted and set, gauge M4 is giving a pressure value of 60 bar.
The value on pressure gauge M2 is 70 bar, pressure gauge M3 is reading 10 bar.
107. What is the position of the 3/3 valve S in this situation? Use a pencil and draw this position
in the schematic diagram.
108. What is the pressure setting of V2?
109. What happens with the return oil of the hydraulic motor?
110. What is the purpose of the components S and V2?
111. What is the name for the combination of S and V2?
112. Pressure limiting valve V3 is adjusted and set on a higher pressure. What happens to the
pressure in the pressure line of pump P1?
The remainder of the assignments can only be executed in the practical room in Ede.

30

PRACTICE HYDRAULICS
Assignment 1
Prepare the initial assignments in case you did not manage to prepare these at home.

Assignment 2
Compare your answers with the answers of your study colleagues in case you did prepare the
assignments at home.

Assignment 3
Use the schematic diagram and locate the different components on the installation. Apply the
magnetic letter codes. Follow the hydraulic pipes and preferably start at the tank. Do not
proceed with the assignments prior to locating all components even when some of these
components are not visible. Make sure that you know where each component is located. Make
note of any differences between the installation and the schematic diagram.
You can use the cross section of the installation which should be available with the
installation.
Important!
Consult the practical supervisor in case something is unclear or in case you desire additional information. Write your questions down in case the supervisor is occupied and
submit your questions when the supervisor is no longer occupied.

Assignment 4
Check the oil level in the reservoir and the temperature of the oil. Also check and verify that
there are no moving objects that could block the moving parts of the installation prior to starting
the installation

Assignment 5
Adjust the installation if necessary to ensure that you start the installation unloaded. When the
installation is started unloaded you are ready to start with the following assignments.

31

32

Closed system

)ORZGLUHFWLRQFORFNZLVH

0

)ORZGLUHFWLRQFRXQWHUFORFNZLVH

Figure 12

3

)

3

9

7

7

7(67(5

7

0
'

+9

9

+9

,,

)

0

+0

0

7

3

0DFKLQH

)

7

7

7

0

9

Assignments
Start the installation, and adjust the output flow of the main pump to 0 ltr/min. The hydraulic
motor should stand still. Measure the pressure (M1) of the support pump.
Adjust and set the output flow of the main pump so that the hydraulic motor is running and
ensure to choose the flow direction that allows you to read the output flow of the main pump on
the tester. Adjust and set the load so that gauge M4 reads a pressure value of 50 bar.
113. Write down the values on the pressure gauges M1 through M3.
114. Explain why M2 gives another pressure than pressure gauge M3.
115. What is the position of component S in this situation? Use a pencil and draw this position in
the schematic diagram.
116. What is the set pressure of pressure gauge V2? Write this pressure with the valve in the
schematic diagram.
117. What type of pump is main pump P1? (E.g. gear pump etc).
118. Explain how the output flow of the pump is adjusted (explain). Consult your practical
supervisor if necessary.
Change the rotation direction of the hydraulic motor HM.
119. Does this result in a changed direction of the shaft of the main pump? Elaborate.
Request your practical supervisor to change the setting of the installation and create a
situation that simulates a malfunctioning.
120. Describe what you observe.
121. What is the root cause of the malfunctioning?

33

Assignments
122. Pressure switch D will switch off the electric motor as soon as the measured pressure is
lower that the set pressure. Explain why the installation should be shut down in case the
pressure of pump P2 is too low?
The malfunctioning is resolved. Adjust and set pump P3 to its maximum output flow. Increase
the load (by means of V3). Adjust and look for the neutral position of the main pump P1.
123. Explain how you can conclude that if P1 is in its neutral position?
124. Write down the values on the pressure gauges M1, M2, and M3. Explain why the values on
all gauges are equal.
125. What is the position of S in this situation?
126. What is the set pressure of pressure limiting valve V1? Verify this on the installation and
write this pressure with the valve in the schematic diagram.
127. Which of the valves V1 and V2 is set at a higher pressure?
128. VExplain why that valve is set at a higher pressure.
The swash plate of pump P1 is still positioned in its neutral position. Move P1 from its neutral
position so that the hydraulic motor will start running and observe the reaction on pressure
gauge M1.
129. Explain why pressure gauge M1 gives a lower pressure as opposed to the situation when
the hydraulic motor was not driven.
130. What will be the consequences for the installation when by coincidence V1 is set at a lower
pressure than V2?
Remove the magnetic plates from the installation

34

SAUER
DANFOSS 1

Figure 13

SAUER DANFOSS
This installation has been provided by:
Sauer Danfoss
James Wattstraat 17.
2809 PA Gouda
Tel.: 0182-589999

35

Figure 14

36

Simplified hydraulic diagram of the Danfoss-forklift drive

3('$/

0


EDU

9

)

3

)

)

3

0
3UHVVXUH%

0
3UHVVXUH$

7

7

%$&.:$5'6

)25:$5'

9

6


EDU

,,

7

7

0R

Danfoss Hydraulic Drive


In Figure 14 the schematic drawing of a hydraulic drive for a forklift is depicted. This drawing is
simplified. The next drawings will be extended towards the actual drawing. The driving
movement of the forklift is operated by the pedal. The pedal controls the output flow of pump P1.
The output flow is increased as the pedal is pushed down further.
Assignments
131. Provide the names of the components of Figure 14 in Figure 15.
P1

Mo2

M3

V1

T3

F1

S2

P2

Figure 15
132. Is this and open or a closed system? Motivate your answer.
133. The electric motor is switched and running. The pedal is not operated.
134. Does P1 have an output flow?
135. Does P2 have an output flow?
136. Use a pencil to draw the flow of pump P2 back to the tank when P2 has an output flow.
137. What is the maximum pressure in the pressure line of pump P2?
138. What are the readings on pressure gauge M1 and M2?
The forklift is driving backward (Figure 14). Pressure gauge M1 is reading a pressure of 50 bar.
139. Use a pencil to draw in Figure 14 the position of valve S2.
140. Is there an oil flow through valve S2?
141. What is the reading on pressure gauge M2? Explain your answer.
142. What is the reading on pressure gauge M3?

37

Assignments
The situation is unchanged: the forklift is moving backward, pressure gauge M1 is reading 50
bar. Oil is discharged from the closed system via valve S2. This means that oil needs to be
resupplied via another circuit.
143. Explain/describe the oil flow of pump P2 in this situation.
144. What is the minimum pressure of P2 in the pressure line during operation?
145. What is the name for the combination of S2 and V6?
146. What is the purpose of S2 and V6?

38

$
7

0

EDU

3('$/

0

9

3

)

)

3

)

9

0
3UHVVXUH%

7

EDU


EDU
9

0
3UHVVXUH$

7

)25:$5'

%$&.:$5'6

9

6


EDU

,,

9

9


EDU


EDU

0R

'

7

$

$

7

0

7

'

0R

The following questions are related to the hydraulic diagram of Figure 16 . You have noticed that the diagram has been extended.

Figure 16

Hydraulic diagram of the Danfoss-forklift drive

39

The valves A1 and A2 are open. A3 is closed. The pedal is pushed down fully. As a result the
forklift is driving forward with a speed of 10 km/hour on a flat terrain.
147. Explain how the hydraulic motors are switched.
148. Write down the pressure of the gauges M1 through M4.
149. The forklift is driving uphill. As a result the pressure difference over each hydraulic motor is
25 bar. Write down the pressures M1 through M4.
150. Suddenly one of the wheels is loosing resistance. Explain what will happen.
The valves A1 and A2 are closed, A3 is opened. Once more you are driving with the pedal fully
pushed down on a flat terrain.
151. How are the hydraulic motors switched?
152. Write down the pressures on the pressure gauges M1 through M4.
153. Again you are driving uphill with the forklift. In this situation the pressure difference over
each hydraulic motor is also 25 bar. Write down the pressure readings on the pressure
gauges M1 through M4.
154. What will happen when one of the wheels suddenly loses resistance? Explain what will
happen.

40

Assignments
155. Certain parts of the installation are fitted in a framework. What is the meaning of these
frameworks?
The installation is fitted with multiple pressure limiting valves.
156. Which parts or which parts of the installation are protected by V4 and V5?
157. What is the purpose of V2 and V3?
The forklift is fully loaded and is driving downhill. The valves A1 and A2 are closed, A3 is
opened. The pedal is not operated!
158. What is the output flow of pump P1 in this situation?
159. What is the reading on pressure gauge M2?
160. Explain the circulation flow of the oil.
161. What is the impact of V5 on the speed of the forklift?
The remainder of the assignments can only be made in the practical room in Ede.

41

PRACTICE HYDRAULICS
Assignment 1
Prepare the initial assignments in case you did not manage to prepare these at home.

Assignment 2
Compare your answers with the answers of your study colleagues in case you did prepare the
assignments at home.

Assignment 3
Use the schematic diagram and locate the different components on the installation. Apply the
magnetic letter codes. Follow the hydraulic pipes and preferably start at the tank. Do not
proceed with the assignments prior to locating all components even when some of these
components are not visible. Make sure that you know where each component is located. Make
note of any differences between the installation and the schematic diagram.

Assignment 4
Check the oil level in the reservoir and the temperature of the oil. Also check and verify that
there are no moving objects that could block the moving parts of the installation prior to starting
the installation.
Important!:
Consult the practical supervisor in case something is unclear or in case you desire additional information. Write your questions down in case the supervisor is occupied and
submit your questions when the supervisor is no longer occupied.
During this assignment you will need some physical force. Be careful and make sure that
you do not hurt your back.

42

Figure 17

SAUER DANFOSS - Hydraulic diagram of the forklift drive

43

3('$/

0


EDU

9

)

3

)

)

3

)

3


EDU


EDU

0
3UHVVXUH%

9

9

0
3UHVVXUH$

7

7

%$&.:$5'6

K\GUDXOLFFRQWURO
GLVUHJDUGHG

)25:$5'6

9

6


EDU

,,

9

9


EDU


EDU

0R

'

7

7

$

$

$

7

7

0

0R

'

Introduction
The extended hydraulic diagram is available (on yellow paper) at the power unit in the practical
room. Use these diagrams to make notes during the execution of your assignments.
The Danfoss installation consists of two parts. Both parts are driven by the same electric motor.
For your assignments the part left from the white electric motor is relevant.
The wheels are rotating in the air the throttle valves D1 and D2 are applied to simulate a load.
Assignments
162. Locate pump P3 on the installation. Pump P3 has only one flow direction. Explain how you
can identify what type of pump P3 is.
163. The schematic diagram contains a small light. This light is not present on the installation.
Locate the spot on the installation where this light can be connected.
A cross section of hydraulic pumps P1 and P2 is available at the installation.
164. Locate pump P1 on the cross section and the installation. What type of pump is P1?
165. Describe how the output flow of this pump can be changed
166. Locate pump P2 on the installation. What type of pump is P2?
Ensure that the installation is adjusted and set to start up in free running ONBELAST prior to
switching the electric motor. The installation can be started when the setting as described in the
latter is secured.
167. What are the pressure readings on the gauges M1, M2, and M3 (the pedal is not
operated)? Explain your answer.
168. Operate the pedal. What is the pressure reading on gauge M3? Explain what happens.
169. Which of the pressure gauges (M1 or M2) is reading the same value as gauge M3? Explain
why.
170. Both main lines of the main pump P1 are pressurised when the installation is in operation.
Explain why the lines of this type of pump should never be confronted with an under
pressure? (Consult your practical supervisor if necessary).

44

Assignments
Close valve A1 and A2 and allow the wheels to run backward, release the pedal en listen.A
sound can be heard when pressure gauge M3 is reacting!
171. Describe the reaction on pressure gauge M3.
172. Explain this reaction. What is the root cause of this sound, which component is causing the
sound?
Switch the hydraulic motors in parallel. Push the pedal in fully. The wheels are rotating with a
certain rotation speed. Adjust and set the pressure difference over the motors to approximately
50 bar. Make sure that both motors are running at the same speed.
173. Should the forklift run forward or backward?
174. Which of the valves should be opened now?
175. Write down the pressures in Figure 18.
M1

M3

M2

M4

Figure 18
176. Change the setting of the throttles and explain the reaction of the system.
Switch the wheels in series. Push the pedal down fully.
177. Which of the valves should be opened now?
178. Write down the pressures in Figure 19.
M1

M3

M2

M4

Figure 19
179. Explain the pressure difference between M1 and M2.
180. Did the rotation speed of the wheels increase or decrease? Explain your answer.
181. What will happen when D1 is slowly released? Explain your answer.
Verify the set pressure of the safety valves V4 and V5.
Verify the openings pressure of pressure limiting valve V6.
182. The motors are switched in parallel. Close the throttle valves (do not use to much force) so
that the rotation speed of he wheels is gradually reduced. What is your conclusion about
these throttles?
Remove the magnetic plates from the installation

45

46

HENK
SCHEUTJENS

Figure 20

HENK SCHEUTJENS ACCUMULATOR-SYSTEEM


This installation is provided by:
Henk Scheutjens Systeem Hydrauliek bv
Wakerstraat 1
1511 CR Oostzaan
Tel.: 075-6844852

47

Figure 21

48

Scheutjes Accumulator System

$

9

3XPSSUHVVXUH

 EDU

(0

0

$

7

9

3

7

 EDU

6ZLWFKLQSUHVVXUH

6

9

.

 EDU

$

6ZLWFKRIISUHVVXUH

0

$

(

'

6\VWHPSUHVVXUH

7

.

6

0
3UHVVXUHLQOLQH%

$

$

0

3UHVVXUHLQOLQH$

17

9

*OXHSUHVVXUH
 EDU

&

Introduction
This installation of Henk Scheutjes is used by shoemakers to glue the heels to the sole. Shoes
with high heels require additional glue force as opposed to shoes with small heels. Therefore,
the glue pressure is adjustable. The following process is followed to glue the heel to the sole: the
shoemaker will place the shoe with the heel and the glue on a filling block under the press. The
machine is operated, and the piston of the cylinder is making the outward movement until the set
glue pressure has been reached. The piston of the cylinder moves back.
The pressure switch V3 in the accumulator system is switching 2/2 valve S1 in and out. S1 is
switched in when the pressure in the pressure line (above non-return valve T2) becomes lower
than the switch in pressure of 130 bar. S1 is activated until the switch off pressure of 180 has
been reached. S1 is switched off by V3 at 180 bar.
Assignments
183. The schematic diagram of the accumulator system is drawn as the system is not activated.
What happens with valve K1 when the main switch is operated?
184. The electric motor is switched and running. The valves A1 and A2 are open. What happens
with the pump output flow in this situation?
185. The pressure in the pressure line above T is increased to 180 bar. What happens now?
186. What should be the approximate set pressure of component V2?
187. What is the purpose of valve T2?
Solenoid S2 is not activated.
188. Is cylinder C1 pressurised in this situation?
189. If yes, which side of the cylinder is pressurised?

49

Assignments
190. What happens when solenoid S2 is activated?
191. Switch V4 allows solenoid S2 to deactivate. When and how does the pressure switch V4
deactivate solenoid S2?
192. What is the name of component D1?
193. What is the purpose of component D1 in this installation?
194. What is the purpose of valve A3?
195. Explain the statement the openings pressure of the accumulator is set at 90 bar
196. Why is this installation equipped with accumulators?
The remainder of the assignments can be executed only at the Henk Scheutjes system in
the practical room in Ede.

50

PRACTICE HYDRAULICS
Assignment 1
Prepare the initial assignments in case you did not manage to prepare these at home.

Assignment 2
Compare your answers with the answers of your study colleagues in case you did prepare the
assignments at home.

Assignment 3
Use the schematic diagram and locate the different components on the installation. Apply the
magnetic letter codes. Follow the hydraulic pipes and preferably start at the tank. Do not
proceed with the assignments prior to locating all components even when some of these
components are not visible. Make sure that you know where each component is located. Make
note of any differences between the installation and the schematic diagram.
Important!
Consult the practical supervisor in case something is unclear or in case you desire additional information. Write your questions down in case the supervisor is occupied and
submit your questions when the supervisor is no longer occupied

Assignment 4
Check the oil level in the reservoir and the temperature of the oil. Also check and verify that
there are no moving objects that could block the moving parts of the installation prior to starting
the installation.

Assignment 5
Adjust the installation if necessary to ensure that you start the installation unloaded. When the
installation is started unloaded you are ready to start with the following assignments.

51

Figure 22

52

Accumulator system

$

9

3XPSSUHVVXUH

 EDU

(0

0

$

7

9

3

7

 EDU

6ZLWFKLQSUHVVXUH

6

9

.

 EDU

$

6ZLWFKRIISUHVVXUH

0

$

(

'

6\VWHPSUHVVXUH

7

.

6

0
3UHVVXUHLQOLQH%

$

$

0

3UHVVXUHLQOLQH$

17

9

*OXHSUHVVXUH
 EDU

&

Assignments
197. Verify on the installation at what pressure solenoid S1 of the 2/2 valve K1 is switched off by
the pressure switch V3.
198. In addition assess at what pressure pressure-switch V3 is reactivating solenoid S1 of the 2/
2 valve K1 (valve A3 is applied to discharge the accumulators).
In case the switch in or switch out pressure deviate from de values in figure 2, adjust V3 again.
Otherwise consult the practical supervisor.
199. Operate the system and move the cylinder out slowly. Check the set pressure of V4.
200. Again move the cylinder out slowly and verify if the emergency switched is working
properly. Assess what happens when the emergency switch is operated.
201. Verify on the installation how many cycles the piston can make prior to the accumulators
being recharged.
To deliver a back pressure accumulators are pre-charged with nitrogen. The opening pressure
of both accumulators can be determined by slowly discharging each of the accumulators separately.
202. Which actions have to be performed to determine the opening pressures?
203. VPerform these actions and determine the openings pressure of the large and the small
accumulator.
204. Explain why the switch in pressure should not be set too high (for instance 160 bar)?
205. Explain why the switch in pressure should not be set too low (for instance 100 bar)?

53

Assignments
206. Stop the electric motor and unload the system. Close off the large accumulator and restart
the electric motor. When you take a close look at pressure gauge M2 for a while you will
notice that the pointer is dropping slowly. Explain this phenomenon.
207. Close both accumulators, observe and explain your observations.
Open the accumulators and allow the accumulators to be recharged.
208. Shut off the accumulators (close valves A1 and A2) and operate the cylinder. Explain why
the piston is moving slow in this situation.
Shut off the accumulator and put the main switch at zero.
209. In this situation is it safe to perform maintenance at the installation?
210. What is a silent energy source?
211. What is the meaning of the combination symbol NT1?
Remove the magnetic plates from the installation

54

VECTOR

Figure 23

Vector Rotating Drive


This installation is provided by:
Vector Aandrijftechniek bv
Industrieweg 175
3044 AS Rotterdam
Tel.: 010-4463700

55

:$//

Figure 24

56

VECTOR Rotating Drive

0

(0

0

.

6

7

'

&RXQWHUFORFNZLVH

6$02,/
K\GUDXOLFPRWRU

3

9

9

6

6

 EDU

&ORFNZLVH

0R

9

0

76

'LVFKDUJHYDOYH

.

 EDU

6LPXODWHGORDG

(

0

.

6

9DOYHEORFN

&ORFNZLVH

7

9

7$1./,'

'

9

0R

%,*12==,
UDGLDOSOXQJHUPRWRU

6

0

0

3RZHUXQLW

&RXQWHUFORFNZLVH

7DVF8QLW
DGMXVWDEOH
ORDG

Vector Rotating Drive


Figure 24 is the schematic diagram of the installation of Vector Aandrijftechniek B.V.
Assignments
212. What is the meaning of the small triangle on the tank lid?
213. What is the purpose of component K1?
214. Describe two ways to start this installation unloaded.
215. The shaft of the Samoil hydraulic motor is running in open air, therefore hydraulic motor
cannot be loaded. However block 1 has been applied to simulate a load. Which solenoid or
solenoids should be activated to simulate the load on hydraulic motor Mo1?
216. When Mo2 is running, the motor will not stop immediately. What is the purpose of the valve
block (block 2)?
217. What is the purpose of the components D1 and D2?
218. Pump P1 has an output flow of 18 l/min. D1 is adjusted and set at 10 l/min. Pressure
limiting valve V3 is unloaded. Solenoids S1 and S2 are activated. What will be the pressure
readings on the gauges M1 and M2? Explain your answer.
219. The load (V3) is increased. The pressure on gauge M2 is increased to 50 bar. What will be
the pressure on pressure gauge M1? Explain your answer.

57

Tasc-unit
Hydraulic motor Mo2 is loaded by means of a so called Tasc Unit (see Figure 25).
The hydraulic motor can be loaded only when the unit is rotating.

&RXQWHUFORFNZLVH

The load on hydraulic motor Mo2 is determined by the strength of the so called excitation
current.

&ORFNZLVH
HOHFWULFPRWRU

5HGXFWLRQJHDU

+\GUDXOLFPRWRU

(GG\FXUUHQWFRXSOLQJ
&RXQWHUFORFNZLVH

Figure 25

Principle of the Tasc-unit connected to the hydraulic motor

The current can be adjusted and set by means of a knob on the operating panel.
The remainder of the assignments can only be made at the Vector unit in the practical
room in Ede.

58

PRACTICE HYDRAULICS
Assignment 1
Prepare the initial assignments in case you did not manage to prepare these at home.

Assignment 2
Compare your answers with the answers of your study colleagues in case you did prepare the
assignments at home.

Assignment 3
Use the schematic diagram and locate the different components on the installation. Apply the
magnetic letter codes. Follow the hydraulic pipes and preferably start at the tank. Do not
proceed with the assignments prior to locating all components even when some of these
components are not visible. Make sure that you know where each component is located. Make
note of any differences between the installation and the schematic diagram.
Important!
Consult the practical supervisor in case something is unclear or in case you desire additional information. Write your questions down in case the supervisor is occupied and
submit your questions when the supervisor is no longer occupied.

Assignment 4
Check the oil level in the reservoir and the temperature of the oil. Also check and verify that
there are no moving objects that could block the moving parts of the installation prior to starting
the installation.

Assignment 5
Adjust the installation if necessary to ensure that you start the installation unloaded. When the
installation is started unloaded you are ready to start with the following assignments.

59

:$//

Figure 26

60

Vector Rotating Drive

0

(0

0

.

6

7

'

&RXQWHUFORFNZLVH

6$02,/
K\GUDXOLFPRWRU

3

9

9

6

6

 EDU

&ORFNZLVH

0R

9

0

76

'LVFKDUJHYDOYH

.

 EDU

6LPXODWHGORDG

(

0

.

6

9DOYHEORFN

&ORFNZLVH

7

9

7$1./,'

'

9

0R

%,*12==,
UDGLDOSOXQJHUPRWRU

6

0

0

3RZHUXQLW

&RXQWHUFORFNZLVH

7DVF8QLW
DGMXVWDEOH
ORDG

Assignments
220. Assess if it is possible to operate component K1 manually (instead of the knob on the
panel)
221. What is the meaning of the non-return valve in the symbol of component K1?
222. What is the purpose of component TS1?
Adjust and set the safety valve V2 so that the system pressure is limited at approximately 90
bar. Switch the hydraulic motor Mo1 as such that V3 can be used to increase the load.
223. Explain what happens to the pressure difference over hydraulic motor Mo1 when the load is
increased.
224. What happens to the power when hydraulic motor is running clockwise while loaded?
Switch hydraulic motor Mo2 so that the Tasc-unit can be used to load the hydraulic motor.
225. What is the pressure difference over the hydraulic motor when the hydraulic motor is
loaded?
226. What happens to the power when hydraulic motor Mo2 is loaded?
227. Is it possible to load both hydraulic motors in both rotation directions? Assess and test this
on the installation.
Valve K2 has an open mid-position. Explain the choice for an open mid-position.
228. Explain when component T2 is operated.
229. Valve K3 has a closed mid-position as opposed the open mid-position of valve K2. What is
your opinion about this?

61

Assignments
Allow hydraulic motor Mo1 to run counterclockwise while unloaded (fully unloaded). Adjust and
set the oil supply to the hydraulic motor so that the output flow of the pump exceeds the flow
through flow control valve D1.
230. How can you verify that the output flow of the pump exceeds the flow through the flow
control valve?
231. Change the rotation speed of hydraulic motor Mo1 by means of the flow control valve.
Explain what happens to the pressure on pressure gauge M3?
232. Assess if the maximum throughput capacity exceeds the pump output flow or not. Explain
how you execute this assignment.
Allow hydraulic motor Mo2 to run clockwise unloaded. Switch the Tasc unit in (excitation
current). Adjust and set using component D2 at a rotation speed of 50 rpm.
Revolutions
per minute

M1

M4

M5

Excitation current position


0
3
6
9
maximum

Figure 27
233. Increase the load step by step by increasing the excitation current and write down the
pressures and rotation speed at the different positions in Figure 27.
234. Draw your conclusions from your measurements with regard to flow control valve D2.
Ask your Practical supervisor to create a malfunctioning on this installation.
235. Locate the malfunctioning, and ask your practical supervisor to check and verify the
answer.
Remove the magnetic plates from the installation

62

DOEDIJNS PMC
Parallel running

Figure 28

Doedijns PMC Parallel Running


This installation is provided by:
Doedijns B.V. Waddinxveen
Coenecoop 103-105
2741 PH Waddinxveen
Tel: 0182 30 28 88

63

/RDG

&

0
6
6

6

0
9

 EDU
0

)

   EDU

)

9
0

3

3

+LJKSUHVVXUH/RZ
SUHVVXUHSXPSFRPELQDWLRQ

Figure 29

64

Part of the hydraulic diagram with high and low pressure pump

Assignments
236. In Figure 29 A part of the hydraulic diagram of the parallel installation of Doedijns PMC is
depicted. Provide the names of the following components:
P1 / P2

V2

F1

C1

V1

S1

Figure 30
237. The electric motor M should start unloaded. What are the possibilities on this installation to
start the electric motor unloaded?
238. Which of the pumps is the low pressure pump and which pump is the high pressure pump.
The electric motor is running. S1 and S2 are not activated. V1 and V2 are adjusted and set.
239. Does the low pressure pump have an output flow in this situation?
240. Does the high pressure pump have an output flow in this situation?
241. Describe the discharge route of both pumps back to the tank in this situation
242. What is the approximate pressure reading of the gauges M1, M2, and M6 in this situation?
Solenoid S1 is activated. The cylinder is making its outward movement. The pressure reading
on gauge M2 is 15 bar during the movement of the cylinder.
243. Describe for both pumps the route of the output flow.

65

&
6 RII

0

6
6
6ZLWFK6ZKLFKFDQEH
RSHUDWHGPDQXDOO\
 EDU

9

&

9

&

9

&\OLQGHU&FRPELQHG
ZLWK9DUHDSSOLHGWR
VLPXODWHDORDGRQ
F\OLQGHU&

 EDU

 EDU

)

)

0

)ORZGLYLGHU6'

0

$

$

6'

6
6

6

0

9
0

)

)

   EDU

9

0

 EDU
 EDU

3

3
+LJKSUHVVXUH/RZSUHVVXUH
SXPSFRPELQDWLRQ

Figure 31

66

Doedijns Hydraulic diagram Parallel running installation

9

Assignments
The load is increasing. The pressure on pressure gauge M2 exceeds the 50 bar.
244. What happens with valve V2?
245. Describe the oil flow of the low pressure pump in this situation.
246. What is the pressure reading on gauge M1 in this situation?
247. Describe the oil flow of the high pressure pump in this situation.
248. What is the impact for the speed of the cylinder?
249. Describe the working principle and the purpose of valve V2.
The following questions are related to the schematic diagram of the complete parallel installation, see Figure 31.
250. What is the purpose of V1 in this system?
The cylinders C1 and C2 are equal. Valves A1 and A2 are closed. Cylinders C1 and C2 are
retracted. Valve V5 is adjusted and set at 60 bar, which restricts C3 to discharge its oil easily.
Cylinder C1 is unloaded. S1 and S3 are activated.
251. Describe the cylinder movements that will take place.
252. What will be the approximate pressure readings on the gauges M1 through M5?
253. What is the purpose of component SD for the outward movement of the cylinders?
254. Internal leakages do not allow perfect parallel running. This means that both cylinders are
not reaching its end position at exactly the same time. Which of the cylinders, C1 or C2 will
reach its end position first? Explain your answer.
The settings of the installation remain the same however valve A1 is opened.
255. Describe the cylinder movements that will take place.
256. What will be the pressure readings on the gauges M1 through M5 when C2 is moving out?

67

Assignments
257. Describe the working principle and the purpose of block SD.
258. What is the effect of block SD when valve A1 is opened?
Cylinder C1 is at 50 percent of while cylinder C2 is still fully retracted. Valves A1 and A2 are fully
closed. V5 is set at 50 bar. S1 and S3 are activated.
259. Describe the cylinder movements that will take place.
260. What will be the initial pressure readings on the gauges M1 through M5?
Cylinder C1 will reach its end-position first.
261. What will happen to the oil that is flowing in the direction of C1?
262. What will be the pressure readings on pressure gauges M1 through M5 when C1 has
reached its end position?
C2 has reached its end-position, both cylinders are extracted. S1 and S3 are still activated.
263. What are the pressure readings on the gauges M1 through M5?
Both cylinders are extracted. S2 is activated. Valve A1 is closed.
264. Describe the cylinder movements that will take place.
265. IIs the parallel function working in this situation?
The remainder of the assignments can only be executed at the Doedijns PMC parallel
installation in the practical room in Ede.

68

PRACTICE HYDRAULICS
Assignment 1
Prepare the initial assignments in case you did not manage to prepare these at home.

Assignment 2
Compare your answers with the answers of your study colleagues in case you did prepare the
assignments at home.

Assignment 3
Use the schematic diagram and locate the different components on the installation. Apply the
magnetic letter codes. Follow the hydraulic pipes and preferably start at the tank. Do not
proceed with the assignments prior to locating all components even when some of these
components are not visible. Make sure that you know where each component is located. Make
note of any differences between the installation and the schematic diagram (Make use of the
magnetic code plates).
Important!
Consult the practical supervisor in case something is unclear or in case you desire additional information. Write your questions down in case the supervisor is occupied and
submit your questions when the supervisor is no longer occupied.

Assignment 4
Check the oil level in the reservoir and the temperature of the oil. Also check and verify that
there are no moving objects that could block the moving parts of the installation prior to starting
the installation

Assignment 5
Adjust the installation if necessary to ensure that you start the installation unloaded. When the
installation is started unloaded you are ready to start with the following assignments.

69

&
6 RII

0

6
6
6ZLWFK6ZKLFKFDQEH
RSHUDWHGPDQXDOO\
 EDU

9

&

9

&

9

&\OLQGHU&FRPELQHG
ZLWK9DUHDSSOLHGWR
VLPXODWHDORDGRQ
F\OLQGHU&

 EDU

 EDU

)

)

0

)ORZGLYLGHU6'

0

$

$

6'

6
6

6

0

9
0

)

)

   EDU

9

0

 EDU
 EDU

3

3
+LJKSUHVVXUH/RZSUHVVXUH
SXPSFRPELQDWLRQ

Figure 32

70

Hydraulic schematic diagram of the parallel installation

9

A) Doedijns LD/HD installation


Introduction
A practical application for a system like this is for instance a scrap metal compactor.

'LVFKDUJHRIVFUDS
PHWDOSDFNDJH
+HDY\ORDGHGVWURNH&
3DUWO\ORDGHGVWURNH&

5HODWLYHO\XQORDGHGVWURNH&

&

Figure 33

&

Scrap metal compactor

Cylinder C1 is only moving the scrap metal to the discharge gutter, the load is almost 0. The first
part of the stroke of cylinder C2 is partly loaded. This is simulated as S3 is not activated.
During the second part of the stroke of cylinder C2, S3 is activated so that cylinder C3 is loaded
via V5 (the compacting of the scrap metal), the retracting movement of both C2 and C1 is
unloaded.
Remark:
This installation consists of two separate systems build together therefore some
components need to be switched off. These components are disregarded for your
assignments.
a. Valve A1 needs to be opened and remains open for all assignments. This means that the flow
divider SD is deactivated.
b. The pressure limiting valves V3 and V4 are not necessary for this system and therefore disregarded. The diagram of Figure 32 looks as follows:

)

&

)

6

Figure 34

&

6

Schematic diagram of figure 1 with amendment.

For your assignments this diagram takes preference over the other diagrams for this
assignment!

71

Assignments
Open valve A1.
Adjust and set V2 to 50bar (M1), adjust and set V1 to 100 bar (M2) and adjust and set V5 to 100
bar (M5). The installation (the compactor) is ready for use. The load cylinder C3 will be loaded
when S3 is activated (manual operation) and simulate the load of C2 (compacting of the scrap
metal).
Column 1

Column2

Column 3

Column 4

Column 5

M1

bar

M2

bar

M3

bar

M4

bar

M5

bar

F1

l/min

F2

l/min

F3

l/min

F4

l/min

Figure 35
266. Move out fully Cylinder C1 (S1) and write down the requested values in column 1Figure
35 during the extraction movement (S3 is deactivated).
Remark:
Move cylinder C1 back in and repeat the assignment in case you do not manage to write
down all the values. Repeat the assignment until the list is complete. Take note of the
extraction speed of cylinder C1.
267. Explain the connection between the values on F1, F2, and F3.
268. Explain why F4 does not have a reading.
Allow cylinder C2 to make it first stroke (S1). .
269. Write down incolumn 2 of Figure 35 the requested values.
Remark:
Move cylinder C2 back in and repeat the assignment in case you do not manage to write
down all the values. Repeat the assignment until the list is complete. Take note of the
extraction speed of cylinder C2.
270. Is the extraction speed of C2 equal to the speed of C1 in the previous assignment? Explain
your answer.
271. What is the connection between F1, F2, and F4?
272. Explain why the pressure values on M1 and M2 exceed the values of the previous
assignment.

72

Assignments
Move cylinder C2 in and switch the load in with S3.
273. Move the cylinder out again (the scrap metal is compacted during the second stroke out).
Write down in column 3 of Figure 35 the requested values
.

Remark:
Move cylinder C2 back in and repeat the assignment in case you do not manage to write
down all the values. Repeat the assignment until the list is complete. Take note of the
extraction speed of cylinder C2.
274. Explain why the speed is lower than the previous assignments.
275. Is there a connection between F2 and F4?
276. What happens with the oil of P1?
277. What is the working pressure of P1?
278. Which component is causing this pressure?
Move cylinder C2 in and write down in column 4 of Figure 35 the requested values. Take note
of the retraction speed of cylinder C2.
279. Move cylinder C1 in and write down in column 5 of Figure 35 dthe requested values. Take
note of the retraction speed of cylinder C1.
280. Explain why the speed is higher than the previous assignment.
281. Explain why F3 and F4 do not give a flow reading.
You have executed in sequence the assignments of the scrap metal compactor.
You have in Figure 35 an overview of the pressures and flows during the different movements
282. Move cylinder C2 out and increase the load using V5 (knob clockwise) until cylinder C2
stops.
283. At what load does the cylinder C2 stop?
284. Write down the values of the pressure gauges M2, M3, M4, and M5.
285. Explain the pressure difference between M2 and M5
Unload V1, V2, and V5 back to zero (knob counterclockwise)!

73

74

B) Doedijns Parallel Installation


Introduction
This system is applied for instance with a lifting platform that requires two parallel working
cylinders (extraction and retraction) while the place of the load is uncertain (Cylinders are not
equally loaded).

/RDG

&

&

Figure 36

load on the beam

The load is simulated with the load cylinder C3 and the pressure limiting valve V5. Remark: This
installation consists of two systems build together. Certain components will have to be switched
off for the following assignments. These components will be disregarded for these assignments.
P1 of the double pump is not needed Pump P1 is disconnected by unloading V2 to zero.
The components P1, M1, F1, and V2 are not required for these assignments and will be disregarded. A part of the schematic diagram of Figure 32 is considered to look as follows::

6

6

9
0
)

9
3

Figure 37

Amended schematic diagram of figure 1 (disregarding some of the components)

The diagram of figure 37 should be regarded while executing the following assignments.!

75

Assignments
Adjust and set V1 to 120 bar (M2), adjust and set V2 at 0 bar. Open valve A1 and deactivate S3.
The installation is ready for use.
286. Move the cylinders C1 and C2 out (S1) and describe how the cylinders move.

A1

column 1

column 2

column 3

column 4

open

open

closed

closed

M2

bar

M3

bar

M4

bar

M5

bar

F1

l/min

F2

l/min

F3

l/min

F4

l/min

Figure 38
Write down the requested values of below assignments in column 1 of Figure 38.
287. Write down the pressure values of gauges M2, M3, M4, and M5.
288. Write down the flows of F2, F3, and F4.
289. Is there a connection between F2, F3, and F4?
Write down the requested values of below assignments in column 2 of Figure 38.
290. Move the cylinders C1 and C2 in (S2) and describe the sequence of events.
291. Write down the pressures of the gauges M2, M3, M4, and M5.
292. Write down the flows of F2, F3, and F4.
293. Explain the difference in speed between C2 and C1.
Remark:
You have concluded that parallel running is not feasible even with a small load difference on the
cylinders C1 and C2. The flow divider is deactivated because valve A1 is opened.

76

Assignments
Write-down the requested values of below assignments in column 3 of Figure 38.
294. Close valve A1 and activate S3. Move cylinder C1 and C2 out and set V5 at 80 bar. Move
cylinder C1 and C2 in. Move cylinder C1 and C2 out and write down the flows on the flow
meters F2, F3, and F4.
295. Is there a connection between F2, F3, and F4?
296. Write down the pressures of M2, M3, M4, and M5.
297. Are the cylinders moving in parallel?
Maintain the setting of the previous assignment.
Write down the requested values of below assignments incolumn 4 of Figure 38
298. Move the cylinders C1 and C2 in and write down the reading on flow meter F2
299. Write down the pressure values of the gauges M2, M3, M4, and M5.
300. Do the cylinders run in parallel?
Repeat previous assignments a number of times.
301. What do notice with regard to parallel running?
302. What can be the cause of what you observe?
Assignments
Open valve A1. Adjust and set V5 to zero. Move out fully cylinders C1 and C2. Move cylinder C2
in half way (approximately). Close valve A1. Move in the cylinders C1 and C2 further. You will
notice a distinct sound when C2 is fully retracted.
303. What is the root cause of this sound?
304. Define a solution that will remove the sound and the root cause.
Remark:
Consult your practical supervisor when you do not manage.
You have assessed and operated the parallel unit in sequence.
Operate the parallel installation a couple of times. Change the settings of V5 (simulate that you
are changing the place of the load on the platform. Specific applications on the installation allow
correction of the non-parallel movements.
Adjust and set V1 and V5 back to zero, open valve A1 and close A2.
Remove the magnetic plates from the installation

77

78

DOEDIJNS
Speedcontrols

Figure 39

Doedijns Speed controls


This installation has been provide by:
Doedijns B.V. Waddinxveen
Coenecoop 103-105
2741 PH Waddinxveen
Tel: 0182 30 28 88

79

&

&

0
Q

+0

3

9

9

 EDU

 EDU
6

6
9

0

0
)

)

   EDU

6
'

'

$

'

$

$

'

$
0

)
0
9
6
   EDU

9

 EDU

3
 OPLQ

Figure 40

80

DOEDIJNS - Hydraulic schematic diagram speed controls

7

Introduction
Pump P2 and pressure safety valves V4 and V5 are applied to simulate a load. Pump P1
delivers an output flow of 16 l/min. Valve S1 cannot be activated during the start up phase of the
electric motor.
Assignments
305. Provide the names for the components: D1, D3, D4, and S4 of Figure 40.
D1

D3

D4

S4

Figure 41
306. Explain why the control of valve S1 is automatically blocked during the startup phase of the
electric motor.
Two almost identical valves (V1 and V2) are applied in the schematic diagram,
307. What is the purpose of V1?
308. What is the purpose of V2?
309. Hydraulic motor HM and pump P2 have identical displacement volumes. Explain this is
your own words.
310. Explain why a non-return valve is mounted in the suction line of pump P1.

81

&

&

0
Q

+0

3

9

9

 EDU

 EDU
6

6
9

0

0
)

)

   EDU

6
'

'

$

'

$

$

'

$
0

)
0
9
6
   EDU

9

 EDU

3
 OPLQ

Figure 42

82

Hydraulic schematic diagram of Doedijns speed control installation

7

Assignments
The valves V1 and V3 are adjusted and set at 180 bar. V2 is set at 150 bar. S2 and S3 are not
activated, S1 is activated.
V4 is set at 50 bar. A3 is opened, D3 is adjusted and set at 6 l/min. A1, A2, and A4 are closed.
311. Use the hydraulic diagram to describe the16 l/min oil flow of pump P1 back to the tank.
312. What will be the flow reading on the flow meters F1 and F3?
313. What will be the approximate pressure readings on the gauges M1, M2, and M4?
314. The load on the hydraulic motor HM is increased. What will be the effect on the rotation
speed of the hydraulic motor?
315. Is D3 a suitable speed control component to maintain a constant rotation speed of the
hydraulic motor?
S4 is a proportional valve, the through put opening can be controlled proportionally. This means
that the plunger of the valve is maintained in a certain position by means of an electric signal.
V4 is adjusted and set at 50 bar. A1 is opened and S4 is adjusted and set to l/min. A2, A3, and
A4 are closed.
316. Use the hydraulic diagram to describe the 16 l/min oil flow of pump P1 back to the tank.
317. What is the flow reading of the flow meters F1 and F3 in this situation?
318. What are the approximate pressure readings on the gauges M1, M3, and M4?
319. The load on hydraulic motor HM is increased by means of V4. What is the effect of this on
the rotation speed of the hydraulic motor?
320. Is S4 suitable as speed control component to maintain the rotation speed of the hydraulic
motor independent from the load?
321. What is the similarity between D3 and S4?

83

&

&

0
Q

+0

3

9

9

 EDU

 EDU
6

6
9

0

0
)

)

   EDU

6
'

'

$

'

$

$

'

$
0

)
0
9
6
   EDU

9

 EDU

3
 OPLQ

Figure 43

84

Hydraulic diagram Doedijns Speed Controls

7

Assignments
V4 is set at 50 bar. A2 is opened and D2 is adjusted and set at 6 l/min. A1, A3, and A4 are
closed.
322. Use the hydraulic diagram and describe how the 16 l/min of pump P1 is flowing back to the
tank.
323. What is the flow reading on flow meters F1 and F3?
324. What are the approximate pressure readings on the gauges M1, M3, and M4?
325. The load on hydraulic motor HM is increased. What is the effect on the rotation speed of the
hydraulic motor?
326. Is D2 suitable as speed control component to maintain the rotation speed of the hydraulic
motor independent from the load?
327. Explain why V2 will heat up when D3, S4 or D2 are used for a while.
V4 is set at 50 bar. A4 is opened, and D4 is adjusted and set at 6 l/min. S1, A1, A2, an A3 are
closed.
328. Use the hydraulic diagram and describe how the 16 l/min of pump P1 is flowing back to the
tank.
329. What are the flow readings on the flow meters F1 and F3?
330. What are the approximate pressure readings on the gauges M1, M3, and M4?
331. The load on hydraulic motor HM is increased. What is the effect on the rotation speed of the
hydraulic motor?
332. Is D4 suitable as speed control component to maintain the rotation speed of the hydraulic
motor independent from the load?
333. What is the specific difference between D2 and D4 as speed control component?

85

&

&

0
Q

+0

3

9

9

 EDU

 EDU
6

6
9

0

0
)

)

   EDU

6
'

'

$

'

$

$

'

$
0

)
0
9
6
   EDU

9

 EDU

3
 OPLQ

Figure 44

86

Hydraulic diagram Doedijns Speed Controls

7

Assignments
D1 is set at 7 l/min. The cylinder is unloaded. V4 is set at 50 bar. D2 is set at 6 l/min. A2 is
opened.
A1, A3, and A4 are closed.
The hydraulic motor HM is rotating. You have operated S2, cylinder C is moving out.
334. What are the pressure readings on the gauges M2 and M3 in this situation?
335. What is the pressure reading on gauge M1?
336. Use the hydraulic diagram and describe how the 16 l/min of pump P1 is flowing back to the
tank.
337. What are the flow readings on the flow meters F1 and F3?
Assume that the load on the cylinder is increasing considerably. The pressure to move the
cylinder is 120 bar.
338. What would be the pressure readings on the gauges M1 and M2?
339. Does the load increase on the cylinder have an impact on the rotation speed of the
hydraulic motor? Explain your answer
340. Use the table of Figure 45 and write down the differences between D2 and D4 in your own
words.

D2

D4

Figure 45
The remainder of the assignments can only be executed on the Doedijns PMC speed
control training unit in Ede.

87

&

&

0
Q

+0

3

9

9

 EDU

 EDU
6

6
9

0

0
)

)

   EDU

6
'

'

$

'

$

$

'

$
0

)
0
9
6
   EDU

9

 EDU

3
 OPLQ

Figure 46

88

Hydraulic diagram Doedijns Speed Controls

7

PRACTICE HYDRAULICS
Assignment 1
Prepare the initial assignments in case you did not manage to prepare these at home.

Assignment 2
Compare your answers with the answers of your study colleagues in case you did prepare the
assignments at home.

Assignment 3
Use the schematic diagram and locate the different components on the installation. Apply the
magnetic letter codes. Follow the hydraulic pipes and preferably start at the tank. Do not
proceed with the assignments prior to locating all components even when some of these
components are not visible. Make sure that you know where each component is located. Make
note of any differences between the installation and the schematic diagram (Make use of the
magnetic code plates).

Important!
Consult the practical supervisor in case something is unclear or in case you desire additional information. Write your questions down in case the supervisor is occupied and
submit your questions when the supervisor is no longer occupied.

Assignment 4
Check the oil level in the reservoir and the temperature of the oil. Also check and verify that
there are no moving objects that could block the moving parts of the installation prior to starting
the installation.

Assignment 5
Adjust the installation if necessary to ensure that you start the installation unloaded. When the
installation is started unloaded you are ready to start with the following assignments.

89

&

&

0
Q

+0

3

9

9

 EDU

 EDU
6

6
9

0

0
)

)

   EDU

6
'

'

$

'

$

$

'

$
0

)
0
9
6
   EDU

9

 EDU

3
 OPLQ

Figure 47

90

Hydraulic diagram Doedijns Speed Controls

7

Doedijns PMC Speed Controls


Assignments
341. Which of the flow meters will detect a flow when the installation is unloaded? Verify and
check this on the installation.
342. Adjust and set pressure limiting valve at 150 bar. Explain if you have to close valves A1
through A4 when adjusting the pressure on V2.
Open A3 and close A1, A2, and A4. Check and verify that P2 is not loaded and operate S1.
Adjust and set D3 at 10 l/min.
343. What are the flow readings on the flow meters F1 and F3?
344. What are the pressure readings on the gauges M1, M3, and M4?
345. The load on hydraulic motor HM is increased in steps. Write down the requested values in
Figure 48.
346. Is D3 suitable as speed control component to maintain a constant speed of the hydraulic
motor?
Note that the rpm indicator n1 is reacting very slowly!
P2
unloaded
M3

P2 loaded
50

70

90

110

bar

M2

bar

M1

bar

n1

rev/min

F3

l/min

F1

l/min

Figure 48

91

Assignments
Open A2 and close A1, A3, and A4. Check and verify that P2 is not loaded and operate S1.
Adjust and set D2 at 10 l/min.
347. What are the flow readings on the flow meters F1 and F3?
348. What are the pressure readings on the gauges M1, M3, and M4?
349. The load on hydraulic motor HM is increased in steps. Write down the requested values in
Figure 49.
350. Is D2 suitable as speed control component to control the speed of the hydraulic motor independent from the load?
351. Explain why V2 is heating after using D3 or D2 for a while.
Note that the rpm indicator n1 reacts very slowly
P2 unloaded P2 loaded
M3

70

90

110

bar

M2

bar

M1

bar

n1

rev/min

F3

l/min

f1

l/min

Figure 49

92

50

Assignments
352. Open A4 and close A1, A2, and A3. Check and verify that P2 is not loaded and operate S1.
Adjust and set D4 at 10 l/min.
353. What are the flow readings on the flow meters F1 and F3?
354. What are the pressure readings on the gauges M1, M3, and M4?
355. The load on hydraulic motor HM is increased in steps. Write down the requested values in
figure 50.
356. Is D4 suitable as speed control component to control the speed of the hydraulic motor independent from the load?
357. Explain the difference if any in power consumption between D2 and D4
Note that the rpm indicator n1 reacts very slowly
P2
unloaded
M3

P2 loaded
50

70

90

110

bar

M2

bar

M1

bar

n1

rev/min

F3

l/min

F1

l/min

Figure 50

93

Assignments
D1 is adjusted and set at 4 l/min. Cylinder C1 is retracted and unloaded. A2 is open and D2 is
adjusted and set at 7 l/min. P2 is loaded so that M3 gives a pressure reading of 50 bar.
A1, A3, and A4 are closed.
The load on cylinder C1 is increased in steps.
Cylinder C1 is send out after each pressure increase.
358. Write down the requested values in Figure 51.
359. Explain if the increase of the load on C1 has an impact on the speed of hydraulic motor
HM?

M3
M2

C1 loaded

50

50

50

50

bar

50

75

100

bar

M1

bar

n1

Rev/min

F3

l/min

F2

l/min

F1

l/min

Speed C1
Figure 51

94

C1 unloaded

Assignments
D1 is adjusted and set at 4 l/min. Cylinder C1 is retracted and unloaded. Open A4 and close A2.
D4 is adjusted and set at 7 l/min P2 is loaded so that M3 is giving a pressure reading of 50 bar.
A1 and A3 are closed.
The load on cylinder C1 is increased in steps.
C1 is moved out after each pressure increase.
360. Write down the requested values in Figure 52.
361. Does the increase in load on the hydraulic motor have an effect on the speed of the
outward movement of C1? Explain your answer.
C1 and HM
unloaded

M3

50

50

75

100

100

bar

M2

50

75

75

75

125

bar

M1

bar

n1

rev/min

F3

l/min

F2

l/min

F1

l/min

speed
C1
Figure 52
362. What do you notice in the situations marked with *?
363. Explain the pressure difference on M1 in Figure 51 and Figure 52.
You want to control the speed of the hydraulic motor and the speed of the cylinder as much as
possible independent from each other.
364. Would you choose for D2 or D4? Explain your answer.
365. Explain in which situation more hydraulic energy is transformed into heat.
Remove the magnetic plates from the installation

95

96

REXROTH 1

Figure 53

Bosch Rexroth practicator


This installation is provided by:
Bosch Rexroth.
Postbus 32
5280 AA Boxtel
Tel.: 0411-651464

97

/XIILQJF\OLQGHU

&
+\GUDXOLFPRWRUFRXQWHUFORFNZLVH

0

+\GUDXOLFPRWRUFORFNZLVH

0
0

'

7

'

'

7

7

.
0
0

7
7

.

.

0

9

 EDU

.

7

9

 EDU
9

0

 EDU
0

3
4

Figure 54

98

 OPLQ

Rexroth Hydraulic schematic diagram of the practicator

REXROTH
Initial assignments
Prepare the following assignments prior to starting the installation.

VOLGH

:HLJKW

K\GUDXOLFPRWRU
/XIILQJF\OLQGHU

&RQWURO
ER[

K\GUDXOLF
FRQQHFWLRQ

Figure 55

Side view of the practicator

99

Introduction
The installation of Rexroth is equipped with a cylinder to allow a luffing movement of a slide (see
Figure 55). The load is moved over the top during the luffing movement, which allows a
negative load. The weight can be moved up and down over the slide by means of a hydraulic
motor.
Assignments
366. Write down in Figure 56 the names and functions of the components from Figure 54.
component

name

function

V2
K1
K2
T2
K4
V3
M01
T6
Figure 56
367. Which setting do you have to change if you want to increase the speed of the cylinder?
The slide with the weight is tilting when the cylinder moves out. The initial pressure force on the
cylinder is changing to a pulling force.
368. How do we prevent that the cylinder is moving to quick during the outward movement (to
quick means that the pump flow and the cylinder movement are not tuned)?
369. How do we prevent that the cylinder is moving to quick during the inward movement?
370. Do you notice a difference in behaviour during the inward and outward movement of the
cylinder?

100

Assignments
The hydraulic motor of Figure 57 is loaded. Pressure gauge M3 is reading 50 bar. The
hydraulic motor is consuming 5 l/min.

0


0

 EDU


0
0

 EDU

3
4

Figure 57

 OPLQ

Simplified schematic diagram of the drive of a hydraulic motor.

371. Compare components 2 and 3 with the extended symbol of a two-way pressure
compensated flow control valve. What do you notice?
372. What is the pressure reading of gauge M1?
373. What is the pressure reading of gauge M2?
The load of the hydraulic motor is increased. The pressure reading on M3 is increased to 70 bar.
374. What is the pressure reading on gauge M1?
375. What will happen with the rotation speed in this situation? Explain your answer.
376. What is the name of this control system?
377. The adjustable throttle (component 3) is closed more. What will happen with the rotation
speed of the hydraulic motor? Explain your answer

101

/XIILQJF\OLQGHU

&
+\GUDXOLFPRWRUFRXQWHUFORFNZLVH

0

+\GUDXOLFPRWRUFORFNZLVH

0
0

'

7

'

'

7

7

.
0
0

7
7

.

.

0

9

 EDU

.

7

9

 EDU
9

0

 EDU
0

3
4

Figure 58

102

 OPLQ

Rexroth Hydraulic schematic diagram of the practicator

Assignments
The force needed to move the weight is limited. Throttle valves are added to the supply line to
load the system.
378. There are two arrows in the solenoids of component K3. Explain the control function of this
valve.
Pressure limiting valve V2 is adjusted and set at 80 bar. Valve K2 is not activated. The slide is
positioned vertical. Valve K3 is activated so that the weight is moving up, which is causing a
pressure of 50 bar on pressure gauge M5. The proportional valve is set at 4 l/min.
379. What is the position of the ball of component T6 in this situation?
380. What is the pressure reading on gauge M4?
381. What is the pressure reading on gauge M1?
382. What is the pressure difference of the proportional valve?
Proceed and repeat the activities as described in the latter however the difference is that the
slide is positioned horizontally instead of vertically and component is set at 100 bar. Pressure
gauge M5 gives a pressure reading of 40 bar during the movement of the weight.
383. What is the pressure reading on gauge M4?
384. What is the pressure reading on gauge M1?
385. What is the pressure difference over the control valve?
386. Is the speed wherewith the weight is moved changed in other words did the rotation speed
of the hydraulic motor change in this situation? Explain your answer.
387. The spring pressure of component V3 is increased to 20 bar. What happens to the rotation
speed of the hydraulic motor?

103

PRACTICE HYDRAULICS
Assignment 1
Prepare the initial assignments in case you did not manage to prepare these at home.

Assignment 2
Compare your answers with the answers of your study colleagues in case you did prepare the
assignments at home.

Assignment 3
Use the schematic diagram and locate the different components on the installation. Apply the
magnetic letter codes. Follow the hydraulic pipes and preferably start at the tank. Do not
proceed with the assignments prior to locating all components even when some of these
components are not visible. Make sure that you know where each component is located. Make
note of any differences between the installation and the schematic diagram. (Make use of the
magnetic code plates).

Important!
Consult the practical supervisor in case something is unclear or in case you desire additional information. Write your questions down in case the supervisor is occupied and
submit your questions when the supervisor is no longer occupied.

Assignment 4
Check the oil level in the reservoir and the temperature of the oil. Also check and verify that
there are no moving objects that could block the moving parts of the installation prior to starting
the installation.

104

/XIILQJF\OLQGHU

&
+\GUDXOLFPRWRUFRXQWHUFORFNZLVH

0

+\GUDXOLFPRWRUFORFNZLVH

0
0

'

7

'

'

7

7

.
0
0

7
7

.

.

0

9

 EDU

.

7

9

 EDU
9

0

 EDU
0

3
4

Figure 59

 OPLQ

Rexroth Hydraulic schematic diagram of the practicator

105

Assignments
* Open the throttles D3, D4, and D5, put the selector switch S1 in position 1.
* Start the installation and wait until it is pressurized.
* Operate the installation with the pushbuttons so that cylinder C1 is fully and the weight in
the slide is in the bottom position.
388. Move cylinder C1 in and write down the pressures of the gauges M1, M2, and M3 in table 1.
389. Move cylinder C1 out and write down the measured pressures in table 1.
390. Explain the behaviour of the cylinder and the measured values.

WDEOH
F\OLQGHULQ

 F\OLQGHUPLGGOH

 

F\OLQGHURXW

0
0
0

391. What is the position of valve K4 during the outward movement? Explain your answer
392. What is the purpose of T2 when cylinder C1 is extracted?
393. Move cylinder C1 in and slowly close throttle valve D3 during the stroke until its fully
closed. Write down the pressure values of the gauges M1, M2, and M3 in table 2.
394. What did you notice? Can you explain this?

WDEOH
F\OLQGHULQ

0
0
0

106

 F\OLQGHUPLGGOH

 

F\OLQGHURXW

395. Move Cylinder C1 out and move the weight to the top position
396. Move cylinder C1 in and close D3 so that the cylinder is just (still) moving.
397. Write down the changes of the pressures of the gauges M1, M2, and M3 in table 3..
398. Explain the behaviour of the cylinder.

WDEOH
&\OLQGHULQ

&\OLQGHUPLGGOH

&\OLQGHURXW

0
0
0

399. Position cylinder C1 so that the slide with the weight is vertical.
400. Move the weight down and write down the pressures of the gauges M4, M5, and M6 in
table 4.
401. Move the weight up and write down the pressures in table 4. Explain the pressure differences. .

WDEOH
:HLJKWXQGHU

:HLJKWPLGGOH

:HLJKWXS

0
0
0

107

402. BMove the weight down and adjust and set the load (M6) at 50 bar using D5.
403. Move the weight up again.
404. Repeat the exercise of the previous two assignments however change the load, according
to the values in table 5.
405. Explain what happens with the speed of the weight.

WDEOH
/RDG0

EDU

EDU

EDU

0
0

406. Open fully the throttle valves D3, D4, and D5, and switch S1 in position 2.
407. What do you notice when you move the cylinder up using the joystick while at the same the
weight is moving down?
408. Switch off the installation and remove the magnetic plates. Discuss the results with the
practical supervisor.

108

/XIILQJF\OLQGHU

&
+\GUDXOLFPRWRUFRXQWHUFORFNZLVH

0

+\GUDXOLFPRWRUFORFNZLVH

0
0

'

7

'

'

7

7

.
0
0

7
7

.

.

0

9

 EDU

.

7

9

 EDU
9

0

 EDU
0

3
4

Figure 60

 OPLQ

Rexroth Hydraulic schematic diagram of the practicator

109