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# Introduction to the Finite

Element Method
Spring 2010

## Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Course Objectives
The student should be capable of writing
simple programs to solve different
problems using finite element method.

Assessment
10%
20%

## Assignments (1 per week)

Quizzes (best 2 out of 3)

Week of 12/11/2006
Week of 20/12/2006
Week of 17/1/2006

20%
25%
25%

Course Project
Midterm exam (Week of 2/12/2006)
Final exam (starting 3/2/2007)
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

## Fundamental Course Agreement

Homework is sent in electronic format (No
hardcopies are accepted)
Computer programs have to written in
MATLAB or Mathematica script
No late homework is accepted
No excuses are accepted for missing a
quiz
Best two out of three quizzes are counted
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

References
J.N. Reddy, An Introduction to the Finite
Element Method 3rd ed., McGraw Hill, ISBN
007-124473-5
D.V. Hutton, Fundamentals of Finite Element
Analysis 1st ed., McGraw Hill, ISBN 007121857-2
K. Bathe, Finite Element Procedures, Prentice
Hall, 1996. (in library)
T. Hughes, The finite Element Method: Linear
Static and Dynamic Finite Element analysis,
Dover Publications, 2000. (in library)
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Numerical Solution of
Boundary Value Problems
Weighted Residual Methods

## Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Objectives
In this section we will be introduced to the
general classification of approximate
methods
Special attention will be paid for the
weighted residual method
Derivation of a system of linear equations
to approximate the solution of an ODE will
be presented using different techniques
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Why Approximate?

Ignorance
Need to Develop New Techniques
In general, the problem does not have an
analytical solution!

## Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Classification of Approximate
Solutions of D.E.s
Discrete Coordinate Method
Finite difference Methods
Stepwise integration methods
Euler method
Runge-Kutta methods
Etc

## Distributed Coordinate Methods

Weighted Residual Methods
Interior Residual
Collocation
Galrekin
Finite Element

Boundary Residual
Boundary Element Method

## Stationary Functional Methods

Reyligh-Ritz methods
Finite Element method
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Basic Concepts
A linear differential equation may be written in the form:

L f x g x
Where L(.) is a linear differential operator.
An approximate solution maybe of the form:
n

f x ai i x
i 1

## Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Basic Concepts
Applying the differential operator on the approximate
solution, you get:
n

L f x g x L ai i x g x
i 1

ai L i x g x 0
i 1

a L x g x Rx
i 1

Residue

## Handling the Residue

The weighted residual methods are all
based on minimizing the value of the
residue.
Since the residue can not be zero over the
whole domain, different techniques were
introduced.

## Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Collocation Method
The idea behind the collocation method is
similar to that behind the buttons of your
shirt!
Assume a solution, then force the residue
to be zero at the collocation points

## Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Collocation Method
Rx j 0
Rx j

a L x F x 0
n

i 1

Example Problem

u
EA 2 F x 0
x
2

Bar application
2u
EA 2 F x 0
x
n

ux ai i x
i 1

d 2 i x
EA ai
F x R x
2
dx
i 1
n

d 2 i x j
EA ai
F x j 0
2
dx
i 1
n

## Introduction to the Finite Element Method

In Matrix Form
k11 k21 ... kn1 a1
F x1
k
a
F x
k
...
k

n2 2
2
12 22

F xn
k1n k2 n ... knn an

d 2 i x
kij EA
dx2 x x

## Solve the above system for the generalized

coordinates ai to get the solution for u(x)

## Notes on the trial functions

They should be at least twice
differentiable!
They should satisfy all boundary
conditions!
Conditions.

## Introduction to the Finite Element Method

For a constant forcing function, F(x)=f
The strain at the free end of the bar should
be zero (slope of displacement is zero).
We may use:
x
x Sin

2l

d x

x
EA
EA Sin
2
dx
2l
2l
2

## Since we only have one term in the series,

we will select one collocation point!
The midpoint is a reasonable choice!
2

EA Sin a1 f
2l
4

Solving:
4 2l 2 f
l2 f
a1

0.57
2
2
EA
EA
EA 2l Sin 4
f

## Then, the approximate

l2 f
x
ux 0.57
Sin
solution for this problem is:
EA 2l
Which gives the maximum
l2 f
exact 0.5
ul 0.57
displacement to be:
EA

lf
exact 1.0
EA

## The Subdomain Method (free

The idea behind the
subdomain method is
to force the integral
of the residue to be
equal to zero on an
subinterval of the
domain

x j 1

Rx dx 0

xj

x j 1

x j 1

a L xdx g xdx 0
i 1

xj

xj

Bar application
2u
EA 2 F x 0
x
n

ux ai i x
i 1

d 2 i x
EA ai
F x R x
2
dx
i 1
n

n

x j 1

i 1

xj

EA ai

d i x
dx F x dx
2
dx
xj
2

x j 1

In Matrix Form
x j1 d 2 x
x j1

i
EA
dxai F x dx
2
x j dx

x j

## Solve the above system for the generalized

coordinates ai to get the solution for u(x)

## The Galerkin Method

Galerkin suggested that the residue
should be multiplied by a weighting
function that is a part of the suggested
solution then the integration is performed
over the whole domain!!!
Actually, it turned out to be a VERY
GOOD idea
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

## The Galerkin Method

Rx x dx 0
j

Domain

a xL xdx xg xdx 0
i 1

Domain

Domain

Bar application
2u
EA 2 F x 0
x
n

ux ai i x
i 1

d 2 i x
EA ai
F x R x
2
dx
i 1
n

d 2 i x
EA ai j x
dx j x F x dx
2
dx
i 1
Domain
Domain
n

In Matrix Form

d 2 i x

EA j x
dx
a

x
F
x
dx
i
j

2
dx

Domain

Domain

## Solve the above system for the generalized

coordinates ai to get the solution for u(x)

## Same conditions on the functions

are applied
They should be at least twice
differentiable!
They should satisfy all boundary
conditions!
Lets use the same function as in the
collocation method:
x
x Sin

2l

## Substituting with the approximate

solution:
d 2 i x
EA ai j x
dx j x F x dx
2
dx
i 1
Domain
Domain
n

x x
EA a1 Sin Sin dx
2l 0 2l 2l
2

x
Sin fdx
2l
0
l

2l
l
EA a1

2l 2
2

f 16l 2
fl 2
a1
0.52
3
EA
EA
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

## Substituting with the approximate

solution: (Int. by Parts)
d 2 i x
EA ai j x
dx j x F x dx
2
dx
i 1
Domain
Domain
d 2 i x
j x
dx
2

dx
Domain
n

d j x d i x
d i x
j x

dx
dx 0 Domain dx
dx
l

Zero!

2l
l
EA a1

2l 2
2

f 16l 2
fl 2
a1
0.52
3
EA
EA
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

## What did we gain?

The functions are required to be less
differentiable
Not all boundary conditions need to be
satisfied
The matrix became symmetric!

## Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Summary
We may solve differential equations using a
series of functions with different weights.
When those functions are used, Residue
appears in the differential equation
The weights of the functions may be determined
to minimize the residue by different techniques
One very important technique is the Galerkin
method.
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

NOTE
Next Sunday 5/11 (No lecture)
Following week 12/11, Quiz #1 will be held
covering all the material up-to this lecture
Homework #1 is due next week (Electronic
submission of report and code is
mandatory.

## Report Should Include

Cover page
Introduction section indicating the
procedure you used with the equations as
Results section
Observations and Conclusions if any
according to the output of your program.
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Homework #1
Solve the beam bending
problem, for beam
displacement, for a simply
placed at the center of the
beam using
Collocation Method
Subdomain Method
Galerkin Method

## Use three term Sin series that

satisfies all BCs
Write a program that produces
the results for n-term solution.

d 4w
F ( x)
4
dx
w(0) w(l ) 0
d 2 w(0) d 2 w(l )

0
2
2
dx
dx
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Exact Solution

w( x)

x 3 13 x

12 60
x3 x 2 7 x 3

12 4 15 10

0 x 1/ 2
1/ 2 x 1

## The Finite Element Method

2nd order DEs in 1-D

## Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Objectives
Understand the basic steps of the finite
element analysis
Apply the finite element method to second
order differential equations in 1-D

## The Mathematical Model

Solve:
d du
a cu f 0
dx dx
0 x L

Subject to:

du
u0 u0 , a Q0
dx x L
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

## Step #1: Discretization

At this step, we divide
the domain into
elements.
The elements are
connected at nodes.
All properties of the
domain are defined at
those nodes.

## Step #2: Element Equations

Lets concentrate our
attention to a single
element.
The same DE applies
on the element level,
hence, we may follow
the procedure for
weighted residual
methods on the
element level!

d du
a cu f 0
dx dx
x1 x x2

ux1 u1 , ux2 u2 ,

du
du
Q1 , a
Q2
a
dx x x1
dx x x2
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Polynomial Approximation
Now, we may propose an approximate
solution for the primary variable, u(x),
within that element.
The simplest proposition would be a
polynomial!

## Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Polynomial Approximation
Interpolating the values
of displacement
knowing the nodal
displacements, we may
write:
ux b1x b0
ux1 u1 b1x1 b0
ux2 u2 b1x2 b0

x2 x
x x1
u1
u2
ux
x2 x1
x2 x1
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Polynomial Approximation
u x

x2 x
x x1
u1
u2

x2 x1
x2 x1
u1
1u1 2u2 1 2 x u e
u2

## Step #2: Element Equations

(contd)
Assuming constant
domain properties:

d 2u
a 2 cu f 0
dx
x1 x x2

Applying the
Galerkin method:

d 2 i x
a j x
ui c j x i x ui j x f dx 0
2

dx

Domain
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

(contd)
Note that:

d 2 i x
a j x
dx
2

dx
Domain

d j x d i x
d i x
a j x
a
dx
dx x1
dx
dx
Domain
x2

And:

d 1 x
1
,
dx
he

d 2 x 1

dx
he

## Step #2: Element Equations

(contd)
For i=j=1: (and ignoring boundary terms)
2
1

x
2
a
u

c
x he 2 he 1
1

x2

x2 x
dx 0
f
he

Which gives:
a che
fhe

u1
0
2
he 3
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

## Step #2: Element Equations

(contd)
Repeating for all terms:
a

h
e

1 1 che
1 1 6

2 1 u1 fhe 1
1 2 u 2 1

equation.

elements?

## Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Homework #2
Derive the element equation without
ignoring the boundary terms.
What are differences in the element
equation.
The solution should be handed using the
same report format (use equation editor to
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

## Finite Element Procedure

1. Connecting Elements
2. Boundary Conditions
3. Solving Equations
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Objectives
Learn how the finite element model for the
whole domain is assembled
Learn how to apply boundary conditions
Solving the system of linear equations

## Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Recall
In the previous lecture, we obtained the
element equation that relates the element
degrees of freedom to the externally
applied fields
a

h
e

2 1 u1 fhe 1
1 2 u 2 1

k1 k 2 u1 f1
written:

k3 k 4 u2 f 2

1 1 che
1 1 6

Which maybe

## Introduction to the Finite Element Method

TwoElement example
k11 k21 u11 f11
1 1 1 1
k3 k4 u2 f 2
k12 k22 u12 f12
2
2
2 2
k3 k4 u2 f 2
k11
k21
1 1
2
k
k

k
3 4 1
2
0
k
3

0 u1 f1 Q1

2
k2 u2 f 2 Q2
k42 u3 f 3 Q3
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

## Illustration: Bar application

2u
EA 2 F x 0
x
1. Discretization: Divide the bar into N number of
elements. The length of each element will be
(L/N)
2. Derive the element equation from the differential
equation for constant properties an externally
applied force:
x
EA d j d i

u j f i dx 0
2
2

x1

he dx dx

## Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Performing Integration:
EA d j d i

x he 2 dx dx u j f i dx 0

x2

EA 1 1 u1e fhe 1
e

he 1 1 u2 2 1

## Note that if the integration is evaluated from 0 to he,

where he is the element length, the same results
will be obtained.

## TwoElement bar example

1
1
1

u
f
1
EA
1
1 1

he 1 1 u2 f 2

EA 1 1 u12 f12
2 2

he 1 1 u2 f 2
1 1 0 u1
1 R
EA
fhe

1 2 1 u2
2 0

he
2

0 1 1 u3
1 0
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

## Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Applying BCs
For the bar with fixed left side and free
right side, we may force the value of the
left-displacement to be equal to zero:
1 1 0 0
1 R
EA
fhe

1 2 1 u2
2 0

he
2

0 1 1 u3
1 0

## Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Solving
Removing the first row and column of the
system of equations:
EA 2 1 u2 fhe 2

he 1 1 u3 2 1

Solving:

u2 fhe 2 3

u3 2 EA 4

## Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Secondary Variables
Using the values of the displacements
obtained, we may get the value of the
reaction force:

1 1 0 0
1 R
1 2 1 3 fhe fhe 2 0

2 2
1 0
0 1 1 4 fhe

## Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Secondary Variables
Using the first equation, we get:
3 fhe fhe

R
2
2

R 2 fhe

## Which is the exact value of the reaction

force.
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Summary
In this lecture, we learned how to
assemble the global matrices of the finite
element model; how to apply the boundary
conditions, and solve the system of
equations obtained.
And finally, how to obtain the secondary
variables.
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Homework #3
Problems #3.9 & 3.13 from the text book
Write down a computer code that solves
the problem for N elements.

Objectives

## Consider the bar shown in the above figure.

It is composed of two different parts. One steel tapered
part, and uniform Aluminum part.
Calculate the displacement field using finite element
method.
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Bar Example
The bar may be represented by two
elements.
The stiffness matrices of the two elements
may be obtained using the following
integration:

d 1

x2
dx d 1
K e EAx

x1
2 dx
dx

1 1
x2
h2 h2
d 2
e
e

dx

dx

EA
x

dx
1 1
x1
he2 he2

## Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Bar Example
For the Aluminum bar: E=107 psi, and A=1
in2. we get:
x
10 7 2 1 1
107 1 1
K Al
dx

2
120 x1 1 1
120 1 1

## For the Steel bar: E=38107 psi, and

A=(1.5-0.5x/96) in2. we get:
3.10
K Fe
96 2

0.5x 1 1
4.75.107

x 1.5 96 1 1 dx 96
1

7 x2

1 1
1 1

## Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Bar Example
Assembling the Stiffness matrix and
utilizing the external forces, we get:
0 u1 0 R
49.5 49.5

10 4 49.5 57.8 8.33 u2 2.105 0
0
8.33 8.33 u3 105 0

## The boundary conditions may be applied

and the system of equations solved.
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Bar Example
Solving, we get:

variables:

u2 0.061

in
u3 0.181

R 30000 lb

4.5.1 & 4.5.3.

## Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Trusses
A truss is a set of bars that are connected
at frictionless joints.
The Truss bars are generally oriented in
the plain.

## Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Trusses
Now, the problem lies in the
transformation of the local displacements
of the bar, which are always in the
direction of the bar, to the global degrees
of freedom that are generally oriented in
the plain.

## Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Equation of Motion
1
0
EA
h 1

0 1
0 0
0 1
0 0

0 u 1 F 1

0 v1 0

0 u 2 F 2

0 v 2 0
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Transformation Matrix
u1
0
0 u1
Cos Sin

Sin Cos

0
0 v1
v1

0
0
Cos Sin u2
u 2

v 2
0
Sin Cos v2 Transformed
Local DOF 0
DOF

Local DOF

d
T Transforme
DOF

K T F

## Substituting into the

FEM:
Transforming the
forces:

Finally:

T K T T F
T

K F
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Recall
K T T K T

Where:
Cos
Sin

0
0

Sin
0
0
Cos
0
0
0
Cos Sin

0
Sin Cos

1
0
EA
K
h 1

0 1
0 0
0 1
0 0

0
0
0

Coordinates
0
0 1
Cos Sin
Sin Cos
0
0
0
EA

K
0
Cos Sin 1
h 0

0
0
Sin

Cos

0
0
0
Cos Sin
Sin Cos

0
0

0
0
Cos Sin

0
Sin Cos
0

0 1
0 0
0 1
0 0

0
0

## Element Stiffness Matrix in Global

Coordinates
1
1

2
2

Cos

Sin
2

Cos

Sin
2

2
2
1

1
2
2
Sin
Sin2 Sin
EA 2 Sin2
2

K
1
h Cos 2 1 Sin2 Cos 2
Sin2

2
2
1

1
2
2
Sin2
Sin
Sin2 Sin
2
2

## Example: 4.6.1 pp. 196-201

Use the finite element analysis to find the
displacements of node C.

## Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Element Equations
1
0
EA

K1
L 1

0 1
0 0
0 1
0 0

0
0
0

0 0
0 1
EA

K2
L 0 0

0 1

0 0
0 1
0 0

0 1

## 0.3536 0.3536 0.3536

0.3536
0.3536

0
.
3536

0
.
3536

0
.
3536
EA

K3
0.3536
L 0.3536 0.3536 0.3536

0.3536
0.3536 0.3536 0.3536

## Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Assembly Procedure
0.3536 1 0 0.3536 0.3536
1.3536
0.3536

0
.
3536
0
0

0
.
3536

0
.
3536

0
1 0
0
0
EA 1
K

0
0 1
0
1
L 0
0.3536 0.3536 0 0
0.3536
0.3536

1.3536
0.3536 0.3536 0 1 0.3536

## Global Force Vector

F1x F1x
F

F
1
y
1y
Remember!
F2 x F2 x
F
F
2
y
2 y is applied to a truss
F3 x P

F3 y 2 P
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Boundary Conditions

U1 V1 U 2 V2 0
Remove the corresponding rows and columns

EA 0.3536 0.3536 U 3 P

L 0.3536 1.3536 V3 2P
Continue! (as before)
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Results
PL
3PL
U 3 5.828
, V3
EA
EA

F1x P, F1 y P,
F2 x 0, F2 y 3P
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Postcomputation
e
1

e
2

P
P

Ae Ae
e

P1e Ae Ee
e
L
P 2

1 1 u1
1 1 e

u 2

u1 Cos Sin
0
0 u1

0
0 v1
v1 Sin Cos

0
0
Cos Sin u2
u 2

v 2 0
0
Sin Cos v2

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Postcomputation

(1)

0,

( 2)

3P
,
A

( 3)

P
2
A

## Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Summary
In this lecture we learned how to apply the
finite element modeling technique to bar
problems with general orientation in a
plain.

## Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Homework #5
Problem 4.27,
Due 13/12/2006 before 9:00am

Problem 4.44,
Due 20/12/2006 before 9:00am

## Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Announcements
Compensation Tutorial for E15:
Next Sunday 17/12/2006 3rd Period in H6

Next Lecture:
Wednesday 20/12/2006 3rd Period in H6

Next Quiz:
Wednesday 20/12/2006 3rd Period in H6
(This Lecture is included)
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Term Projects
A problem has got to be solved using the
finite element method
A report is going to be presented by each
group presenting the problem and its
solution

## The Report should contain:

Cover page
Project Title
Names of team members

Introduction and literature survey

## Introduction to the problem

Historical background and relevance of the problem
Papers and books that presented the problem
Latest achievements in the problem
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

## The Report should contain:

The finite element derivation
Governing equation
Derivation of the element matrices
Using Glerkin method
Application of Symbolic manipulator to derive the
matrix equations will be appreciated

Solution procedure

## The Report should contain:

The numerical results and verification
Program results
Verification of results compared to published results
Parametric study

Discussion
Observations of the results
Further work that may be performed with the problem
Future developments of the model

References
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Evaluation
Report (50%)
Code (30%)
Structured: Functions built, easily modified
Length: The shorter the better

Results (20%)

## Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Projects
Heat transfer in a 2-D heat sink
2-D flow around a blunt body in a wind
tunnel
Vibration characteristics of a pipe with
internal fluid flow
Panel flutter of a beam
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

## Heat transfer in a 2-D heat sink

The heat sink will have heat flowing from
one side
Convection transfer on the surfaces
Different boundary conditions on the other
three sides
Plot contours of temperature distribution
with different boundary conditions
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

## 2-D flow around a blunt body in a

wind tunnel
Potential flow in a duct
Rectangular body with different
Dimensions
Study the effect of the body size on the
flow speed on both sides
Plot contours of potential function,
pressure, and velocity potential
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

## Vibration characteristics of a pipe

with internal fluid flow
Study the change of the natural
frequencies with the flow speed under
different boundary conditions and fluid
density
Indicate the flow speeds at which
instabilities occur

## Panel flutter of a beam

A fixed-fixed beam is subjected to flow
over its surface
Plot the effect of the flow speed on the
natural frequencies of the beam
Indicate the speed at which instability
occurs

## Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Rotating beams undergo centrifugal
tension that results in the change of its
natural frequencies
Study the effect of rotation speed on the
beam natural frequencies and frequency
response to excitations at the root

## Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Teams
2-3 Students teams
Names and selected projects should be
submitted before 4PM on Thursday
21/12/2006

## Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Work Progress
A report should be submitted By 4PM every Wednesday
27/12/2006
The report should contain a preliminary literature survey
Problem statement
Governing equations

10/1/2007
The report should contain a deeper literature survey
The preliminary derivations of the finite element model

17/1/2007
A more mature version of the report should be presented
Preliminary results of the code
List of the program script should be included

24/1/2007
Final version of the report should be presented together with the code
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

## Beams and Frames

Beams are the most-used structural
elements.
Many real structures may be approximated
as beam elements
Two main beam theories:
Euler-Bernoulli beam theory
Timoshenko beam theory
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

## Euler-Bernoulli Beam Theory

The main assumption in the EulerBernoulli beam theory is that the beams
thickness is too small compared to the
beam length
That assumption resulted in that the sheer
deformation of the beam may be
neglected without much error in the
analysis
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Governing Equation
The equation governing the deformation of
may be written in the form:

d2
d 2w
EI x 2 F ( x)
2
dx
dx

## The Thin-Beam Elements

The thin beam element has a special feature,
namely, the two degrees of freedom at each
node are related.

## Beam Interpolation Function

w( x) a1 a2 x a3 x a4 x
2

wx 1

x x

wx H xa
dwx dH x
2
a H x x a 0 1 2 x 3x a

dx
dx
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

w0 w1 H 0a

wl w2 H l a

## w' 0 w'1 H x 0a w' l w'2 H x l a

w1 H 0 a1
w' H 0 a
1 x 2

T a
w2 H l a3
w'2 H x l a4
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

w1 1
w' 0
1

w2 1
w'2 0

0 0 0 a1
1 0 0 a2

2
3
l l
l a3
2
1 2l 3l a4

1
a1
a 0
2 3
2
a3 l
a4 2
l 3

0
1
2
l
1
l2

0
0
3
l2
2
l3

0
w1

0
1 w'1

l w2
1 w'
2 2
l

## Beam Interpolation Function

a T

w
e

wx H xa H xT w N x w
1

wx Ni x wi
i 1

## Beam Interpolation Function

3x 2 2 x 3
1 l 2 l 3

3
2
x 2x x
3

T
l
l
N x N x 3x 2 2 x3

l2
l3

x 2 x3
2
l l

## Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Interpolation Functions
1
N1

N3

0.8

N(x)

0.6
0.4
0.2

N2

0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

-0.2

0.8

N4 1

-0.4
X

## Beam Stiffness Matrix

The governing equation is:

d
d w
EI x 2 F ( x)
2
dx
dx
2

4

wx Ni x wi
i 1

## Beam Stiffness Matrix

The governing equation becomes

d Ni
d
EI x 2 wi F ( x) R( x)

2
dx
i 1 dx

le
le
2
4 d2

d
N
i

R
(
x
)
N
dx

EI
x
w

F
(
x
)
N j dx

j
i
2
0
0 i1 dx2

dx

## Beam Stiffness Matrix

Using integration by parts, twice, and
ignoring the boundary terms, we get:
le
2
2
4

d
N
d
N
j
i
EI x

F
(
x
)
N
i
j dx 0
2
2
0 i1

dx
dx

In matrix form:
le

EI xN N
xx

dxw F ( x)N xx dx
le

xx

Beam Example

## Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Optional Homework #6
Derive the expression for the interpolation
function for a beam in terms of nodal
displacements and slopes.
Try to use a symbolic manipulator to
generate the expressions.
2

d w
d w
A 2 EI 4 F ( x)
dt
dx
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

## Introduction to the Finite Element Method

2-D Elements
In this section, we will be introduced to two
dimensional elements with single degree
of freedom per node.
Detailed attention will be paid to
rectangular elements.

## For the 2-D BV Problem

Lets consider a problem with a single
dependent variable
We may set one degree of freedom to
each node; say fi.
Further, lets only consider a rectangular
element that is aligned with the physical
coordinates
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

A Rectangular Element
For the approximation
of a general function
f(x,y) over the element
you need a 2-D
interpolation function

f x, y a1 a2 x a3 y a4 xy
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

procedure!

## 2-D Interpolation Function

f ( x, y) a1 a2 x a3 y a4 xy
f 0,0 f1 H 0,0a

f a, b f3 H a, ba

f x, y H x, y a

f a,0 f 2 H 0, aa
f 0, b f 4 H 0, ba

f1 H 0,0 a1
f H a,0 a
2
2

T a
f 3 H a, b a3
f 4 H 0b a4
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

f1 1
f 1
2

f 3 1
f 4 1

0
a
a
0

0 0 a1
0 0 a2

b ab a3

b 0 a4

0
0
1
a1 1 1
0

a
2 a1 a

0
0
a
3 b
a4 1 1 1
ab ab ab

0
f1
0
f

1
f3
b
1 f 4
ab

## 2-D Interpolation Function

f x, y H x, y a N x, y f e

x y xy
1 a b ab

x xy

a ab
T

N x, y N x, y
xy

ab

y xy

b ab
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

1

0.9

0.9

0.8

0.8

0.7

0.7

0.6

0.6

N1 0.5

N2 0.5

0.4

0.4

0.3

0.3
0.2

0.2

0.9

0.9
0.1

0.1

0.6

0
0 0.1
0.2 0.3
0.4 0.5
0.6 0.7
0.8 0.9
x

0.3
0
1

0.6

0
0 0.1
0.2 0.3
0.4 0.5
0.6 0.7
0.8 0.9
x

0.3

0
1

1

0.9

0.9

0.8

0.8

0.7

0.7

0.6

0.6

N3 0.5

N4 0.5

0.4

0.4

0.3

0.3
0.2

0.2

0.9

0.9
0.1

0.1

0.6

0
0 0.1
0.2 0.3
0.4 0.5
0.6 0.7
0.8 0.9
x

0.3
0
1

0.6

0
0 0.1
0.2 0.3
0.4 0.5
0.6 0.7
0.8 0.9
x

0.3

0
1

0
2

2 0
2
x y
2

i Ni x, y N x, y
4

i 1

i Ni x, y N x, y
4

i 1

## Applying the Galerkin method and integrating by parts,

the element equation becomes

N N N N dA 0
e

Area

2 a 2 b2
2
1 a 2b 2
6ab a 2 b 2

2
2

2
a

a 2 2b 2
2 a 2 b2
2a 2 b 2
a 2 b2

a 2 b2
2a 2 b 2
2 a 2 b2
a 2 2b 2

2a 2 b 2
2
2
a b e
0
2
2
a 2b
2
2
2 a b

## The Logistic Problem

In the 2-D problems, the numbering
scheme, usually, is not as straight forward
as the 1-D problem

## Introduction to the Finite Element Method

1-D Example
Element #1 is associated with nodes 1&2
Element #2 is associated with nodes 2&3, etc

2-D Example

2-D Example

## Introduction to the Finite Element Method

For Element #5
Local Node Number

## Global Node Number

8
Introduction to the Finite Element Method

matrix
1

1,1

1,2

1,4

1,3

2,1

2,2

2,4

2,3

4,1

4,2

4,4

4,3

3,1

3,2

3,4

3,3

10

11

12

1
2
3
4

10
11
12

## A Solution for the Logistics

Problem
One solution of the logistic problem is to
keep a record of elements and the
mapping of the local numbering scheme to
the global numbering scheme in a table!

Numbering
Element
Number

1
2
3
4
5
6

1
1
4
7
2
5
8

Node Number
2
3
2
5
5
8
8
11
3
6
6
9
9
12

4
4
7
10
5
8
11

Matrix
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

## Create a square matrix A;

N*N (N=Number of nodes)
For the ith element
Get the element matrix B
For the jth node
Get its global number k
For the mth node
Get its global number n
Let Akn=Akn+Bjm
Repeat for all m
Repeat for all j
Repeat for all i

10

11

12

1
2

Element

3Number
4

Node Number
1

11

10

10

11

12

11

8
9

12