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Element Method

Spring 2010

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Course Objectives

The student should be capable of writing

simple programs to solve different

problems using finite element method.

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Assessment

10%

20%

Quizzes (best 2 out of 3)

Week of 12/11/2006

Week of 20/12/2006

Week of 17/1/2006

20%

25%

25%

Course Project

Midterm exam (Week of 2/12/2006)

Final exam (starting 3/2/2007)

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Homework is sent in electronic format (No

hardcopies are accepted)

Computer programs have to written in

MATLAB or Mathematica script

No late homework is accepted

No excuses are accepted for missing a

quiz

Best two out of three quizzes are counted

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

References

J.N. Reddy, An Introduction to the Finite

Element Method 3rd ed., McGraw Hill, ISBN

007-124473-5

D.V. Hutton, Fundamentals of Finite Element

Analysis 1st ed., McGraw Hill, ISBN 007121857-2

K. Bathe, Finite Element Procedures, Prentice

Hall, 1996. (in library)

T. Hughes, The finite Element Method: Linear

Static and Dynamic Finite Element analysis,

Dover Publications, 2000. (in library)

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Numerical Solution of

Boundary Value Problems

Weighted Residual Methods

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Objectives

In this section we will be introduced to the

general classification of approximate

methods

Special attention will be paid for the

weighted residual method

Derivation of a system of linear equations

to approximate the solution of an ODE will

be presented using different techniques

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Why Approximate?

Ignorance

Readily Available Packages

Need to Develop New Techniques

Good use of your computer!

In general, the problem does not have an

analytical solution!

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Classification of Approximate

Solutions of D.E.s

Discrete Coordinate Method

Finite difference Methods

Stepwise integration methods

Euler method

Runge-Kutta methods

Etc

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Weighted Residual Methods

Interior Residual

Collocation

Galrekin

Finite Element

Boundary Residual

Boundary Element Method

Reyligh-Ritz methods

Finite Element method

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Basic Concepts

A linear differential equation may be written in the form:

L f x g x

Where L(.) is a linear differential operator.

An approximate solution maybe of the form:

n

f x ai i x

i 1

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Basic Concepts

Applying the differential operator on the approximate

solution, you get:

n

L f x g x L ai i x g x

i 1

ai L i x g x 0

i 1

a L x g x Rx

i 1

Residue

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

The weighted residual methods are all

based on minimizing the value of the

residue.

Since the residue can not be zero over the

whole domain, different techniques were

introduced.

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Collocation Method

The idea behind the collocation method is

similar to that behind the buttons of your

shirt!

Assume a solution, then force the residue

to be zero at the collocation points

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Collocation Method

Rx j 0

Rx j

a L x F x 0

n

i 1

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Example Problem

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

u

EA 2 F x 0

x

2

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Bar application

2u

EA 2 F x 0

x

n

ux ai i x

i 1

d 2 i x

EA ai

F x R x

2

dx

i 1

n

d 2 i x j

EA ai

F x j 0

2

dx

i 1

n

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

In Matrix Form

k11 k21 ... kn1 a1

F x1

k

a

F x

k

...

k

n2 2

2

12 22

F xn

k1n k2 n ... knn an

d 2 i x

kij EA

dx2 x x

coordinates ai to get the solution for u(x)

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

They should be at least twice

differentiable!

They should satisfy all boundary

conditions!

Those are called the Admissibility

Conditions.

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

For a constant forcing function, F(x)=f

The strain at the free end of the bar should

be zero (slope of displacement is zero).

We may use:

x

x Sin

2l

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

d x

x

EA

EA Sin

2

dx

2l

2l

2

we will select one collocation point!

The midpoint is a reasonable choice!

2

EA Sin a1 f

2l

4

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Solving:

4 2l 2 f

l2 f

a1

0.57

2

2

EA

EA

EA 2l Sin 4

f

l2 f

x

ux 0.57

Sin

solution for this problem is:

EA 2l

Which gives the maximum

l2 f

exact 0.5

ul 0.57

displacement to be:

EA

lf

exact 1.0

EA

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

reading)

The idea behind the

subdomain method is

to force the integral

of the residue to be

equal to zero on an

subinterval of the

domain

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

x j 1

Rx dx 0

xj

x j 1

x j 1

a L xdx g xdx 0

i 1

xj

xj

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Bar application

2u

EA 2 F x 0

x

n

ux ai i x

i 1

d 2 i x

EA ai

F x R x

2

dx

i 1

n

n

x j 1

i 1

xj

EA ai

d i x

dx F x dx

2

dx

xj

2

x j 1

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

In Matrix Form

x j1 d 2 x

x j1

i

EA

dxai F x dx

2

x j dx

x j

coordinates ai to get the solution for u(x)

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Galerkin suggested that the residue

should be multiplied by a weighting

function that is a part of the suggested

solution then the integration is performed

over the whole domain!!!

Actually, it turned out to be a VERY

GOOD idea

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Rx x dx 0

j

Domain

a xL xdx xg xdx 0

i 1

Domain

Domain

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Bar application

2u

EA 2 F x 0

x

n

ux ai i x

i 1

d 2 i x

EA ai

F x R x

2

dx

i 1

n

d 2 i x

EA ai j x

dx j x F x dx

2

dx

i 1

Domain

Domain

n

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

In Matrix Form

d 2 i x

EA j x

dx

a

x

F

x

dx

i

j

2

dx

Domain

Domain

coordinates ai to get the solution for u(x)

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

are applied

They should be at least twice

differentiable!

They should satisfy all boundary

conditions!

Lets use the same function as in the

collocation method:

x

x Sin

2l

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

solution:

d 2 i x

EA ai j x

dx j x F x dx

2

dx

i 1

Domain

Domain

n

x x

EA a1 Sin Sin dx

2l 0 2l 2l

2

x

Sin fdx

2l

0

l

2l

l

EA a1

2l 2

2

f 16l 2

fl 2

a1

0.52

3

EA

EA

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

solution: (Int. by Parts)

d 2 i x

EA ai j x

dx j x F x dx

2

dx

i 1

Domain

Domain

d 2 i x

j x

dx

2

dx

Domain

n

d j x d i x

d i x

j x

dx

dx 0 Domain dx

dx

l

Zero!

2l

l

EA a1

2l 2

2

f 16l 2

fl 2

a1

0.52

3

EA

EA

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

The functions are required to be less

differentiable

Not all boundary conditions need to be

satisfied

The matrix became symmetric!

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Summary

We may solve differential equations using a

series of functions with different weights.

When those functions are used, Residue

appears in the differential equation

The weights of the functions may be determined

to minimize the residue by different techniques

One very important technique is the Galerkin

method.

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

NOTE

Next Sunday 5/11 (No lecture)

Following week 12/11, Quiz #1 will be held

covering all the material up-to this lecture

Homework #1 is due next week (Electronic

submission of report and code is

mandatory.

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Cover page

Introduction section indicating the

procedure you used with the equations as

implemented in your code

Results section

Observations and Conclusions if any

according to the output of your program.

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Homework #1

Solve the beam bending

problem, for beam

displacement, for a simply

supported beam with a load

placed at the center of the

beam using

Collocation Method

Subdomain Method

Galerkin Method

satisfies all BCs

Write a program that produces

the results for n-term solution.

d 4w

F ( x)

4

dx

w(0) w(l ) 0

d 2 w(0) d 2 w(l )

0

2

2

dx

dx

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Exact Solution

w( x)

x 3 13 x

12 60

x3 x 2 7 x 3

12 4 15 10

0 x 1/ 2

1/ 2 x 1

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

2nd order DEs in 1-D

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Objectives

Understand the basic steps of the finite

element analysis

Apply the finite element method to second

order differential equations in 1-D

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Solve:

d du

a cu f 0

dx dx

0 x L

Subject to:

du

u0 u0 , a Q0

dx x L

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

At this step, we divide

the domain into

elements.

The elements are

connected at nodes.

All properties of the

domain are defined at

those nodes.

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Lets concentrate our

attention to a single

element.

The same DE applies

on the element level,

hence, we may follow

the procedure for

weighted residual

methods on the

element level!

d du

a cu f 0

dx dx

x1 x x2

ux1 u1 , ux2 u2 ,

du

du

Q1 , a

Q2

a

dx x x1

dx x x2

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Polynomial Approximation

Now, we may propose an approximate

solution for the primary variable, u(x),

within that element.

The simplest proposition would be a

polynomial!

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Polynomial Approximation

Interpolating the values

of displacement

knowing the nodal

displacements, we may

write:

ux b1x b0

ux1 u1 b1x1 b0

ux2 u2 b1x2 b0

x2 x

x x1

u1

u2

ux

x2 x1

x2 x1

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Polynomial Approximation

u x

x2 x

x x1

u1

u2

x2 x1

x2 x1

u1

1u1 2u2 1 2 x u e

u2

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

(contd)

Assuming constant

domain properties:

d 2u

a 2 cu f 0

dx

x1 x x2

Applying the

Galerkin method:

d 2 i x

a j x

ui c j x i x ui j x f dx 0

2

dx

Domain

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

(contd)

Note that:

d 2 i x

a j x

dx

2

dx

Domain

d j x d i x

d i x

a j x

a

dx

dx x1

dx

dx

Domain

x2

And:

d 1 x

1

,

dx

he

d 2 x 1

dx

he

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

(contd)

For i=j=1: (and ignoring boundary terms)

2

1

x

2

a

u

c

x he 2 he 1

1

x2

x2 x

dx 0

f

he

Which gives:

a che

fhe

u1

0

2

he 3

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

(contd)

Repeating for all terms:

a

h

e

1 1 che

1 1 6

2 1 u1 fhe 1

1 2 u 2 1

equation.

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

elements?

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Homework #2

Derive the element equation without

ignoring the boundary terms.

What are differences in the element

equation.

The solution should be handed using the

same report format (use equation editor to

write your report).

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

1. Connecting Elements

2. Boundary Conditions

3. Solving Equations

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Objectives

Learn how the finite element model for the

whole domain is assembled

Learn how to apply boundary conditions

Solving the system of linear equations

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Recall

In the previous lecture, we obtained the

element equation that relates the element

degrees of freedom to the externally

applied fields

a

h

e

2 1 u1 fhe 1

1 2 u 2 1

k1 k 2 u1 f1

written:

k3 k 4 u2 f 2

1 1 che

1 1 6

Which maybe

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

TwoElement example

k11 k21 u11 f11

1 1 1 1

k3 k4 u2 f 2

k12 k22 u12 f12

2

2

2 2

k3 k4 u2 f 2

k11

k21

1 1

2

k

k

k

3 4 1

2

0

k

3

0 u1 f1 Q1

2

k2 u2 f 2 Q2

k42 u3 f 3 Q3

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

2u

EA 2 F x 0

x

1. Discretization: Divide the bar into N number of

elements. The length of each element will be

(L/N)

2. Derive the element equation from the differential

equation for constant properties an externally

applied force:

x

EA d j d i

u j f i dx 0

2

2

x1

he dx dx

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Performing Integration:

EA d j d i

x he 2 dx dx u j f i dx 0

x2

EA 1 1 u1e fhe 1

e

he 1 1 u2 2 1

where he is the element length, the same results

will be obtained.

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

1

1

1

u

f

1

EA

1

1 1

he 1 1 u2 f 2

EA 1 1 u12 f12

2 2

he 1 1 u2 f 2

1 1 0 u1

1 R

EA

fhe

1 2 1 u2

2 0

he

2

0 1 1 u3

1 0

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Applying BCs

For the bar with fixed left side and free

right side, we may force the value of the

left-displacement to be equal to zero:

1 1 0 0

1 R

EA

fhe

1 2 1 u2

2 0

he

2

0 1 1 u3

1 0

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Solving

Removing the first row and column of the

system of equations:

EA 2 1 u2 fhe 2

he 1 1 u3 2 1

Solving:

u2 fhe 2 3

u3 2 EA 4

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Secondary Variables

Using the values of the displacements

obtained, we may get the value of the

reaction force:

1 1 0 0

1 R

1 2 1 3 fhe fhe 2 0

2 2

1 0

0 1 1 4 fhe

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Secondary Variables

Using the first equation, we get:

3 fhe fhe

R

2

2

R 2 fhe

force.

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Summary

In this lecture, we learned how to

assemble the global matrices of the finite

element model; how to apply the boundary

conditions, and solve the system of

equations obtained.

And finally, how to obtain the secondary

variables.

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Homework #3

Problems #3.9 & 3.13 from the text book

Write down a computer code that solves

the problem for N elements.

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Objectives

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

It is composed of two different parts. One steel tapered

part, and uniform Aluminum part.

Calculate the displacement field using finite element

method.

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Bar Example

The bar may be represented by two

elements.

The stiffness matrices of the two elements

may be obtained using the following

integration:

d 1

x2

dx d 1

K e EAx

x1

2 dx

dx

1 1

x2

h2 h2

d 2

e

e

dx

dx

EA

x

dx

1 1

x1

he2 he2

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Bar Example

For the Aluminum bar: E=107 psi, and A=1

in2. we get:

x

10 7 2 1 1

107 1 1

K Al

dx

2

120 x1 1 1

120 1 1

A=(1.5-0.5x/96) in2. we get:

3.10

K Fe

96 2

0.5x 1 1

4.75.107

x 1.5 96 1 1 dx 96

1

7 x2

1 1

1 1

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Bar Example

Assembling the Stiffness matrix and

utilizing the external forces, we get:

0 u1 0 R

49.5 49.5

10 4 49.5 57.8 8.33 u2 2.105 0

0

8.33 8.33 u3 105 0

and the system of equations solved.

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Bar Example

Solving, we get:

variables:

u2 0.061

in

u3 0.181

R 30000 lb

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Reading Task

Please read and understand examples,

4.5.1 & 4.5.3.

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Trusses

A truss is a set of bars that are connected

at frictionless joints.

The Truss bars are generally oriented in

the plain.

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Trusses

Now, the problem lies in the

transformation of the local displacements

of the bar, which are always in the

direction of the bar, to the global degrees

of freedom that are generally oriented in

the plain.

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Equation of Motion

1

0

EA

h 1

0 1

0 0

0 1

0 0

0 u 1 F 1

0 v1 0

0 u 2 F 2

0 v 2 0

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Transformation Matrix

u1

0

0 u1

Cos Sin

Sin Cos

0

0 v1

v1

0

0

Cos Sin u2

u 2

v 2

0

Sin Cos v2 Transformed

Local DOF 0

DOF

Local DOF

d

T Transforme

DOF

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

K T F

FEM:

Transforming the

forces:

Finally:

T K T T F

T

K F

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Recall

K T T K T

Where:

Cos

Sin

0

0

Sin

0

0

Cos

0

0

0

Cos Sin

0

Sin Cos

1

0

EA

K

h 1

0 1

0 0

0 1

0 0

0

0

0

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Coordinates

0

0 1

Cos Sin

Sin Cos

0

0

0

EA

K

0

Cos Sin 1

h 0

0

0

Sin

Cos

0

0

0

Cos Sin

Sin Cos

0

0

0

0

Cos Sin

0

Sin Cos

0

0 1

0 0

0 1

0 0

0

0

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Coordinates

1

1

2

2

Cos

Sin

2

Cos

Sin

2

2

2

1

1

2

2

Sin

Sin2 Sin

EA 2 Sin2

2

K

1

h Cos 2 1 Sin2 Cos 2

Sin2

2

2

1

1

2

2

Sin2

Sin

Sin2 Sin

2

2

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Use the finite element analysis to find the

displacements of node C.

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Element Equations

1

0

EA

K1

L 1

0 1

0 0

0 1

0 0

0

0

0

0 0

0 1

EA

K2

L 0 0

0 1

0 0

0 1

0 0

0 1

0.3536

0.3536

0

.

3536

0

.

3536

0

.

3536

EA

K3

0.3536

L 0.3536 0.3536 0.3536

0.3536

0.3536 0.3536 0.3536

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Assembly Procedure

0.3536 1 0 0.3536 0.3536

1.3536

0.3536

0

.

3536

0

0

0

.

3536

0

.

3536

0

1 0

0

0

EA 1

K

0

0 1

0

1

L 0

0.3536 0.3536 0 0

0.3536

0.3536

1.3536

0.3536 0.3536 0 1 0.3536

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

F1x F1x

F

F

1

y

1y

Remember!

F2 x F2 x

F NO distributed load

F

F

2

y

2 y is applied to a truss

F3 x P

F3 y 2 P

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Boundary Conditions

U1 V1 U 2 V2 0

Remove the corresponding rows and columns

EA 0.3536 0.3536 U 3 P

L 0.3536 1.3536 V3 2P

Continue! (as before)

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Results

PL

3PL

U 3 5.828

, V3

EA

EA

F1x P, F1 y P,

F2 x 0, F2 y 3P

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Postcomputation

e

1

e

2

P

P

Ae Ae

e

P1e Ae Ee

e

L

P 2

1 1 u1

1 1 e

u 2

u1 Cos Sin

0

0 u1

0

0 v1

v1 Sin Cos

0

0

Cos Sin u2

u 2

v 2 0

0

Sin Cos v2

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Postcomputation

(1)

0,

( 2)

3P

,

A

( 3)

P

2

A

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Summary

In this lecture we learned how to apply the

finite element modeling technique to bar

problems with general orientation in a

plain.

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Homework #5

Problem 4.27,

Due 13/12/2006 before 9:00am

Problem 4.44,

Due 20/12/2006 before 9:00am

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Announcements

Compensation Tutorial for E15:

Next Sunday 17/12/2006 3rd Period in H6

Next Lecture:

Wednesday 20/12/2006 3rd Period in H6

Next Quiz:

Wednesday 20/12/2006 3rd Period in H6

(This Lecture is included)

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Term Projects

A problem has got to be solved using the

finite element method

A report is going to be presented by each

group presenting the problem and its

solution

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Cover page

Project Title

Names of team members

Table of contents

Introduction and literature survey

Historical background and relevance of the problem

Papers and books that presented the problem

Latest achievements in the problem

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

The finite element derivation

Governing equation

Derivation of the element matrices

Using Glerkin method

Application of Symbolic manipulator to derive the

matrix equations will be appreciated

Solution procedure

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

The numerical results and verification

Program results

Verification of results compared to published results

Parametric study

Discussion

Observations of the results

Further work that may be performed with the problem

Future developments of the model

References

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Evaluation

Report (50%)

Code (30%)

Structured: Functions built, easily modified

Readability: Organization, remarks

Length: The shorter the better

Results (20%)

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Projects

Heat transfer in a 2-D heat sink

2-D flow around a blunt body in a wind

tunnel

Vibration characteristics of a pipe with

internal fluid flow

Panel flutter of a beam

Rotating Timoshenko beam/blade

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

The heat sink will have heat flowing from

one side

Convection transfer on the surfaces

Different boundary conditions on the other

three sides

Plot contours of temperature distribution

with different boundary conditions

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

wind tunnel

Potential flow in a duct

Rectangular body with different

Dimensions

Study the effect of the body size on the

flow speed on both sides

Plot contours of potential function,

pressure, and velocity potential

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

with internal fluid flow

Study the change of the natural

frequencies with the flow speed under

different boundary conditions and fluid

density

Indicate the flow speeds at which

instabilities occur

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

A fixed-fixed beam is subjected to flow

over its surface

Plot the effect of the flow speed on the

natural frequencies of the beam

Indicate the speed at which instability

occurs

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Rotating beams undergo centrifugal

tension that results in the change of its

natural frequencies

Study the effect of rotation speed on the

beam natural frequencies and frequency

response to excitations at the root

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Teams

2-3 Students teams

Names and selected projects should be

submitted before 4PM on Thursday

21/12/2006

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Work Progress

A report should be submitted By 4PM every Wednesday

27/12/2006

The report should contain a preliminary literature survey

Problem statement

Governing equations

10/1/2007

The report should contain a deeper literature survey

The preliminary derivations of the finite element model

17/1/2007

A more mature version of the report should be presented

Preliminary results of the code

List of the program script should be included

24/1/2007

Final version of the report should be presented together with the code

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Beams are the most-used structural

elements.

Many real structures may be approximated

as beam elements

Two main beam theories:

Euler-Bernoulli beam theory

Timoshenko beam theory

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

The main assumption in the EulerBernoulli beam theory is that the beams

thickness is too small compared to the

beam length

That assumption resulted in that the sheer

deformation of the beam may be

neglected without much error in the

analysis

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Governing Equation

The equation governing the deformation of

and E-B beam under transverse loading

may be written in the form:

d2

d 2w

EI x 2 F ( x)

2

dx

dx

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

The thin beam element has a special feature,

namely, the two degrees of freedom at each

node are related.

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

w( x) a1 a2 x a3 x a4 x

2

wx 1

x x

wx H xa

dwx dH x

2

a H x x a 0 1 2 x 3x a

dx

dx

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

w0 w1 H 0a

wl w2 H l a

w1 H 0 a1

w' H 0 a

1 x 2

T a

w2 H l a3

w'2 H x l a4

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

w1 1

w' 0

1

w2 1

w'2 0

0 0 0 a1

1 0 0 a2

2

3

l l

l a3

2

1 2l 3l a4

1

a1

a 0

2 3

2

a3 l

a4 2

l 3

0

1

2

l

1

l2

0

0

3

l2

2

l3

0

w1

0

1 w'1

l w2

1 w'

2 2

l

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

a T

w

e

wx H xa H xT w N x w

1

wx Ni x wi

i 1

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

3x 2 2 x 3

1 l 2 l 3

3

2

x 2x x

3

T

l

l

N x N x 3x 2 2 x3

l2

l3

x 2 x3

2

l l

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Interpolation Functions

1

N1

N3

0.8

N(x)

0.6

0.4

0.2

N2

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

-0.2

0.8

N4 1

-0.4

X

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

The governing equation is:

d

d w

EI x 2 F ( x)

2

dx

dx

2

4

wx Ni x wi

i 1

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

The governing equation becomes

d Ni

d

EI x 2 wi F ( x) R( x)

2

dx

i 1 dx

le

le

2

4 d2

d

N

i

R

(

x

)

N

dx

EI

x

w

F

(

x

)

N j dx

j

i

2

0

0 i1 dx2

dx

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Using integration by parts, twice, and

ignoring the boundary terms, we get:

le

2

2

4

d

N

d

N

j

i

EI x

F

(

x

)

N

i

j dx 0

2

2

0 i1

dx

dx

In matrix form:

le

EI xN N

xx

dxw F ( x)N xx dx

le

xx

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Beam Example

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Optional Homework #6

Derive the expression for the interpolation

function for a beam in terms of nodal

displacements and slopes.

Try to use a symbolic manipulator to

generate the expressions.

2

d w

d w

A 2 EI 4 F ( x)

dt

dx

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

2-D Elements

In this section, we will be introduced to two

dimensional elements with single degree

of freedom per node.

Detailed attention will be paid to

rectangular elements.

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Lets consider a problem with a single

dependent variable

We may set one degree of freedom to

each node; say fi.

Further, lets only consider a rectangular

element that is aligned with the physical

coordinates

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

A Rectangular Element

For the approximation

of a general function

f(x,y) over the element

you need a 2-D

interpolation function

f x, y a1 a2 x a3 y a4 xy

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

procedure!

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

f ( x, y) a1 a2 x a3 y a4 xy

f 0,0 f1 H 0,0a

f a, b f3 H a, ba

f x, y H x, y a

f a,0 f 2 H 0, aa

f 0, b f 4 H 0, ba

f1 H 0,0 a1

f H a,0 a

2

2

T a

f 3 H a, b a3

f 4 H 0b a4

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

f1 1

f 1

2

f 3 1

f 4 1

0

a

a

0

0 0 a1

0 0 a2

b ab a3

b 0 a4

0

0

1

a1 1 1

0

a

2 a1 a

0

0

a

3 b

a4 1 1 1

ab ab ab

0

f1

0

f

1

f3

b

1 f 4

ab

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

f x, y H x, y a N x, y f e

x y xy

1 a b ab

x xy

a ab

T

N x, y N x, y

xy

ab

y xy

b ab

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

1

0.9

0.9

0.8

0.8

0.7

0.7

0.6

0.6

N1 0.5

N2 0.5

0.4

0.4

0.3

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.9

0.9

0.1

0.1

0.6

0

0 0.1

0.2 0.3

0.4 0.5

0.6 0.7

0.8 0.9

x

0.3

0

1

0.6

0

0 0.1

0.2 0.3

0.4 0.5

0.6 0.7

0.8 0.9

x

0.3

0

1

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

1

0.9

0.9

0.8

0.8

0.7

0.7

0.6

0.6

N3 0.5

N4 0.5

0.4

0.4

0.3

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.9

0.9

0.1

0.1

0.6

0

0 0.1

0.2 0.3

0.4 0.5

0.6 0.7

0.8 0.9

x

0.3

0

1

0.6

0

0 0.1

0.2 0.3

0.4 0.5

0.6 0.7

0.8 0.9

x

0.3

0

1

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

0

2

2 0

2

x y

2

i Ni x, y N x, y

4

i 1

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

i Ni x, y N x, y

4

i 1

the element equation becomes

N N N N dA 0

e

Area

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

2 a 2 b2

2

1 a 2b 2

6ab a 2 b 2

2

2

2

a

a 2 2b 2

2 a 2 b2

2a 2 b 2

a 2 b2

a 2 b2

2a 2 b 2

2 a 2 b2

a 2 2b 2

2a 2 b 2

2

2

a b e

0

2

2

a 2b

2

2

2 a b

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

In the 2-D problems, the numbering

scheme, usually, is not as straight forward

as the 1-D problem

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

1-D Example

Element #1 is associated with nodes 1&2

Element #2 is associated with nodes 2&3, etc

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

2-D Example

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

2-D Example

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

For Element #5

Local Node Number

8

Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

matrix

1

1,1

1,2

1,4

1,3

2,1

2,2

2,4

2,3

4,1

4,2

4,4

4,3

3,1

3,2

3,4

3,3

10

11

12

1

2

3

4

10

11

12

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Problem

One solution of the logistic problem is to

keep a record of elements and the

mapping of the local numbering scheme to

the global numbering scheme in a table!

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Numbering

Element

Number

1

2

3

4

5

6

1

1

4

7

2

5

8

Node Number

2

3

2

5

5

8

8

11

3

6

6

9

9

12

4

4

7

10

5

8

11

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

Matrix

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

N*N (N=Number of nodes)

For the ith element

Get the element matrix B

For the jth node

Get its global number k

For the mth node

Get its global number n

Let Akn=Akn+Bjm

Repeat for all m

Repeat for all j

Repeat for all i

10

11

12

1

2

Element

3Number

4

Node Number

1

11

10

10

11

12

11

8

9

12

Dr. Mohammad Tawfik

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