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Chapter 9 Meshing

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Chapter 9

Meshing

  • 9.1 Pneumatic Fingers

  • 9.2 Cover of Pressure Cylinder

  • 9.3 Convergence Study of 3D Solid Elements

  • 9.4 Review

Chapter 9 Meshing

Section 9.1 Pneumatic Fingers

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Section 9.1

Pneumatic Fingers

Problem Description

Chapter 9 Meshing Section 9.1 Pneumatic Fingers 2 Section 9.1 Pneumatic Fingers Problem Description Plane of
Plane of symmetry. 3 3.2 (19.2) 1 Unit: mm. 4 80 5.1 5 2 1
Plane of
symmetry.
3
3.2
(19.2)
1
Unit: mm.
4
80
5.1
5
2
1

Chapter 9 Meshing

Section 9.1 Pneumatic Fingers

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Techniques/Concepts

• Mesh Metric: Skewness Hex Dominant Method Sweep Method MultiZone Method • Section View Nonlinear Simulations
• Mesh Metric: Skewness
Hex Dominant Method
Sweep Method
MultiZone Method
• Section View
Nonlinear Simulations
Line Search
• Displacement Convergence
Chapter 9 Meshing Section 9.1 Pneumatic Fingers 3 Techniques/Concepts • Mesh Metric: Skewness Hex Dominant Method

Chapter 9 Meshing

Section 9.2 Cover of Pressure Cylinder

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Section 9.2

Cover of Pressure Cylinder

Techniques/Concepts

Chapter 9 Meshing Section 9.2 Cover of Pressure Cylinder 4 Section 9.2 Cover of Pressure Cylinder
Chapter 9 Meshing Section 9.2 Cover of Pressure Cylinder 4 Section 9.2 Cover of Pressure Cylinder
• • Patch Conforming Method Patch Independent Method
Patch Conforming Method
Patch Independent Method
Chapter 9 Meshing Section 9.2 Cover of Pressure Cylinder 4 Section 9.2 Cover of Pressure Cylinder

Chapter 9 Meshing

Section 9.3 Convergence Study of 3D Solid Elements

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Section 9.3

Convergence Study of 3D Solid Elements

Problem Description

[2] The width of the beam is 10 mm. A uniform load of 1 MPa applies
[2] The width of the beam
is 10 mm. A uniform load
of 1 MPa applies on the
upper face of the beam.
[1] The beam is
made of steel.
[3] We will
record the
vertical tip
deflection.
10 mm
100 mm

100 mm

 

Chapter 9 Meshing

Section 9.3 Convergence Study of 3D Solid Elements

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Element Shapes

[1] hexahedron.
[1] hexahedron.
[2] Tetrahedron.
[2] Tetrahedron.
[3] Parallel prism.
[3] Parallel prism.
[4] Perpendicular prism.
[4] Perpendicular
prism.

Chapter 9 Meshing

Section 9.3 Convergence Study of 3D Solid Elements

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Tip Deection (mm)

Lower-Order Elements

0.76

0.72

0.68

0.64

0.60

[4] Lower-order hexahedron. [2] Lower-order perpendicular prism. [3] Lower-order parallel prism. [1] Lower-order tetrahedron. 0 3000
[4] Lower-order
hexahedron.
[2] Lower-order
perpendicular
prism.
[3] Lower-order
parallel prism.
[1] Lower-order
tetrahedron.
0
3000
6000
9000
12000
15000

Number of Nodes

Chapter 9 Meshing

Section 9.3 Convergence Study of 3D Solid Elements

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Higher-Order Elements

[3] Higher-order parallel prism. 0.752 0.751 0.750 [4] Higher-order hexahedron. 0.749 [2] Higher-order perpendicular prism. 0.748
[3] Higher-order parallel prism.
0.752
0.751
0.750
[4] Higher-order hexahedron.
0.749
[2] Higher-order perpendicular prism.
0.748
0.747
[1] Higher-order tetrahedron.
0.746
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
Tip Deflection (mm)

Number of Nodes

Chapter 9 Meshing

Section 9.3 Convergence Study of 3D Solid Elements

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Hexahedra

[2] Higher-order hexahedron. 0.752 0.751 0.750 0.749 0.748 [1] Lower-order hexahedron. 0.747 0.746 0 2000 4000
[2] Higher-order
hexahedron.
0.752
0.751
0.750
0.749
0.748
[1] Lower-order
hexahedron.
0.747
0.746
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
Tip Deflection (mm)

Number of Nodes

Chapter 9 Meshing Section 9.3 Convergence Study of 3D Solid Elements 9 Hexahedra [2] Higher-order hexahedron.

Chapter 9 Meshing

Section 9.3 Convergence Study of 3D Solid Elements

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Tip Deection (mm)

Tetrahedra

0.760

0.720

0.680

0.640

0.600

[2] Higher-order tetrahedron.
[2] Higher-order
tetrahedron.
[1] Lower-order tetrahedron. 0 2000 4000 6000
[1] Lower-order
tetrahedron.
0
2000
4000
6000

8000

10000

Number of Nodes

Chapter 9 Meshing Section 9.3 Convergence Study of 3D Solid Elements 10 Tip De fl ection

Chapter 9 Meshing

Section 9.3 Convergence Study of 3D Solid Elements

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Parallel Prisms

[2] Higher-order parallel prism. 0.76 0.74 0.72 0.70 0.68 [1] Lower-order parallel prism. 0.66 0 2000
[2] Higher-order
parallel prism.
0.76
0.74
0.72
0.70
0.68
[1] Lower-order
parallel prism.
0.66
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
Tip Deflection (mm)

Number of Nodes

Chapter 9 Meshing Section 9.3 Convergence Study of 3D Solid Elements 11 Parallel Prisms [2] Higher-order

Chapter 9 Meshing

Section 9.3 Convergence Study of 3D Solid Elements

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Perpendicular Prisms

[2] Higher-order perpendicular prism. 0.76 0.74 0.72 0.70 0.68 [1] Lower-order perpendicular prism. 0.66 0 2000
[2] Higher-order
perpendicular prism.
0.76
0.74
0.72
0.70
0.68
[1] Lower-order
perpendicular prism.
0.66
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
Tip Deflection (mm)

Number of Nodes

Chapter 9 Meshing Section 9.3 Convergence Study of 3D Solid Elements 12 Perpendicular Prisms [2] Higher-order

Chapter 9 Meshing

Section 9.3 Convergence Study of 3D Solid Elements

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Guidelines

Never use lower-order tetrahedra/triangles. Higher-order tetrahedra/triangles can be as good as other elements as long as the mesh is ne enough. In cases of coarse mesh, however, they perform poorly and are not recommended. Lower-order prisms are not recommended. Lower-order hexahedra/quadrilaterals can be used, but they are not as efcient as their higher-order counterparts. Higher-order hexahedra, prisms, and quadrilaterals are among the most efcient elements so far we have discussed. Mesh your models with these elements whenever possible. If that is not possible, then at least try to achieve a higher- order hexahedra-dominant or quadrilateral-dominant mesh.