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Pressure grouted soil nails

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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/compgeo

slopes

Yongmin Kim a, Sungjune Lee b, Sangseom Jeong a, Jaehong Kim c,

a

Department of Civil Engineering, Cheongju University, Cheongju 360-764, Republic of Korea

c

Department of Civil Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756, Republic of Korea

b

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 17 July 2012

Received in revised form 12 November 2012

Accepted 6 December 2012

Available online 16 January 2013

Keywords:

Pressure-grouted soil nail

Pullout resistance

Shear strength reduction method

Stability of reinforced slope

3D nite element analysis

a b s t r a c t

Pressure-grouted soil nails have been increasingly used for stabilizing slopes. The pullout resistance of a

soil nail is the main factor for reinforcing the slope stability. In this study, a two-dimensional axisymmetric nite element model is developed to simulate the pullout behavior of a pressure-grouted soil nail. This

model is veried with eld pullout tests result of a pressure-grouted soil nails by comparing with gravitygrouted soil nails. Based on the analysis, a three-dimensional nite element model is proposed for stability analysis of a slope reinforced with pressure-grouted soil nails using the shear strength reduction

method. A series of numerical slope stability analyses for a slope composed of weathered soil are performed to investigate the effects of grouting pressure on the slope stability and the behavior of the soil

nails. Special attention is given to the installation effect of a pressure-grouted soil nails. It is found from

the result of this study that the pressure-grouted soil nails increase the safety factor by fty percent in a

slope by increasing the stiffness of the nailed slope system. Numerical analysis results conrm the fact

that the pullout resistance of a soil nail is the main factor for stabilizing slopes rather than the shear resistance of the soil nail.

2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Soil nails have been commonly used for slope stabilization by

enhancing the shear resistance of soil and/or the pullout resistance

at the interface between the grout and adjacent soil mass because

of their low construction cost and simple installation procedure

[4,18]. Although most of soil nails are installed without pressure

(gravity-grouted soil nails), pressure-grouted soil nails installed

with a high grouting pressure (3001000 kPa) have been increasingly used to improve slope stability in South Korea and other

places in the world. While pressure-grouted soil nail construction

requires additional equipment (such as a pump to place grout under constant pressure and a packer system to attain the grouting

pressure) and higher construction quality control than conventional soil nails, the pressure-grouted soil nail has many advantages compared with the conventional gravity-grouted soil nail

such as: (1) enhancement of grouting formation in a borehole;

(2) increase in diameter of a soil nail; (3) increase in shear strength

at the interface between the soil nail and the surrounding soil; and

(4) reduction of the number of reinforcing soil nails [19].

The pullout resistance of a pressure-grouted soil nail is the main

factor for designing a slope reinforced with soil nails rather than

Corresponding author.

E-mail addresses: soj9081@yonsei.ac.kr (S. Jeong), woghdjfk@gmail.com (J. Kim).

0266-352X/$ - see front matter 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compgeo.2012.12.003

along the slope failure surface. Thus, many researchers have studied the pullout behavior of pressure-grouted soil nails through laboratory or eld tests. Main inuencing factors on the fundamental

mechanism of the pullout behavior of a soil nail were investigated

through laboratory model pullout tests [5,6,9,14,15,25,2830]. The

pullout resistance of pressure-grouted soil nails was obtained from

eld pullout tests [1719]. A numerical analysis method was also

developed to investigate the effects of grouting pressure on the

pullout resistance of a pressure-grouted soil nail [26]. However,

while these previous studies were mainly focused on the pullout

resistance of a pressure-grouted soil nail itself, few studies have

been performed on the reinforcing effects of pressure-grouted soil

nails for slope stability.

Some researchers performed numerical analyses for reinforced

soil structures with gravity-grouted soil nails [21,23,24]. However,

no information of numerical studies on reinforced slope with pressure-grouted soil nails is available.

In order to investigate the reinforcing effects of pressure-grouted soil nails for slope stability, a new numerical method for slope

stability analysis is developed. Special attention is given to the

installation effect of a pressure-grouted soil nails using nite element (FE) analysis. Results of eld pullout tests on pressure-grouted soil nails are compared with the analysis results for verication

purpose. A series of numerical analyses for a slope without soil

254

pressure-grouted soil nails are performed and their results are

compared to investigate the effects of pressure-grouted soil nails

for slope stability.

2. Numerical analysis for simulating pullout behavior of a

pressure-grouted soil nails

The pullout resistance of a pressure-grouted soil nail is the

dominant design factor for a soil nail reinforced slope. Thus a

numerical method, which can rationally estimate the pullout resistance of a pressure-grouted soil nail, is needed for the slope stability analysis. In this study, a numerical analysis method is

developed to simulate the pullout behavior of a pressure-grouted

soil nail. The pressurized grouting procedure during its installation

is considered in this numerical method.

2.1. Finite element model

A two-dimensional (2D) axisymmetric condition is used to

model a soil nail as a rigid cylinder and the surrounding soils as

concentric hollow cylinders. The commercial FE computer program

ABAQUS [1] is used in the numerical analysis. To verify the FE model, a result available for pullout tests on pressure-grouted soil nails

is compared with that of numerical analyses.

In this study, the typical 2D axisymmetric FE model for a pressure-grouted soil nail is shown in Fig. 1. The overall dimensions of

the model boundaries comprise a width of fty times the soil nail

diameter (D) from the nail center and a total height (HT) equal to

the nail length (LT) plus a further 1.0LT below the soil nail toe level.

The outer boundary of the model is xed against displacements

the inuence of boundary effects on the soil nail performance. Both

the soil and nail are represented by eight-node, second-order quadratic element. A relatively ne mesh was used near the interface

between the soil nail and the surrounding soil, and became coarser

farther from the soil nail.

The linear-elastic model for the soil nail and the MohrCoulomb

model using non-associated ow rule for the surrounding soil are

used for the FE model. For a structural component, a soil nail is

constructed with a deformed steel bar and cement grout and it is

modeled as an equivalent elastic solid cylinder due to high ultimate bond strength between them [12,31]. The equivalent elastic

modulus of a soil nail is determined by:

Eeq

Eg Ag Es As

Ag As

where Eeq is the equivalent elastic modulus; Eg and Es are the elastic

modulus of cement grout and deformed steel bar, respectively; Ag

and As are the cross-sectional area of cement grout and deformed

steel bar, respectively.

The interface between the soil nail and the surrounding soil is

described as perfectly rough, thus no relative movement between

the nail and the soil is assumed to take place. While this assumption, which does not allow the interface slippage behavior, may result in overestimating the shear strength of the smooth interface, it

has been widely adopted for simulating the shear behavior of the

rough interface. Therefore, shear failure assumed to occur in the

soil near the soil nail rather than at the interface between grout

and soil. The shear behavior between grout and soil is simulated

by the material behavior of the soil. The nite element mesh of

the soil adjacent the soil nail is dimensioned with thin-layer ele-

Soil

Nail Length(LT)

Nail

LT

Bonded

Length

(LB=2/3LT)

Unbonded

Length

(LU=1/3LT)

Fig. 1. 2D axisymmetric FE model for a pressure-grouted soil nail.

255

[3,7,10,16,20].

2.2. Numerical procedure for simulating pressure-grouted soil nail

installation

The installation procedure of a pressure-grouted soil nail is simulated in the model described above to investigate the effects of

grouting pressure on its pullout behavior. In this study, seven steps

are applied to simulate the installation procedure of the pressuregrouted soil nail (Fig. 2):

Step 1: The 2D axisymmetric FE mesh including the soil nail is

generated with boundary conditions. Initial ground stresses

are applied to the FE model (Fig. 2a).

Step 2: The elements of the nail are removed to simulate the

procedure of drilling a borehole (Fig. 2b).

Step 3: The grouting pressure is applied to the borehole surface

for the bonded zone while the borehole surface for the

unbounded zone is xed against displacements (Fig. 2c).

Step 4: The grouting pressure acting on the borehole surface is

removed and replaced by xed boundary condition to lock the

in the elements surrounding the borehole (Fig. 2d).

Step 5: The soil nail elements are added in the borehole with the

model properties of the soil nail. The xed boundary conditions

employed by previous step are not changed (Fig. 2d).

Step 6: The xed boundary conditions for the borehole surface

are removed. This process causes the locked-in stresses and displacement to be released and transmitted to the soil nail elements (Fig. 2e).

Step 7: The pullout test process is simulated in this step (Fig. 2f).

On the other hand, the analysis procedure described above

excluding the pressure grouting simulation steps (step 3 and step

4) is used for the analysis of a gravity-grouted soil nail.

2.3. Pullout behavior of pressure-grouted soil nails in weathered soil

The FE analysis model described above is veried with the results from the eld pullout tests performed in two test sites in

South Korea (Pusan and Gyeonggi case). The analysis results are

compared with those from the tests to investigate the pullout

behavior of the pressure-grouted soil nails.

gravity

nail

remove

nail element

fixed boundary

grouting pressure

soil

(a) Step 1

(b) Step 2

pullout

fixed boundary

remove

fixed boundary

add nail element

(d) Step 5

(e) Step 6

(f) Step 7

Fig. 2. Numerical analysis procedure for simulating construction process and pullout test for a pressure-grouted soil nail: (a) step 1, (b) step 2, (c) steps 34, (d) step 5, (e)

step 6, and (f) step 7.

256

250

Gravity-Grouted

Soil Nails

Pressure-Grouted

Soil Nails

Pressure-Grouted

This study(FEM)

Measured(average)

Gravity-Grouted

This study(FEM)

Measured(average)

Unbonded

Length=1m

200

Pullout load, kN

105mm

Length=3m

105mm

Bonded

Length=2m

Steel bar

150

100

50

Weathered Soil

0

0

10

20

30

40

50

Vertical displacement, mm

Fig. 4. Comparisons of predicted and measured loaddisplacement relationships

(Pusan case).

Fig. 3. Information about the soil and test soil nails (Pusan case).

Four instrumented pressure-grouted soil nails and three instrumented gravity-grouted soil nails were installed in the moderately

to completely weathered soil [19]. Fig. 3 shows information about

the soil and soil nails of Pusan case. All tested soil nails have a

diameter of 105 mm and a total length of 3 m including the unbonded length of 1 m and the bonded length of 2 m. The tested soil

nails were constructed with placing a deformed steel bar (30 mm

in diameter) in the middle of a borehole and then with placing neat

cement grout (water-to-cement ratio of 0.42) under the grouting

pressure of 500 kPa. Material properties of the equivalent soil nail

and weathered soil used for FE analysis are summarized in Tables 1

and 2, where the following parameters are listed: diameter (D),

cross-sectional area (A), elastic modulus (E), Poissons ratio (m), friction angle (/), dilatancy angle (w), cohesion (c), unit weight (c).

Fig. 4 shows a comparison of loaddisplacement relationships

determined from the pullout tests and those from the numerical

analysis for the pressure-grouted and gravity-grouted soil nails.

Each average loaddisplacement relationship for the four pressure-grouted soil nails and three gravity-grouted soil nails is used

in these comparisons. Although the FE analysis results show stiffer

pull-out behavior than the measured, a reasonably good agreement

of loaddisplacement relationships (especially ultimate pull-out

and pullout test results for both types of soil nails.

As expected, the pressure-grouted soil nail shows around 36%

higher pullout load than the gravity-grouted soil nail.

2.3.2. Gyeonggi case

The load transfer characteristics of two instrumented pressuregrouted soil nails installed in weathered soil are compared with

those predicted by the proposed numerical analysis. Information

about the soil and soil nails of Gyeonggi case are shown in Fig. 5.

The test pressure-grouted soil nails of PNG1 and PNG2 have length

of 3 m and 4 m, respectively. Both of them have a same unbonded

length of 1 m. These soil nails were constructed with same installation procedure of the pressure-grouted soil nails in Pusan case as

described above. Material properties of the weathered soil and soil

nails used for FE analysis are summarized in Table 3.

Fig. 6 illustrates comparisons of predicted and measured load

displacement relationships for the two pressure-grouted soil nails.

Stiffer eld loaddisplacement relationships compared with those

from numerical analyses are observed in this case but opposite results were shown in the previous Pusan case. This indicates the

limitation of the numerical analysis method used in this study.

The complicated pullout behavior of a pressure-grouted soil nail,

which depends on types of soil, geometry of the irregular expanded

Table 1

Equivalent material properties of the soil nail used in numerical analysis.

Material properties

Steel bar

Grout

Soil nail

Diameter D (m)

Area, A (m2)

Original property

0.029

0.00066

77.0

210,000

0.2

0.008

Equivalent property

0.076

24.0

28

23,000

37,250

0.3

0.29

Poissons ratio, m

Table 2

Material properties of the weathered soil and soil nail (Pusan case).

Material properties

Weathered soil

Poissons ratio, m

Friction angle, / ()

Dilatancy angle, w ()

Cohesion, c (kPa)

33.32

0.34

31

10.5

15.88

16.66

257

250

Unbonded

Length=1m

105mm

200

Pullout load, kN

Unbonded

Length=1m

Pressure-Grouted

Soil Nails

Bonded

Length=3m

Bonded

Length=2m

105mm

Weathered Soil

150

100

50

Nail Length=3m

This study(FEM)

Measured

0

0

10

Nail Length=4m

This study(FEM)

Measured

15

20

Vertical displacement, mm

Fig. 6. Comparisons of predicted and measured loaddisplacement relationships

(Gyeonggi case).

PNG 1

PNG 2

Fig. 5. Information about the soil and test soil nails (Gyeonggi case).

numerical method in an idealized condition. Although the proposed numerical analysis method has such limitation, the general

trend of the measured pullout behavior of the soil nails (especially

for the ultimate pullout resistance) is fairly well predicted. Stiffer

loaddisplacement relationship and lower pullout load for the

shorter pressure-grouted soil nail of PNG1 than the longer one of

PNG2 are obtained from the comparisons as shown in Fig. 6.

3. Slope stability analysis for a reinforced slope with pressuregrouted soil nails

A 3D FE model for the slope stability analysis of a slope reinforced with pressure-grouted soil nails is proposed to obtain the

safety factor of the reinforced slope and to investigate their reinforcing effects on the slope stability. The numerical technique for

simulating pullout behavior of soil nails described in previous section is implemented in this 3D FE model. The shear strength reduction method is used for the slope stability analysis to obtain the

safety factor of a slope.

thin layer of material surrounding the nail is used to simulate

the thin localized shear zone. The plates of 2.0 2.0 0.5 m connected to the head of the soil nails are placed on the slope surface

to help the soil nails mobilize their pullout resistance fully. The

geometry and the boundary conditions applied to the 3D FE model

(Fig. 7) are selected considering the pressure grouting effects and

slope stability analysis. An 8-node linear brick element with reduced integration is used for modeling the 3D FE model.

The soil nails and plates are modeled as linear elastic solids. The

MohrCoulomb model with non-associated ow rule is used for

the weathered soil. The material properties used in the 3D FE model are summarized in Table 4.

3.2. Shear strength reduction method

To calculate the safety factor of a slope dened in the shear

strength reduction method which was proposed as early as 1975

by Zienkiewicz et al. [32], a series of slope stability analyses are

performed with the reduced shear strength parameters c0trial and

/0trial dened as follows:

c0trial

1

F

trial

c0

2

tan /0

u0trial arctan

A 3D FE model to simulate the slope stability analysis for a reinforced slope reinforced with pressure-grouted soil nails using ABAQUS is developed in this study. The 3D FE mesh used in analysis is

shown in Fig. 7. The slope composed of weathered soil has an angle

of 60 to the horizontal plane, a slope height of 10 m, and a slope

width of 3 m. The soil nails installed vertically to the slope surface

has a diameter of 105 mm and a total length of 12 m with an unb-

where c0 and /0 are real shear strength parameters and Ftrial is a trial

safety factor.

The essence of the nite element method with shear strength

reduction method is the reduction of the soil shear strength

parameters until the slope fails. Usually, initial Ftrial is set to be sufciently small so as to guarantee that the system is stable. Then the

value of Ftrial is increased by Finc values until the slope fails. After

F trial

Table 3

Material properties of the weathered soil and soil nail (Gyeonggi case).

Material properties

Weathered soil

Poissons ratio, m

Friction angle, / ()

Dilatancy angle, w ()

Cohesion, c (kPa)

34.37

0.30

42

6.0

17.67

258

20m

Plate

20m

25m

Unbonded

Length=3m

15m

Bonded

Length=9m

Soil Nail

3m

Soil Nail

Fig. 7. 3D FE mesh for a slope reinforced with soil nails: (a) plan view (XZ direction) and (b) 3D view (XYZ direction).

Table 4

Material properties for the 3D FE model for slope stability analysis.

Material properties

Weathered soil

Poissons ratio, m

Friction angle, / ()

Dilatancy angle, w ()

Cohesion, c (kPa)

100

0.30

25

20.0

20.0

the slope fails, the Fstart is replaced by the previous Flow and Finc is

reduced by 1/5. Then the same procedure is repeated until the Finc

of the procedure to calculate a safety factor [27]. This iterative pro-

259

Step 2: The natural slope is modeled by removing the plate elements and by using soil properties for the soil nail elements. All

boundaries of the model are xed against displacements. Initial

ground stresses are applied to the 3D FE model (Fig. 9b).

Step 3: The elements for the soil nails are removed to simulate

the drilling process, then grouting pressures are applied at the

boundaries of the boreholes for the bonded zone while the

boundaries of boreholes for the unbounded zone are xed

against displacements (Fig. 9c).

Step 4: The boundaries of the borehole for the bonded zone are

xed against displacements after nishing the pressure grouting process (Fig. 9d).

Step 5: The elements for the plates and the soil nails are added

with their material properties while the displacement boundaries for the shafts of the soil nails remain xed (Fig. 9e).

Step 6: The displacement boundaries for the shafts of the soil

nails are removed to release and transmit the locked-in stresses

and displacement in the surrounding soil to the soil nail elements (Fig. 9f).

Step 7: The slope stability analysis is performed by applying the

gravity forces with unxed boundaries for the upper sides of

the model (Fig. 9g).

On the other hand, same analysis procedure except the steps for

the pressure grouting is used for the stability analysis of a slope

reinforced with gravity-grouted soil nails.

3.4. Reinforcing effects of pressure-grouted soils on slope stability

of Flow, by denition, is identical to the one in limit equilibrium

analysis. The nite element method with shear strength reduction

technique used in slope stability analysis relies strongly on the

determination of global instability of soil slopes, i.e. denition of

a failure [11]. Generally, the failure of slope is dened as: (1) swelling of slope surface [22]; (2) reaching ultimate shear stress of failure surface [8]; and (3) non-convergence of solutions [33]. In this

study, the slope failure is dened by non-convergence of solution,

and the failure surface of slope is presumed by plotting the elements where maximum plastic strain occurs. The analysis results

are represented by relationship between dimensionless displacement (Esdmax/cH2) and factor of safety, where Es is the Youngs

modulus of soil, dmax is the maximum displacement of the slope,

H is the slope height [33].

3.3. Numerical procedure of the stability analysis

Slope stability analysis including the installation process of

pressure-grouted soil nails are performed based on the 3D FE model described above to obtain the safety factor for a reinforced slope.

The following seven steps are required for the slope stability analysis (Fig. 9):

Step 1: The 3D FE mesh including the soil nail and the plate is

generated (Fig. 9a).

In order to investigate the reinforcing effects of the pressuregrouted soil nails, numerical slope stability analyses for a slope

are performed under three different conditions: (1) natural slope

without any reinforcement; (2) reinforced slope with gravity-grouted soil nails; and (3) reinforced slope with pressure-grouted soil

nails. Fig. 10 shows results of stability analyses for a slope under

these three different reinforcement conditions. Safety factors for

the natural slope, the gravity-grouted soil nail reinforced slope

and the pressure-grouted soil nail reinforced slope are 1.15, 1.55

and 1.72 respectively. Based on the analysis results, using pressure-grouted soil nails exhibits obvious reinforcing effect for the

slope stability with increasing the safety factor by around fty

and eleven percent compared with safety factors for natural slope

and gravity-grouted reinforced slope, respectively.

Fig. 11 shows developed slope failure surfaces for the gravitygrouted and pressure-grouted soil nails from the maximum plastic

strain distribution plots. The slope reinforced with pressure-grouted soil nails exhibits expanded failure surface from the slope surface compared with that for the gravity-grouted reinforced slope.

This expanded failure surface was also observed in the laboratory

load tests on the model soil nail reinforced retaining wall performed by Kim et al. [13]. It was found from their tests that the failure surface expanded toward the backll as the stiffness of the wall

increased. Therefore, it is presumed that the grouting pressure may

increase the stiffness of the reinforced slope system.

3.5. Behavior of a pressure-grouted soil nail installed in the reinforced

slope

The axial and shear loads developed along the soil nails are obtained from the previous analysis results to investigate the reinforcing effects of soil nails for slope stability. Fig. 12 illustrates

the distributions of axial loads and shear loads developed along

the lower soil nails for both gravity-grouted and pressure-grouted

soil nail reinforced slopes at the limit state. It is noted that higher

axial loads distribution is observed for the pressure-grouted soil

nail than the gravity-grouted soil nail, whereas the shear loads

260

remove plate elements

(b) Step 2

(a) Step 1

fixed boundaies

grouting pressure

remove soil nail elements

fixed boundaries

(c) Step 3

add plate elements

(e) Step 5

(d) Step 4

fixed boundaries

(f) Step 6

gravity

(g) Step 7

Fig. 9. Numerical procedure of slope stability analysis for a slope reinforced with pressuregrouted soil nails: (a) step 1, (b) step 2, (c) step 3, (d) step 4, (e) step 5, (f) step 6, and

(g) step 7.

261

140

Type of Reinforcement

Natural Slope

Gravity-Grouted Soil Nails

Pressure-Grouted Soil Nails

2.5

FS=1.72

120

Maximum axial load=113kN

100

Axial load, kN

2

FS=1.55

1.5

80

60

1

40

FS=1.15

0.5

20

Pressure-Grouted

Gravity-Grouted

0

0

0.4

0.8

1.2

1.6

10

12

14

Safety factor

Fig. 10. Safety factors for a slope under three different reinforcement conditions.

0.12

Pressure-Grouted

Gravity-Grouted

0.1

Shear load, kN

developed along both types of soil nails are very low and can be

ignored.

Basically, the axial loads may develop at the soilgrout interface

in the form of shear stresses around the soil nail perimeter. These

shear stresses are represented by the axial loads within the soil

nail. Since the shear stresses act along the circumferential area of

the soil nail, the axial loads at the ends of the soil nails must be

zero. And the maximum axial loads were developed at the upper

part of soil nail (24 m from the soil nail head) where shear stresses at the soilgrout interface reverse directions. The location of

maximum axial loads may coincide with the divide between the

active soil wedge and the stationary soil mass. However, the actual

magnitude and location of maximum axial loads varies with the

soil deformation pattern, construction sequence, and required

reinforcement [2].

Additional slope stability analyses are performed for three different slope angles of 45, 60 and 80 to investigate the effects

of slope angle on the behavior of soil nails. Fig. 13 shows the distributions of axial and shear loads developed along the soil nails with

different slope angles. The distribution of axial resistance increases

with increase in the slope angle. Changes in the distributions of

shear loads with different slope angles are negligible and the overall values of shear loads are very low and can be ignored. Therefore,

as shown in Figs. 12 and 13, it is shown that the pullout resistance

of a soil nails is the main factor for reinforcing the slope stability

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

10

12

14

Fig. 12. Distribution of loads developed along the soil nail for two different types of

soil nails: (a) axial loads and (b) shear loads.

of the nail location and angle of soil nail.

Failure Surface

(Gravity-Grouted

Soil Nail)

Failure Surface

(Gravity-Grouted

Soil Nail)

Failure Surface

(Pressure-Grouted

Soil Nail)

Soil Nail

Effect of grouting preesure

Fig. 11. Failure surfaces for a reinforced slope with (a) gravity-grouted soil nails and (b) pressure-grouted soil nails from the maximum plastic strain distribution plots.

262

140

120

Slope=80

Slope=60

Slope=45

Axial load, kN

100

80

60

40

20

10

12

14

0.2

Acknowledgments

Shear load, kN

behavior with different length of pressure-grouted soil nail is

well predicted by the proposed 2D FE model.

2. The pressure-grouted soil nails exhibits obvious reinforcing

effects for the slope stability with increasing the safety factor

by around fty and eleven percent compared with safety factors

for natural slope and gravity-grouted reinforced slope, respectively. The slope reinforced with pressure-grouted soil nails

exhibits expanded failure surface from the slope surface compared with that for the gravity-grouted reinforced slope. The

expanded failure surface can be explained by the increased

stiffness of the reinforced slope system due to grouting

pressure.

3. Higher pullout resistance distribution is observed for the pressure-grouted soil nail than the gravity-grouted soil nail. The

shear resistance developed along both types of soil nails are

very low and can be ignored. The distribution of pullout resistance increases with increase in the slope angle while the negligibly low shear resistance is developed along the soil nail

without reference to the slope angle. These analysis results conrm the fact that the pullout resistance of a soil nail is the main

factor for stabilizing slopes.

of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (No.

2011-0030842).

-0.2

References

-0.4

-0.6

Slope=80

Slope=60

Slope=45

-0.8

10

12

14

Fig. 13. Distribution of loads developed along the soil nail for three different angles

of slope: (a) axial loads and (b) shear loads.

4. Conclusions

In this study, a 2D axisymmetric FE model is developed to simulate the pullout behavior of a pressure-grouted soil nails. The simulation of the pressure grouting process is included in the FE

model. This numerical model and analysis result is favorably veried by eld pullout test results. Based on the analysis, a 3D FE

model for stability analysis of a slope reinforced with pressure-grouted soil nails is proposed implementing the numerical analysis

technique used in the 2D FE model using the shear strength reduction method. A series of numerical slope stability analyses are performed for three different types of slopes to investigate the effects

of grouting pressure on the slope stability and the behavior of the

soil nails at the limit state. Based on the ndings of this study, the

following conclusions can be drawn:

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