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NOISEPOLLUTION

SourcesofNoisePollution

Noise
y Undesirableorunwantedsound
y Subjectivenotobjective
y Impacts
y Annoyance,disturbance
Annoyance disturbance
y Stress
y Physicalandpsychologicaldamage
Ph i l d
h l i ld

NoisePollutionCauses
y NoiseFromAutomobileveryhigh
y Railway Stations
y Aircrafts
y Industrial Noise
y Construction Equipment
y Household Equipment
y Other Causes

RoadTrafficNoise
Trafficisthebiggestsourceofnoisepollutionin

today'stimes,especiallyinurbanareas.
d 'i

i ll i b

Inthepastfewyearsthenumberofautomobile

vehicleshasincreasedmanifold.
Thus,trafficproblemscreatedbythesevehiclesisan
Th t ffi bl

t db th hi l i

importantsourceofnoisepollution.
Thesoundproducedbytheexhaustsystemsoftrucks,

autos buses motorcycles etc causealotofnoise


autos,buses,motorcycles,etc.causealotofnoise.

Factors Influencing
FactorsInfluencing
NoiseGeneration
y RoadTrafficnoiseistheaggregationof

noisefromindividualvehiclesinthetraffic
stream.
y Therearesevenprinciplefactorsupon
whichthegenerationofroadtrafficnoise
depends:

.CONTINUED.
Trafficvolume
Averagetrafficspeed
Trafficcomposition
Roadgradient
R d di t
Roadpavementsurfacetypeandtexture
Drivingconditions
Individualvehiclenoise
d v dua ve c e o se

http://www.nonoise.org/library/highway/traffic/traffic.ht
8

http://www.nonoise.org/library/highway/traffic/traffic.ht
9

Individual vehicle noise


Individualvehiclenoise
Theengine
Thetransmission
Thebrakingsystem
Theinteractionoftyres androadpavementsurface
Body,trayandloadrattles
Movementofairaroundthevehicle
Horn

NoiseFromEngine
There could be several reasons that could be causing a
ticking noise in the engine
engine. The most common one is that the
engine is not being completely lubricated.
This would
Thi
ld be
b caused
d by
b either
ith the
th engine
i lacking
l ki oil,
il or
the engine not having sufficient oil pressure.
Engine Noise Remedy
..Use professional quality oil filters.
.. By using Spark Plug Threads

How to Reduce Car Engine Noise


HowtoReduceCarEngineNoise
Dynamat
y
under the hood
Dynamat - Expensive material but very very effective,
most p
people
p use this material for car audio because it
works really good to improve sound and stop vibrations and
rattling.
Dynamat -will protect the hood's paint finish from engine
heat to the engine as well.

Noise reduction in two wheeler gears


using Austempered ductile iron
Gear noise can be attributed to several reasons such as
gear design parameters, gear material used etc.
Owing to design, spur gears during operation produce
noise
A change in gear design to helical would reduce the noise,
but at in the cost of an increase in friction as in operation it
produces an axial thrust.
A more economic and effective way of noise reduction in
gears would be to go in for a material, which has good
damping characteristics in order to reduce the noise levels

significantly.

cont.
A new member of the cast iron family, Austempered Ductile Iron
(ADI), is a heat treated Spheroidal Graphite Iron(SGI).
The microstructure exhibits ausferritic structure with a high
volume of carbon-enriched austenite and nodular graphite.
This offers
Thi
ff
the
th gear designer
d i
a combination
bi ti
off manufacturing
f t i
flexibility, high strength, toughness, low weight, excellent fatigue
strength and wear resistance.
These properties are present along with good damping capacity
and machinability.
. ADI thus developed has been evaluated for mechanical
properties like tensile strength, impact strength etc.,..
ADI possess significant damping properties and helps in gear
noise reduction.

TYRENOISE
y THETYREHITTINGTHEGROUND
y THEVIBRATIONOFTHEAIRTHROUGHTHE

THREADPATTERN
y THEVIBRATIONPASSINGTHROUGHTHETYRE..
y NOISEDEPENDSONTHEROADSURFACEAND

THESPEED
THESPEED

TYRE NOISE
The noise which is radiated from the tyre surface is produced by several mechanisms, including the vibration of the tyre
surface vibrations of the tread blocks and resonances of the air cavities in the contact patch between the tyre and the
surface,
road surface

TESTING OF TYRE NOISE


TESTINGOFTYRENOISE

How to reduce the tyre noise..??


Surface texture ((bumps
p and dips
p )

Avoid (flatten) texture that repeats itself at intervals of 1 inch or larger.

Avoid extremely smooth (e.g., floated or polished) surfaces; instead, some


fine texture (that is on the scale of 1/8 to 1/4 inch) should be provided.
Texture should be negatively
g
y oriented, meaning
g that any
y deep
p texture
should point down (e.g., grooves) rather than up (e.g., fins).

Joints
If joints are present
present, they can contribute to not only overall noise level
level, but
also annoyance.
Narrow, single
single-cut
cut joints are preferred over widened (reservoir) cuts.
Faulted joints should be avoided by providing adequate load transfer.

Exhaust Noise
ExhaustNoise
The exhaust system of an internal combustion engine has a
number of functions, one of which is to reduce the noise of the
waste gases as they are expelled from the engine to the
atmosphere
The three basic exhaust noise mechanisms are:

Exhaust
Exhaust orifice noise - this
thi iis th
the noise
i radiated
di t d ffrom th
the d
ductt as it opens
into the atmosphere

Structure borne noise - this is the noise transmitted through the exhaust
mounting system to the surrounding structure.

Structural
Structural radiated noise - this is noise radiated from the outer surface of
the exhaust system (pipes, catalysts and silencers).

Noise

POSSIBLE PROBLEM

SOLUTION

BACKFIRING S

Incorrect ignition timing, faulty ignition or


leaking valves

Have ignition and/or valves checked.

CLATTER FROM ENGINE

Insufficient engine oil.


Worn or badly adjusted valves.

Add oil.
Refer to a mechanic

WHINING OR CHATTERING FROM


ENGINE

Incorrectly tensioned camshaft drive belt.

Refer to a mechanic as soon as possible

RATTLE WHEN ACCELERATING

Wrong grade of fuel;


engine overheating;
engine needs decoke
incorrect ignition timing;
ignition
g
system
y
fault.

Use higher grade of fuel;


Refer to a mechanic.

KNOCKING FROM ENGINE WHICH


INCREASES WITH ENGINE SPEED

Worn camshaft or cam followers.

Refer to a mechanic as soon as possible.

SCREECH UNDER ACCELERATION

Slipping auxiliary drive belt/fan belt.

Check/adjust belt or have a replacement


fitted.

SCREECH WHEN STEERING

Power steering belt slipping.

Check/adjust belt.

MOAN FROM ENGINE WHEN


STEERING

Power steering fluid level too low


low.

Top up power steering fluid level


level.

Blown exhaust.
ROAR OR RASP UNDER
ACCELERATION
SQUEAL
Q
OR GROAN WHEN BRAKING Worn or defective brake components.
p

Have exhaust checked.


Refer to a mechanic.

HISS FROM ENGINE

Leak from coolant or air/vacuum hoses.

Refer to a mechanic.

CLICKING FROM WHEELS

Loose hubcap;

Tighten hubcap;

NOISE(vs)SPEED

How ToMeasureTheNoise.???
y dB:Whatisadecibel?
y Intensityofasinglesoundismeasuredonarelativeof

logarithmicscale
y Usesaunitcalledabel

ll d b l (B)orsubunit
( ) b
decibel(dB,
d b l(d
1/10ofabel)
y At14bels,soundispainfultohumanear
At14bels soundispainfultohumanear

S.NO

Typeofvehicle

Twowheeler
Displacementupto 80
cm3
Displacementmore
than80cm3but
upto 175cm3
Displacementmore
than175cm3
Threewheeler
Di l
Displacementupto
t t 175
cm3
Displacementmore
than175cm3
75
3
Passengercar

NoiseLimits
from1st
January,2003,
dB(A)

Dateof
implementation

75
77
IstJanuary,2003
80

77
IstJanuary,2003
80

75

IstJanuary,2003

TheLevelofCommonSounds
on the dB(A) Scale
onthedB(A)Scale

Source
C i d
Carrier
deck
k jjett operation,
ti
air
i raid
id siren
i
Jet takeoff at 200 feet
Disco, thunderclap
Auto Horn at 3 feet
Garbage Truck
Heavy Truck at 50 feet
feet, city traffic
Alarm Clock at 2 feet, hair dryer
Noise restaurant, freeway traffic, persons voice at 3 feet
Air conditioning unit at 20 feet
Light auto traffic at 100 feet
Living room
room, bedroom,
bedroom quiet office
Library, soft whisper at 15 feet

Noise Level (dB)

Effect
140 Painfully
P i f ll L
Loud
d
130
120 Maximum Vocal Effort
110
100
90 Very Annoying
Annoying, hearing damage (8
(8-hr)
hr)
80 Annoying
70 telephone use difficult
60 Intrusive
50 quiet
40
30 very quiet
10 Sound just audible
0 Hearing begins

Numberofpeopleannoyed
At different sound levels
Atdifferentsoundlevels

.CONTINUED.
y Significantvariabilityinnoisesfrom

transportationsources
y Aweightednoiselevel(equivalentirritation

level hastodowithmixoffrequencies)
y DNL(day/nightlevel weightsnighttimenoises)

NoisePropagation
y Noiseisgeneratedatsourceandspreadssphericallyaway

fromsource
y Intensitydiminisheswithdistance
y Lossesalsooccurfromsoundenergybeingdissipatedas
soundistransferredbyairparticles
y
p
y Bendinganddiffractionoccursassoundwavesencounter
naturalandmanufacturedsolidobjects

Factors Influencing
FactorsInfluencing
RoadTrafficNoisepropagation
y Propagationisthewaveprocesswhere
soundenergyistransferred.
y Thereareanumberoffactorswhich
i fl
influencethepropagationofroad
th
ti f d
trafficasfollows:

.CONTINUED.
y Roadcorridorcrosssection
y Distancebetweensourceandreception

point
i
y Typeofinterveninggroundcoverbetween
sourceandreceptionpoint(eg :grass
sourceandreceptionpoint(eg.:grass,
waterorconcrete)
y Theexistenceofnaturalorartificial
obstructions
y Meteorologicalconditions

ControlofTransportationNoise
y Federal Noisecontrolactof1972
y Recognizednoiseasamajordegraderofurban
g
j
g

living
y Encourageuseofnoisestandards

y Stateandlocalgovernments
y Alsoinstitutenoisecontrol

NoiseControlStrategies
y Sourcecontrols
y Vehiclecontroldevices maintenance,traffic
andhighwaydesigncontrols
dhi h
d i
l
y Pathcontrols
y Soundbarriersthatreflectanddiffusenoise
y Bufferzones
y Receiversidecontrols
d
l
y Insulation
31

TrafficControlMeasures
y Prohibittrucks
y Truckroutes
T k t
y Prohibitdaytime(ornighttime)use
y Trafficsignaltiming..
y Speedlimits
S
dli i

32

SOURCESOFENGINENOISE

Engine noise is the sum of two elements:


1 combustion
1.
b i noise
i
2. mechanical noise.

mechanical noise dominates the engine noise produced by


spark ignition (gasoline) engines;
combustion noise is a more significant contributor to the engine
noise produced by compression ignition (diesel) engines.

Combustionnoise

11.Combustion
Combustion noise results from gas forces in the cylinders
applied to the structure of the engine, causing vibration to occur
which is then radiated as noise
2.The gas forces in each cylinder vary during the working
cycle of the engine (two or four stroke). They are highest
during the combustion period where the cylinder pressure
rising quickly.

Mechanicalnoise

1. The crank mechanism(pistons,connecting rods,crankshaft,


bearings) experiences externally applied forces due to gas
forces and internally generated forces
2. Around TDC there is a rapid reversal in side force produced
by the slider-crank mechanism. This produces piston slap as the
piston
i t impacts
i
t on the
th cylinder-liner.
li d li
Pi
Piston
t slap
l is
i normally
ll the
th
dominant source of mechanical noise in the diesel engine.
3. Piston slap noise increases with engine speed. It also increases
with turbo charging. It is mostly controlled by reducing
clearance between the piston and the cylinder
cylinder-liner.
liner.

Mechanicalnoise
1. In gasoline
li engines,
i
piston/liner
i
/li
clearances
l
are relatively
l i l
small, and mechanical noise tends to be dominated by impacts
g made through
g the oil film.
in the crankshaft bearings
2. At low engine speeds these are magnified by increasing
engine load.
load At high engine speeds,
speeds the inertia effects of the
crank mechanism dominate so there is little load dependency.

Mechanicalnoise
Other
h sources off mechanical
h i l noise
i include:
i l d
timing drive;
valve train;;
fuel injection equipment.

Measurementofenginenoise

The engine is tested either outdoors in a flat,


flat open space or in an
acoustically treated test cell that replicates the outdoor environment
(commonly a semi-anechoic cell with large sound absorbing wedges
on the
th walls
ll andd ceiling
ili andd a flat
fl t concrete
t floor).
fl )
The engine is either tested in its bare state (with just enough
equipment to run pumps and manifolds are fitted but the
intake/exhaust noise is ducted away) or in its fully equipped state
(everything fitted including ancillaries and sometimes full intake and
exhaust systems).
systems)
The engine is tested at the maximum power point, at the maximum
torque point, at the point of maximum speed but minimum load and
also
l att idle.
idl

Measurementofenginenoise
Sound
for
S d pressure llevels
l are measuredd att three
th positions
iti
f eachh
engine operating condition. These are at 1.0m from the longitudinal
centres of the vertical planes forming the smallest rectangular box
which completely encloses the bare engine. The measuring points
are on both sides and in front of the engine at the height of the
exhaust manifold and at least 1m off the ground.
The noise levels at the three specified locations are reported.

Measurementofenginenoise
A survey is made of A
A -weighted
weighted sound pressure level at the
same height and distance from the box as the specified locations. If
the survey reveals readings more than 3 dB
above the highest reading at the specified locations, then the
survey readings are also reported.
The reported results should be the averaged results of two or
more test results within 2 dB of each other.

1.

Engine
noise
control
j
g
The pperiod between the start of the injection
and ignition,
known

as ignition delay period has an important Learning on combustion


noise. Turbo charging, by which air is forced into the intake at
pressures higher than atmospheric pressure,
pressure results in a shorter delay
period and a more gradual rise in pressure with, consequently, lower
noise generation.

Enginenoisecontrol
stiffen structures to ppush resonant frequencies
q
above the
highest forcing frequency;
isolate components from sources of excitation;
encapsulate noise sources with massive panels;
add damping where resonances occur.

Enginenoisecontrol

Oil pan the use of an isolating gasket between the oil pan and
the
The adoption
oil
h crankcase.
k
Th
d i off structurall aluminium
l i i
il pans to
replace the traditional pressed steel components has made oil
ppan noise more significant
g
in spite
p of improvements
p
to the
crankcase to reduce its noise radiation.
Rocker cover the use of rubber isolating gaskets
Fuel injection equipment the adoption of common rail
systems
andd unit
which
t
it injector
i j t systems
t
hi h are more compactt andd
quieter have brought about significant improvements

Enginenoisecontrol
y
g pplanar surfaces on intake
Intake system
the avoidance of large
components can reduce noise emissions along with general stiffening
of the structures.
Noise shields well-damped, isolated engine covers can reduce
noise radiated by the engine structure.
Engine bay enclosures engines may be effectively enclosed within
their engine
g bayy in the vehicle thus encapsulating
p
g the noise sources.
Problems with ventilation and cooling are common.
Use of toothed belts instead of chain drives

Enginenoisecontrol

Dynamat - Expensive material but very effective,


effective most people
use this material for car audio because it works really good to
improve sound and stop vibrations and rattling. To help this
reduce
d
car engine
i noise
i drastically
d ti ll you would
ld wantt to
t apply
l this
thi
material to the bottom of the car hood and the firewall area of
the vehicle. You could also apply this material to the doors or
other areas of the vehicle. Dynamat will protect the hood's paint
finish from engine heat to the engine as well.

Enginenoisecontrol
1. Engine noise through the radio - From revving the engine or

just constant noise. Engine noise through your speakers is


from how the power is -grounded called a ground loop.
loop Best
thing you could do is take all the grounding cables in vehicle
and put them one spot that is groundable
2. Because of the difficulty, there is an additional option; buying
a Ground Loop Isolator which will eliminate the electrical
noise and hum caused by ground loops. This noise could also
be caused by running audio cables close together in the
vehicle and components such as an amp, satellite radio, mp3
player.
player

TRANSMISSIONNOISEINCLUDES
GEARBOXNOISE
G R O
OS
CLUTCHNOISE
PROPELLORSHAFTNOISE
BEARINGSNOISE

GEARBOXNOISE
Spurgearproducemorenoise
Spu gea p oduce o e o se
Helicalgearsproducelessnoise
g
p
Synchromeshgearboxproduceverylessnoise
y
g
p
y

ControllingtheNoiseSource
Thevibrationgeneratedbygearmeshactioncreatesthe
impetusforthemostnoisewithinagearbox.
Noiselevelandfrequencyareaffectedby:
Typeofgearteeth
Geartoothgeometry
Finishedgeartoothsurface
L b i ti
Lubrication

GearToothSelection
Themoreconstantanduniformthecontact,thelower

thefrictionforceswhichcausenoise
Thisistrueforalltypesofgeardesigns:spur,helica
h li l,

spiralbevelorstraightbevel.

GearToothGeometry
Forexample,increasingtheheightofatoothtoachieve
greateroverlapormeshcanactuallyreducethegear s
greateroverlapormeshcanactuallyreducethegear's
abilitytotransmitload.
Tiprelief,ortheremovalofasmallamountofmaterial
Tiprelief
ortheremovalofasmallamountofmaterial
nearthetipofthegeartooth,caneaseanincomingtooth
intocontactwithotherteeth
Thisinvolvesreducingthematerialoneitherendofa
geartoothtoproduceamoreovaltoothprofile.

SmoothFinishedSurfaces
Normally,thefinerthefinish,thelowerthenoiselevel.

ThickerLubricants
Whilehigherviscosityoilsandgreasescancutdownon
noise

Clutchnoise
y Dogclutchnoiseismore
g
y Frictionclutchnoiseisless
y Torqueconvertersnoisewillbeveryless

57

Definition
Devices which are used to reduce the sound levels

58

Classification
Dissipative type
Reactive type
Combination type
Spark arresting type
Catalytic silencer
Heat recovery type
59

Dissipative Type

Uses sound absorbing materials


Take energy out of acoustic motion in the
wave as it propagates through the silencer

60

61

Reactive Type

Reflects sound wave back to the source and prevent sound from
being transmitted along the pipe
Commonly used in automobile applications

62

Types of Reactive silencers


Helmholtz Resonator type
A cavity is attached to the exhaust pipe.
At a specific frequency the cavity will resonate and the waves in
exhaust pipe are reflected back towards the source.

the

Resonator type design is targeted to specific frequencies where the


majority of the attenuation is required.
In some designs,
designs the silencer has several resonators of different sizes
to target a range of frequencies.

63

Expansion chamber type


Expansion chamber mufflers reflect waves by introducing a sudden
change in cross sectional area in the pipe.
Do not have the high attenuation of the Hemholtz resonator, but have
a broadband frequency characteristic
Their performance also deteriorates at higher frequencies when the
cross axis dimension of the muffler is 82% of the acoustic wavelength
Some expansion chamber muffler systems are also packed with sound
absorbing material which helps to improve the high frequency
attenuation.
tt
ti

64

65

66

67

Silencer selection factors


Acoustical performance(insertion losses)
Aerodynamic performance(maximum acceptable pressure drop)
Mechanical performance
Material selection
Durability
Little maintenance

12

Design factors
I
Insertion
ti losses
l
Restriction
Volume
Weight
Durability
Cost
Ease of manufacture
Ease of maintenance
Styling
Tonal quality

69

S
th
b rules
l ffor d
i
Some
thumb
design
Volume 5
5-10
10 times engine swept volume
Tailpipe length less than 500mm
>500Hz noise control pack silencers with porous
materials such as basalt or glass wool

70

71

Definitions
Noise
y Noiseisdefinedasunwantedsound
transmittedthroughairoranothermedium
Sound
y Itisdefinedasanypressurevariation
(inair,waterorsomeothermedium)that
thehumanearcandetect

SoundLevelComparisons

Measuringofnoise
dB:Whatisadecibel?
Thedecibel(dB)isusedtomeasuresoundlevel..
ThedBisalogarithmicunitusedtodescribearatio.,

Theratiomaybepower,soundpressure,voltageor
intensityorseveralotherthings LateronwerelatedB
intensityorseveralotherthings.,LateronwerelatedB
tothephonandthesone (unitsrelatedtoloudness).

Causesofnoisepollution
y Traffic(Automobile)
y Railway Stations
y Aircrafts
y Industrial Noise
y Construction Equipment
y Household Equipment
y Other Causes

Definitionoftrafficnoise
y Roadtrafficnoiseiswhatyouhearfromdriver's

vehicles,planes,trainsandbusesduringthe
commutingprocess

Examplesofroadtrafficnoise
Soundsofenginesspeedingup,
hornsblowing,
potholesbeinghitoreventruckswithheavy

movingfreightmakinglotsofnoise

RoadTrafficNoise
y Trafficisthebiggestsourceofnoisepollutionin

today'stimes,especiallyinurbanareas.
d 'i

i ll i b

y Inthepastfewyearsthenumberofautomobile

vehicleshasincreasedmanifold.
y Thus,trafficproblemscreatedbythesevehiclesisan
Th t ffi bl

t db th hi l i

importantsourceofnoisepollution.

Sourcesoftrafficnoiseinhighways:
Automobiles
Buses
Motorcycles
Medium&HeavyTrucks

S b
f i
Subsourcesofnoise
TireNoise
y Importantforautos
p
y Maybeimportantfortrucks
y TirePavementinteraction
Tire Pavementinteraction
ExhaustNoise
y Importantfortrucks
y Lowfrequencyrumble

ReasonsforTrafficCongestion
y Increaseincarownership
y Increasedcommuting
g

Carownershipsince1920
YEAR
1920
1940
1960
6
1980
1990
99

NO.OFCARS(MILLIONS)
(
)
O.5
2.5
11
19
21

ProblemscausedbyCommuting
y TrafficCongestion
y Airpollution
y Noisepollution
y Visualpollution
y Parkingproblems
y Destructionofhouses
y Increasedriskofaccidents

FactorsInfluencingoftrafficNoise
Generation
RoadTrafficnoiseistheaggregationofnoisefrom

individualvehiclesinthetrafficstream.
indi
idual ehiclesinthetrafficstream
Therearesevenprinciplefactorsuponwhichthe
g
generationofroadtrafficnoisedepends:
p
1. Trafficvolume
2. Averagetrafficspeed
3. Trafficcomposition
4. Roadgradient
5. Roadpavementsurfacetypeandtexture
R d
t f t dt t
6. Drivingconditions
7 Individualvehiclenoise
7.

TrafficNoise
y Dependsonvehiclemix
l d
loudas

Oneheavytruckat55mphsoundsasloudas

28carsat55mph

Traffic Noise
TrafficNoise
Dependsonvehiclespeed
p
p
Tire/pavementnoisedominatesabove30mph

Trafficat65mphsounds2xasloudas

trafficat30mph

TrafficNoise
Dependsonamountoftraffic
Doubletrafficvolume=increasenoiseby3dBA

= +3 dBA

T ffi N i T
lP
TrafficNoise:TravelPatterns

SolutionstoTrafficproblems
y Wideningroads
y Bypasses

y
y
y
y
y

innerringroads
outerringroads
UrbanMotorways
Buslanes
Improvingpublictransport
onewaystreets
I
Increasedcostofcarparking
d
f ki

Wideningroads

Bypasses
High Street
Bournemouth
Roa d

Shrubbs Hill Roa d

one way streets

MDT Noise Policy


MDTwillconsiderinstallingnoiseberms orwallsto
mitigatetrafficnoiseIF:
y 6dbnoisereductioncanbeachieved
db i d i b hi d
y Affectedlandownersgenerallysupportmitigation
y CostsmeetaCostEffectiveIndex(CEI)
C

C
Eff i I d (CEI)
y Canbesafelyandreasonablybuilt&maintained

NoiseBarriers
y Mustblocklineofsighttovehiclesonroad
y WillREDUCEtrafficnoise,notELIMINATEit

NoiseBarriers
REDUCENoise,donotELIMINATE

Noise
Feasibility safety,engineeringfactors,effectiveness

ofwall
f ll
Reasonableness overallbenefitsofabatement,public
input.
Mitigationcannotprotect2nd floor
DecisiontoprovidenoiseabatementmadeONCE.

Mitigation - Barriers

Mitigation - Berms

Mitigation Berm/wall

Mitigation Wall

NoisePropagation
y Noiseisgeneratedatsourceandspreadssphericallyaway

fromsource
y Intensitydiminisheswithdistance
y Lossesalsooccurfromsoundenergybeingdissipatedas
soundistransferredbyairparticles
y
p
y Bendinganddiffractionoccursassoundwavesencounter
naturalandmanufacturedsolidobjects

Examplesofroadtrafficnoise.
y Roadtrafficnoiseiswhatyouhearfromdriver's

vehicles,planes,trainsandbusesduringthe
commutingprocess Soundsofenginesspeedingup
commutingprocess.Soundsofenginesspeedingup,
hornsblowing,potholesbeinghitoreventruckswith
heavymovingfreightmakinglotsofnoiseareall
y
g
g
g
examplesofroadtrafficnoise.

Individual vehicle noise(source)


Individualvehiclenoise(source)
y Theengine
y Thetransmission
y Thebrakingsystem
y Theinteractionoftyresandroadpavementsurface
y Body,trayandloadrattles
y Movementofairaroundthevehicle
y Horn

NOISEREDUCTIONTECHNIQUES

NoiseReduction
Thereisanincreasedsensitivitytowardnoise,froma
h
d
d
f
personalstandpointandasocietalstandpoint.
Fromfrontandsidewindshields,totirewellsandthe
enginecompartmentitself nothinghasbeenleft
enginecompartmentitself,nothinghasbeenleft
unexploredwhenitcomestofindingnewwaystoensurea
quieterdrivingexperience.
Thereareincreasinglinksbetweennoiseandvibrationand
g
f i
fatigue&effortaremadeintheNVHcharacteristicsinthe
& ff d i h NVH h
i i i h
developmentofthevehicletominimizethenoiseand
vibrationharshness.
CooperStandard
CooperStandard'sproductlineincludespassiveandactive
sproductlineincludespassiveandactive
vibrationcontrolcomponentsthatareintendedtoreduce
bothvibrationandthenoisescreatedbythevibration
withinthevehicle.

Cont
CooperStandard'sgoal,is toisolatetheenginefromtherest

ofthevehicle.
Carcoustics Inc.offersblowmoldedengineencapsulation
Inc offersblowmoldedengineencapsulation
asasolutionforquietingthepassengercompartment.
Theirmainaimisnottryingtoabsorbnoiseonceit'sinside
theinterior buttryingtoreduceitclosertothesource
theinterior,buttryingtoreduceitclosertothesource
Carcoustics offersacousticsthroughouttheentirevehicle,
includingtheenginecompartment,theinteriorandthe
trunk.
trunk
Exploringthewheelwells andthebodyboard for
additionalnoisereductionwithinthepassenger
compartmentisonthemove.
Atthewheelwell,Carcoustics hasaddedanacoustical
featuretothewheelhouseliner.

compare European wheel well systems to the U S


compareEuropeanwheelwellsystemstotheU.S.
systems
intheU.S.youhavemoreorlessinjectionmolded,non

acousticalwheelhouseliners.
InEurope,thatsamewheelhouseliner,thanksto
InEurope thatsamewheelhouseliner thanksto
Carcoustics,addsacousticalfeaturesthatreduceroadtire
noise,waterspraynoiseinrainyweatherandalsoreduces
noisefromstonesandotherdebriscomingup.
Carcoustics acousticalwheelwellisbeingusedintheU.S
onlyintherearoftheFordFocus
onlyintherearoftheFordFocus.

Dashboardvents
ventsaretheloudestpointsinanautomobile
Carcoustics producedabsorptionfunctionontheway

betweentheventandtheinteriorofthevehicletoprevent
thenoisefromenteringthevehicle

Crazy to reduce the decibels Laminated


CrazytoreducethedecibelsLaminated
Glass
laminateglassasoneofthemajortrendsinnoisereduction.
swapoutthesideglass,changethewindshieldandgetsix

decibelsofnoisereduction.
BuickRainier,LincolnNavigator,LincolnAviatorandthe
ultraluxurypackagedLexusLS430allofferlaminatedglass
changefromtemperedtolaminatedglass,yougeta
g
p
g
,y g
significantreductioninnoisebecauseinthepast,the
windshieldwasalwaystheweakestlinkofwherethesound
waspouringintotheinterior.

Anaddedbenefittolaminatedglassisweight

reduction.

Cont
SolutiaIncofferedlaminatedglassproductcalledVanceva

Quiet'swhichhasweightreductioncapabilities.
DowAutomotiveoffersavarietyofproductsandservices
y p
thattargetinteriornoisereduction.NewtotheU.S.this
yearisthecompany'sBetaMate,anadhesivethathasbeen
usedforbodystiffnessimprovementsandstiffness
d bilit hi h
durabilitywhichequatestovibrationreduction.
t t ib ti d ti
NorthAmericacompanyLMSInternationalprovidesthe
softwaretoolsneededtomakenoiseandvibration
engineeringdecisionsasearlyinthedesigncycleas
possible.
company'snoiseandvibrationtoolsare
LMSSoundQuality,
LMSS
dQ lit
Sysnoise and
LMSTest.Lab

Cont
LMSSoundQualityhelpstosubjectivelyidentify,isolate

andranktheindividualsoundsthatcomprisea
troublesomenoise.
Sysnoise predictssoundwavesandthestructuralvibration
inducedbyfluidloadingeffectsontoastructure.The
programcalculatesawidevarietyofresultssuchassound
pressureandradiatedsoundpower,acousticvelocitiesand
intensities,contributionsofpanelgroupstothesound,
energydensities vibroacousticsensitivities
energydensities,vibro
acousticsensitivities,normal
normal
modesandstructuraldeflections.
LMSTest.Lab isadedicatedmeasurementsolutionfor
noiseandvibrationtestingandanalysis
noiseandvibrationtestingandanalysis.

Cont
InPorsche944engine Theenginenoiselevelwaslowered
byprimarymeasures,bymodificationofthesolidborn
soundpropagationintheengine aswellasbysound
soundpropagationintheengine,aswellasbysound
neutralization.Particularlyefficientweremodificationsto
thecrankgear,crankcase,valvegear,oilsump,intake
manifold,alternator,andtoothedbeltdrive
if ld l
d
h db l d i

Mercedes Benz Atego Commercial Auto


MercedesBenzAtegoCommercialAuto
ComponentDevelopment
Newblowmoulding technologytoreducesamelevelof

noisereductionbutlighterinweight.

ENCAPSULATION
Acousticabsorbersattachedtothepartswherethenoiseis

tobeabsorbediscalledencapsulation
EXAMPLE:Acousticabsorbersareappliedtothehood,the

bulkhead,thesidesofthefrontbeamsandanundershield.
,
Theencapsulationoftheenginecompartmentarisesfrom

theneedtoreduceexteriornoise
h
d
d

TRENDS
Today,undershieldsarepartiallycoveredbyanacoustic

materialormadeofanintrinsicallyabsorbingandatthe
sametimestructuralfibre basedmaterial.
sametimestructuralfibrebasedmaterial
Anothertrendisenginemountedacousticinsulation
g

componentsontheoilpanandintheareaaroundthefuel
injectors.

CONFLICTS
Achallengeformaterialsincontactwiththeengineisthat

theyareexposedto
Strongvibrations,
2 Hightemperaturesand
2.
3. Aggressivechemicals
4. Interfacingtheshieldswithaverycomplexgeometrical
g
y
p g
environment.
1.

CONFLICTS
5. Higherinjectionpressure,
6. Directpetrolinjection,
Di

li j i
7 Turbocharging
7.

ADDEDADVANTAGE
Reducingbothfuelconsumptionandexteriornoise
EfficientencapsulationcanprovideareductioninCO2
Effi i
l i
id d i i CO

emissionsby2.5g/km intheNewEuropeanDrivingCycle
(
(NEDC).
)
Underbodypanellingcanmakeasignificantcontribution

towardsreducingdrag
d d
d

NISSANINFINITI

NISSANINFINITI
The most recent study conducted
on a Nissan Infiniti with a 3.7 l V6
petrol engine shows that bodymounted engine encapsulation can
reduce power train noise by 5 dB

ENCAPSULATIONWITH
RESPECTTOTEMPERATURE

ENCAPSULATIONWITHRESPECTTO
TEMPERATURE
7mmthick encapsulationcovering80%ofthe

area isequivalentto50mmthick encapsulation


coveringonly60%,
i l 6 %
Therefore,thefirstpriorityinthedevelopment
ofanencapsulationisthehighestpossibledegree
f
l ti i th hi h t
ibl d

ofareacoverageratherthanthechoiceofhighly
insulatingmaterials
insulatingmaterials.

NOISEREDUCIONINCIENGINE
Equippingpartsoftheengineairintakesystemwith

porousacousticmaterialsintegratedintoadouble
shellpanelprovidessignificantimprovementsinthe
exteriornoisequalityofadieselvehicle

NOISE REDUCTION WITH


NOISEREDUCTIONWITH
RESPECT TO THE MASS OF THE
RESPECTTOTHEMASSOFTHE
MATERIAL
y In2007,asystemofenginemountedparts

weighinglessthan2.5kgwaspresented.The
systemprovidedreductionsinradiatednoiseinthe
enginetestbenchof3to4dB.

NEEDS
combinationofmaterialoptimisation,
bodymountedand
b d
d d
enginemountedelements
engine mountedelements

willbeneededtoachievethelegalrequirementsfor
significantnoisereduction

THERMOACOUSTIC
ENGINE ENCAPSULATION
THERMO
ACOUSTICENGINEENCAPSULATION
Bodymountedencapsulationismadeof

componentsoriginatingfromacoustictreatment:
Thebonnetabsorber,
Outerbulkheadand
Underengineshield.
Verticalelementsalongthefrontbeamsforma
tightlyenclosedenginecompartment

THERMO ACOUSTIC ENGINE


THERMOACOUSTICENGINE
ENCAPSULATION
Electricallyactuatedshuttersor
Otherappropriatefrontclosingelements
Limitheatandnoiseleakagethroughtheradiator.Thesystemmust

ensureanefficientflowofairthroughtheradiatorforoptimumengine
coolingduringdriving.
vibrationsandoperatingtemperaturesarelowerforbodymounted

components lightweightmaterialssuchasfoamsandfeltscanbeused
components,lightweightmaterialssuchasfoamsandfeltscanbeused.

BARRIERSINTAEE
costeffectivedevelopmentofthesealingsystem
passthroughs forthesteeringcolumn,driveshafts,

cablesandotherinterfacesneedtobeintegrated.

ENGINEMOUNTEDENCAPSULATION
Enginemountedencapsulationissmallerbutisfixed

tosurfacesthatareusuallyhotandexposedtomore
vibrationthanthebody Thisrequiresmorestable
vibrationthanthebody.Thisrequiresmorestable
materialswithhigher temperatureresistance

THERMALSAFETY

SHELLDESIGN
Replaceseveralcoversandthebonnetabsorberbyasingle

element,thusallowingasignificantweightreduction.
Theconstructioncomprisesalower andanuppershell

madeoffunctionspecific,structurallyandacoustically
p
,
y
y
optimised compositematerials

ADDEDADVANTAGE
Thedoubleshelldesignefficientlycombinesthefollowing:
1.
2.
3.
4
4.
5.

highnoiseabsorption
hi h
highpartstiffness
iff
heatinsulation
integrationofcoolingairductsorengineairfiltrationand
inlet
integrationofpedestrianprotectionabsorbers,electric
g
p
p
cablesanddevices.

BONNETDESIGN

SHELLDESIGN

MATERIALSFORTHERMALAND
ACOUSTICINSULATIONINTHE
ENGINE COMPARTMENT
ENGINECOMPARTMENT

Forenginemountedpartssuchasenginecovers
1.

IInjectedpolypropylenecoupledwithfeltorpolyurethane
j
d l
l

l d i hf l l
h

foam moulded absorbersarewidelyused

2. Thesematerialcombinationsarenotsuitablefora

completeencapsulationduetotheirhighweight
(b
(between3and4kg/m2).
d k
)

BODYMOUNTEDACOUSTICPARTS
Bodymountedacousticpartsareoftenmadeofglasswool

orcottonfelt,withphenolic resinasabindertreated.
y Besidesthegoodeconomics,thesematerialsprovide

overallgoodflammabilityresistance.
g
y
y theresinhassomedisadvantages suchasodour andVOC

( l l
(volatileorganiccompounds)emissions.
d )

NEWCOMBINATION
y AneedledfibrematerialconsistingofacombinationofPP

andavariableamountofglassfibres inordertobalance
acousticandmechanicalproperties
y suchmaterialsarenotsuitedtothehightemperatures
g
p

closetoanenginesincetheyarelimitedto140C
(continuousenginesurfacetemperature).

FUTURISTICAPPOROACH
Thereforethereisaneedtodevelopmaterialsthat

combines
1. mechanicalstrength,
h i l
h
2. acousticeffectiveness,
3. heatinsulationand
h i
l i d
4. heatstability.

CONCLUSION
y Itisforeseeablethattheinternalcombustionenginesof

futurevehicleswillrequireclosedencapsulationsinorder
toimprovefuelefficiencyandreduceexteriornoise This
toimprovefuelefficiencyandreduceexteriornoise.This
posestremendouschallengesforcarmanufacturersin
termsofaddedcomplexity,weight,costandthermalsafety
problems.
bl

REFERENCE
[1]deciutiis,h.;brgin,t.;gorlato,l.:auswirkungenvonverschiedenenmotorraumkapsel
konzeptenaufemissionen,verbrauchundaufdiethermischebetriebssicherheitim
motoPkws.In:WrmemanagementdesKraftfahrzeugs.ExpertVerlag,Renningen,2006
[2]Lehmann,D.:EngineeringProcessforanInnovativeUnderfloor Module.Rieter
A
AutomotiveConference,Zrich,2003
i C f
Z i h
[3]StrategicResearchAgendaoftheEuropeanRoadTransportResearchAdvisoryCouncil,
Dezember 2004
[4]Mantovani,M.;Lehmann,D.:FunctionalandMaterialAcousticOptimizationintegrated
intoUnderbodySystemsforVehiclePerformanceImprovement SAEPaper2007 01 2350
intoUnderbodySystemsforVehiclePerformanceImprovement.SAEPaper2007012350
[5]Meschke,J.;Gaudino,C.;Bendell,E.:DesignandOptimizationofanEngineMounted
ThermalAcousticalEncapsulation.Rieter AutomotiveConference,Zrich2007
[6]Viktorovitch,M.:AcousticsofaModularEngineBayEncapsulationintegratingaPorous
AirIntakeSystem Rieter AutomotiveConference,Zrich2007Srraumeines
AirIntakeSystem.Rieter

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