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1.

Gas Welding

2003

1. Gas Welding

3
Although the oxy-acetylene process
has been introduced long time ago it

is still applied for its flexibility and mo4

5
8

7
9

1
2

bility. Equipment for oxyacetylene


welding consists of just a few elements, the energy necessary for welding can be transported in cylinders,
Figure 1.1.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

oxygen cylinder with pressure reducer


acetylene cylinder with pressure reducer
oxygen hose
acetylene hose
welding torch
welding rod
workpiece
welding nozzle
welding flame

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Figure 1.1
3

density in normal state [kg/m ]

oxygen

propane

1.43
0.9

ignition temperature [OC]


600

ral gas; here C3H8 has the highest

400

calorific value. The highest flame in-

200

tensity from point of view of calorific

645

645

value and flame propagation speed is,


3200

flame temperature with O2


flame efficiency with O 2
flame velocity with O2
43 1350

2850
2770
0

300

490
335

510
natural gas

C2H2, lighting gas, H2, C3H8 and natu-

however, obtained with C2H2.

1.17

propane

1.2. Suitable combustible gases are

1.29
air

oxygen and a combustible gas, Figure

2.0

air

exothermal chemical reaction between

2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0

oxygen

Process energy is obtained from the

10.3

370

8.5

330

KW
k

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Figure 1.2

/cm2

cm

/s
ISF 2002

1. Gas Welding

4
C2H2 is produced in acetylene gas

loading funnel

generators by the exothermal transformation of calcium carbide with wa-

material lock

ter, Figure 1.3. Carbide is obtained


from the reaction of lime and carbon
in the arc furnace.
gas exit
feed wheel

C2H2 tends to decompose already at


a pressure of 0.2 MPa. Nonetheless,
grille

commercial quantities can be stored

sludge

when C2H2 is dissolved in acetone


(1 l of acetone dissolves approx. 24 l
of C2H2 at 0.1 MPa), Figure 1.4.

to
sludge pit
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ISF 2002

Acetylene Generator

Figure 1.3
Acetone disintegrates at a pressure of

acetone

acetylene

more than 1.8 MPa, i.e., with a filling


pressure of 1.5 MPa the storage of 6m
of C2H2 is possible in a standard cylinporous mass

der (40 l). For gas exchange (storage


and drawing of quantities up to 700 l/h)

a larger surface is necessary, therefore

acetylene cylinder
acetone quantity :

~13 l

the gas cylinders are filled with a po-

acetylene quantity :

6000 l

rous mass (diatomite). Gas consump-

cylinder pressure :

15 bar

tion during welding can be observed


from the weight reduction of the gas
filling quantity : up to 700 l/h

cylinder.
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ISF 2002

Storage of Acetylene

Figure 1.4

1. Gas Welding

5
Oxygen
duced

gaseous

is
by

profrac-

cooling

tional distillation

cylinder

nitrogen
air

of liquid air and


bundle

stored in cylinders

oxygen

liquid
air

with a filling pres-

pipeline
liquid

oxygen

sure of up to 20
MPa, Figure 1.5.

tank car
nitrogen
vaporized
cleaning

compressor

For higher oxygen

separation

consumption, stor-

supply

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age in a liquid state

ISF 2002

Principle of Oxygen Extraction

and cold gasification is more profit-

Figure 1.5

able.

The standard cylinder (40 l) contains,

50 l oxygen cylinder

at a filling pressure of 15 MPa, 6m of

protective cap
cylinder valve

O2 (pressureless state), Figure 1.6.

gaseous

take-off connection

Moreover, cylinders with contents of

p = cylinder pressure : 200 bar

10 or 20 l (15 MPa) as well as 50 l at

V = volume of cylinder : 50 l
Q = volume of oxygen : 10 000 l

20 MPa are common. Gas consumpcontent control

tion can be calculated from the pres-

Q=pV

sure difference by means of the gen-

foot ring

eral gas equation.


manometer

liquid

safety valve

vaporizer

filling
connection
user

still
liquid
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Storage of Oxygen

Figure 1.6

gaseous

1. Gas Welding

In order to prevent mistakes, the gas cylinders are colour-coded. Figure 1.7 shows a
survey of the present colour code and the future colour code which is in accordance
with DIN EN 1089.
The cylinder valves are also of
show a
thread

right-hand
union

Acetylene

different designs. Oxygen cylinder connections

actual condition

nut.

DIN EN 1089

blue

actual condition

white

DIN EN 1089

grey

cylinder

helium

oxygen techn.

valves are equipped

yellow

brown
grey

blue (grey)

brown

red

dark green

grey

with screw clamp


acetylene

retentions. Cylinder
valves

for

grey

other
argon

darkgreen

left-hand

vivid green
grey

grey

combustible gases
have

hydrogen

argon-carbon-dioxide mixture
black

grey

grey

darkgreen

thread-connection

nitrogen

carbon-dioxide

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with a circumferen-

ISF 2002

Gas Cylinder-Identification
according to DIN EN 1089

tial groove.
Figure 1.7

Pressure regulators reduce the cylinder pressure to the requested working pressure, Figures 1.8 and 1.9.
cylinder pressure

working pressure

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ISF 2002

Single Pressure Reducing Valve


during Gas Discharge Operation

Figure 1.8

1. Gas Welding

At a low cylinder pressure (e.g. acetylene cylinder) and low pressure fluctuations,
single-stage regulators
are applied; at higher cylinder pressures normally two-stage pressure regulators are
discharge pressure

locking pressure

used.
The

requested

pressure is set by
the

adjusting

screw. If the pressure increases on


the low pressure
side,

the

throttle

valve

closes

the

increased pressure
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ISF 2002

onto

Single Pressure Reducing Valve,


Shut Down

the

brane.

Figure 1.9

The

injector-type
welding torch
injector or blowpipe

torch consists of a
body

with

valves

and welding chamber

with

mixer tube

coupling nut
mixer nozzle
oxygen valve

hose connection
for oxygen
A6x1/4" right

welding

nozzle, Figure 1.10.


injector
pressure nozzle
suction nozzle

By the selection of
suitable

welding

chambers,

fuel gas valve

welding nozzle

the
welding torch head

flame intensity can


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be

adjusted

for

different

plate thicknesses.

Figure 1.10

torch body
ISF 2002

Welding Torch

welding

hose connection
for fuel gas
A9 x R3/8 left

mem-

1. Gas Welding

The special form of the mixing chamber guarantees highest possible safety against
flashback, Figure 1.11. The high outlet speed of the escaping O2 generates a negative pressure in the acetylene gas line, in consequence C2H2 is sucked and drawn-in.
C2H2 is therefore available with a very low pressure of 0.02 up to 0.05 MPa compared with O2 (0.2 up to 0.3 MPa).

acetylene
oxygen
acetylene

welding torch head injector nozzle


coupling nut

pressure nozzle

torch body

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ISF 2002

Injector-Area of Torch

Figure 1.11
A neutral flame adjustment allows the differentiation of three zones of a chemical
reaction, Figure 1.12:

0. dark core:

escaping gas mixture

1. brightly shining centre cone:

acetylene decomposition
C2H2 -> 2C+H2

2. welding zone:

1st stage of combustion


2C + H2 + O2 (cylinder) -> 2CO + H2

3. outer flame:

2nd stage of combustion


4CO + 2H2 + 3O2 (air) ->
4CO2 + 2H2O

complete reaction:

2C2H2 + 5O2 ->


4CO2 + 2H2O

1. Gas Welding

welding flame
combustion
welding nozzle centre cone
welding zone
2-5

outer flame

3200C

2500C

1800C

1100C

400C

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ISF 2002

Figure 1.12
welding flame
ratio of mixture

By changing the mixture ratio of the

excess of
oxygen

normal
(neutral)

excess of
acetylene

volumes O2:C2H2 the weld pool can


greatly be influenced, Figure 1.13. At a
neutral flame adjustment the mixture
ratio is O2:C2H2 = 1:1. By reason of the
higher flame temperature, an excess
oxygen flame might allow faster welding of steel, however, there is the risk
of oxidizing (flame cutting).
effects in welding of steel

Area of application: brass

foaming
spattering

sparking

The excess acetylene causes the


carburising of steel materials.

consequences:
carburizing
hardening
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reducing

oxidizing
ISF 2002

Area of application: cast iron

Effects of the Welding Flame


Depending on the Ratio of Mixture

Figure 1.13

1. Gas Welding

10
By changing the gas mixture outlet

welding flame

speed the flame can be adjusted to

balanced (neutral) flame


nozzle size: for plate thickness of 2-4 mm

the heat requirements of the welding

discharging velocity and weld heat-input rate: low


2

job, for example when welding plates


(thickness: 2 to 4 mm) with the welding chamber size 3: 2 to 4 mm, Fig-

soft flame
discharging velocity and weld heat-input rate: middle
3

ure 1.14. The gas mixture outlet


speed is 100 to 130 m/s when using a
medium or normal flame, applied to

moderate flame

at, for example, a 3 mm plate. Using a

discharging velocity and weld head-input rate: high


4

soft flame, the gas outlet speed is


lower (80 to 100 m/s) for the 2 mm
plate, with a hard flame it is higher
(130 to 160 m/s) for the 4 mm plate.

hard flame
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ISF 2002

Effects of the Welding Flame


Depending on the Discharge Velocity

Figure 1.14
Depending on the plate thickness are
the working methods leftward weld-

Leftward welding is applied to a plate thickness of up to 3 mm.


The weld-rod dips into the molten pool from time to time,
but remains calm otherwise. The torch swings a little.
Advantages:
easy to handle on thin plates

ing and rightward welding applied,


Figure 1.15. A decisive factor for the
designation of the working method is
the sequence of flame and welding rod
as well as the manipulation of flame
and welding rod. The welding direction
itself is of no importance. In leftward

welding-rod

flame

welding bead

Rightward welding ist applied to a plate thickness of 3mm


upwards. The wire circles, the torch remains calm.
Advantages:
- the molten pool and the weld keyhole are easy to observe
- good root fusion
- the bath and the melting weld-rod are permanently protected
from the air
- narrow welding seam
- low gas consumption

welding the flame is pointed at the


open gap and wets the molten pool;
the heat input to the molten pool can
be well controlled by a slight move-

weld-rod

flame

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ment of the torch (s = 3 mm).

ISF 2002

Flame Welding

Figure 1.15

1. Gas Welding

11

In rightward welding the flame is directed onto the molten pool; a weld

can be applied to a plate thickness of

1,5

approx. 1.5 mm without filler material,

symbol

flange weld

1,0

but this does not apply to any other

plain butt
weld

1,0

4,0

3,0

12,0

1,0

8,0

1,0

8,0

lap seam

1,0

8,0

fillet weld

plate thickness and weld shape, Figure 1.16.

denotation

gap
preparations

r=

Flanged welds and plain butt welds

plate thickness
range s [mm]
from to

~
~ s+1

keyhole is formed (s = 3 mm).

V - weld
1-2
1-2

corner weld

By the specific heat input of the different welding methods all welding positions can be carried out using the
oxyacetylene welding method, Figures
1.17 and 1.18

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ISF 2002

Gap Shapes for Gas Welding

Figure 1.16
butt-welded seams in
gravity position

When working in tanks and confined

PA

spaces, the welder (and all other per-

gravity fillet welds

sons present!) have to be protected


against the welding heat, the gases

PB

produced during welding and lack of

horizontal fillet welds


vertical fillet and butt welds

oxygen ((1.5 % (vol.) O2 per 2 % (vol.)

C2H2 are taken out from the ambient


atmosphere)), Figure 1.19. The addi-

PF
PG

vertical-upwelding position
vertical-down position

PC

horizontal on
vertical wall

PE

overhead position

PD

horizontal overhead position

tion of pure oxygen is unsuitable (explosion hazard!).

ISF 2002

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Welding Positions I

Figure 1.17

1. Gas Welding

12
A special type of autogene method is
flame-straightening, where specific locally applied flame heating allows for
shape correction of workpieces, Figure

PA

1.20. Much experience is needed to

PB
PF

carry out flame straightening processes.


The basic principle of flame straightening
depends on locally applied heating in

PC

connection with prevention of expansion.


This process causes the appearance of a
PG
PD

heated zone. During cooling, shrinking


forces are generated in the heated zone

PE

and lead to the desired shape correction.


ISF 2002

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Welding Positions II

Figure 1.18

Safety in welding and cutting inside of


tanks and narrow rooms

Flame straightening

welded parts

first warm up both


lateral plates, then belt

Hazards through gas, fumes, explosive mixtures,


electric current
protective measures / safety precautions
1. requirement for a permission to enter
2. extraction unit, ventilation

butt weld
3 to 5 heat sources
close to the weld-seam

3. second person for safety reasons


4. illumination and electric machines: max 42volt

double fillet weld


1,3 or 5 heat sources

5. after welding: Removing the equipment from the tank

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ISF 2002

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Gas Welding in Tanks and


Narrow Rooms

Figure 1.19

ISF 2002

Flame Straightening

Figure 1.20