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Valve Sequencing

Cyclic Movement

1. A task of obtaining cyclic movement of a piston in a cylinder.

This might be to periodically push work pieces into position in a
machine tool with another similar but out-of phase arrangement
used to remove completed work pieces.

Figure 1 cyclic moment of piston

Consider both timers set for 10s. When the start contacts X400 are
closed, timer T450starts. There is also an output from Y431. Output
Y431 is one of the solenoids used to actuatethe valve. When it is
energized it causes pressure supply P to be applied to the right-hand
endof the cylinder and the left-hand side to be connected to the vent to
the atmosphere. Thepiston thus moves to the left. After 10 s, the
normally open T450 contacts close and thenormally closed T450
contacts open. This stops output Y431, starts timer T451,
andenergizes output Y430. As a result, pressure supply P is applied to
the left-hand side of thepiston and the right-hand side is connected to
the vent to the atmosphere. The piston nowmoves to the right. After
10 s, the normally closed T451 contacts are opened. Thiscausesthe
normally closed T450 contacts to close, and so Y431 is energized.
Thus the sequencerepeats itself.

2. A task involving three pistons A, B, and C that has to be

actuated in this sequence: A to the right, A to the left, B
to the right, B to the left, C to the right, C to the left.
(Such a sequence is often written A+, A-, B+, B-, C+,
and C-) Figure

I0.0 is the start switch. When it is closed there is an output

from Q2.0, and timer T0 starts. The start switch is latched by
the output. Piston A moves towards right. After the set time,
K = 4, the normally closed timer T0 internal relay M 2.0
contacts open and the normally open timer T0/internal relay
M2.0 contacts close. This switches off Q2.0, energizes Q2.1,
and starts timer T1. Piston A moves left. In rung 2, theT0
internal relay M 2.0 contacts are latched and so the output
remains on until the set time has been reached. When this
occurs, the normally closed timer T1 internal relay M2.1
contacts open and the normally open T1internal relay M2.1
contacts close. This switches off Q2.1, energizes Q2.2, and
starts timer T2. Piston B moves right. Each succeeding rung
activates the next solenoid. Thus, in sequence, each of the
outputs is energized.

3. A production-line problem involving a conveyor being used to transport

bottles to apackaging unit, with the items being loaded onto the conveyor,
checked to ensure they arefull and capped, and then the correct number of
bottles (four) being packed in a container.The required control actions are
thus: If a bottle is not full, the conveyor is stopped; thecapping machine is
activated when a bottle is at the required position, the conveyor
beingstopped during this time; count four bottles and activate the packing
machine, with the conveyor stopped if another bottle comes to the
packing point at that time; and sound an alarm when the conveyor is
stopped. The detection of whether a bottle is full could be done with a
photoelectric sensor that could then be used to activate a switch (I0.2
input).The presence of a bottle for the capping machine could also be by
means of a photoelectric sensor (I0.3 input). The input to the counter to
detect the four bottles could be also from a photoelectric sensor (I0.4
input). The other inputs could be start (I0.0 input) and stop (I0.1
input)switches for the conveyor and a signal (I0.5 input) from the
packaging machine as to when it is operating and has received four
bottles and so is not ready for any further caps. A possible ladder program
that could be used in Siemens format,

4. The central heating boiler is to be thermostatically controlled

and will supply hot water to the radiator system in the house as
well as to the hot water tank to provide hot water from the taps
in the house. Pump motors have to be switched on to direct the
hot water from the boiler to either or both the radiator and hot
water systems, according to whether the temperature sensors for
the room temperature and the hot water tank indicate that the
radiators or tank need heating. The entire system is to be
controlled by a clock so that it operates for only certain hours of

the day.