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The Research Process

Observation
Broad area of
research interest
identified

Problem
Definition

Theoretical
Framework

Research
Problem
delineated

Variables
clearly
identified
and labeled

Preliminary
Data Gathering
Interviewing
Literature
Review

Generation
of
Hypotheses

Scientific
Research
Design

Data
Collection,
analysis,
and
Interpretation

Deduction
Hypotheses
substantiated?
Research
question
answered?

The Research Proposal


A written plan for conducting a research
study
Outlines the problem
Motivates the need for research
Outlines methods to be used to carry out
the research

The Research Proposal


Spells out in detail what the researcher
intends to do
Permits others to learn about the
intended research and to offer
suggestions for improving the study
Helps clarify what needs to be done and
helps avoid pitfalls or unnecessary
problems

The Research Proposal


I. Background of the Study
Introduction
Statement of the Problem
Research questions
Objectives of the Study
Significance of the Study
Scope and Delimitations of the Study
II. Review of Related Literature
III. Theoretical Framework
Conceptual Framework
Operational Framework
Hypotheses
Operational Definition
IV. Methodology
Research Design
Data Collection
Respondents
Sampling procedures
Research instrument
Methods of Data Analysis

Topic Identification

Read a lot of literature in your field of


concentration and be critical of what you
read
Attend professional lectures
Be observant of situations and happenings
around you
Think out the possibility of research for
lessons taken in content courses

Topic Identification
Conduct mini-researches and note the
obtained findings closely
Compile research with special emphasis on
content and methodology
Visit various libraries for possible discovery of
researchable topics

Topic Identification
Subscribe to journals in your field and in
research
Build up a library of materials in your field.
Materials could be concept-centric or authorcentric
Sources include journals, books, conference
and organizations

Topic Selection
Research is an original investigation
undertaken to gain knowledge and
understanding
Choose a phenomena which you wish to
explain or predict
Topic is of great interest to you.

Topic Selection
Topic is useful for the concerned people in a
particular field
Topic is novel

Topic Selection

It is manageable in terms of expertise, skilled


manpower, money and time
Data is available
It can be completed in the allotted time
desired

Topic Selection

It is well defined or specified


It is measurable

Topic Selection

It does not carry ethical or moral


impediments

Researchable Problems
Addressing a gap in knowledge
Testing the effectiveness of possible
solutions
Looking for possible and plausible
explanations

Problem Definition could pertain


to

Existing business problems


Areas for improvement
Areas for conceptual clarification
Empirical support to theories

A PROBLEM is an undesirable
factor that must be dealt with
if the desired organizational results
are to be achieved

Problem Justification
Timeliness
Pervasiveness
Effect on particular groups
Relationship with ongoing programs
Relationship with broad social, economic
and health issues
A concern for other people as well
Has direct, indirect, short-term and long-range
impact on the welfare of a group of people or the
society as a whole

Research Problem and Objectives


Problems are the initiating reason for the
research
Objectives are the intent or goals which
the researcher will attain through the study
Logically connected
Objectives are based or anchored on the
problem

OBJECTIVES
Statements of purpose for which the
investigation is to be conducted
Stipulate the aims or goals which are
expected at the end of the research
Process

Evidence of the researchers clear


Sense of purpose and direction

Research Question Research


Objective
Research Question
1. Why have organizations
introduced team briefing?
2. How can the effectiveness
of team briefing schemes be
measured?
3. Has team briefing been
effective?

Research Objective
1. To identify organisations
objectives for team
briefing schemes
2. To establish suitable
effectiveness criteria for
team briefing schemes
3. To describe the extent to
which the effectiveness criteria
for team briefing have been
met

CATEGORIES OF OBJECTIVES
GENERAL : broad statement of
purpose which uses abstract and
non-measurable concepts
- usually a rephrase of the research
title

CATEGORIES OF OBJECTIVES

EXAMPLE

SPECIFIC : is a statement of purpose


which uses well-defined and
measurable concepts
- based on and logically flow from
the general objective

Illustrative Example
General: To determine the relationship of accounting
conservatism and quality of earnings with regard to the food,
beverage and tobacco sector for the five-year period of 1998
to 2002
Specific:
1. To analyze the extent to which the principle of conservatism
is applied in the food, beverage and tobacco sector
2. To determine how accounting conservatism affects quality of
earnings for each firm in the food, beverage and tobacco
sector

GOOD RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

EXAMPLE

Simple ( language)/ Specific : What


precisely do you hope to achieve?
Measurable (concepts): What
measures will you use to determine
whether you have achieved the
objectives?
Attainable: Are they achievable
given all possible constraints?
Result-oriented/ Realistic : Will you
have time and energy to complete it?
Time-bound

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY


Value of the study to individuals,
groups and sectors
INDIVIDUAL: researchers, students,
employees, managers, entrepreneurs
ORGANIZATION: firms, industry,
associations, schools, funding agencies
OTHERS: government, communities,
consumers, suppliers, investors
Contributions of the study

Areas of Possible Contribution


Contribution to accumulation of knowledge, or to
filling up a knowledge gap; contribution to building,
validating or refining prevailing theories
Contribution to a pressing need of a specific group
like solving problems or improving certain conditions
Contribution to refining concepts, improving
research instrumentation and methodologies

Scope and Limitation


SCOPE defines the coverage or boundary
of the study in terms of :
(a) area or locality
(b) population or sample
(c) duration or period
(d) subjects
LIMITATION is a phase or aspect of the
investigation which may affect the result
adversely but over which the researcher has
no control

Study coverage with concrete reference to:


Variables
Sources of data
Methods to be employed in data collection and
analysis
Time frame
Constraints such as non-availability of data,
confidentiality of some relevant information,
uncooperativeness or respondents, inability of
respondents to recall accurate responses

Literature
Collection of books and papers
that deal with the same issues
and that respond to each other in
the developing debates about a
topic

Literature Review
A review can involve a narrative or description of an
article or other piece of work
A critical review poses questions such as:
- What is the purpose of the study?
- What is the focus of the study?
- What types of data were collected?
- How were the data managed?
- What analytical approach is used?

A Critical Review should also include:


An assessment of the strengths and
weaknesses of some of the theories
A clear understanding of the topic
A citing of all the key studies in the subject
territory
A clear indication of how the review links to
your research questions

A Critical Review should also include:


A definition of the boundaries of your
research
A selection and synthesis of existing
arguments to form a new perspective
Through gradual refinement, a clear
demarcation of the research problem

Literature Review
Identify the key works and materials in the
literature
One should be aware of the breadth of
literature related to your topic or research
questions

Literature Review
Requires the skill of condensing large volumes
of literature so that the essential views or
arguments they contain can be presented in a
few words

Literature Review
Schools of Thought

Compare & Contrast

Evaluate strengths
and
weaknesses

Literature Review
Removes the need to rediscover knowledge
that has already been reported
-assesses the existing knowledge in the field
and point out which areas dominate the
discussion to date

Literature Review
Helps one to build upon the work that has
already been done in the field being
researched
- reveals blank spots in the existing research,
thus offering a platform and directions for
future research