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# Stoichiometry

## Definition and Formulae

Stoichiometry
- is the study of the quantitative aspects
of chemical reactions.

## 1. RELATIVE Atomic mass- ( Ar)

- A relative atomic mass (also called atomic weight; symbol:
Ar) is a measure of how heavy atoms are.
It is the ratio of the average mass per atom of an element from
a given sample to 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom.
Ar = mass of one atom of the element
1/12 X mass of 1 atom of carbon-12
* Can readily be seen on the Periodic Table of Elements :)
ex. H= 1

O = 16

1. Flourine

2. Helium

4. Argon

5. Boron

6. Calcium

7. Chlorine

8. Magnesium

9. Selenium

10. Rubidium

## 2. RELATIVE MOLECULAR MASS

the sum of all the relative atomic masses of the atoms in a molecule;
the ratio of the average mass per molecule of a specified isotopic
composition of a substance to one-twelfth the mass of an atom of carbon-12.

Symbol: Mr

Abbreviation:

r.m.m.

## Mr = mass of one molecule of the substance

1/12 X mass of one atom of C-12

Ex.

H2O =

H =1X2

= 2

O = 16 X 1

= 16 +
18

Mr of Water is 18

1. H2SO4

2. Mg(OH)2

3. Na2CO3. 10H2O

4. SO2

5. C2H6

3. One Mole

## the amount of substance that contains the

same number of particles as the number of
atoms in 12 grams of C-12
1 mole = 6.02 X 10 particles ( Avogadro's
number )
* particles can be atoms, molecules or ions

Moles

## 1. Calculate the no. of moles of carbon in 2.4 X

10 atoms of carbon.

Na2CO3.

4. MOLAR MASS

## the mass of one mole of substance in 1 gram

Molar mass= relative atomic mass (Ar) or
relative molecular mass (Mr) in grams
Unit used is g/mol

1. Mg =

2. CO2 =

3. C2H6 =

4. Na2CO3 =

5. CH4 =

## Relationship between the moles and

the mass of a substance

molar mass
Formulae:

Examples

## Calculate the mass of 0.3 mol of Aluminum ion.

Solution:
Mass of Al ion = no. of moles X molar mass
= 0.3 X 27
= 8.1 g of Al ions

## How many atoms are present in 17 g of NH3?

Solution:
no. of moles of NH3 =
=

mass (g)
( Mr)
17 / 17 = 1 mol

## No. of NH3 molecules = no.of moles X Av. no.

= 1.0 X (6 X 10 )= 6 X 10

## No. of NH3 atoms = 4 X ( 6 X 10)= 24 X 10

or 2.4 X 104

5. EMPERICAL FORMULA

## formula that shows the the types of elements

and the simplest ratio of elements in a
compound.
It can be determined from:
a. the percentage composition by mass
b. the masses of the elements that combined
together

## Emperical Formula = bigger ratio of element

smaller ratio of element

Example

## When 1.4 g of Lithium is burnt in excess

oxygen, 3.0 g of Lithium oxide is obtained.
What is the emperical formula of lithium oxide?
Solution: Mass of O2 that combines with 1.4 g
of Li = 3.0-1.4 = 1.6 g. of O2

Solution by Steps
STEPS
1. Write the mass

LITHIUM

OXYGEN

1.4 g

1.6 g

## 2. Find the number of moles

( divide by the Ar)

number

0.2 / 0.1 = 2

0.1 / 0.1 = 1

Litium oxide is

Li2O

## 6. MOLECULAR FORMULA the formula that shows the exact number of

atoms of each element in a molecule.
Molecular Formula =Emperical formula X n

## n= relative molecular mass

Mr from the emperical formula
...where n= 1,2,3,etc.

AVOGADRO'S LAW

## -states that equal volumes of all gases,under

the same conditions of temperature and
pressure,contain the same number of
molecules which is 6.02X 10 .

Percentage by Composition

## Percentage by mass of an element in a

compound = Ar of element X number of atoms in formula
Relative molecular mass (Mr) of the compound

X 100 %