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Definition and Formulae

- is the study of the quantitative aspects
of chemical reactions.

1. RELATIVE Atomic mass- ( Ar)

- A relative atomic mass (also called atomic weight; symbol:
Ar) is a measure of how heavy atoms are.
It is the ratio of the average mass per atom of an element from
a given sample to 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom.
Ar = mass of one atom of the element
1/12 X mass of 1 atom of carbon-12
* Can readily be seen on the Periodic Table of Elements :)
ex. H= 1

O = 16

What is the Ar of......

1. Flourine

2. Helium

4. Argon

5. Boron

6. Calcium

7. Chlorine

8. Magnesium

9. Selenium

10. Rubidium


the sum of all the relative atomic masses of the atoms in a molecule;
the ratio of the average mass per molecule of a specified isotopic
composition of a substance to one-twelfth the mass of an atom of carbon-12.

Symbol: Mr


Former name: molecular weight


Mr = mass of one molecule of the substance

1/12 X mass of one atom of C-12


H2O =

H =1X2

= 2

O = 16 X 1

= 16 +

Mr of Water is 18

What is the Mr of ....

1. H2SO4

2. Mg(OH)2

3. Na2CO3. 10H2O

4. SO2

5. C2H6

3. One Mole

the amount of substance that contains the

same number of particles as the number of
atoms in 12 grams of C-12
1 mole = 6.02 X 10 particles ( Avogadro's
number )
* particles can be atoms, molecules or ions

No. of moles X Avogadro's No. = Number of particles

No. of particles / Avogadro's No. = No. of moles


1. Calculate the no. of moles of carbon in 2.4 X

10 atoms of carbon.

2. Calculate the no. of Na ions in 0.6 mol of



the mass of one mole of substance in 1 gram

Molar mass= relative atomic mass (Ar) or
relative molecular mass (Mr) in grams
Unit used is g/mol

What is the molar mass of ..

1. Mg =

2. CO2 =

3. C2H6 =

4. Na2CO3 =

5. CH4 =

Relationship between the moles and

the mass of a substance

No. of moles = mass of the substance

molar mass

No. of moles X molar mass = mass in grams

Mass in grams / molar mass = no. of moles


Calculate the mass of 0.3 mol of Aluminum ion.

Mass of Al ion = no. of moles X molar mass
= 0.3 X 27
= 8.1 g of Al ions

How many atoms are present in 17 g of NH3?

no. of moles of NH3 =

mass (g)
( Mr)
17 / 17 = 1 mol

No. of NH3 molecules = no.of moles X Av. no.

= 1.0 X (6 X 10 )= 6 X 10

Each NH3 molecule contains 4 atoms

No. of NH3 atoms = 4 X ( 6 X 10)= 24 X 10

or 2.4 X 104


formula that shows the the types of elements

and the simplest ratio of elements in a
It can be determined from:
a. the percentage composition by mass
b. the masses of the elements that combined

Emperical Formula = bigger ratio of element

smaller ratio of element


When 1.4 g of Lithium is burnt in excess

oxygen, 3.0 g of Lithium oxide is obtained.
What is the emperical formula of lithium oxide?
Solution: Mass of O2 that combines with 1.4 g
of Li = 3.0-1.4 = 1.6 g. of O2

Solution by Steps
1. Write the mass



1.4 g

1.6 g

2. Find the number of moles

( divide by the Ar)

1.4 / 7 = 0.2 mol

1.6 / 16 = 0.1 mol

3. Divide by the smallest


0.2 / 0.1 = 2

0.1 / 0.1 = 1

4. Find the molar ratio

Ratio of Li:O = 2:1

The Emperical Formula of

Litium oxide is


6. MOLECULAR FORMULA the formula that shows the exact number of

atoms of each element in a molecule.
Molecular Formula =Emperical formula X n

n= relative molecular mass

Mr from the emperical formula
...where n= 1,2,3,etc.

7. MOLAR VOLUME OF A GAS = the volume of one mole of the gas

1 mole of any gas occupies 24 dm ( 24 000 cm ) at rtp

rtp room temperature and pressure


-states that equal volumes of all gases,under

the same conditions of temperature and
pressure,contain the same number of
molecules which is 6.02X 10 .

Percentage by Composition

Percentage by mass of an element in a

compound = Ar of element X number of atoms in formula
Relative molecular mass (Mr) of the compound

X 100 %