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Ap

Nancy Bachus, Associate Editor


earning to Play Piano, Book 4, is a logical continuation of the progres
pianistic curriculum contained in the first three volumes of this series.
~volume too, the progression of pieces is devised not only to expan
student's vocabulary of musical concepts within the framework of slo .- .advancing technical capabilities, but also to reinforce material alread. leamed. At the sarne time, new doors are opened which lead to the
understanding, appreciation, and enjoyment of ali good music.
Ali pieces in this volume, unless otherwise identified, are the compositio

and arrangements of Denes Agay. Jean Reynolds Davis provided valuable


editorial assistance in all four volumes of this teaching series.

Book design and layout by L. Vogler


Illustrations by ]anice Fried
Copyright 1987, 1994 Yorktown Music Press, Inc.
Ali Rights Reserved
Order No. YK 20519
US International Standard Book Number: 0.8256.8072. 7
UK International Standard Book Number: O. 7119 .1017.X
Exclusive Distributors:
Music Sales Corporation
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Printed and bound in the United States of America by
Vicks Lithography and Printing Corporation

Yorktown Music Press lnc.


New York/ London/ Sydney

CoNTENTS
Review of Motives and Sequences ..................... 3
Opening Fanfare (Trumpet Minuet) ............. ... 3
Review of Fluent Note-Reading ........................ .. 4
Lullaby of the Night Breeze ... ................ ....... ... 4
Memorial March ...................... ...................... .. 5
Harvest Fling ........................... .... .... ..... ......... ... 6
Frolicsome Twosome ..... .................................. 7
Tarantella Etude .................................. .... .. ....... 8
Transposing ......................... .... ................. ...... ..... . 9
German Dance 1. (Beethoven) ... ................... 10
German Dance 2. (Beethoven) ..... ... .............. 11
More about Intervals major, minar,
and perfect ................................................. 12
Hungarian Dance No. 4 (Theme)
(Brahms) ....... ...... .... ..... .... .............. ................. 13
The Figure Skater chromatic scale ................... 14
Fiesta! (Spanish Holiday) ............................... 15
Marking Chords by Letter-Names .................... 16
Play Tune 1 and II ................. ... .......... ............. 17
Play Tune III broken chords,
divided chords ............................................ 18
More Scale Types: The Modes .............. ... ...... .... 19
Sea Chantey Dorian mode ............................. 19
Medieval Court Dance Phrygian mode ........... 20
Little Mazurka Lydian mode ........................... 21
Merry Villagers Mixolydian mode .................. 21
The "Rounded" Binary Form ........ .. ....... ......... .. 22
Gypsy Dance (Haydn) ............. ............ .......... 22
Oh! Susanna (Foster) .............. .. .... .... .... ...... .... 23
Prelude of the Bells continuous pedal ............. 24
Irish Air ("Believe Me if All These
Endearing Young Charms") ........... .......... 25
Arpeggios (Extended Broken Chords) ............. 26
Rotation Study ..... ..... ........ ...... ........... .. ....... ... 26
Call to the Hunt .... ............... ... .. .... ........... ...... 27
On the Swing (Gretchaninoff) ............... ..... .. 28
aatelle (Beethoven) --- -

Arpeggio Waltz ... ...... ......... ... ... ...................... . 3


Nimble Fingers (Variations on a
Play Tune) .......... .......... ...... .................. ..... 3,
Seventh Chords and Their Inversions .. .. ... ..... . 3-::
Sailing on Blue Waters ......... ....... ....... ...... .. .. .. 3Two Musical Styles homophonic,
polyphonic ................................................. 36
Amazing Grace homophonic ........................... 36
Amazing Grace polyphonic ............................. 31
Baroque Ornaments .. .......... ..... .. ......... ...... ... .... .. 3
Minuet .............. ...... ..................... ...... .... .. ....... 38
Gavotte (Handel) .......... ........ .... .................... . 39
Boure (Handel) ............................................. 40
Preludium (Canon) (Kunz) ........... ................. 41
A Bit of Jazz ............. ........ ... ...... ... ....................... 42
The "London Bridge" Strut ....... ........... .......... 42
The Latin Lark syncopation, grace notes .......... 43
Banjo Rag (Drumheller) ragtime .................... 44
Lonesome Tune ................................ ..... ......... 45
The Whole-Tone Scale .... .................. ....... ... .... ... 46
Breeze and Echo ......................................... .... 46
The Haunted Clock ....................... ... ....... ....... 47
Little Hungarian Rhapsody ... ................ .. ...... 48
Tribute to a Hero ........ .................................... 50
Country Gardens .................... .... ................... 51
"Cantabile" Style of Playing ............................. 52
Sentimental Melody (Lachner) ..... .... ............. 52
Roses from the South (Strauss) .... .............. .. .. 53
Danny Boy ternary form A-B-C ............. .......... 54
Sonata and Sona tina ................... .......... ... ......... 55
Sonatina (First Movement)
(Clementi) ..... ....... ......... ..... .. .. ....... ... ........ 56
Sonatina in Classic Style
(First Movement) (Agay) ....... ...... .. ........ ... 58
Rondo-Toccata (Kabalevsky ---------- - 61
Glossary ---- .
. ...... ..... 64

ack cover

(Trumpet Minuet)

egretto

82

81

M2 repeated

M3

81
3

S2

83

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81

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D. C alFT

FLUENT NOTE-READING

ullaby of the Night Breeze


. gentle rocking motion

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p ets

Memorial March

ow. solemn walking tempo

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e 1s
os _.,. on ones of a m.inor scale.
or scale is it, and what is its keynote?

Harvest Fling
Allegretto

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t".

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Frolicsome Twosome
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Tarantella Etude

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means chan
e following steps:

e composition. In doing so keep

_:-:ain the interval between the keynotes of the original key and the
ey to which you intend to transpose.
-=211ine the key signature of the new key.
- -:.spose every note by the requires interval.
_....._.IJl-'ose the following melodies. (Write in key and time signature.)
m C Major to D Major

':"

"

IJ J J J 1;

IJ J j

i J J J

li

E Major to G Major

Ir J J Ir J J

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IF

E Minor to A Minor ("Go Down Moses")


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1.
Ludwig van Beethove
(1770 - 1827)

Allegro
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(No . 1 adapted for the left hand)

Allegro

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ajor,
You are already familiar with the major third and minor third.
There are three other intervals that have major and minor forms:
the 2nd, the 6th, and the 7th.
A major interval becomes a minor interval when its span is reduced by a half-step.
Major-Minor Intervals
second

major

minor

J: &-1

number of half-steps: 2

sixth

third
1lmajor

li

seventh

minor

1lmajor

minor

1lmajor

'1

llj

~ li j ij

minor

10

11

li

Perfect Intervals
fifth

fourth

The intervals of 4th, Sth, and


octave have no major and minor forms;
they are called perfect intervals:

octave

li

li

3 li

~~~====~!"===~~===:;::==~:-===~~===.=!:
~------~------'~---+-~

number of half-steps:

12

a m ajor scale, all intervals are major or perfect. These are the intervals of
e C major scale:
Perfect Intervals: pnme
fourth
fifth

-09-

Major Intervals:

second

:8:

-e-

third

-&-

-&-

sixth

o
~

seventh

To Name an Interval
egard the lower note of the interval as the keynote of a major scale and
consider the higher note as being a degree of that scale.

For instance, to name this interval

~~!l::~j=:=#::!F==

A is the keynote of the A major scale.


The A major scale has three sharps: F#, C#, and G#.
F~ is the sixth degree in the A major scale.
So, the interval of A to F# is a major 6th.

12

octave

follow this reasoning:

-e-

li

li

f li

li

li

:.? \ ri te the indicated intervals over th ese notes:

minor 3rd

major 2nd
li

li

perfect 5th

li

major 6th

li

#u

perfect 4th

li

major 3re

li

li

bo

Hungarian Dance No. 4


(Them e)
Cl Play this piece, and then name the intervals indicated by brackets.

Johannes Brahm
(1833-1897)

Anda ntino
J

ri

.-.
'

.... "

"

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1 t, l

L. . . .

..

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31

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-

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rt

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mf

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1
1

1
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li

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r,J

r-._

The Figure Skater


Smoothly gliding

Fine

~2

poco rit.

=
D.C. al Fine

count: 1

Fiesta!
(Spanish Holiday)

o - .'.e ha e mar e chords b Roman n umerals indicating


e oo ones of these chords in the scale:
o Tonic, IV for Sub dominant, and V for Dominant
: is also possible to rnark chords by letter-narnes of the root tones.

C = C major chord

G = G major chord (and so on.)

or triads are m arked by a small letter m after the letter name:


= C minor triad Em = E minor triad
- _e seven triads built on the seven degrees of major scale,
-ee e m ajor triads (1, IV, and V)
-ee are minor triads (II, III, and VI)
e is a diminished triad (VII)

&~

Em

Dm

III

II

Bdim

li

li

Am

VI

IV

VII

(H)
(1)

shed triadis created by lowering the top note (the fifth from the
a minor triad by a half-step.

bEdim

Em

Bdim

Bm

orrrli iu r r'r 1 qH 3r 9F li

H rr ~

~;

lz

are the triads built on the seven degrees of the F major scale.
- er each triad write in its first and second inversion. (Use the correct
~ ctentals.)
~en play each triad and its inversions.
F

:r

Gm

li

~u
IV

li

~u

li

li
V

Om

li u
VI

ay such triads on the piano also in the G major scale, and call out the
ames of the chords: G major, A minor, and so on.

li

li
III

II

9:

Am

Edim

llb
VII

li

with solid-chord accornpaniment

* Write one triad in root position for each measure as indicated by the numerals.
Moderato
'1

'

... ,I
t)

IL . . .

1
\

..
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...

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-- e

- 1

--

1
1

-.
...,

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1

IV

_,

11

.......

Dm
........

VI

II

....

11

t)

Gm

-- - -

'

-..v

' ..

JT..

- _,.....-i

'1

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. , __ V

'

-- .... "'

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....-.
1

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1

1
1
1

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I
1

-,.
'-

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L..
V

~Transpose

"Play Tune I" into G major (one whole-step higher):


Write in the chord numerals and letter-names.
Transpose the melody first, and play it; then transpose the
chord accompaniment and play it.
Then play both hands together.

PlayTune II
Modera to
ri ...

, "

~ :.~

1 ~,

<

..

1
1
1

......-..

"'".
- ..

'....

'

ri ....
,

f"

t 'J

'1

......
,

Ili

,I
i
1,

-e

a~~

..,......,..,""_.~~~.....

using
or
in the
by using inversions of the triads to make the playing technically more
convenient and sound better.
A solid chord may be broken up or divided in many ways; here are a few
examples:
Divided Chords

Broken Chords

Broken Chords

~=
.7

li ~

2 m=

Divided Chords

~ li

I~ ~ ~

! !

Play Tone III


accompanied with broken chords
- vith an X the inverted broken triads.

----=

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,,"

11

'-

lJ

1
-

1
4

.-1

- -

Dm

li

... ,.
/

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VI

II

.......

_,

.-t

--- ...1

- _,

---....

1
1

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Gm

......- ---- /

,....._

IV

_v

- - -

...-

---._,_

1 ,,,....1
1

1
1

1
1

~
1

1
1

:} Play this piece again using divided chords in the left hand,
based on the indicated harmonies.

...
1

,_

1
1

li

.
onalities) were de,Telope
es
ago by Bach, Handel and other masters of the baroque period. Before that
era, compositions were based on another system of scales called modes.
Each of the modes (or modal scales) is a step-by-step progression of eight
tones, each starting on a different keynote. For the pianist, modal scales have
easily recognizable earmarks: They each utilize only notes played on the
white keys. The four most often used modes (named after ancient Greek
sound-patterns) are the:

t
Dorian

D to D. It resembles the natural


D minor scale, differing only by the
raised sixth degree (Bq instead of B- .

Phrygian

E to E. resembles the natural E


minor scale, with the second degree
lowered (F~ instead of F#).

F to F. This mode is dose to the F


major scale, with the fourth degree
1 raised (Bq instead of Bb).

rr rr

Lydian

Mixolydian

~'----+-J-----...1-J---r-----r--l--r----+-F------lr-rl- - - - -,1l

G to G. Sounds like the G major


scale with the seventh tone lowered
(Fq instead of F#).

Modes are very much a part of our musical language even today. There are
many folk and popular songs based on modal scales, and modern composers
often use the modes if they want to give a work an archaic, ancientsounding flavor.

SeaChantey
(Dorian Mode)
Lively, robust
5

,..
-

IW

'

-- - -51

li

tJ

What shall

'

'

31

-,,.... ---

-- -

we do with the

---

2
1,...---

- -

"-""

4~1

,..

drunk-en sail

-.............

or

- -'' -'' -''

Ear - ly

,,,

-------..._

_,

o
morn

the

I
.

.,

....

li

~
ing?

-- >--

>

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- -

.....

11
li

gian _
Andante grazioso
j,

'-'V

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cresc.

rit.

ln the Phrygian mode the tonic triadis a minor chord (E-G-B). However,
if a piece in the Phrygian mode ends with a tonic triad, it is often

converted into a major triad by raising the middle tone a half-step


-G#-B). The sarne applies to the Dorian mode where the tonic triad
ending the piece often becomes a major triad. (See page 4.)

an

ode

Allegretto

.. "' ...,,....

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You already knm ~ tha the binary form n o-part son ;o


sections, A and B, both of which are usually repeated.
When the second section of the binary form concludes with a restatemen of
the first section, in whole or in part, we call it a Rounded Binary Form.

GypsyDance
~Mark

with an X the measure in the second section where the restatement


begins.
Joseph Haydn
(1732 - 1809)

Allegro

f)

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li

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ia

Oh! Susanna
Lively

Lou' - s1 - a - na my - - true luve for to


so hot
I froze to death, Su- san - na don't you

see.

It _
cry. .....

fl

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J

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Oh,

'

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don 't you

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1

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la -

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my

cry for

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1

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on

knee.

my

- -l _

me,
-

1 ,,--.._.

.,

"'

The continuous, quick change of the right pedal can help o p ~~. . . . .
smooth flow of singing tones. Change the pedal on every new harmon
don't let two or more harmonies overlap.
As you play each new chord, let the pedal come up; then put it down again immediately.

,,
'
1

1
r.

...,.

....

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'

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- _,

,~

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-,

.....

L. , .

LIL

Start with
pedal down

-""

up-down

up-down

-
- -

..

up-down

up-down

Prelude of the Bells


-tr Remember: Quick change of pedal on each chord.
Slow and solemn

112

24

'

..

*Then dete
e ~ ft- and chords are Tonic
and Dominant seventh 7) . Place the proper numera. un e ea
e
left-hand chords.
f<Circle a chord that appears in its first inversion and another one that is in
its second inversion.

IrishAir
"Believe Me if All Those Endearing Young Charms"
Arranged b:Carl Czem_,
(1791 - 185,....

Rather slow and tender

fl

rr '
1
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u- f,,,... - - - - - - - ... ....


...
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--.. - ..
...
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4 ,,,,.----=

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1-

L._

- -.

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19'

::: en e or e_"'( en into o e o~ o


es ion, they are called an arpegg10.

t:

-"'":. :L.""'pe<Jllios ;ith one h and, even within a one- octave range,
-es a y nde stretch in the hand, yet without any stiffening of the
arrn musdes .

.- o facilitate t he strain-free playing of broken chords and arpeggios is


ation of the hand, wrist, and forearm as a unit. This is a rolling,
: m otion clockwise (to the right) or counterclockwise (to the left),
:-s in the direction of play.

,.
~~

~ ~

~5

li

~ ~

~ 7:11

11

Rotation Study
Moderato

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r - .r

1
1

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fr'

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-

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1
1

iT

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--

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l

i-

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1
1

------

*P ay "Rotation Study" also in the keys of G and A major.

"

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--.....

Call to the Hunt


Animated

1,

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Andantino

..
28

yers with small hands may omit the notes in parentheses.

Ludwig van Bee o.


(1770 - 182 1
Moderato -------------~~~~~~~~~:--~~,_~4~I~~-------.._

1 ,........--4

D~

eggio
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Nimhle Fingers
Variations on a Play Tune
e theme and first two variations should be played by both hands together,
left hand an octave lower. Play them also in the key of D major.
Modera to

' ~~HJJ-j-J1-JJ-Jt~ 1fI?rF1r F r3U: 1


(L.H.) 5

Let's go step by

step and play a

tune. We can play it morn-ing night and noon

@[Jf J J IJ J J fr lff J J IJ J

w=JJs:

li

Just a

sim-ple,

sing - a - ble re - frain: Five notes up and tive notes down a - gain.

Allegro

.i $eoJfJ)IJJ]fJQIJ30BQI J. 1{3Ja; 1
(L.H) 5

'r::r1co 1r1cr;1

1gfJJ1JJmr.:

& @WHI J l)Hn"'JlfjJ!JJl)~m1f!O~pil


(L.H.) 5

Allegro

! Jj J1J JJ 1! Jj Ji Jj J1tj 9~ f j J~ 1JJj J} !

'

>

(L.H.)1:

>

>

~ ~ uJJf sr r1f r er fJJJ1tJ 9 tr r1 1t rf/ 2

..

::>

::>

:;:::>""

>

(L.H'

1j

be ound on pages 10 and 11 of Book 2.

Var.

Allegro

Var. 4

32

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Lively

Var. 6

...

The seventh chord consists of


four tones: the root, the 3rd,
the Sth, and the 7th:
~ Write

a seventh chord over each tone of the C major scale:

'~
I

II

III

()

IV

VI

VII

li

Seventh chords, consisting of four tones, can be used in four positions: the
root position, the first inversion, second inversion, .or third inversion,
depending on whether the root tone, the 3rd, the Sth, or the 7th tone from
the root appears as the lowest tone:
Root position

~:

/1

First inversion

li

Root

Second inversion

l3

li

3rd

Third inversion

li

Sth

li

7th

Observe that in all three inversions of the seventh chord the root and the
7th become neighbors on the staff, placed diagonally (the lower note to the
left of the stem).
7th~

First inversion

Second inversion

Third inversion

'~

li

Root

~ Write

in the three inversions


of the D7 chord. (Write in the
accidental in each inversion.)
First
inversion

li

Second
inversion

li

Third
inversion

li

li

Key of G Major

You are already familiar with the


Dominant seventh chord (V7) in which
the Sth tone from the root is often
omitted:

34

First inversion

D7
-e-

Is

li

li

~..J...!:C.~;;;""--

e .-::eatures

e
chor e
-en or divided
-een the two hands: the root and the fifth
- e left and the 3rd and 7th in the
- . ~ hand (except in measure 1.1).

~Can

you write in the degree numerals (I through VII) in each measure?

Can you name the inversion in measure 11?

Sailing on Blue Waters


Slowly, gently moving

..

Homophonic ("unified sounds" in Greek) consists of melody and


accompaniment. The melody line stands out, supported by chords,
arpeggios, and other kinds of accompaniment patterns.
Polyphonic ("many sounds" in Greek) consists of two or more independent
melodie lines brought together to produce a harmonious sound.
Polyphonic style (also called contrapuntal style) was
predominant until the end of the baroque period, about 1750,
when homophonic style, the earmark of the classical period,
became the major mode of musical expression. However,
contrapuntal textures have never been entirely displaced, and
even today composers often employ polyphonic writing to
infuse variety and calor into their works. Even jazz is often
quite polyphonic. (See page 42)

Amazing Grace
(Homophonic Version)
Folk Hym::
Slowly

07

sweet

A7
-~ -

:.:._
..1

wretch

me,

~1

I
1

fl

..
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nl

""

li

1
1
1
~

found,

Was

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1 ...

1
\

36

. . .

- .<e ..
/

,
"
"

- ,_.
-

'-"

.,j

''J
...,,,,

but

blind,

!I

19'
1

I"'[
I"'[

lost

but

--

''

-1

-i

----

........

"
1

see.

-- - --l

I'm

<7

1
1

now

--

......-...__

_,1

~I
-

O- 1

-i
..,

..'...:i,

now

,,

_,1

was

A7

Am7

- -

once

saved

19
1

1
1

Em

t)
'

-- .- --,...

~TI

-----11--

,_

J,tf

sound, That

'

like

the

07

O
1

Em

l
-:;;;r

,.

-- .~--

-..-

,.~

..

_,

ec

e ~
, oins the theme in the righ an :., - e
of an organ prelude. Ask you teacher to play the optional bass notes.

C:.fiOCtv line
,...._....~~er

Amazing Grace
(Polyphonic Version)

Folk

Slowly

Teacher:

f'I .u
.....

- --

,,

tJ

... ...

I L. " _.
l

- -

-...

-1

11- ......

,.

--

1
~
~

~I_,

1
_,

_,

rit.

I ""

----= l l J
-----... - - - - - ,,-. .
.
1

-'

---- -

,,,..-----

,_

In addition to being largely polyphonic, bar


e
ornamented notes. The most often used omaments are
trill, especially the short trill.

The
is a three-note group
consisting of the alternation of the
main note with its lower neighbor,
marked by the symbol

~=
'-- 3 ---1

The
~
is a four-note group,
-~-starting on the upper neighbor note,
=f?=:== =
alternating with the main note, marked =l====
by the symbol

ar
L_ J

__J

ln both ornaments the first note is played on the beat.

Minuet
4 ,-----]----,

( j JtJ

Andantino

.....--]---,

)
5

(~JJJ)

,---]----,

( j #J J_J

.---]---,

( j J~

38

.....--]---,

( JJJJ )
~

An an e grazioso

George Fride

e~~~ ......

(1685 - 175

D.C aL

e
r""" - . .
usually beginning on the las

Bourre
George Frideric Handel

Allegretto

Preludium

The
Konrad _. . :

(Canon)

( 1 l _-

Moderato

rit.

The essence of jazz in not \ hat is played, but lun


e e.r
ingredients of a theme are given a strongly rhythmic, syncopa+e : .,. . . ,. .
sound. Jazz variations are often improvised (invented on the spur of the
moment) without relying on a printed score.

The ''London Bridge'' Strut


Throughout this piece tap the beat-units lightly with the right foot (heel on the floor).

Moderately, with a marked beat


4

The Latin Lar

each grace note

()O before the beat.

Moderately 2
R.H.

R.H.

ny

bird,

he

smgs

>

>

>
and the boy _

>

(girl)

and the stars_a-bove, He will bring_to you

you o -e

>

>
>
don't you miss_achance, Meet the lark _ in the

>

dark.

Banjo Rag
Moderately lively, very rhythmical
5

Charles Drumheller

line ;
= solid chord indicates that e
a: chord are to be broken, in very rapid succession, from
_ bottom up (arpeggiated chords). The top note of the chord
on the beat.

~=
Lonesome Tone
Moderately slow

fl

1#

....

....

li

tJ

.:..
1

"'

-------

- 1

21

....

I
L

r-

1
1

H~
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~~
1

- - - 3

r-

'

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,.

1 ..

.t -l!i-,
'

' "'"..

~li !9.'n
,
.

2
5

3
5

.S,.-:i!r
~

dim.

lt.

112.

e scale is a s ep' j se succession of six tones progressing b y whole-steps.

J J

e may start on any of the twelve tones.


the notes of the whole-tone scale beginning on Db.

odies and chords based on this scale are of a somewhat


e, mysterious character, and are frequently used in the
: - of modern composers, such as Debussy, Ravel, and others
e so-called impressionistic school (about 1890 to 1910).

Breeze and Echo


Conmoto

fl
,,,..#

'

...
...

-~

'~

1 tJ

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,/

mp/

, ~- '

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.

5
-

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.
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1

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.. ",.._..

1
1
1

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1

-.....

- -

---

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-.- -

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.-

,~

....

'ev
"

v ..
1

'fro.

g- -

l'J

...

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1

Vc;.i

Moderate "tick-tock" tempo


5

..~ ...- ~ .. -

ri
, J"'

..,,_
1

'

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1
1

....._

1/

1
1

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...

tJ

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l.. .:.

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1

,'
....

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1
1

1
1

_,1

1
1

...V:;::::_.

1/-

V"":'

1.1

:I'

,~

8 - - - - - - ..,

f
2
4

....

The
is a
e ee
- and 'entie -cen ~~ m free, fantasy-ike construction, with loosely connectd, conrrastin
and sections.
A cadenza is a freely performed ornamental passage, inserted between two
sections or just before the end of a composition.

Little Hungarian Rhapsody


Slwly, freely

R.H.

rit.

crescendo

'..;,) cadenza

Moderato

d,

r~

...

-
.....

..
...

_,
I

1,
11

"

~~

"

- .-

--

-----

-~
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r-

i-

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1
1

r,,

gradual crescen do

.....

..

1
1

-i

~r-

~r-

r
~

1
1

~ ..

..

gradually faster

I ~.

r-

simile

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,...

1
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1
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.. .... -

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,~

&e

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1
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r-

--"""

11
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1
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h.

.......
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--

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n
11

u~

1lli

1
1

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Lively
,..,

....

UI

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gradually faster
4

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.

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1
5

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4

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5

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ti

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smile

Cantabile is Italian for "in a singing manner," a smoo e.~res e ~; e


playing that produces a beautiful "singing" tone on the piano.
A cantabile touch can be enhanced by:
a certain amount of weight applied to the keys that generate the melody,
the proper use of the right pedal. Change pedal when the harmonies
change, and do not let two or more harmonies overlap.
ln the following piece there are two pedal-changes in each measure.

Sentimental Melody
Franz Lachner
(1803-1890)

- Rather slow, with f eeling

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4

SONATA AND SONATINA


- onata and sonatina are essentially identical musical forms. The sona tina is
a "little sonata" usually shorter and easier to perform than the sonata.
~he

sonata (from the Italian word sonare, "to sound") is built on two or three
ontrasting themes presented in a continuous melodie flow in related keys
ith connecting transitional passages.

This form can be broken down into three sections:


x position

contains the main theme, a second theme in a related


key (usually the dominant), and often also a closing
theme, or coda
evelopment contains one or more previously presented themes or
theme fragments "developed" into varied new sound patterns,
moving freely through new keys and leading directly into
the recapitulation
ecapitulation which is a repetition of the exposition section, with all
themes in the original key
natas, and often sonatinas too, usually consist of two to four independent,
lf-contained parts called movements. The form described above is the first
vement form, also called the sonata-allegro form.
e second movement can be a simpler two- or three-part song form.
e last movement is usually a rondo. (See page 64)

17'..
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21

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Sonatina
Op. 36, No. 1 (First Movement)
Muzio Clementi, Op. 36, No

Spirited

(1752 - 1832)

1 EXPOSITION I

fi i;econd theme

*These measures may be regarded either as a c/osing theme ar as a continuation of the second theme.

56

1RECAPITULATION1

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Allemande German Dance


Animato animated; with life and spirit
Arpeggiated Chord see page 45
Arpeggio "harp-like" (see page 26)
Bagatelle a short, light piece, usually written for the piano
Binary Form also called "Two-Part Song Form," consists of two sections
(sentences), A and B, both of which are usually repeated
Cadenza a freely performed ornamental passage, inserted between two
sections or just before the end of a piece
Chord-Names in addition to Roman numerals (I, V, etc.), chords can be
identified by the letter-names of the root tones (C, D, etc.).
Minor chords are marked by a small m after the letter (Cm= C
minor).
Cantabile in a singing manner
Classic Style the musical style of the eighteenth century as exemplified by
the works of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven: simple, clear
forms; homophonic textures; emotional restraint; anda certain
nobility of spirit
Continuous pedal see page 24
Dorian Mode see page 19
Etude an instrumental piece designed to develop the player's technical
ability
Gavotte a graceful, old French dance in moderate time, usually beginning
on the third beat of the measure
Grace Note see page 43
H01nophonic Style melody with accompaniment (see page 36)
Jazz strongly accented, richly syncopated American musical idiom (ragtime,
blues, swing, and bebop can all be classified as belonging in the jazz
category)
Lydian Mode see page 19
Mazurka Polish dance in moderate ~ time, with frequent dotted rhythms
and accents on the second and third beats
Modes the most frequently used modes are the Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, and
Mixolydian (see page 19)
Minuet a graceful and stately French dance in moderately slow ~ time
Mixolydian Mode see page 19
Mordent ("'') see page 38
Phrygian Mode see page 19
Polyphonic Style see page 3 7
Preludium (Prelude) an introductory piece
Rondo a musical form in which a main theme or section alternates with one
or more secondary themes, called episodes. ln its simplest form the
rondo is very dose to the ternary form of a A-B-A pattern. More often
the rondo consists of a main theme and two episodes (pattern A-B-AC-A).
Rotation see page 26
"Rounded" Binary Form see page 22
Seventh Chord see page 34
Short Trill ('"') see page 38
Sonata see page 55
Sonatina see page 55
Ternary Form three-part form, pattern A-B-A or A-B-C (see page 54)
Toccata a rapid, brilliant keyboard piece; from the Italian toccare, "to touch"
Touch the way a key is depressed to produce a tone
Walzer the German term for waltz
Whole-Tone Scale see page 46

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respected names in contemporary educational piano music.
DEllS ll6IY'S

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A==--~..=-