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HIGH ORDER THINKING

SKILLS QUESTIONS
2008-09
SUBJECT: HISTORY

CLASS : XII
1

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


JAIPUR REGION
CHIEF PATRON *

SH K P CHAMOLA
Asstt commissioner
KVS (RO) JAIPUR

PATRON

CONVENER

1.
2.
3.

Mrs. S. Mirdha, E.O.


Sh. H.C. Chawla, E.O.
Sh. N.K. Bharadwaj, E.O

Smt Raj Aggarwal


Principal
K.V. No.1 Jaipur

RESOURCE PERSONS
1.
Sh. Prahalad Singh
PGT (History) K V Churu
2.

Sh. D.C. Srivastava


PGT (History) K V No.2 Jaipur

3.

Sh. H H Lall
PGT (History) K V 1 AFS Jodhpur

4.

Sh. Dileep Srivastava


PGT (History) K V Bharatpur

5.

Sh. D K Sharma
PGT (History) K V 1 AFS Suratgarh

6.

Sh. Raghavendra Lalsantania


PGT (History) K V 1 Jaipur

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan enjoys enviable reputation
among all educational institutions in India. It has become the torchbearer in the field of education. As a giant step towards greater
excellence, the Honorable Assistant Commissioner KVS Jaipur region
Dr. K.P. Chamola has taken it as a challenge to improve the results of
CBSE Class-XII examinations in History. The task of preparing and
developing a High Order Skills Questions' as a powerful tool to
materialise the dream was assigned to me as a convenor along with
a team of highly experienced and talented teachers of History.
I wish to extend my heart-felt thanks to our Honorable Assistant
Commissioner Dr. K.P. Chamola for magnificent faith and trust he
posed in me while assigning the task and for his encouragement and
constant guidance throughout the great endeavour. It is a pleasure to
record my gratitude to our esteemed Education Officers Mrs. S.
Mirdha, Sh. H.C. Chawla, Sh. N.K. Bharadwaj for their valuable
support, suggestions and motivation provided to me from time to
time. I wish to offer my thanks to P.G.Ts Sh. Prahalad Singh KV Churu,
Sh. D.C. Srivastava KV No.2 Jaipur, Sh. H.H. Lal KV No.1 AFS Jodhpur,
Sh. Dileep Srivastava KV Bharatpur Sh. D.K. Sharma KV 1 AFS Suratgarh
& Sh. R.L. Santania KV 1 Jaipur for their concerted hard-work and
diligence in the production of this High Order Skills Questions.
Smt. Raj Aggarwal
Convenor & Principal
K.V. No. 1 Jaipur

INDEX
S No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Topic

Page

Bricks, Beads and Bones, The Harappan Civilisation


5-9
Kings, Farmers and Town- Early states and economics
10-15
Kinship, Caste and Class- Early Societies
16-25
Thinkers, Beliefs and buildings- Cultural Development
26-36
Theough the eyes of travelers, perceptions of society
37-46
Bhakti-Sufi traditions- Changes in religious beliefs.
47-55
An imperial capital- Vijaynagar
55-62
Peasants, Zamindaras and the state
63-72
Kings and chronicles- The Mughal courts
73-79
Colonialism and the country side- Exploring official archives 80-85
Rebels and the Raj- Revolt of 1857 and its representations
86-93
Colonial cities Urbanisation, Planning and architecture
94-103
Mahatma Gandhi & the nationalist movement
104-110
Understanding partitions- Politics, memories experiences
111-116
Framing the constitution- The beginning of a new era.
117-121

Q1.

CHAPTER 1
BRICKS, BEADS AND BONES
(The Harappan Civilisations)
How can you say that the Harappan culture was an urban one.

Ans. The following examples show that the Harappan culture was an urban
one:
a)

The cities were well planned and thickly populated.

b)

The road were straight and wide.

c)

The houses were made of burnt bricks and contained more than
one storey.

d)

Every house had a well and a bathroom.

e)

The drainage system was excellent with house drains emptying


into street drains.

f)

The citadel of Harappa had public buildings.

g)

Lothal had a dockyard and was an important trading centre.

h)

After the decline of the Harappan culture, town planning was


forgotten and there was absence of city life for about a thousand
years.

Q2.

Our knowledge about the Indus Valley Civilization is poorer than


that of the other Civilizations. Explain it by your arguments?

Ans.i) The major reason behind our poorer knowledge about the Indus Valley
Civilization than that of the other Civilizations is that the script of that
age has hitherto not been deciphered. Hence, we have only know
about the period and development of this Civilization on the basis of
more speculation.
ii)

The easy method behind seeking knowledge about other Civilizations


such as that of Egypt, Mesopatamia, China etc. was the deciphering of
their scripts. Scripts is that sole basis through which we can gather
5

through knowledge about the art, literature, customs, dresses, function


and religion etc. of any Civilizations
Q3.

Discuss the functions that may have been performed by rulers in


Harappan society

Ans. Some archaeologists are of the opinion that Harappan society had no
rulers and that everybody enjoyed equal status. Others feel there was
no single ruler but several that Mohenjodaro had a separate ruler,
Harappa another and so forth yet others argue that there was a single
state given the similarity in artefacts, the evidence for planned
settlements the standardized ratio of brick size and the establishments
of settlements near sources of raw material. As of now, the last theory
seems the most plausible as it is unlikely that entire communities
could have collectively made and implemented such complex
decisions.
i)

There are indications of complex decisions being taken and


implemented in Harappan society. Take for instance the extraordinary
uniformity of Harappan artefacts as evident in pottery seals weights
and bricks.

ii)

Notably bricks though obviously not produced in any single centre,


were of a uniform ratio throughout the region, from Jammu to
Gujarat. We have also seen that settlements were strategically set up in
specific locations for various reasons.

iii)

Besides, labour was mobilised for making bricks and for the
construction of massive walls and platforms.
Who organized these activities ? I think the rulers might have
performed all these works.
Under the guidance and supervision of the rulers plans and layouts of
the city were prepared. Big buildings palaces forts, tanks wells,
6

canals, Granaries were constructed. Roads lanes and drains were also
constructed and cleanliness was maintained under the over all
supervision of the ruler.
The ruler might have taken interest in economy of the state or city
states. He use to inspire the farmer to increase agricultural production.
He use to motivate the craftman to promote different handicrafts.
Internal as well as external trade was promoted by the ruler. He use to
issue common exceptable coins or seals, weights and measurements.
During the natural calamity such as flood earthquake, epidemic etc.
the ruler use to provide grains and other eatables to the affected
people. He use to play active role to defend cities or state from foreign
attack.

ikB&1
bZV] euds rFkk vfLFk;ka gM+Iik
lH;rk
iz01- vki ;g dSls dg ldrs gS fd gM+Iik laLd`fr ,d ukxjh; lH;rk
Fkh \
m0 fuEufyf[kr mnkgj.k ml ckr dks nkkZrs gS fd gM+Iik
laLd`fr ,d ukxjh; lH;Rkk FkhA
1-

uxj lqfu;ksftr vkSj ?kuh vkcknh okys FksA

2-

lM+ds lh/kh vkSj pkSM+h FkhA

3-

?kj iDdh yky bZaVksa ds cus Fks vkSj ,d ls vf/kd


eaftyk esa FksA

4-

izR;sd ?kj esa dqavk o Luku?kj FksA


7

5-

ty fudklh dh mRre O;oLFkk Fkh tks eq[; ty fudklh ls


tqM+h FkhA

6-

gM+Iik uxj esa lkoZtfud Hkou ns[kus dks feys gSA

7-

yksFky esa Mksd;kMZ feys gS ftlls irk pyrk gS fd eq[;


O;kikfjd dsUnz jgs FksA

8-

gM+Iik laLd`fr ds iru ds ckn uxj fu;kstu yxHkx Hkwy


x;s vkSj uxj thou yxHkx gtkj o"kZ rd ns[kus dks ugha
feykA

iz02- vU; lH;rkvksa dh vis{kk flU/kq ?kkVh dh lH;rk ds fo"k;


esa gekjh tkudkjh de D;ksa gS \ vius rdZ ls O;k[;k djasA
m0 1
2

ml dky dh fyfi vkt rd Ik<+h ugha tk ldh gSA


dsoy iqjkrkfRod voks"kksa dk v/;;u djrs gq,

vuqeku ds vk/kkj ij gh flU/kq ?kkVh lH;rk ds fo"k;


esa lH;rk dk le; o fodkl vkfn dk Kku izkIr dj ik,
gS tcfd vU; lH;rkvksa ds lEcU/k esas tkudkjh dk
eq[; vk/kkj mudh fyfi dk Ik<+k tkuk gSA
iz03- gM+IikbZ lekt esa 'kkldksa }kjk fd;s tkus okys laHkkfor
dk;ksZ dh ppkZ dhft,A
m0 fo}kuksa dh jk; gS &
1

gM+IikbZ lekt esa 'kkldksa }kjk tfVy QSlys ysus

vkSj mUgsa dk;kZfUor djus tSls egRoiw.kZ dk;Z fd;s tkrs


FksA os blds fy, ,d lk{; izLrqr djrs gq, dgrs gS fd
gM+IikbZ iqjkOkLrqvksa esa vlk/kkj.k ,d:irk dks gh ys]
8

tSlk fd e`nekaMksa] eqgjksa] ckaVksa rFkk bZaVksa ls


Li"V gSA
2

cfLr;ksa dh LFkkiuk ds ckjs esa fu.kZ; ysuk cM+h

la[;k esa bZaVksa dks cukuk] 'kgjks esa fokky nhokjsa]


lkoZtfud bekjrsa] muds fu;kstu djus dk dk;Z] nqxZ ds
fuekZ.k ls igys pcwrjksa dk fuekZ.k dk;Z ds ckjs esa
fu.kZ; ysuk] yk[kks dh la[;k esa fofHkUu dk;ksZ ds fy,
Jfedksa dh O;oLFkk djuk tSls egRoiw.kZ vksj dfBu dk;Z
laHkor% 'kkld gh djrk FkkA
3

dqN iqjkrRofon ;g ekurs gS fd flU/kq ?kkVh dh

ledkyhu lH;rk eSlksiksVkfe;k ds leku gM+IikbZ yksxksa


esa Hkh ,d iqjksfgr jktk gksrk Fkk tks izklkn egy esa
jgrk FkkA yksx mls iRFkj dh ewfrZ;ks esa vkdkj nsdj
lEeku djrs FksA laHkor% /kkfeZd vuq"Bku mUgha ds }
kjk fd;k ;k djk;k tkrk FkkAgka ;s lR; gS fd gM+Iik lH;rk dh
vkuq"Bkfud izFkk,a vHkh rd Bhd izdkj ls le>h ugha tk
ldh gS vkSj u gh ;g tkuus ds lk/ku miyC/k gS fd D;k tks
yksx bu vuq"Bkuksa dk fu"iknu djrs Fks mUgha ds ikl
jktuSfrd lRrk gksrh FkhA
4

dqN iqjkrRofon bl er ds gS fd gM+IikbZ lekt esa

'kkld ugah Fks rFkk lHkh dh lkekftd fLFkfr leku FkhA


nwljs iqjkrRofon ;g ekurs gS fd ;gka dksbZ ,d ugh cfYd
dbZ 'kkld Fks tSls eksgutksnMksa] gM+Iik vkfn ds vius
9

vyx&vyx jktk gksrs FksA dqN vkSj ;g rdZ nsrs Fks fd


;g ,d gh jkT; Fkk tSlk fd iqjkoLrqvks esa lekukvksa]
fu;ksftr cfLr;ksa ds dPps eky] bZaVksa ds vkdkj fufpr
vuqikr rFkk cfLr;ksa ds dPps eky ds L=ksrksa ds lehi
laLFkkfir gksus ls Li"V gSA vHkh rd dh fLFkfr esa vafre
ifjdYiuk lcls ;qfDrlaxr izrhr gksrh gS D;ksafd ;g dnkfpr
laHko

ugha

yxrk

fd iwjs ds iwjs leqnk;ksa

}kjk

bdVB~s ,sls tfVy fu.kZ; fy;s rFkk dk;kZfUor fd;s tkrs


gksaxsA

10

CHAPTER 2
KINGS, FARMERS AND TOWNS
Early States and Economics (About 600 BCE-600 CE)
jktk] fdlku vkSj uxj vkjfEHkd jkT; vkSj
vFkZO;oLFkk,a
yxHkx 600 bZ- iwoZ ls 600 bZ- rd
Q4.

Discuss the evidence for craft production in early historic cities. In


what ways is this different from the evidence from Harappan cities ?

Ans. Excavation have been conducted at a number of early historic cities.


We have got several evidences for craft production in these cities.
i)

People make bowls and dishes of every fine type of pottery


with a glossy finish. These pottery is know as the northern
black Polished ware (NBPW).

ii)

The fine earthern pottery was probably used by rich people in


towns.

iii)

In early cities ornaments, tools, weapons, vessels, figurines,


made a wide range of materials such as gold, silver, copper,
bronze, irory, glass, shell and terracotta.

Differences :
i)

Traces of houses and different structures have also been


recovered in early historic cities. However they are unlike the
Harappan cities.

ii)

The Harappan did not know the used of iron. Therefore we can
say they did not make different tools and implements of iron.
On the other hand we get sufficient evidences that iron was
used by the early historic cities people.
11

Q5.

Examine the sources of knowledge with us to know about India of the


Maurya Age ?

Ans. 1.

Indica of Magasthenese : Indica is an important text by

Magasthenese which serve as the source of information about


Mauryan India. It depicts the contemporary administration, society,
political and economic condition of India in the most significant way.
2.

Kautilyas Arthashastra: Kautilyas Arthashastra too throws

light on the various phases of contemporary India.


3.

Vishakh Duttas Mudrarakshas : This significant text

delineates the destruction of Nanda dynasty at the hands of


Chandragupta Mayurya.
4.

Jain and Buddha Literature : The literature of both of these

religious bears information regarding the contemporary Indian society


along with it politics etc.
5.

Inscriptions of Asoka. The Inscriptions of Asoka located at

several places also throw light on the administration, religion, society,


caste system etc. of the Mauryan age.
Q6.

This is a statement made by one of the best known epigraphists of the


twentieth century, D.C. Sircar: There is no aspect of life, culture and
activities of the Indians that is not reflected in inscriptions. Discuss.

Ans.
I.

Introduction : Inscriptions are very important as a source of history


reconstruction. D.C. Sircar has correctly urged that there is no aspect
of life, culture and activities of the Indians that is not reflected in
inscriptions. Generally , inscriptions were commissioned by those
whose achievements / activities / ideas were recorded in them.
Inscriptions are virtually permanent records. Some inscriptions
carry dates. Others are dated on the basis of paleography or styles of
12

writing with a fair amount of precision. For instance the letter was
written like this c.250 BCE by C. 500 CE it was written like 500 A.D.
II.

Description of gifts made to religious institution and description given


by inscriptions.
Votive inscriptions give us descriptions about gifts made to religious
institutions. These mention the name of the donor, and sometimes
specify his/her occupation as well.

III.

Information about people of the Mauryan age and inscriptions: They


tell us about people who lived in towns: washing folk, weavers,
scribes, carpenters, potters, smiths, including goldsmiths and
blacksmiths, officials, religious teachers, merchants and kings.
Sometimes organizations of craft producers guilds or srenis are
mentioned in inscriptions and texts. These probably procured raw
materials regulated production and marketed the finished produce.

IV.

Information about trade and inscriptions: Around the same time there
is evidence for long distance trade, historians combine evidence from
a variety of sources to reconstruct and understand this process.

iz04- vkjafHkd ,sfrgkfld uxjks esa fkYidyk ds mRiknu dh ppkZ


dhft;sA gM+Iik ds uxjksa dh rqyuk esa ;g fdruk fHkUu
gS \
m0 vkjafHkd ,sfrgkfld 'kgjksa dk vusd LFkkuksa ij mR[kuu
fd;k x;k gSA bu 'kgjks esa gesa vusd LFkkuksa ij fkYi
mRiknu ds izek.k feys gSA
1

yksx mRd`"V Js.kh ds dVkjs vkSj Fkkfy;ka cukrs Fks

ftu ij fpduh dybZ p<+h gksrh FkhA mUgsa mRrjh vosr


ikWfyk e`rHkkan ls tkuk tkrk gSA
13

e`rHkkan ds lkFk&lkFk bu uxjks esa xgus] midj.k]

gfFk;kj] crZu vkSj lksus pkanh] dkaL;] rkacs] gkFkh


nkar] 'khks] 'kq} vkSj iDdh feV~Vh dh ewfRkZ;ka Hkh
cukbZ tkrh FkhA
3

bu uxjks esa oL= cquus dk dk;Z] c<+bZfxjh

e`nHkkaM cukus dk dk;Z] vkHkw"k.k cukus dk dk;Z]


yksgs ds vkStkj] midj.k oLrq,a vkfn rS;kj djus dk dk;Z
Hkh gksrk FkkaA laHkor% lqUnj feVVh ds crZu dsoy /kuh
yksxksa ds }kjk iz;ksx eas yk;s tkrs FksA
4

vusd ckj fkYidkj vkSj mRiknd oxZ viuh Jsf.k;ka

cukrs Fks tks fkYidkjksa ds fy;s igys rks dPps eky dks
[kjhnrh Fkh fQj muds }kjk rS;kj fd;s x;s eky dks cktkj esa
csprh FkhA fkYidkj uxjks esa jgus okys laHkzkr yksxksa
dh c<+rh ekax dks iwjk djus ds fy;s vusd izdkj ds
midj.kksa dk bLrseky djrs FksA
Hksn
1

;|fi edkuksa vkSj Hkouksa ds voks"k nsk esa bu

vkjafHkd 'kgjks esa Hkh <wa<s x;s gS ysfdu ;s 'kgj dbZ


ekeyks esa gM+IikbZ 'kgjks ls fHkUu gSA
2

gM+Iik ds yksx bu izkjafHkd 'kgjks ds yksxksa ds

leku yksgs ds iz;ksx dks ugh tkurs FksaA blfy;s ge ;g dg


ldrs gS fd izkjafHkd 'kgjks ds fkYidkj yksgs ls fofHkUu
izdkj ds vkStkj vkSj midj.k ugha cukrs Fks ysfdu gesa ;g
14

izek.k feyrk gS fd izkjafHkd 'kgjks ds yksx cM+h ek=k


esa yksgs ds vkStkj] midj.k vkSj oLrq,a cukrs FksA
iz05- ekS;ksZ ds jktuSfrd bfrgkl ds eq[; L=ksr D;k gS \
m01 eSxLFkuht dh bafMdk & ekS;Zdkyhu Hkkjr ds
fo"k; esa Kku izkIr djus ds fy;s eSxLFkuht }kjk jfpr
^bf.Mdk^ egRoiw.kZ xzaFk gS ftlesa rRdkyhu 'kklu
O;oLFkk] lekt] jktuSfrd o vkfFkZd voLFkk ij egRoiw.kZ
fooj.k feyrk gSA
2

dkSfVY; dk vFkZkkL=& dkSfVY; dk vFkZkkL=

Hkh rRdkyhu Hkkjr ds fofHkUu igyqvksa ij izdkk Mkyrk


gS ftlls ekS;ksZ ds ckjs esa irk pyrk gSA
3

fokk[kknRr eqnzkjk{kl & bl izeq[k xzaFk esa

uan oak dk pUnzxqIr }kjk ukk dk o.kZu gSA


4

tSu vkSj ckS} lkfgR; & tSu vkSj ckS} nksuks

/keksZ ds lkfgR; esa rRdkyhu lekt] jktuhfr vkfn dh


tkudkjh izkIr gksrh gSA
5

vkksd ds vfHkys[k & LFkku&LFkku ij yxs vkksd

ds vfHkys[kks ls Hkh ekS;Zdkyhu izkklu] /keZ] lekt


vFkZO;oLFkk vkfn ij izdkk iM+rk gSA
iz06- ;g chloh 'krkCnh ds ,d lqfo[;kr vfHkys[k 'kkL=h Mh lh
fljdkj dk dFku gS %Hkkjrh;ks ds thou] laLd`fr vkSj
f;kvksa dk ,slk dksbZ vax ugh gS ftudk izfrfcac
vfHkys[kks esa ugh gSA ppkZ dhft;sA
15

m0
1

izLrkouk & bfrgkl dh jpuk dh n`f"V ls vfHkys[k

cgqr gh egRoiw.kZ L=ksr gSA vfHkys[k foks"kK Mh lh


fljdkj us Bhd gh dgk gS fd Hkkjrh; ds thou laLd`fr] vkSj
fdz;kvksa dk dksbZ vax ugh gS ftudk izfrfcac vfHkys[kks
esa Hkh gqvk gsA lkekU;r% vfHkys[kks esa mUgh
yksxksa dh miyfC/k;ksa@xfrfof/k;ksa vksj fopkjksa dks
fyfic} fd;k tkrk Fkk tks mUgsa fofHkUu LFkkuksa ij
LFkkfir djus ds fo"k; esa fu.kZ; ysrs FksA
vfHkys[kks

esa

efgykvksa

vkSj

iq:"kksa

}kjk

/kkfeZd laLFkkvks dks fn;s x;s nku dk fooj.k gksrk gSA


vfHkys[k

,d

rjg

ls

LFkk;h

lk{;

gksrs

gSA

vusd

vfHkys[kksa esa buds fuekZ.k dh frfFk [kqnh gksrh gS]


dqN dh frfFk dk fu/kkZj.k ij mu ij fy[kh xbZ fyfi dh cukoV
ds vk/kkj ij fd;k tk ldrk gSA mnkgj.k ds fy, yxHkx 350
bZ0 iwoZ0 esa o.kZ vA bl izdkj fy[kk tkrk FkkA 500 bZ0
esa ;g ds :Ik esa fy[kk tkus yxkA
2-

/kkfeZd laLFkkvksa }kjk vU; nku izkIr djus okys


fo"k;ks esa vfHkys[kksa }kjk fn;k x;k fooj.k &
fofHkUu vfHkys[kks esa jktkvksa ;k laLFkkvksa ;k
O;fDr;ksa }kjk eafnjksa] fogkjksa ;k Lrwiks vkfn dks fn;s
x;s Hkw nkuksa vFkok nku jkfk;ksa dk mYys[k izkIr

16

gksrk gA buesa nku nsus okys uke ds lkFk&lkFk mlds


O;olk; dk Hkh mYys[k feyrk gSA
3-

ekS;Z ;qx ds fo"k; ls lwpuk,a vkSj vfHkys[k &


vfHkys[kksa ls gesa uxjks eas jgus okys] /kksch] cqudj]
fyfid] c<+kbZ] dqEgkj] Lo.kZdkj] ykSgdkj] vf/kdkjh]
/kkfeZd xq: O;kikjh vkSj jktkvksa ds ckjs esa fooj.k fy[ks
gksrs gSA
dHkh&dHkh mRikndska vkSj O;kikfj;ksa ds la?kksa ;k
Js.kh dk Hkh mYys[k feyrk gSA ;g Jsf.k;ka laHkor% igys
dPPks eky dks [kjhnrh Fkh fQj muls lkeku rS;kj dj cktkj
esa csp nsrs FksA

4-

O;kikj ds ckjs esa lwpuk vkSj vfHkys[k & yxHkx blh


le; ds nkSjku gesa vfHkys[kks ls ls nwj&nwj nskksa ds
lkFk Hkkjrh; O;kikfjd lEcU/k ds ckjs esa tkudkjh feyrh
gSA tks Hkh gks gesa ;g ekuuk iM+sxk fd bfrgkldkj]
bfrgkl

ds

iw.kZ

fuekZ.k

vkSj

mls

le>us

ds

fy;s

vfHkys[kksa dk lgkjk gh ugh ysrs cfYd fofHkUu ,sfrgkfld


L=ksrksa ij tksj nsrs gSA

17

CHAPTER 3
KINSHIP, CASTE AND CLASS EARLY SOCIETIES
(C 600 BCE-600 CE)
ca/kqRo] tkfr rFkk oxZ vkjfEHkd lekt yxHkx 600
bZ- iwoZ ls 600 bZ-rd
Q7.

How the Manusmriti has define the features and functions of


chandalas? What some Chinese travelers have written about them ?
18

Ans. (i)

The Manusmriti (compiled c. 2nd century (CE) laid down what

it described as the duties of the chandalas. They were expected to live


outside the village use discarded bowls with dogs and donkeys as their
wealth. They were to wear the clothes of the dead and eat out of
broken dishes wear ornaments of black iron and wander constantly.
They were not to walk about in villages and cities at night. They had
to handle the bodies of those who had no relatives and act as
executioners.
(ii)

Much later in the account of his travels the Chinese Buddhish

monk Fa Xian (5th century CE) wrote that the untouchables had to
sound a clapper in the streets of the town to warn the people of their
presence. Another Chinese pilgrim Xuan Zang (7th century CE)
observed that executioners and scavengers were forced to live outside
the city and their houses were marked.
Q8.

Textual traditions are one of the major sources for understanding the
process of changes. Explain the statement in about 100 words.

Ans. Textual traditions are of the major sources for understanding changes
in the economy and polity. Some texts laid down norms of social
behaviour. Others described and occasionally commented on a wide
range of social situation and practices. And we can catch a glimpse of
some social actors from inscriptions. Each of these sources is written
from the perspective of some social categories. So we need to keep in
mind who composed it and for whom. We also need to consider the
language of the text, and ways in which it circulated.
Q9.

The following is an excerpt from the Mahabarta in which Yudishtra,


the eldest Pandava speaks to Sanjaya a messenger :
Sanjaya convey my respectful greetings to all the Brahmanas and the
chief priest of the house of Dhritarashtra. I bow respectfully to teacher
19

DronaI hold the feet of our preceptor Kripa. (and) the chief of
the Kurus, the great Bhishma. I bow respectfully to the old king
(Dhritarashtra). I greet and ask after the health of his son Dhritarashtra
and his younger brother. Also greet all the young Kuruwarriors
who are our brothers sons and grandsons.. Greet above all him who
is to us like father and mother, the wise Vidura (born of a slave
woman). I bow to the elderly ladies who are known as our mother.
To those who are our wives you say this, I hope they are well
protected Our daughters in law born of good families and mothers
of children greet on my behalf. Embrace for me those who are our
daughters The beautiful fragrant well dressed courtesans of ours
you should also greet. Greet the slave women and their children greet
the aged the maimed (and) the helpless.
Try and identify the criteria used to make this list in terms of
age, gender kinship ties. Are there any other criteria ? For each
category explain why are placed in a particular position in the list.
Ans. The criteria had been used to make this list the terms of age gender
and kinship ties in brief ca be mention in this way :
i)

First of all respect should be paid to all the Brahamans and the chief
priest of the ruler.

ii)

Secondly Guru Dronacharya should be honoured.

iii)

The great old man Bhismpitama was given place of honour at third
position.

iv)

After that Yudhisthira bow respectfully to old king and his young
brother to all these people he considered like his father and then he
should respect to female members of Kuru family as his mothers
Kinship were honoured.
20

v)

At next place Yudhisthira showed honoured to Vidhura born of a slave


women. After that the elderly ladies and daughters and mother of
children were given respect.

vi)

There is other criteria also respect should be shown equally to all elder
persons whether they are from royal families or they are Brahamans
or from any other Varnas because age should be given first of all
regard without considering gender and blood relation.

vii)

Yudhisthira put his list of honour keeping of view the old traditions of
Brahamans text (books) and maintaining the old social order generally
followed during the epic age.

Q10. This is what a famous historian of Indian literature Maurice


Winternitz, wrote about the Mahabarata: just because Mahabarata
represents more of an entire literature.. and contains so much and so
many kinds of things.. (it) gives (s) us an insight into the most
profound depths of the sold of the Indian folk.Discuss.
Ans. There are several literary sources to reconstruct ancient Indian history.
Mahabarata is one of them. This is a famous historical source. Its
importance has been recognized in not by Indian historian but also by
foreign and western historian for example Maurice Winternitz wrote
about great epic just because the Mahabarata represents more of an
entire literature. It contains to so many kinds of hints related with
different aspects of the Indian lives. It we study this vast book it gives
us and inside into the most perfound depth of the soul of the Indian
people. For example Mahabarata was written in Sanskrit, a language
meant also exclusively for priests and elites. However the Sanskrit
used in simpler than that of the Vedas. Therefore it was probably
widely understood.
21

Historians usually classify the contents of the present text under


two broad heads sections that contain stories designated as the
narrative and section that contain prescriptions about social norms
designated as didactic. This division is by no means watertight the
didactic sections include stories and the narrative often contains a
social message. However generally historians agree that the
Mahabarata was meant to be dramatic moving story and that the
didactic portions were probably added later.
Interestingly the text is described as an itihasa within early
Sanskrit tradition. The literal meaning of the term is thus it was which
is why it is generally translated as history. Was there a real war that
was remembered in the epic ? We are not sure. Some historians think
that the memory of an actual conflict amongst kinfolk was preserved
in the narrative others pint out that there is no other corroborative
evidence of the battle.
Who wrote the Mahabarata. This is a question to which there
are several answers. The original story was probably composed by
charioteer bards known as sutas who generally accompanied
Kshatriya warriors to the beattlefiled and composed poems celebrating
their victories and other achievements. These compositions circulated
orally. Then, from the fifth century BCE, Brahmanas took over the
story and began to commit it to writing. This was the time when
chiefdoms such as those of the Kurus and Panchalas around whom the
story of the epic revolves, were gradually becoming kingdoms. Did
the new things want their itihasa to be recorded and preserved more
systematically ? It is also possible that the unpheavals that often
accompanied the establishment of these states, where old social values
22

were often replaced by new norms, are reflected in some parts of the
story.
The Mahabarata, like any other major epic, contains vivid
descriptions of battles, forests palaces and settlements. This book
described not only Kinship, political life of that period but also social
priority based on caste, sex and social classes. We can find about
some major feature of family life such as ideal of patriliny, different
forms of marriage and rules related with marriage system the social
position of women however mothers important in the society. Social
differences prevailed in the social system of India. Some thrones were
occupied even by known Kshtriya kings. The epic also deals about jati
and social mability etc.

iz07- euqLe`fr esa paMkyksa dh foks"krk,a vkSj dk;Z dks fdl


izdkj mYysf[kr fd;k x;k gS \ dqN phuh ;kf=;kas us muds
ckjs es D;k fy[kk gS \
m0
1

euqLe`fr esa p.Mkyksa ds drZO;ksa dh lwph feyrh gSA


mUgsa xkao ds ckgj jguk gksrk FkkA os Qsasds gq,
crZuksa dk bLrseky djrs Fks ejs gq, yksxksa ds oL= rFkk
yksgsa ds vkHkw"k.k igurs FksA jkf= esa os xkao vkSj
uxjks esa py&fQj ugha ldrs FksA lEcfU/k;ksa ls foghu
e`rdksa dh mUgsa vaR;sf"V djuh iM+rh Fkh rFkk of/kd
ds :Ik esa Hkh dk;Z djuk gksrk FkkA
23

2-

phu ls vk;s ckS} fHk{kq Qk&fk,u yxHkx ikapoh


'krkCnh bZLoh dk dguk gS fd vLi`;ksa dks lM+d ij
pyrs gq, djrky ctkdj vius gksus dh lwpuk nsuh iM+rh Fkh
ftlls vU; tu mUgsa ns[kus ds nks"k ls cp tk;ssA ,d vkSj
phuh rhFkZ;k=h 'oSu&Rlkax yxHkx lkroh 'krkCnh
bZLoh dgrk gS fd of/kd vkSj lQkbZ djus okyksa dks uxj
ls ckgj jguk iM+rk FkkA

iz08- lkfgfR;d ijaijk,a ifjorZu izf;kvksa dks le>us ds fy;s


izeq[k L=ksrks esa ls ,d gSA yxHkx 100 'kCnks esa bl
dFku dh O;k[;k dhft;sA
m0 ca/kqRo tkfr izFkk rFkk oxZ ;k o.kZ O;oLFkk vkfn
vkjafHkd lekkftd izfdz;kvksa dks le>us ds fy;s bfrgkldkj
lkfgR;d ijEijkvksa dk mi;ksx djrs gSA dqN xzaFk lkekftd
O;ogkj ds ekunaM r; djrs FksA vU; xzaFk lekt dk fp=.k
djrs Fks vkSj dHkh dHkh lekt es ekStwn fofHkUu fjoktksa
ij viuh fVIi.kh Hkh izLrqr djrs FksA vfHkys[kksa ls gesa
lekt ds dqN ,sfrgkfld vfHkuk;dksa dh >yd feyrh gSA
ge ns[ksaxs fd izR;sd xzaFk vkSj vfHkys[k ,d leqnk;
foks"k ds n`f"Vdks.k ls fy[kk tkrk Fkk]vr% ;g ;kn j[kuk
t:jh gks tkrk gS fd ;s xzaFk fdlus fy[ks] D;k fy[kk x;k vkSj
fduds fy;s budh jpuk gqbZA bl ckr ij Hkh /;ku nsuk t:jh
gS fd bu xazFkksa dh jpuk esa fdl Hkk"kk dk iz;ksx gqvk
rFkk budk izpkj izlkj fdl rjg gqvkA ;fn ge bu xzaFkksa dk
24

iz;ksx lko/kkuh ls djs rks lekt esa izpfyr vkpkj O;ogkj vkSj
fjoktksa dk bfrgkl fy[kk tk ldrk gSA
iz09- fuEufyf[kr vorj.k egkHkkjr ls gS ftlesa T;s"B ikaMo
;qf/kf"Bj nwr lat; dks lEcksf/kr dj jgs gSA
lat; /k`rjk"V x`g ds lHkh czkge.kksa vkSj eq[; iqjksfgr
dks esjk fofur vfHkoknu nhft,xkA eSa xq: nzks.k ds lkeus
ureLrd gksrk gwaA eSa d`ikpk;Z dk pj.k LikZ djrk gwa
vksj dq: oak ds iz/kku Hkh"e dsA eSa o`} jktk
/k`rjk"V

dks

ueu

djrk

gwaA

eS

amuds

iq=

nq;ksZ/ku vkSj muds vuqtksa ds LokLF; ds ckjs esa


iwNrk gwa rFkk mudks 'kqHkdkeuka, nsrk gwa eSa mu
lc ;qok dq: ;ks}kvksa dk vfHkuanu djrk gwa tks gekjs
Hkkbz] iq= vksj ikS= gSA loksZifj eSa mu egkefr fonqj
dks ftudk tUe nklh ls gqvk gS ueLdkj djrk gwa tks
gekjs firk vkSj ekrk ds ln`k gS----- eSa mu lHkh o`}k
fL=;ksa dks iz.kke djrk gwa tks gekjh ekrkvksa ds :Ik
esa tkuh tkrh gSA tks gekjh ifRu;k gS muls ;g dfg,xk fd
^^eSa vkkk djrk gwa fd os lqjf{kr gS^^------ esjh vksj
ls mu dqyo/kwvksa dk tks mRre ifjokjks esa tUeh gS
vkSj cPpksa dh ekrka, gS vfHkuanu dhft,xk rFkk gekjh
iqf=;ksa dk vkfyaxu dhft,xk^^ lqUnj lqxaf/kr] lqosfkr
xf.kdkvksa dks 'kqHkdkeuk,a nhft,xkA nkfl;ksa vkSj

25

mudh larkuksa rFkk o`} fodykax vkSj vlgk; tuksa dks


Hkh esjh vksj ls ueLdkj dfj,xk^^A
bl

lwph

dks

cukus

ds

vk/kkjksa

dh

igpku

dhft,&mez] fyax Hksn] o ca/kqRo ds lanHkZ esa \ D;k


dksbZ vU; vk/kkj Hkh gS \ izR;sd Js.kh ds fy, Li"V dhft, fd
lwph esa mUgsa ,d foks"k LFkku ij D;ksa j[kk x;k gS \
m0 bl lwph esa ftu vk/kkjksa dks blds fuekZ.k gsrq ekU;rk
nh xbZ gS mudh igpku djrs gq, ge ;g dg ldrs gS fd mezz]
fyax] cU/kqRo ds lanHkZ esa lkFk&lkFk xq: fk"; ds
lEcU/k] jktk ds izfr lEeku] ekrkvksa ds izfr vfHkuanu
foks"k :Ik ls /;ku esa j[ks x;s gSA
1-

bl lwph esa loZizFke lcls cM+s ikaMo ;qf/kf"Bj us


dkSjoksa ds nwr lat; dks lEcksf/kr djrs gq, vius jkT;
vFkok {ks= ds lHkh czkge.kksa vkSj eq[; iqjksfgr dks
viuk ouhr vfHkokn izLrqr fd;kA oLrqr% egkdkO; dky esa
lHkh {kf=; iwjs czkge.k o.kZ dk vfHkUkUnu lEeku djrs
Fks D;ksafd mUgsa lekt esa mudh fo}rk] Kku vkfn ds
fy;s loksZPp LFkku lkekftd <kaps esa dsoy fn[kkus ds
fy;s ugh cfYd O;ogkfjd <kaps esa Hkh izkIr FkkA

2-

czkge.kksa ds mijkar ;qf/kf"Bj us xq: nzks.k ds izfr g`n;


ls ureLrd gkssj vius lEeku dh vfHkO;fDr dhA os nzks.k dh
rjg d`ikpk;Z dks Hkh lEekuuh; ds fy;s xq: ekurs FksA

26

3-

mUgksus dq:vksa ds iz/kku vkSj lcls mez esa cM+s


Hkh"e firkeg dks lEeku fn;k D;ksafd os viuh ;ksX;rk ds
lkFk&lkFk mez vkSj vuqHko dh n`f"V ls Hkh lEekuuh;
Fksa

4-

;|fi /k`rjk"V dksjoksa ds firk Fks ysfdu mUgsa Hkh


;qf/kf"Bj us lEeku fn;k D;ksafd os o` vksj ikaMo ca/kq ds
lkFk jDr ds }kjk lEcfU/kr gksus ds lkFk&lkFk gfLrukiqj ds
ujsk Hkh FksA

5-

;qf/kf"Bj e;kZnk iq:"kksRreksa esa ls ,d FksA os egkHkkjr


ds ;q} 'kq: gksus ls iwoZ bl dky dk vPNk izek.k nsrs gSA
balkfu;r muds O;ogkj vkSj fopkjksa ls vfHkO;Dr gksrh
gSA ;|fi lkfgR;dkjksa us nq;ksZ/ku dks ,d vPNs ik= ds :Ik
esa mifLFkr ugh fd;k gS ysfdu T;s"B ikaMo ;qf/kf"Bj us
'kgtknksa esa ls Js"B nq;ksZ/ku vkSj mlds vusd NksVs
HkkbZ;ksa ds ckjs esa jktnwr lat; ls iwNdj fk"Vkpkj dk
fuokZg fd;k vkSj viuh 'kqHkdkeuk,a mls izLrqr dhA
fulansg ;g fk"Vkpkj dk rdktk gSA

6-

,d u;s lEcU/k ds :Ik esa ge vuqPNsn ;k mi;qZDr vorj.k dh


vxyh iafDr ls ;g tkurs gS fd ml dky esa ,d ohj nwljs ohj ;k
;ks}k dk lEeku djrk FkkA lat; ls ;qf/kf"Bj us dgk] ^^eSa
mu lc ;qok dq: ;ks}kvksa dk vfHkoknu djrk gwa tks
gekjs HkkbZ] iq= vkSj ikS= gSA^^

27

7-

;qf/kf"Bj vxyk vk/kkj lEeku dk ckSf}d Lrj dks cukrs gSA


fonqj egkerh oDrk FkkA og fo}kuks esa loksZifj FkkA
fulansg mudk tUe ,d nklh dh dks[k ls gqvk Fkk ysfdu
;qf/kf"Bj tUe ds vk/kkj ij vk/kkfjr o.kZ O;oLFkk esa ;dhu
ugha j[krk FkkA mlus ckSf}d Lrj ds vk/kkj ij fonqj dks
ueu fd;k vksj mUgsa vius firk vkSj ekrk ds lg`n; crk;kA

8-

;qf/kf"Bj us fL=;ksa] foks"kdj o`}k fL=;ksa vksj mldh


ekrk dh mezz ds ukfj;ksa ds izfr viuk ueLdkj] lEeku lat;
dks nsus ds fy;s dgkA ;g bl ckr dk izrhd gS fd dqyhu oxZ
ds yksx Hkh bl nsk esa ukfj;ksa dk cgqr lEeku djrs FksA
mUgksus 'kh?kz gh vius NksVs HkkbZ;ksa] iq=ks]
ikS=ksa vkfn dh ifRu;ksa ds fy;s mEehn trkbZ gS fd og
iw.kZr;k lqjf{kr gksaxsA mlus dqy o/kqvksa dks tks
mRre ifjokjksa esa tUeh gS vkSj cPpks dh ekrk,a gS
mudk vfHkuanu ds fy;s lat; dks dgk A

iz010-

Hkkjrh; lkfgR; ds izfl} bfrgkldkj ekSfjl foaVjfoV~t us

egkHkkjr ds ckjs esa fy[kk Fkk fd ^^pwafd egkHkkjr


lEiw.kZ lkfgR; dk izfrfuf/kRo djrk gS cgqr lkjh vkSj vusd
izdkj dh phts blesa fufgr gS og Hkkjrh;ksa dh vkRek
dh vxk/k xgjkbZ dks ,d varn`f"V iznku djrk gSA^^ ppkZ
dhft;sA
m0 izkphu Hkkjrh; bfrgkl fuekZ.k gsrq vusd ,sfrgkfld L=ksr
miyC/k gSA muesa ls egkHkkjr Hkh ,d gSA ;g ,d izfl}
28

,sfrgkfld L=ksr gSA blds egRo dks u dsoy Hkkjrh;


bfrgkldkjksa us cfYd ifpe

bfrgkldkjksa us Hkh Lohdkj

fd;k gSA Hkkjrh; bfrgkl esa bfrgkldkj ekSfjl foaVjfoV~t us


bls ,d egku dkO; dgk gSA muds vuqlkj ;g ,d lkfgfR;d d`fr
ds :Ik esa lEiw.kZ izkphu Hkkjrh; lkfgR; dk izfrfuf/kRo
djrk gSA bldk vkdkj cM+k fokky gS D;ksafd bldh fo"k;
lkexzh cgqr foLr`r gSA blesa cgqr lkjh vkSj fofHkUu izdkj
dh oLrqa, fufgr gSA tgka rd bldk lkekftd egRo gS ;g
yksxksa ds thou ds vusd Ikgyqvksa] o.kZ O;oLFkk] tkfr
O;oLFkk fL=;ksa dks lkekftd lEeku] fofHkUu izdkj ds
fookg] lkekftd euksjatu ds lk/ku] /kuqfoZ/kk ikfjokfjd
lEcU/k] jktuhfr esa dqyhu efgykvksa dh :fp vkfn dks
Nwrk gSA fo}ku bfrgkldkj Bhd gh fy[krs gS fd og
vFkkZr egkHkkjr Hkkjrh;ksa dh vkRek dh vkxk/k
xgjkbZ dks ,d varjn`f"V iznku djrk gSA egkHkkjr dh jpuk
laLd`r Hkk"kk esas gqbZA fulansg ,d lkfgfR;d Hkk"kk dh
vksj bldks Ik<+us fy[kus esa izk;% bldk iz;ksx czkge.k]
iqtkjh vksj fofk"V ifjokjksa ds yksx gh djrs Fks tks Hkh
gks EkgkHkkjr esa ftl laLd`r dk iz;ksx fd;k x;k gS og
osnksa ds fy;s iz;ksx dh xbZ laLd`r ls vf/kd ljy gS blhfy,
bls vf/kd T;knk la[;k esa yksxksa }kjk laHkor% le>k tk
ldk A

29

bfrgkldkj bl xazaFk dh fo"k;oLrq dks nks eq[;


'kh"kZdksa

ds

vUrxZr

j[krs

gS

vk[;ku

rFkk

minskkRed&vk[;ku esa dgkfu;ksa dk laxzg gS vkSj


minskkRed Hkkx esa lkekftd vkpkj&fopkj ds ekunaMksa
dk fp=.k gS fdUrq ;g foHkktu iwjh rjg vius esa ,dkadh
ugh gS minskkRed vakks esa Hkh dgkfu;k gksrh gS
vkSj cgq/kk vk[;kuks esa lekt ds fy, ,d lcd fufgr jgrk gSA
vf/kdrj bfrgkldkj bl ckr ij ,der gS fd egkHkkjr oLrqr% ,d
minskkRed

Hkkx

esa

ukVdh;

dFkkud

Fkk

ftlesa

minskkRed vak ckn esa tksM+s x;sA


vkjafHkd laLd`r ijEijk esa egkHkkjr dks ^bfrgkl^ dh
Js.kh esa j[kk x;k gSA bl 'kCn dk vFkZ gS & ,slk gh FkkA
D;k egkHkkjr esa lpeqp esas gq, fdlh ;q} dk Lej.k fd;k tk
jgk Fkk \ bl ckjs esa ge fufpr :Ik ls dqN ugha dg ldrsA
dqN bfrgkldkjksa dk ekuuk gS fd Lotuksa ds chp gq, ;q}
dh Le`fr gh egkHkkjr dk eq[; dFkkud gSA vU; bl ckr dh
vksj bafxr djrs gS fd ges ;q} dh iqf"V fdlh vkSj lk{; ls
ugh gksrhA

30

ikB&4
fopkjd] fo'okl vkSj bekjrsa] lkaLfrd
fodkl
bZlk iwoZ 600 ls bZlk laor~ 600 rd
Thinkers, Beliefs and Buildings, Cultural
Developments
(600 BCE to 600 CE)
Q.1 Why had Magadha become the centre of the new religious
movement?
Ans. (i)

The people of Magadha responded readily to the

Budhism
31

because they were looked down upon the orthodox


Brahmanas.
(ii)

The role of the rulers of the Magadha. They took


keen interest on spreading the religion in India as
well in other countries.

(iii)

The wealth of Magadha also helped in spreading


new religious movements.

Q.2 How far the Indian Rulers were responsible for the
preservation of the Stupa of Sanchi?
Ans. The role played by Rulers of India special the rulers of
Bhopal could protect the many monuments. The role of
the kings of Bhopal for protection of Sanchi monuments
is as under.
(i)

In nineteenth century Europeans were very much


interested in structure at Sanchi. In fact, the French
requested Shahjehan Begum for permission to take
away

eastern

gateway,

which

was

the

best

preserved, to be displayed in a Museum in French.


For a while some Englishmen also wished to do the
same but fortunately both the French and the
English

were

satisfied

with

carefully

prepared

plaster cast copies and the original remained at the


site, part of the Bhopal state.
(ii)

The ruler of Bhopal, Shahjehan Begum and her


successor Sultan Jehan Begum provided money for
preservation of the ancient site. She funded the
Museum that was built there as well as the guest
32

house where she lived. She funded the publication


of the volumes as well.
(iii)

So if the Stupa complex has survived, it is in no


small measure due to wise decisions of Begums and
to good luck in escaping from the eyes of railway
and to carry away to the Museums of Europe.

Q.3 Why do you think the Budha advised his followers to be


lamps unto yourselves?
Ans. We think the Budha advised his followers to be lamps
unto yourselves because he regarded the social world as
the creation of human according to him is has no divine
origin. Therefore he advised rulers and chief of the
families to be human and athetical according to him.
Only individual efforts were expected to transformed
social relation. It was also expected to lead to self
realisation and nirbhan, literally the blowing out of the
ego and desire, and thus and the cycle of suffering for
those who renounced the world. According to Budhist
tradition, his last words to his followers were "I am
reaching the end to my life."
Q.4 Why do you think men and women joined the Sangha?
Ans. We think men and women joined the Sangha to study
Budhism and its texts more systematically and regularly.
They wanted to become the teachers of the dharma.
These Sangha were good place to lead to simple life in
required environment. They desired to process only
essential requisites for survival, such as a robe and bowl
33

to receive food colleted once a day from the liaty, to whom


they taught the dharma.
Q.5 Evaluate the circumstances which were responsible for
the spread of Buddhism?
Ans. (i)

Appropriate atmosphere in 600 BC as many bad

evils

were
practiced in the society.

(ii)

Effect of royal family, people also followed the king.

(iii)

Use of simple Pali language of common people.

(iv)

The teachings of Lord Buddha were usual

(v)

Kept

away

this

religion

from

unnecessary

expenditure
(vi)

Away from casteism

(vii) Ideal preacher of this dhurma


(viii) Patronage by the state.
(ix)

Boddh monasteries

(x)

Acceptability of change.

Q.6 Explain

the

differences

between

the

Hinyana

and

Mahayana sets of Buddhism on the basis of the concept


of Bodhisata?
Ans. By the first century CE, there is evidence of changes in
Buddhist ideas and practices. Early Buddhist teaching
head given importance to self efforts in achieving
nibbana. Besides, the Buddha was regarded as a human
being who attained enlightenment and nibbana through
his own efforts. Gradually the idea of a saviour emerged.
It was believed that he was the one who could ensure
34

salvation. Simulanetously the concept of the Bodhisata


was also developed. Bodhisata were perceived as deeply
compassionate being who accumulated merit through
their efforts but used this not to attain nibbana and
thereby abandon the world, but to help others. The
worship of images of t he Buddha and Bodhisattas
became an important part of this tradition.
This new way of thinking was called Mahayana.
Literally the Great vehicle. Those who adopted these
beliefs described the older tradition as Hinayana or the
lesser vehicle
Boddha dharm was divided into two different sects
named Hinayana and Mahayana. The differences between
them were the following :
Mahayana
1.

They

Hinayana

treated

Buddha

as

Lord They treated the Lord

deity

worshipped his idol.


2.

and Buddha as a symbol of


idealism and purity.

They over stressed belief They


and devotion.

believed

the

religious teachings only


after getting it confirmed
on the basis of debate.

3.

They used Sanskrit.

Their

entire

literature

was in Pali language.


4.

They thought it essential They stressed pure and


to

follow

rules

to

the

religious good conduct to attain

attain

the the objective of live.

objective of life.
5.

The

word

meaning

of The

word

meaning

of
35

Mahayana is the greater Hinayana is the lesser


yana (or bigger ship). The yaan (or shorter ship).
sect believes that every The followers of this sect
body should care for his believes that everybody
own 'nirvana' as well as should care only for his
for

the

salvation

of own

others.

'nirvana'

salvation

or

because

this

philosophical thought is
concerned

to

every

person individually.
Q.7 Assess the importance of Budhism for the enrichment of
Indian culture.
Ans. The contribution of Buddhism to the enrichment of
Indian culture was as below :
(i)

Buddhism created and developed a new awareness


in the field of intellect and culture. It taught the
people not to take things for granted but to argue
and judge them on merits. To certain extent the
place of superstition was taken by logic.

(ii)

In order to preach the doctrines of the new religion


the Buddhists compiled a new type of literature.
They enormously enriched Pali by their writings.

(iii)

The

Buddhist

monasteries

developed

as

great

centres of learning and can be called residential


universities. Mention may be made of Nalanda and
Vikramshila in Bihar, and Valabhi in Gujarat.
(iv)

The first human statues worshipped in India were


probably those of the Buddha. The panels found at
36

Gaya in Bihar and at Sanchi and Bharhut in


Madhya

Pradesh are illuminating

examples

of

artistic activity.
(v)

The Gandhara and Mathura Schools of sculptures


were purely based on the Bodh subjects and its
culminated the art of Indian Sculptures.

Q.8 Read this short inscription and answer :


In the year 33 of the Maharaja Huvishka (a
Kushana ruler), in the first month of the hot season on
the eighth day, a Bodhisatta was set up at Madhuvanaka
by the bhikkhuni Dhanavati, the sister is daughter of the
bikkhsi Buddha Mitra, who known the Tipitaka, the
female pupil of the bhikkhu Bala, who known the
Tipitika, together with her father and Mother.
(i)

How did Dhanvanti date her inscription?

Ans. The first month of the hot season (i.e. summer) on the
eighth day and in the year 33 of the Maharaja (i.e. the
emperor) named Huvishkas
(ii)

Why do you think she installed an image of the


Bodhisatta?

Ans. To show that Mahayana sect of Budhism was becoming


popular day by day and Bodhisatta were considered
impresent and great personality in Buddhism during the
reign of the Kushana rulers.
37

(iii) Who were the relatives she mentioned?


Ans. She had mentioned her own mother's sister named
Buddhamita.
(iv) What Budhist text did she know?
Ans. She knew the Tipitaka, the Buddhist text.
(v)

From whom did she learn this text?

Ans. She learnt this text from bhikkhuni Buddhmita.


Q.9 On an outline world map, mark five countries to which
Buddhism spread.

Q.1 ex/k u;s&u;s /kkfeZd vkanksyuksa dk dsU D;ksa cuk\


(i)

D;ksafd ex/k dh turk iqjkus fopkjksa dks R;kxus esa


ges'kk rS;kj jgrh Fkh vkSj u;s /kkfeZd fopkjksa dks
viukus o QSykus esa viuk iwjk lg;ksx nsrh FkhA

(ii)

ex/k ds 'kkldksa dk buesa ;ksxnku jgkA os ges'kk


/kkfeZd fo'oklksa dks vius ns'k o ckgj QSykus esa
lgk;rk o lg;ksx nsrs Fks tSls v'kksd us ckS) /keZ ds
pkj gsrq viuh iq=kh o iq=k dks fons'kksa esa
HkstkA

(iii)

ex/k dh vkfFkZd le`f) dk Hkh u;s /kkfeZd fopkjksa


ds QSykus esa ;ksxnku jgkA

Q.2 lkaph ds Lrwi ds laj{k.k esa Hkkjrh; 'kkldks dh csxeksa


dh Hkwfedk dk ewY;kkdu dhft,A
Hkkjr ds fofHkUu Hkkxks es QSys gq;s fofHkUu Lekjdks
es ls vxzsth dky es vusd dky ds xrZ es lek x;sA
ysfdu dqN 'kkldks us vius ;ksxnkuks ls foks"k :i ls
Hkksiky ds 'kkldks us lkWph tSls Lekjdks dks cpk
38

fy;kAbuds }kjk Lekjdks cpkus ds fy;s fn;k x;k


;ksxnku fuEu izdkj ls gSA
(i)

mUuhloha lnh ds ;wjksih;ksa esa lkaph ds Lrwi dks


ysdj dkQh fnypLih FkhA kalhfl;ksa us lcls vPNh
gkyr esa cps lkaph ds iwohZ rksj.k }kj dks kal ds
laxzgky; esa nf'kZr djus ds fy, 'kgtgka csxe ls kal
ys tkus dh btktr ekaxhA dqN le; ds fy, vaxzstksa us
Hkh ,slh gh dksf'k'k dh lkSHkX;o'k kalhlh vkSj
vaxzst nksuksa gh cM+h lko/kkuh ls cukbZ IykLVj
frfr;ksa ls larq"V gks x;sA bl dkj ewy fr
Hkksiky jkT; esa viuh txg ij gh jghA

(ii)

Hkksiky ds 'kkldksa 'kkgtgka csxe vkSj mudh


mkjkf/kdkjh lqYrku tgka csxe us bl kphu LFkku
ds j[kj[kko ds fy, /ku dk vuqnku fn;kA mlus
/keZ'kkyk fuekZ.k] iqLrdky; O;oLFkk o xzaFkksa dh
jpuk ds fy, lgk;rk nku dhA

(iii)

csxeksa ds le>nkjhiw.kZ fu.kZ; dk gh ifj.kke gS fd


lkaph ds Lrwi dks jsyos foHkkx o ;wjksfi;ksa }kjk
vU;= ystkus ls mls cpk;k tk ldkA

Q.3 vki ds }kjk ;g lkspus dk D;k dkj.k gS fd cq) us vius


vuq;kf;;ksa dks ;g ijke'kZ fn;k fd os Lo;a vius fy, T;ksfr
cusa\
ge lksprs gSa fd cq) us vius vuq;kf;;ksa dks ;g f'k{kk nh
fd os Lo;a vius fy, T;ksfr cusa D;ksafd os ekurs Fks fd
lekt dk fuekZ.k balku us fd;k Fkk u fd bZ'oj usA blfy,
mUgksaus jktkvksa vkSj x`gifr;ksa dks n;koku vkSj
vkpkjoku gksus dh lykg nhA ,slk ekuk tkrk Fkk fd
O;Drxr ;kl ls lkekftd ifjos'k cnyk tk ldrk gSA cq) us tUe
e`R;q ds p ls eqDr] vkReKku vkSj fuokZ.k ds fy,
O;fDr dsfUr gLr{ksi vkSj lE;d~ deZ dh dYiuk dhA
fuokZ.k dk eryc Fkk vga vkSj bPNk dk [kRe gks tkuk ftlls
x`gR;kx djus okyksa ds nq%[k ds p dk var gks ldrk
39

FkkA ckS) ijEijk ds vuqlkj vius f'k";ksa dk vafre funsZ'k


Fkk] ^^rqe lc vius fy, [kqn gh T;ksfr cuks D;ksafd
rqEgsa [kqn gh viuh eqfDr jkLrk <wa<uk gSA
Q.4 vkids vuqlkj L=h&iq#"k la?k esa fdl ;kstu ls tkrs Fks\
ge lksprs gSa fd iq#"k vkSj efgykvksa us ckS) la?k esa
blfy, os'k fd;k D;ksafd ogka os /keZ dk vf/kd fu;fer vkSj
O;oLFkr <ax ls v/;;u] euu] mikluk] /kkfeZd fo"k;ksa ij
fopkj&foe'kZ dj ldsaA os ogka /keZ dh lEiw.kZ f'k{kk kIr
dj ml Kku o n'kZu dks O;ogkj esa yk ldsaA gj ckS)
fHk{kqd ogka jgdj fu;eksa dk ikyu djuk] lk/kkj.k thou
O;rhr djuk] vuq'kklu esa jguk] mfpr <ax ls vius fopkjksa
dh vfHkO;Dr djuk vkSj fHk{kk ekaxdj vius Lo;a dk
Hkkstu vkfn tqVkuk lh[k ldsA
la?k esa jgrs gq, ckS)&fHk{kqd v/;;u] v/;kiu dj ldrs Fks
vkSj fuokZ.k ds fy, crk;s x;s ekxZ fl)karksa vkSj
f'k{kkvksa dk vuqlj.k djds eks{k kIr dj ldrs FksA
Q.5 mu ifjfLFkfr;ks dk ewY;kdu dhft;s tks ckS) /keZ ds
izpkj&izlkj ds fy;s mRrjnk;h cuhA
(i)

(ii)

Hkkjr esa ckS) /keZ ,sls le; esa o ,sls okrkoj.k esa
QSyk tc czkge.kh; lekt es vusd dkj dh tVhyrk;s
O;kIr FkhA
egkRek cq) Lo;a ,d jktdqekj Fks] muds R;kx] vfgalk]
lR;] ca/kqRo vkfn Hkkoukvksa ls yksxksa esa muds
fr J)k tkx mBhA

(iii) ikyh tSlh ljy Hkk"kk ds ;ksx ls turk dks le>us esa
dfBukbZ ugha gqbZA
(iv)

ckS) /keZ ds mins'k lR; o vfgalk ij vk/kkfjr Fks tks


O;kogkfjd Hkh Fks ftUgsa vklkuh ls viuk;k tk ldrk
FkkA

(v)

ckS) /keZ ;K] gou vkSj i'kq cfy tSls O;; ls nwj FkkA

(vi)

ckS) /keZ esa lHkh tkfr;ksa dk Lokxr FkkA


40

(vii) ckS) /keZ ds pkjd vkn'kZ vkpj.k okys FksA vr%


yksxksa us mudk vuqlj.k fd;kA
(viii) v'kksd] dfu"d o g"kZ tSls jktkvksa }kjk laj{k.k
feyus ls bldk pkj gqvkA
(ix)

ckS) eBksa ls fHk{kqvksa o fHk{kqf.k;ksa dks


vkn'kZ o R;kxiw.kZ thou O;rhr djus dk okrkoj.k
feyukA

(x)

ckS) /keZ esa le; ds lkFk egk;ku 'kk[kk ds :i esa


ifjorZu ls yksxksa dks vlqfo/kk ugha gqbZ vkSj cq)
dh ewfrZ iwtk djus dh vuqefr ls bl /keZ dk vkSj
foLrkj gqvkA

Q.6 cksf/klrk dh vo/kkj.kk dks vk/kkj ekurs gq;s ghu;ku o


egk;ku lEiznk;ks ds e/; vUrjks dks Li"V dhft;sA

Ekwy ckS) /keZ es fuokZ.k izkIr djus ds fy, O;fDrxr


iz;klks ij T;knk tksj fn;k tkrk FkkA Loa; cq) dks Hkh ,d
euq"; ekuk tkrk Fkk ysfdu izFke lnh ds vkl&ikl ,d
eqfDrnkrk dh dYiuk mHkjus yxh ftls ckf/klrk dgk tkrk
FkkA cksf/klrksa dks ije d:.kke; tho ekuk x;k tks vius
lRdk;ksZ ls iq.; dekrsa FksA ysfdu os bl iq.; dk iz;ksx
nqfu;k dks nq%[kks esa NksM nsus ds fy;s vkSj fuCcku
izkfIr ds fy;s ugh djrs FksaAcfYd os nwljksa dh lgk;rk djrs
FksaA cq) vkSj ckSf/klrks dh ewfrZ;ks dh iwtk bl ijEijk dk
,d egRoiw.kZ vax cu x;hA fparu dh bl u;h ijEijk dks
egk;ku ds uke ls tkuk x;k rFkk iqjkuh ijEijk dks ghu;ku ds
uke ls lacksf/kr fd;kA
bues ewyr% fuEufyf[kr vUrj FkkA
egk;ku
1
-

ghu;ku
egk;ku
er
ds
ekuus okys xkSre

ghu;ku okys xkSre


cq) dks vkn'kZ vkSj
41

cq)
dks
nsork
ekudj mudh ewfrZ
dh iwtk djrs gSaA

ifo=krk dk rhd iq#"k


ekurs gSaA

2
-

;g fo'okl vkSj J)k ij


vf/kd cy nsrs gSaA

;s fdlh Hkh ckr dks


rdZ dh dlkSVh ij dl dj
fo'okl djrs gSaA

3
-

buds }kjk laLr


Hkk"kk ij tksj fn;k
x;kA

budk iwjk lkfgR; ikyh


Hkk"kk esa FkkA

4
-

budk fo'okl Fkk fd


thou dk y{; kIr
djus ds fy, /kkfeZd
fu;eksa dk ikyu
djuk vko';d gSA

budk fo'okl Fkk fd


thou dk y{; kIr djus
ds fy, 'kq) rFkk vPNs
deks ij cy nsuk
pkfg,A

5
-

budk lkspuk Fkk


fd vius eks{k ds
lkFk nwljksa ds
fuokZ.k
ij
/;ku
nsuk
pkfg,A
vFkkZr ckSf/klRo
in izkIr djuk mudk
y{; FkkA

ghu;ku
dk
vFkZ
NksVk ;ku gSA budk
lkspuk Fkk fd eks{k
dh kIr ds fy, tho
dks Lo;a dks fpark o
;Ru djuk pkfg,A

Q.7 Hkkjrh; laLfr dks le`) cukus esa ckS) /keZ ds ;ksxnku
dk ewY;kdu dhft;saA
Hkkjrh; laLfr dks le`) cukus esa ckS) /keZ dk fuEu
;ksxnku jgk &
(i)

ckS) /keZ us f'k{kk o laLfr ds {ks=k esa ;g Hkko


iSnk fd;k fd fdlh ckr ij rdZ ds vk/kkj ij lgh mrjus ij gh
fo'okl djuk pkfg,A blls va/kfo'oklksa ij frca/k yxkA

42

(ii)

xkSre cq) ds mins'kksa ds ladyu ls gekjh laLfr esa


ikyh Hkk"kk ds lkfgR; esa fodkl o o`f) gqbZA

(iii)

ukyUnk] foe'khyk o cYyHkh tSls fo'ofo|ky; ckS)


/keZ dh gh nsu gS ftuds dkj.k bu dsUksa ls Kku
dh xaxk iwjs Hkkjr o fo'o esa QSyhA

(iv)

ckS)x;k] lkaph o Hkjgwr dh ewfrZ;ka bl ckr ds


mnkgj.k gS fd ckS) /keZ us ewfrZdyk dks egku~
;ksxnku fn;k gSA

(v)

ewfrZdyk dh xa/kkj o eFkqjk 'kSfy;k fokq) :i ls ckS)


fo"k;ks ij vk/kkfjr FkhA ftlus Hkkjrh; ewfrZdyk
dks ,d u;h ijkdk"Bk ij igqWpk;k A

Q.8 egkjkt gqfo"d ,d dq"kk.k 'kkld ds


rSarhlosa lky esa xeZ ekSle ds igys eghus ds vkBosa fnu
f=kfiVd tkuus okys fHkD[kq cy dh f'k";k] f=kfiVd tkuus
okyh cq)ferk ds cgu dh csVh fHkD[kquh /kuorh us vius
ekrk&firk ds lkFk e/kqoud esa cksf/klRo dh ewfrZ LFkkfir
dhA
(i)

/kuorh us vius vfHkys[k dh rkjh[k dSls fu'pr dh\

rSarhlosa lky esa xeZ ekSle ds igys eghus ds


vkBosa fnuA
(ii)

vius vuqlkj mUgksaus ckSf/klRo dh ewfrZ D;ksa LFkkfir


dh\
rkfd /khjs&/khjs ckS) /keZ esa efgyk fHk{kqvksa dk
Hkko vkSj ewfrZ iwtk c<+sA cksf/klRo fuokZ.k kIr
O;fDr gksrs FksA

(iii)

os vius fdu fj'rsnkjksa dk uke ysrh gS\


43

viuh eka dh cfgu ekSlh cq)ferk dkA


(iv)

os dkSu&ls ckS) xzaFkksa dks tkurh Fkh\


ckS) xzaFk f=kfiVd dksA

(v)

mUgksaus ;s ikB fdlls lh[ks Fks\


viuh ekSlh cq)ferk lsA
fo'o ds js[kk ekufp= esa fdUgha ,sls ikap
jk"Vksa dks n'kkZvks tgka ckS) /keZ QSykA

Lesson-5
Through the Eyes of Travellers
44

High order Thinking Skill Question and Answers :


Q.1 What are the comparisons that Ibn Battula makes to give his
readers an idea about what coconuts looked like?
Ans The following is how Ibn Battuta described the coconut :
(i)

These trees are among the most peculiar trees in kind and most

astonishing in habit. They look exactly like date palms, without any
difference between them except that the one produces nuts as its fruits and
the other produces dates.
(ii)

The nut of a coconut tree resembles a man's head, for in it are what

look like two eyes and a mouth, and the inside of it when it is green looks
like the brain and attached to it is a fibre which looks like hair. They make
from this cards with which they sew up ships instead of (using) iron nails,
and they (also) make from it cables for vessels.
Q.2

What, according to Bernier, were the problems faced by peasants in

the subcontinent ? Do you think his description would have served to


strengthen his case ?
Ans Yes, I think his description would have served to
strengthen his case. Following problems were faced by peasants in the
subcontinent :

45

(i)

Owing to crown ownership of land, landholders could not pass on

their land to their children. So they were averse to any long, term investment
in the sustainance and expansion of production.
(ii)

It had led to the uniform ruination of agriculture excessive appression

of the peasantly and a continuous decline in the living standards of all


sections of society.
(iii)

Of the vast tracts of country constituting the empire of Hindustan,

many are little more than sand, or barren mountains.


(iv)

Even a considerable portion of the good land remains untilled for

want of labourers.
(v)

Many of whom perish in consequence of the bad treatment they

experience from Governors.


(vi)

The poor people, when they become incapable of discharging the

demands of their rapacious lords, are not only often deprived of the means of
subsistence, but are also made to lose their children, who are carried away as
slaves. Thus, it happens that the peasantly, driven to despair by 50 excessive
a tyranny, abandon the country.
Q.3Do you think Al-Biruni depended only on Sanskrit texts for
his information and understanding of Indian Society ?

46

Ans. No, Al-Biruni did not depend only on Sanksrit texts for his
information and understanding of Indian history for it be mention following
facts.
(i)

Travellers often compared what they saw in the subcontinent with

practices with which they were familiar.


(ii)

Each traveller adopted distinct strategies to understand what they

observed. Al-Biruni for instance, was aware of the problems inherent in the
task he had set himself.
(iii)

According to him, Sanskrit was so different from Arabic and persian

that ideas and concepts could not be easily translated from one language into
another.
(iv)

In spite of his acceptance of the Brahmanical description of the caste

system. Al-Biruni disapproved of the notion of pollution.


(v)

Al-Biruni's description of the caste system was deeply influenced by

his study of normative Sanskrit texts which laid down the rules governing
the system from the point of view of the Brahmanas.
q 4- Do you think Ibn-Battuta's account is useful in arriving at an
understanding of life in contemporary urban centres ? Give reasons for your
answer.
Ans. Yes, it explain in following points :47

I. Description - Ibn-Battuta's description about Indian cities is more


useful to know about their population, roads, markets and other properious
facilities.
II. Delhi - When Ibn-Battuta reached in Delhi in 14th Century. He
found such type of Delhi.
(i) The city of Delhi covers a wide area and has a large population.
The rampart round the city is without parellel.
(ii) Inside the ramparts, there are store-houses for storing edibles,
magazines, ammunition, ballistas and siege machines.
(iii) There are twenty eight gates of this city which are called darwaza,
and of these, the Budaun darwaza is the greatest.
III. Ibn Battuta and Indian Cities - Ibn-Bututa found cities in the
subcontinent full of exciting opportunities for those who had the necessary
drive, resources and skills. They were densely populated and prosperious. It
appears from Ibn-Battuta's account that most cities had crowded streets and
bright and colourful markets that were stacked with a wide variety of goods.
Ibn Battuta described Delhi as a vast city with a great population, the largest
in India.
IV. Markets - The bazaars were not only places of economic
transactions but also the hub of social and cultural activities. Most bazaars
48

had a mosque and a temple and in some of them at least spaces were marked
for public performances by dancers, musicians and singers.
Write in your own words the summary of description of India given
by Al Beruni.

Ans. Summary of description of India given by Alberuni.


(1) Social condition
(2) Religious condition
(3) Political condition
(4) Judiciary
(5) Indian Philosophy
(6) Historical knowledge
(7) General Nature

;kf=;ksa ds utfj,
iz'u 1- ukfj;y dSls gksrs gSa vius ikBdksa dks ;g le>kus ds fy,
bCucrqrk fdl izdkj dh rqyuk, izLrqr djrk gS \
mRrj & ukfj;y dh lajpuk dks le>us ds fy, bCucrqrk fuEu izdkj
dh rqyuk, izLrqr djrk gS &
49

1 ;s o`{kLo:i ls lcls vuks[ks rFkk izfr esa lcls


foLe;dkjh o`{kksa esa ls ,d gSaA ;s gw&cgw [ktwj ds o`{k
tSls fn[krs gSaA buesa dksbZ varj ugha gS flok; ,d viokn ds &
,d ls dk"BQy izkIr gksrk gS vkSj nwljs ls [ktwjA
2 ukfj;y ds o`{k dk Qy ekuo flj ls esy [kkrk gS
D;ksafd blesa Hkh ekuks nks vka[ksa rFkk ,d eq[k gS vkSj
vanj dk Hkkx gjk gksus ij efLr"d tSlk fn[krk gS vkSj blls tqM+k
js'kk ckyksa tSlk fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA os blls jLlh cukrs gSaA
yksgs dh dhyksa ds iz;ksx ds ctk; buls tgkt dks flyrs gSaA os
blls crZuksa ds fy, jLlh Hkh cukrs gSaA
iz'Uk 2- cfuZ;j ds vuqlkj miegk}hi esa fdlkuksa dks fdu&fdu
leL;kvksa ls tw>uk iM+rk Fkk \ D;k vkidks yxrk gS fd mldk
fooj.k mlds i{k dks lqn`<+ djus esa lgk;d gksrk gS \
mRrj & gk] eq>s yxrk gS fd mldk fooj.k mlds i{k dks l`n`<+
djus esa lgk;d gksrkA miegk}hi esa fdlkuksa dks fuEufyf[kr
leL;kvksa ls tw>uk iM+rk Fkk&
1

jktdh; HkwLokfeRo ds dkj.k] Hkw/kkjd vius cPpksa

dks Hkwfe ugha ns ldrs FksA blfy, os mRiknu ds Lrj dks cuk,
j[kus vkSj mlesa c<+ksrjh ds fy, nwjxkeh fuos'k ds izfr
mnklhu FksA
50

blh ds pyrs f"k dk leku :i ls fouk'k] fdlkuksa dk

vlhe mRihM+u rFkk lekt ds lHkh oxks ds thou Lrj esa vuojr
iru dh fLFkfr mRiUu gqbZA
3

fgUnqLrku ds lkezkT; ds fo'kky xzkeh.k vapyksas

esa jsrhyh Hkwfe;k ;k catj ioZr gh gSaA


4

;gk rd fd f"k ;ksX; Hkwfe dk ,d cM+k fgLlk Hkh

Jfedksa ds vHkko esa f"k foghu jg tkrk gSA


5

buesa ls dbZ Jfed xouZjksa }kjk fd, x, cqjs O;ogkj

ds QykLo:i ej tkrs gSaA


6

xjhc yksx tc vius yksHkh Lokfe;ksa dh ekaxksa dks

iwjk djus esa vleFkZ gks tkrs gSa rks mUgsa u dsoy
thou&fuoZgu ds lk/kuksa ls oafpr dj fn;k tkrk gS] cfYd mUgsa
vius cPpksa ls Hkh gkFk /kksuk iM+rk gS] ftUgsa nkl cukdj ys
tk;k tkrk gSA bl izdkj ,slk gksrk gS fd bl vR;ar fujadq'krk ls
grk'k gks fdlku xkao NksM+dj pys tkrs gSaA
iz'Uk 3- D;k vkidks yxrk gS fd vyfc:uh Hkkjrh; lekt ds fo"k; esa
viuh tkudkjh vkSj le> ds fy, dsoy laLr xzaFkksa ij vkfJr jgk \

51

mRrj & ugha] vyfc:uh Hkkjrh; lekt ds fo"k; esa viuh tkudkjh
vkSj le> ds fy, dsoy laLr xzaFkksa ij vkfJr ugha jgkA blds fy,
og fuEufyf[kr rF;ksa dk mYys[k djrk gS &
1

;kf=;ksa us miegk}hi esa tks Hkh ns[kk lkekU;r%

mldh rqyuk mUgksaus mu izFkkvksa ls dh ftuls os ifjfpr FksA


2

izR;sd ;k=h us tks ns[kk mls le>us ds fy, ,d vyx

fof/k viukbZA vy&fc:uh vius fy, fu/kkZfjr ms'; esa fufgr


leL;kvksa ls ifjfpr FkkA
3

mlds vuqlkj laLr] vjch vkSj Qkjlh ls bruh fHkUu

Fkh fd fopkjksa vkSj fl)kUrksa dks ,d Hkk"kk ls nwljh esa


vuqokfnr djuk vklku ugha FkkA
4

tkfr O;oLFkk ds laca/k esa czk.koknh O;k[;k dks

ekuus ds ckotwn vy&fc:uh us vifo=rk dh ekU;rk dks vLohdkj


fd;kA
5

tkfr O;oLFkk ds fo"k; esa] vy&fc:uh dk fooj.k mlds

fu;ked laLr xazFkksa ds v/;;u ls iwjh rjg ls xgurk ls izHkkfor


FkkA bu xzaFkksa esa czk.kksa ds n`f"Vdks.k ls tkfr O;oLFkk
dks lapkfyr djus okys fu;eksa dk izfriknu fd;k x;k Fkk ysfdu
okLrfod thou esa ;g O;oLFkk bruh Hkh dM+h ugha FkhA

52

iz'Uk 4- D;k vkidks yxrk gS fd ledkyhu 'kgjh dsUksa esa


thou 'kSyh dks lgh tkudkjh izkIr djus esa bCucrwrk dk o`rkar
lgk;d gS \ vius mkj ds i{k esa rdZ nhft,A
mRrj & gk] fuEufyf[kr fcUnqvksa esa Li"V fd;k x;k gS &
1 o.kZu (Description) & bCucrwrk dk o.kZu vusd
n`f"V;ksa ls mi;ksxh ekuk tkrk gSA mlus Hkkjr ds vusd
'kgjksa fnYyh lfgr dbZ 'kgjksa ds yksxksa dh vkcknh]
lM+dksa] cktkj vkSj 'kgj dh pdkpkSa/k ped vkfn ds ckjs esa
mi;ksxh fooj.k fn;k gSA
2 fnYyh (Delhi) & tc pkSngoha 'krkCnh esa bCucrwrk
fnYyh vk;k Fkk ml le; rd iwjk miegk}hi ,d ,sls oSf'od lapkj ra=
dk fgLlk cu pqdk Fkk tks iwoZ esa phu ls ysdj if'pe esa
mRrj&if'peh vhdk rFkk ;wjksi rd QSyk gqvk FkkA
1- fnYyh cM+s {ks= esa QSyk ?kuh tula[;k okyk 'kgj gS
& 'kgj ds pkjksa vksj cuh izkphu nhokj vrqyuh; gSA
izkphjksa ds vanj [kk| lkexzh] gfFk;kj] ck:n] iz{ksikL= rFkk ?
ksjscanh esa dke vkus okyh e'khuksa ds laxzg ds fy,
HkaMkjx`g cus gq, FksA
2- bl 'kgj ds 28 }kj gSa ftUgsa njoktk dgk tkrk gS vkSj
buesa ls cnk;w njoktk lcls fo'kky gSA
53

3 bCucrwrk vkSj Hkkjrh; 'kgj (Ibn Battuta and Indian


Cities) & bCucrwrk us miegk}hi ds 'kgjksa dks mu yksxksa ds
fy, O;kid voljksa ls Hkjiwj ik;k ftuds ikl vko';d bPNk] lk/ku rFkk
dkS'ky FkkA ;s 'kgj ?kuh vkcknh okys rFkk le`) FksA bCucrwrk
ds o`rkar ls ,slk izrhr gksrk gS fd vf/kdka'k 'kgjksa esa
HkhM+HkkM+ okyh lM+ds rFkk ped&ned okys vkSj jaxhu
cktkj Fks tks fofo/k izdkj dh oLrqvksa ls Hkjs jgrs FksA
bCucrwrk fnYyh dks ,d cM+k 'kgj] fo'kky vkcknh okyk rFkk
Hkkjr esa lcls cM+k crkrk gSA
4 cktkj (Markets) & cktkj ek= vkfFkZd fofue; ds LFkku
gh ugha Fks cfYd ;s lkekftd rFkk vkfFkZd xfrfof/k;ksa ds dsU
Hkh FksA vf/kdka'k cktkjksa esa ,d efLtn rFkk ,d eafnj gksrk
Fkk vkSj muesa ls de ls de dqN esa rks urZdksa] laxhrdkjksa
rFkk xk;dksa ds lkoZtfud izn'kZu ds fy, LFkku Hkh fpfUgr FksA
iz'Uk 5- vy fc:uh }kjk fn, x, mlds rRdkyhu Hkkjr ds fooj.k dks
vius 'kCnksa esa la{ksi esa nhft,A
mRrj& vy&fc:uh }kjk fn, x, Hkkjr ds ckjs esa fooj.k dk lkjka'k
&

54

1- lkekftd fLFkfr & vy cS:uh ds vuqlkj Hkkjrh; lekt tkfr


izFkk ds dM+s ca/kuksa ls tdM+k gqvk FkkA ml le; cky&fookg
vkSj lrh izFkk tSlh dqizFkk,a ekStwn FkhA
2- /kkfeZd fLFkfr & mlds vuqlkj Hkkjr esa ewfrZiwtk
izpfyr FkhA eafnjksa esa cgqr lk /ku tek FkkA lk/kkj.k turk
vusd nsoh&nsorkvksa esa fo'okl j[krh FkhA
3- jktuhfrd n'kk & lkjk ns'k NksVs&NksVs jkT;ksa esa
caVk gqvk FkkA buesa jk"Vh; Hkkouk dh deh Fkh ;s vkil esa
bZ";kZ ds dkj.k lnSo yM+rs jgrs FksA
4- U;k; O;oLFkk & QkStnkjh dkuwu uje FksA czk.kksa
dks e`R;qn.M ugha fn;k tkrk FkkA dsoy ckj&ckj vijk/k djus
okys ds gh gkFk&iSj dkV fn, tkrs FksA
5- Hkkjrh; n'kZu & Hkkjrh; n'kZu ls vyfc:uh cgqr izHkkfor
gqvkA mlus Hkxon~xhrk vkSj mifu"knksa ds ps nk'kZfud
fopkjksa dh eqfDr d.B ls ljkguk dh gSA
6- ,sfrgkfld Kku & Hkkjrh;ksa dks ,sfrgkfld ?kVukvksa dks
frfFk vuqlkj fy[kus ds ckjs esa cgqr de Kku gSA
7- lkekU; LoHkko & Hkkjrh; >wBk vfHkeku djrs gSa rFkk
viuk Kku nwljksa dks nsus ds fy, rS;kj ugha gksrs gSaA fgUnw
55

;g le>rs gSa fd mlds tSlk ns'k ugha gS] muds tSlk lalkj esa
dksbZ /keZ ugha gS muds tSlk fdlh ds ikl Kku ugha gSA

56

Lesson-6
HkfDr vkSj lwQh ijEijk
Bhakti and Sufi Tradition
Q1:-Discuss the ways in which the Alwars, Nayanars and Virashaivas
expressed critiques of the caste systems.
Ans:- Some historians suggest that the Alvars and Nayanars initiated a
movement of protest against the caste system and the dominance of
Brahmanas or at least attempted to reform the system. To some extent this is
corroborated by the fact that bhaktas hailed from diverse social backgrounds
ranging from Brahmanas to artisans and cultivators and even from castes
considered "untouchable".
*

The twelfth century witnessed the emergence of a new movement in

Karnataka, led by a Brahmana named Basavanna (1106-08). His followers


were known as Virashaivas or Lingayats (Wearers of the linga).
*

The Lingayats challenged the idea of caste and the pollution attributed

to certain groups by Brahmanas. They also questioned the theory of rebirth.


These won them followers amongst those who were marginalised within the
Brahmanical social order.
57

The Lingayats also encouraged certain practices disapproved in the

Dharmashastras, such as postpuberty marriage and the remarriage of


widows.
Q2:- Analyse, with illustrations, why bhakti and sufi thinkers adopted a
variety of languages in which to express their opinions.
Ans:- Bhakti thinkers and different languages which were adopted by them
to express their opinion.
(i) Early Bhakti Saints Pali, Prakarat Tamil and Malyalam etc.
languages.
(ii) The Brahmans of South Indian put his views and ideas in Sanskrit
and local languages.
(iii) Kabir's poems have survived in several languages and dialects,
and some are composed the special languages of nirguna poets.
(iv) Baba Guru Nanak, Ravidas etc. composed their hymns in various
languages such as Punjabi and Hindi etc.
(v) Mirabai compose her Bhajans in Rajsthani and Hindi.
(vi) Some saint of Maharastra and Gujarati uses Marathi and Gujarati
language.
According to Sufi thinkers 58

(i) Sufi thinkers also live with peoples. They uses serveral languages.
They uses Hindvi or persian language.
(ii) Baba Farid used local language. Hindvi persian, Panjabi, Urdu and
some other form of languages are also seen.
(iii) A different genre of Sufi poetry was composed in an around the
town of Bijapur, Karnataka. These were short poems in Dakhani (a variant
of Urdu) attributed to Chisthi Sufis who lived in this region during the 17th
and 18th centuries.
(iv) Some Sufi saints give their pledge in Telgu, Malayalam
languages.
Q3:- "Kabir was a famous saint of Bhakti period". Examin that statement.
Ans. Kabir was a famous saint of Bhakti period. That facts is examine by the
following points :
Kabir's Teachings :
(i) Kabir did not accept the caste distinction. He believed that none
could be high or low on the score of caste.
(ii) Kabir was opposed to customs and rituals. He has opposed
worship, roja-namaj, pilgrimage and haj etc.

59

(iii) Kabir believed in the unity of all religions according to him, there
is no distinction between Hindu-Muslim. The destination of both is the same
only the paths are different.
(iv) His teachings openly ridiculed all forms of external worship of
both Brahmanical Hinduism and Islam the pre-eminence of the priestly
classes and the caste system.
(v) Kabir opposed caste distincition, condemned bad company,
stressed upon - meditation and love. He identified the teacher with God.
Q4:- Explain with examples what historians mean by the integration of cults.
Ans:- From tenth to 17th century the most striking religious features is the
increasing visibility of a wide range god and goddes in sculpture as well as
in religious books at one level, this indicates the continued and extended
worship major dieties Vishnu, Shiva and goodness like Durga, Laxmi -

Historians who have tried to understand these developments suggest

that there were at least two processes at work. One was a process of
disseminating Brahmanical ideas.
-

This is examplified by the composition, compilation and preservation

of puranic texts in simple Sanskrit verse, explicity meant to be accessible to


women and Shudras, who were generally excluded from Vedic learning.

60

At the same time there was a second process at work that of the

Brahmanans accepting and reworking the beliefs and practices of these and
other social categories.
Example - Through an instance we can say that a local diety whose
image was and continues to be made of wood by local tribal specialists, was
recognised as a form of Vishnu.
These local deities were often incorporated within the Puranic
framework by providing them with an identity as a wife of the principal
male deities - sometimes they were equated with Lakshmi, the wife of
Vishnu.
iz'u 1- ppkZ dhft, fd vyokj] u;ukj vkSj ohj 'kSoksa us fdl izdkj
tkfr izFkk dh vkykspuk izLrqr dh \
mRrj & dqN bfrgkldkjksa dk ;g ekuuk gS fd vyokj vkSj u;ukj
larksa us tkfr izFkk o czk.kksa dh izHkqrk ds fojks/k esa
vkokt mBkbZA dqN gn rd ;g ckr lR; izrhr gksrh gS D;ksafd
HkfDr lar fofo/k leqnk;ksa ls Fks tSls czk.k] f'kYidkj] fdlku
vkSj dqN rks mu tkfr;ksa ls vk, Fks ftUgsa *vLi`';* ekuk tkrk
FkkA

61

ckjgoha 'krkCnh esa dukZVd esa ,d uohu vkanksyu dk


mn~Hko buds vuq;k;h ohj 'kSo o fyaxk;r fyax /kkj.k djus
okys dgyk,A
vkt Hkh fyaxk;r leqnk; dk bl {ks= esa ego gSA os f'ko
dh vkjk/kuk fyax ds :i esa djrs gSaA bl leqnk; ds iq:"k oke
Lda/k ij pkanh ds ,d fiVkjs esa ,d y?kq fyax dks /kkj.k djrs
gSaA ftUgsa J)k dh n`f"V ls ns[kk tkrk gS muesa taxe
vFkkZr~ ;k;koj fHk{kq 'kkfey gSaA
/keZ'kkL= esa crk, x, Jk) laLdkj dk os ikyu ugha djrs vkSj
vius e`rdksa dks fof/kiwoZd nQukrs gSaA fyaxk;rksa us tkfr
dh vo/kkj.kk vkSj dqN leqnk;ksa ds *nwf"kr* gksus dh
czk.kh; vo/kkj.kk dk fojks/k fd;kAiqutZUe ds fl)kUr ij bUgksus
izuokpd fpUg yxk;kA
iz'Uk 2- mnkgj.k lfgr fo'ys"k.k dhft, fd HkfDr vkSj lwQh
fpardksa us vius fopkjksa dks vfHkO;Dr djus ds fy, fdu
Hkk"kkvksa dk iz;ksx fd;k \
mRrj & HkfDr larksa }kjk fofHkUu Hkk"kkvksa dk iz;ksx &
1

lcls izkjafHkd HkfDr larksa us laLr] ikyh] izkr]

rfey] ey;kye vkfn Hkk"kkvksa dk iz;ksx fd;kA

62

nf{k.k Hkkjr ds czk.kksa us LFkkuh; Hkk"kkvksa

ds lkFk&lkFk laLr esa Hkh vius ms';] fopkj vkSj n'kZu dks
j[kkA
3

e/;dkyhu HkfDr larksa us dchj us in vkSj nksgksa

dk LFkkuh; Hkk"kk vkSj cksfy;ksa esa jpsA


4

ckck xq: ukud nso] jfonkl vkfn us fgUnh vkSj iatkch

Hkk"kkvksa dk iz;ksx fd;kA


5

ehjkckbZ us cztHkk"kk esa] jktLFkku esa vkSj

fgUnh esa in vkSj Hktu xk, vkSj fy[ksA


6

egkjk"V esa dqN larksa us ejkBh vkSj xqtjkr esa

dqN HkDr larksa us xqtjkrh dk iz;ksx fd;kA


lwQh fopkjdksa }kjk &
1

lwQh fopkjd Hkh turk ds e/; jgrs Fks mUgksaus

fofHkUu Hkk"kkvksa dk iz;ksx fd;kA mUgksaus fgUnoh ;k


tulk/kkj.k dks fgUnh ds lkFk&lkFk Qkjlh Hkk"kkvksa dk iz;ksx
fd;kA
2

ckck Qjhn us LFkkuh; Hkk"kk dk iz;ksx fd;kA mudh

Hkk"kk esa fgUnh] Qkjlh] iatkch vkfn dks ns[kk tk ldrk gSA

63

nf{k.k Hkkjr esa tks lwQh lar jgrs Fks mUgksaus

mnwZ Hkk"kk ls feyrh&tqyrh nf{k.kh tu&lk/kkj.k }kjk mi;ksx


esa yh xbZ Hkk"kk esa vius fopkj O;Dr fd,A
4

dUuM+] rsyxw] ey;kye Hkk"kk esa dqN larksa us

dqN mi;ksx fn,] xhr&dfork, vkSj xzaFk fy[ksA


iz'Uk 3- dchj HkfDrdky dk ,d izfl) lUr Fkk bl dFku dh leh{kk
dhft,A
mRrj & dchj HkfDrdky dk ,d izfl) lUr Fkk ftldh leh{kk
fuEufyf[kr fcUnqvksa }kjk dh xbZ Fkh &
dchj dh f'k{kk, &
1 /kkfeZd f'k{kk, & /keZ ds laca/k esa dchj us vR;ar
egoiw.kZ fopkj fn, gSaA mUgksaus fdlh /kkfeZd fo'okl dks
blfy, Lohdkj ugha fd;k fd og /keZ dk vax cu pqdk gS vfirq
va/kfo'oklksa] ozr] czk.kksa ds deZdkaM rFkk rhFkZ vkfn ij
dldj O;aX; fd,A
2

va/kfo'oklksa

va/kfo'oklksa
fgUnw&eqfLye

dk

dk

tksjnkj

nksuksa

?kksj
fojks/k

lEiznk;ksa

fojks/k
fd;kA
ds

&

dchj

us

mUgksaus
va/kfo'oklksa

ewfrZiwtk] uekt] rhFkZ bR;kfn ij dldj O;aX; fd,A


64

3 HkfDrekxZ ds leFkZd & HkfDr Hkkouk dk dchj us


iwjk leFkZu fd;kA mUgksaus fuxqZ.k fujkdkj HkfDr dk ekxZ
viukdj ekuo ds lEeq[k HkfDr dk ekSfyd :i j[kkA
4 leUo;oknh n`f"Vdks.k & dchj us rRdkyhu fgUnw
rFkk bLyke /keks] laLfr;ksa ,oa lH;rkvksa ds la?k"kZ dk
MVdj fojks/k fd;kA
5 x`gLFk thou ds R;kx dk fojks/k & dchj ds
fopkjkuqlkj lkQ thou viukus ds fy, x`gLFkh dk lkekU; thou
R;kxus dh dksbZ vko';drk ughaA fuxqZ.k HkfDr /kkjk dchj igys
lars Fks tks lar gksdj Hkh var rd 'kq) x`gLFk cus jgs ,oa
'kkjhfjd Je dh izfr"Bk dks ekuo dh lQyrkvksa dk vkdkj crk;kA
iz'Uk 4- mnkgj.k lfagr Li"V dhft, fd laiznk; ds leUo; ls bfrgkldkj
D;k vFkZ fudkyrs gSa \
mRrj & bfrgkldkjksa ds vuqlkj laiznk;ksa ds leUo; dk vFkZ &
&

iwtk iz.kkfy;ksa ds leUo; dks gh bfrgkldkj lEiznk; leUo;

ekurs gSaA blds vUrxZr og fofHkUu lEiznk; ds yksxksa ds


fo'oklksa vkSj vkpj.kksa ds feJ.k vkSj muds ihNs Nqis fufgr
leku ms';ksa dks yksxksa ds lkeus j[krs gSaA
&

os /kkfeZd fodkl dh fofHkUu i)fr;ksa vkSj lEiznk;ksa ds

fodkl dks le>us dk iz;kl djrs gSaA mnkgj.k ds fy, os vkBoha

65

'krkCnh ds Hkkjr esa iwtk iz.kkfy;ksa ds laca/k ds ckjs esa


vius fopkj fy[krs gSaA
&

bfrgkldkjksa dk lq>ko gS fd ;gk de ls de nks izf;k,

dk;Zjr FkhA ,d izf;k czk.kh; fopkj/kkjk ds izpkj dh FkhA


bldk izlkj ikSjkf.kd xzaFkksa dh jpuk] ladyu vkSj ifjj{k.k }kjk
gqvkA ;s xzaFk ljy laLr Nanksa esa Fks tks oSfnd fo|k ls
foghu fL=;ksa vkSj 'kwksa }kjk Hkh xzk FksA
&

blh dky dh ,d vU; izf;k Fkh L=h] 'kwksa o vU; lkekftd

oxks dh vkLFkkvksa vkSj vkpj.kksa dks czk.kksa }kjk


Lohr fd;k tkuk vkSj mls ,d u;k :i iznku djukA
mnkgj.k & mM+hlk esa fo".kq ds :i esa txUukFk dh iwtk]
fo".kq dh iRuh ds :i esa y{eh dh iwtkA

Lesson-7
fot; uxj lkezkT;
Vijayanagara Empire
66

Q.1:- Evaluate the importance of Amar Nayaka System in emergence of


Vijayanagara Empire.
Ans. The amara-nayaka system was a major political innovation of the
Vijayanagara Empire. It is likely that many features of this sytem were
derived from the iqta system of the Delhi Sultanate.
There is a important role of this sytem to emerging the Vijayanagara
empire. That shows in the following points :
(i)

The amara-nayakas were military commanders who were given

territories to govern by the raya. The collected taxes and other dues from
peasants.
(ii)

The amar nayak retained part of the revenue for personal use and for

maintaining a stipulated contingent of horses and elephants.


(iii)

These contingents provided the Vijayanagara Kings with an effective

fighting force with which they brought the entire southern peninsula under
their control. Some of the revenue was also used for the maintenance of
temples and irrigation works.
(iv)

The amara-nayakas sent tribute to the King annually and personally

appeared in the royal court with gifts to express their loyalty.


(v)

Kings occasionally asserted their control over them by transferring

them from one place to another.


67

Q2:- What do you think were the advantages and disadvantages of enclosing
agricultural land within the fortified area of the city ?
Ans. There are many advantages and disadvantages of enclosing agricultural
land within the fortified area of the Vijayanagara empire.
1. Abdur Razzaq noted that "between the first, second and third walls
there are cultivated fields, gardens and houses.
2. The detailed statements have been corroborated by present day
archaeologists, who have also found evidence of an agricultural tract
between the sacred centre and the urban core.
3. We knew different sources that in Vijayanagara empire and other
southern kingdom agricultural tracts were incorporated within the fortified
areas. Often, the objective of medieval sieges was to strave the defenders
into submission. These sieges could last four several months and sometimes
even years.
4. Normally rulers tried to be prepared for adverse situations or
natural calamities by building large granaries within fortified areas. The
rulers of Vijayanagara adopted a more expensive and elaborate strategy of
protecting the agricultural belt itself.

68

5. Whenever, Kingdom was attacked by the enemies at the time of


heaping harvest they could easily brunt the dry crops of the farmers. But
these fields was safe in ordinary situation from wild animals.
Q3:- What do you think was the significance of the ritua's associated with
the Mahanavami dibba ?
Ans. The importance of the rituals associated with the Mahanawami dibba.
Located on one of the highest points in the city, the "Mahanawami
dibba" is a massive platform rising from a base of about 11000 sq.ft. to a
height of 40 H.
Rituals associated with the strucutre probably coincided with
Mahanawami (Literally the great ninth day) of the ten-day Hindu festival
during the autumn months of September and October, known variously as
Dushehra (northern India), Durga Puja (in Bengal) and Navaratri or
Mahanawami (in Peninsular India). The Vijayanagara kings displayed their
prestige, power and suzerainty on this occastion.
-

The ceremonies performed on the occasion included worship of the

image, worship of the state hourse, and the sacrifice of buffaloes and other
animals.
-

Dancer, wrestling matches, and processions of caparisoned horses,

elephants and chariots and soldiers, as well as ritual presentations before the
69

king and his guests by the chief nayakas and subordinate kings marked the
occasion.
-

These ceremonies were imbued with deep symbolic meanings on the

last day of the festival the king inspected his army and the armies of the
nayakas in a grand ceremony in an open field. On this occasion the nayakas
brought rich fifts for the king as well as the stipulated tribute.
Q4:- What impression of the lives of the ordinary people of Vijayanagara
can you cull from the various descriptions in Vijayanagara empire.
Ans. Ordinary people of this empire scope different languages and followed
different religious tradition.
-

There were small traders and local merchant use to live in cities, trade

cetnre, port town and villages.


-

Peasants, workers, slaves etc. were including in ordinary people.

These were ordinary Brahmans, trader and women also.


-

The workers were called "Vipravinodin" this class consisted of Iron

smiths, Gold smiths, carpenters, sculpture makers etc.


-

In the society there were a few low class people, who were non-

influential. They were Dombar, Mana, Jogi, Paraiyan, Boi, Kallar etc. Some
low caste people were coverted to christianity due to the influence of the
70

Portugeuses. The evils of caste system and untouchability were practised in


the society.
-

The ordinary people of the Vijayanagar empire lived in ordinary

houses. This is how the sixteenth century portuguese traveller Barbosa


described the houses of ordinary people existed in the society. The men were
sold and purchased. There were some special rules for the slaves.

ikB&7
iz'Uk 1- fot; uxj lkezkT; ds mRFkku esa vejuk;d iz.kkyh ds
ego dk ewY;kadu dhft,A
mRrj & vej uk;d iz.kkyh fot;uxj lkezkT; dh ,d izeq[k jktuhfrd
[kkst FkhA ,slk izrhr gksrk gS fd bl iz.kkyh ds dbZ ro fnYyh
lYrur dh bDrk iz.kkyh ls fy, x, FksA
bl lSfud iz.kkyh dk fot;uxj lkezkT; ds mRFkku esa
egoiw.kZ ;ksxnku Fkk ftldk ewY;kadu fuEufyf[kr fcUnqvksa
esa fn[kk;k x;k gS &

71

vej uk;d lSfud dekaMj Fks ftUgsa jk; }kjk iz'kklu ds

fy, jkT; {ks= fn;s tkrs FksA os fdlkuksa] f'kYidfeZ;ksa rFkk


O;kikfj;ksa ls Hkw&jktLo rFkk vU; dj olwy djrs FksA
2

vej uk;d jktLo dk dqN Hkkx O;fDrxr mi;ksx rFkk ?

kksM+ksa vkSj gkfFk;ksa ds fu/kkZfjr ny ds j[k&j[kko ds fy,


vius ikl j[k ysrs FksA
3

;s ny fot;uxj 'kkldksa dks ,d izHkkoh lSfud 'kfDr

iznku djus esa lgk;d gksrs Fks ftldh enn ls mUgksaus iwjs
nf{k.kh izk;}hi dks vius fu;a=.k esa fd;kA
4

vej uk;d jktk dks o"kZ esa ,d ckj HksaV Hkstk djrs

Fks vkSj viuh LokfeHkfDr izdV djus ds fy, jktdh; njckj esa
migkjksa ds lkFk Lo;a mifLFkr gqvk djrs FksA
5

;s vej uk;d jktk ds fu;a=.k esa jgrs Fks jktk

dHkh&dHkh mUgsa ,d ls nwljs LFkku ij LFkkukarfjr dj mu ij


viuk fu;a=.k n'kkZrs FksA
iz'Uk 2- 'kgj ds fdyscan {ks= esa f"k {ks= dks j[kus ds
vkids fopkj esa D;k Qk;ns vkSj uqdlku Fks \

72

mRrj & fot;uxj 'kgj ds fdyscan {ks= esa f"k {ks= dks
pkjnhokjh ds vanj j[kus ls gekjs fopkj ls vusd ykHk vkSj
gkfu;k FkhA bldk fooj.k bl izdkj gS&
1-

f"k {ks= esa [ksrksa ds vklikl lkekU;r% lk/kkj.k turk

vkSj fdlku jgrs FksA ckxksa vkSj [ksrksa dh j[kokyh djuk vklku
FkkA
2-

izk;% e/;dkyhu ?ksjkcanh dk eq[; ms'; izfri{k dks [kk|

lkexzh ls oafpr dj tYnh ls tYnh vkReleiZ.k gfFk;kj Mkyus ds


fy, ds fy, djuk gksrk FkkA
3-

;q)dky esa 'k=qvksa }kjk ?ksjkcanh dbZ eghuksa rd tkjh

j[kh tkrh Fkh ;gk rd fd o"kks rd py ldrh FkhA vkerkSj ij 'kkld


,slh ifjfLFkfr;ksa ls fuiVus ds fy, fdyscan {ks=ksa ds Hkhrj gh
fo'kky vUuxkjksa dk fuekZ.k djokrs FksA fot;uxj ds 'kkldksa
us iwjs f"k Hkw&Hkkx dks cpkus ds fy, ,d vf/kd egaxh rFkk
O;kid uhfr dks viuk;kA
4-

fdykcan [ksrh ;ksX; Hkwfe dks pkj nhokjh ds vanj j[kus ls

uqdlku ;g Fkk fd izk;% ckgj jgus okys fdlkuksa dks vkus tkus
esa }kjikyksa ls btktr ysuh gksrh FkhA lkFk gh 'k=q }kjk ?
ksjkcanh gksus ij ckgj ls f"k ds fy, vko';d t:jr iM+us ij cht]
moZjd] ;a= vkfn ckgj ds cktkjksa ls ykuk izk;% dfBu FkkA
73

5-

;fn 'k=q i{k ds }kjk dkVh xbZ Qly dks vkx yxkdj tyk fn;k

tkrk rks vkfFkZd gkfu cgqr O;kid gks ldrh FkhA


iz'Uk 3- vkids fopkj esa egkuoeh fMCck ls lac) vuq"Bkuksa dk
D;k ego Fkk \
mRrj & gekjs fopkj esa egkuoeh fMCck ls lac) vuq"Bkuksa dk
O;kid ego FkkA fot;uxj 'kgj ds lcls ps LFkkuksa ij egkuoeh
fMCck uked fo'kky eap gksrk Fkk bldh lajpuk ls tqM+s
vuq"Bku laHkor% flrEcj rFkk vDVwcj ds 'kjn eklksa esa euk,
tkus okys nl fnu ds fgUnw R;kSgkj] ftls n'kgjk mkj Hkkjr]
nqxkZiwtk ia- caxky rFkk uojkf= ;k egkuoeh izk;}hih;
Hkkjr esa ukeksa ls tkuk tkrk gS] ds egkuoeh ds volj ij
fu"ikfnr fd, tkrs FksA bl volj ij fot;uxj 'kkld vius :rcs] rkdr vkSj
vf/kjkT; dk izn'kZu djrs FksA
&

bl volj ij gksus okys /kekZuq"Bkuksa esa ewfrZ dh iwtk]

jkT; ds v'o dh iwtk rFkk HkSalksa vkSj vU; tkuojksa dh cfy


lfEefyr FkhA u`R;] dq'rh izfrLi/kkZ rFkk lkt yxs ?kksM+ksa]
gkfFk;ksa rFkk jFkksa vkSj lSfudksa dh 'kksHkk;k=k vkSj lkFk
gh izeq[k uk;dksa vkSj v/khuLFk jktkvksa }kjk jktk vkSj mlds
vfrfFk;ksa dks nh tkus okyh vkSipkfjd HksaV bl volj ds izeq[k
vkd"kZ.k FksA
74

&

R;kSgkj ds vfUre fnu jktk viuh rFkk vius uk;dksa dh lsuk

dk [kqys eSnku esa vk;ksftr HkO; lekjksg esa fujh{k.k djrk


FkkA bl volj ij uk;d] jktk ds fy, cM+h ek=k esa HksaV rFkk
lkFk gh fu;r dj Hkh ykrs FksA
iz'u 4- fot;uxj lkezkT; ds fofHkUu fooj.kksa ls vki fot;uxj ds
lkekU; yksxksa ds thou dh D;k Nfo ikrs gSa \
mRrj & lkekU; yksxksa ds ckjs esa cgqr T;knk fooj.k izkIr
ugha gksrs D;ksafd lkekU; yksxksa ds vkoklksa] tks vc vfLrRo
esa izkIr ugha gq, gSa &
&

{ks= losZ{k.k bafxr djrs gSa fd bl iwjs {ks= esa cgqr ls

iwtk LFky vkSj NksVs eafnj Fks tks fofo/k izdkj ds laiznk;ksa
ds izpyu dh vksj ladsr djrs gSaA
&

fot;uxj lkezkT; esa lk/kkj.k yksx fofHkUu lEiznk;ksa tSls

fgUnw 'kSo] oS".kksa] tSu] ckS) vkSj bLyke ds vuq;k;h jgrs


FksA og fofHkUu Hkk"kkvksa tSls dUuM+] rfey] rsyxw] laLr
vkfn dk iz;ksx djrs FksA
&

lkekU; yksxksa esa dqN NksVs O;kikjh vkSj dqN lkSnkxj

Hkh Fks tks xkaoksa] dLcksa vkSj NksVs 'kgjksa esa jgrs FksA
75

buesa dqN O;kikjh canjxkg 'kgjksa esa Hkh jgrs FksA LFkkuh;
oLrqvksa tSls elkys] eksrh] panu vkfn ds lkFk&lkFk dqN
O;kikjh ?kksM+s vkSj gkfFk;ksa dk O;kikj Hkh djrs FksA
&

fdlku] Jfed] nkl vkfn dks Hkh lk/kkj.k yksxksa esa 'kkfey

fd;k tk ldrk FkkA lkezkT; esa dqN lkekU; czk.k] O;kikjh vkSj
nkl] nkfl;k Hkh FksA lk/kkj.k yksx f"k dk;ks ds lkFk&lkFk
fofHkUu izdkj ds rFkkdfFkr NksVs le>s tkus okys dk;Z Hkh
fd;k djrs FksA
&

fot; uxj esa Jfedksa dks foizk fouksnf/k;u Hkh dgk tkrk

gSA bl oxZ esa ykSgkj] lqukj] c<+bZ] ewfrZdkj vkfn vkrs


FksA

CHAPTER 8
fdlku] tehnkj vkSj jkT;
d`f"k lekt vkSj eqxy lkezkT;
yxHkx lksygoh vkSj l=goha lnh
rd
PEASANTS, ZAMINDARS AND THE
STATE
Agrarian Society and the Mughal
Empire
76

(C. Sixteenth and Seventeenth


Century)
Q. 01.

Discuss, with examples, the significance of


monetary transactions during the period 16th
and 17th century.

Anns.

The significance of monetary transactions during


sixteenth and seventeenth centuries :
(i)

(ii)

In the early decades of sixteenth century


farmers were allowed to pay land revenue in
cash or kind. Due to the facility to pay land
revenue
in
cash
money,
monetary
transactions played vital role in Indian
economy.
Village artisan (potter, blacksmith, barber,
etc.) use to provide specialized services to
the villagers. Though most common way of
compensating them was giving them a share
of the harvest but their was another system
also under this system artisans and individual
peasants, house hold entered into a mutually
negotiated system of remuneration, most of
the time goods for services. For example,
eighteenth-century
records
tell
us
a
zamindars in Bangal who remunerated
blacksmiths, carpenters, even goldsmiths for
their work by paying them a small daily
allowance and diet money. This later came
to be described as the Jajmani system,
though the term was not in vogue in the
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Such
evidence is interesting because in indicates
the intricate ways in which exahnge networks
operated at the micro-level of the village.
Cash remuneration was not entirely unknown
either.
77

(iii) The seventeenth-century French traveler


Jean-Baptists Tavernier found it remarkable
that in India a village must be very small
indeed if it has not a money changer called a
Shroff. (They) act as bankers to make
remittances of money (and who) enhance the
rupee as they please for paisa and the paisa
for these (cowrie) shells.
(iv) An expanding trade brought in huge amounts
of silver bullion into Asia to pay for good
procured from India, and a large part of that
bullion gravitated towards India. This was
good for India as it did not have natural
resources of silver.
(v) As a result, the period between the sixteenth
and eighteenth centuries was also marked by
a remarkable stability in the availability of
metal currency, particularly the silver rupya
in India.
(vi) This facilitated an unprecedented expansion
of minting of coins and the circulation of
money in the economy as well as the ability
of the Mughal state to extract taxes and
revenue in cash.
(vii) The testimony of an Italian traveler, Giovanni
Careri, who passed throught India c. 1690,
provides a graphic account about the way
silver traveled across the globe to reach
India. It also gives us an idea of the
phenomenal amounts of cash and commodity
transactions in seventeenth-century India.
Q. 02.

To what extent do you think caste was a


factor in influencing social and economic
relations in agrarian society ?

Anns.

Caste as a factor in influencing social and


economic relations in agrarian society.
(i)

Sizeable number of major (labourer). Deep


ineqities on the basis of caste and other caste
78

like distinctions meant that the cultivators


were a highly heterogenous group. Among
those who tilled the land, there was a
sizeable number who worked as menials or
agricultual, labourers (major).
(ii) Despite the abundance of cultivable land,
certain caste groups were assigned menial
taks and thus relegated to poverty. Though
there was no census at that time, the little
data that we have suggest that such groups
comprised a large section of the village
population, had the least resources and were
constrained by their position in the caste
hierarchy, much like the Dalits of modern
India.
Such
distinctions
had
begun
permeating into other communities too.
(iii) Muslim halakhoran etc. : In muslim
communities menials like the halakhoran
(scavengers) were housed outside the
boundaries
of
the
village,
similarly
mallahzadas (literally, sons of boatmen) in
Bihar were comparable to slaves.
(iv) Direct co-relation between caste and
socio economic position : There was a
direct correlation between caste, poverty and
social status at the lower strata of society
such correlations were not so mared at
intermediate levels. In a manual from
seventeenth century Marwar, Rajputs are
mentioned as peasants, sharing the same
space with Jats, who were accorded a lower
status in the caste hierarchy. The Gauravas,
who cultivated land around Vrindavan (Uttar
Prades), sought Rajput status in the
seventeenth century.
(v) Rise in hierarchy of caste : Castes such as
the Ahirs, Gujars and Malis rose in the
hierarchy because of the profitability of cattle
rearing and horticulture. In the eastern
regions, intermediate pastoral and fishing
79

castes like the sadgops and


acquired the status of peasants.

Kaivartas

Q. 03.

Discuss the ways in which panchayats and


village headmen regulated rural society.

Anns.

Regulation of rural society by Panchayats and


headmen :
(i)

Meaning of Panchayat : The village


panchayat was an assembly of elders, usually
important people of the village with
hereditary right over their property.

(ii) General composition and importance of


Panchayat decision : In mixed-caste
villages, the panchayat was usually a
heterogeneous body. An oligarchy, the
panchayat represented various castes and
communities in the village, though the village
menial-cum-agricultural worker was unlikely
to be represented there. The decisions made
by these panchayats were binding on the
members.
(iii) Selection dismissal and main function of
headman or muqaddam : The panchayat
was headed by a headman known as
muqaddam or mandal. Some sources suggest
that the headman was chosen through the
consensus of the village elders, and that this
choice had to be ratified by the zamindar.
Headmen held office as long as they enjoyed
the confidence of the village elders, failing
which they could be dismissed by them. The
chief function of the headman was to
supervise the preparation of village accounts,
assisted by the accountant or patwari of the
panchayat.
80

(iv) Funding of Panchayat or sources of


Income Panchayat. : The panchayat
derived its funds from contributions made by
individuals to a common financial pool.
(v)

Item of expenditure : These funds were


used for defraying the costs of entertaining
revenue officials who visited the village from
time to time. Expenses for community
welfare activities such as tiding over natural
calamities (like floods), were also meet from
these funds. Often these funds were also
deployed in construction of a bund or digging
a canal which peasants usually could not
afford to do on their own.

(vi) Various function of panchayat : One


important functions of the panchayat was to
ensure that caste boundaries among the
various communities inhabiting the village
were upheld. In estern India all marriage were
held in the presence of the mandal. In other
words one of the duties of the village
headman was to oversee the conduct of the
members of the village community chiefly to
prevent any offence against their caste.
(vii) Imposing fines and expulsion from caste
and community : Panchayat also had the
authority to levy fines and inflict more serious
forms of punishment like expulsion from the
community. The later was a drastic step and
was in most cases meted out for a limited
period. It meant that a person forced to leave
the village became an outcaste and lost his
right to practise his profession. Such a
measure was intended as a deterrent to
violation of caste norms.
(viii)
Caste or Jati Panchayat : In addition
to the village panchayat each caste or jati in
81

the village had its own jati panchayat. These


panchayates wielded considerable power in
rural society. In Rajasthan jati panchayats
arbitrated civil disputes between members of
different castes. They mediated in contested
claims on land, decided whether marriages
were performed according to the norms laid
down by a particular caste group, determined
who had ritual precedence in village
functions, and so on. In most cases, except in
matters of criminal justice, the state respect
the decisions of jati panchayats.
(ix) Petitions presented by caste panchayat
and their impact : Archival records from
western
India-notably
Rajasthan
and
Maharashtra-contain petitions presented to
the
panchayat
complaining
about
extortionate taxation or the demand for
unpaid labour (beggar) imposed by the
superior castes or officials of the state.
These petitions were usually made by
villagers, from the lowest rungs of rural
society.
Often
petitions
were
made
collectively as well, by a caste group or a
community protesting against what they
considered
were
morally
illegitimate
demands on the part of elite groups. These
included excessive tax demands which,
especially in times of drought or other
disasters,
endangered
the
peasants
subsistence. In the eys of the petitioners of
right to the basic minimum for survival was
sanctioned by custom. They regarded the
village panchayat as the court of appeal that
would ensure that the state carried out its
moral obligations and guaranteed justice.

82

v/;k; 8
fdlku] tehnkj vkSj jkT;
d`f"k lekt vkSj eqxy lkezkT;
yxHkx lksygoh vkSj l=goha lnh rd
iz'u 1-

fdlku]
tehankj
vkSj
jkT;
(
Peasants,
Zamindars and The States)
d`f"k lekt vkSj eqxy lkezkT; yxHkx 16oha
vkSj 17oha lnh rd

iz-1

fopkjk/khu dky 16oha vkSj 17oha lnh esa


ekSfnzd dkjksckj dh vgfe;r dh foospuk mnkgj.k nsdj
dhft,A
i)

lksygoha 'krkCnh ds izkjaHk esa fdlkuksa dks

udnh vFkok thUl esa Hkw&jktLo vnk djus dh NwV


nh xbZ FkhA fdlkuksa dks udnh esa HkwjktLo
Hkqxrku dh lqfo/kk ds dkj.k ekSfnzd dkjksckj dks
Hkkjrh; voLFkk esa egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk fuokZg djus
dk volj feykA
ii) xzkeh.k f'kYidkj dqEgkj] yksgj] ukbZ] c<+bZ]
lqukj xzkeh.k yksxksa dks fo'ks"k izdkj dh lsok,W
iznku djrs FksA Qly dVus vkSj idus ij izk;% mUgsa
Qly dk ,d fgLlk fn;k tkrk Fkk ysfdu bl O;oLFkk ds
lkFk&lkFk fdlku vkSj f'kYidkj ijLij ysu&nsu ds ckjs
esa vkil 'krsZ r; djds izk;% yksxksa dks udnh esa
Hkqxrku djrs FksA
iii) xkWo esa izk;% LFkkuh; NksVs O;kikjh vkSj ljkQ
ik, tkrs FksA izk;% mUgsa uxnh esa ysu nsu djus
dk vf/kd 'kkSd Fkk iapk;rsa Hkh vijkf/k;ksa ij udn
tqekZus yxkrh FkhA vke ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa 'kgjksa
83

vkSj xkWoksa esa oLrqvksa vkSj lsokvksa dk fofue;


gksrk FkkA
vi) mnkgj.k ds rkSj ij] vBkjgoha lnh ds lzksr crkrs
gS fd caxky esa tehankj mudh lsokvksa ds cnys
yksgkjksa] c<+bZ vkSj lqukjksa rd dks jkst dk
HkRrk vkSj [kkus ds fy, udnh ykrs FksA bl O;oLFkk
dks ttekuh dgrs Fks gkykafd ;g 'kCn lksygoha o
l=goha lnh esa cgqr bLrseky ugha gksrk FkkA ;s
lcwr etsnkj gSa D;ksfd buls irk pyrk gS fd xkWo ds
NksVs Lrj ij Qsj&cny ds fj'rs fdrus isphnk FksA ,slk
ugha gS fd udn vnk;xh dk pyu fcydqy gh unkjn
FkkA
v)

l=goha lnh esa Qzkalhlh ;k=h T;ka cSfIVLV rSofua;j


dks ;g ckr mYys[kuh; yxh fd Hkkjr esa os xkWo cgqr gh
NksVs dgs tk,Wxs ftuesa eqnzk dh Qsj cny djus okys]
ftUgsa ljkQ dgrs gsa] u gksaA ,d cSadj dh rjQ ljkQ gokyk
Hkqxrku djrs gSa vkSj viuh ethZ ds eqrkfcd iSls ds
eqdkcys iSls dhA

iz2

vkids eqrkfcd d`f"k lekt esa lkekftd o vkfFkZd

laca/kksa dks izHkkfor djus esa tkfr fdl gn rd ,d dkjd


Fkh\
mRrj& d`f"k lekt ds fofHkUu laca/kksa dks izHkkfor djus
esa ,d dkjd ds :Ik esa tkfr dh Hkwfedk%&
i) tkfr vkSj tkfr tSls vU; HksnHkkoksa dh otg ls [ksfrgj
fdlku dbZ rjg ds lewgksa esa ckWVs FksA [skrksa dh
tqrkbZ djus okyksa esa ,d cM+h rknkn ,sls yksxksa dh
84

Fkh tks uhp le>s tkus okys dkeksa esa yxs Fks] ;k fQj
[ksrksa esa etnwjh djrs FksA
ii) ;|fi [ksrh yk;d tehu dh deh ugha Fkh] fQj Hkh dqN tkfr
ds yksxksa dks flQZ uhps le>s tkus okys dke gh fn, tkrs
Fksa bl rjg os xjhc jgus ds fy, etcwj FksA tux.kuk rks ml
oDr ugha gksrh Fkh] ij tks FkksM+s cgqr vkWdM+s vkSj
rF; gekjs ikl gSa muls irk pyrk gS fd xkWo dh vkcknh dk
cgqr cM+k fgLlk ,sls gh lewgksa dk Fkk buds ikl lalk/ku
lcls de Fks vkSj tkfr O;oLFkk dh ikcafn;ksa ls cW/ks FksA
budh gkyr dekscs'k oSlh gh Fkh tSlh fd vk/kqfud Hkkjr
esa nfyrksa dhA
iii) nwljs laiznk;ksa esa Hkh ,sls HksnHkko QSyus yxs
FksA eqlyeku leqnk;ksa esa gyky[kksjku tSls uhp dkeksa
ls tqM+s lewg xkWo dh gnksa ds ckgj gh jg ldrs Fks blh
rjg fcgkj esa eYykgtk+nkvksa 'kkfCnd vFkZ] ukfodksa
ds iq=] dh rqyuk nklks ls dh tk ldrh FkhA
iv) lekt ds fupys rCkds esa tkfr] xjhch vkSj lkekftd gSfl;r
ds chp lh/kk fj'rk Fkk A ,slk chp ds lewgksa esa ugha
FkkA l=goha lnh esa ekjokM+ esa fy[kh xbZ ,d fdrkc
jktiwrksa dh ppkZ fdlkuksa ds :Ik esa djrh gSA bl fdrkc
ds eqrkfcd tkV Hkh fdlku Fks ysfdu tkfr O;oLFkk esa
mudh txg jktiwrksa ds eqdkcys uhph FkhA
v)

l=goha lnh esa jktiwr gksus dk nkok o`ankou


mRrj izns'k ds bykds esa xkSjo leqnk; us Hkh
fd;k] ckotwn blds fd os tehu dh tqrkbZ ds dke
esa yxs FksA Ik'kqikyu vkSj ckxckuh esa c<+rs
equkQs dh otg ls vghj] xwTtj vkSj ekyh tSlh
85

tkfr;kW lkekftd tkfr;kW] tSls lnxksi o dSorZ Hkh


fdlkuksa dh lh lkekftd fLFkfr ikus yxhaA
iz3 iapk;r vkSj xkWo dk eqf[k;k fdl rjg ls xzkeh.k lekt
dk fu;eu djrs Fks\ foospuk dhft;sA
mRrj& xzkeh.k lekt dk iapk;r vkSj eqf[k;k }kjk fuxeu %
i) iapk;r % xkWo dh iapk;r esa cqtqxksaZ dk tekoM+k
gksrk FkkA vkerkSj ij os xkWo ds egRoiw.kZ yksx gqvk
djrs Fks ftuds ikl viuh laifRr ds iq'rSuh vf/kdkj gksrs FksA
ftu xkWoksa esa dbZ tkfr;ksa ds yksx jgrs Fks ogkW vdlj
iapk;r esa Hkh fofo/krk ikbZ tkrh FkhA
ii) vYira=% ;g ,d ,slk vYira= Fkk ftlea xkWo ds vyx&vyx
laiznk;ksa vkSj tkfr;ksa dh uqekbanxh gksrh FkhA fQj
Hkh bldh laHkkouk de gh gS fd NksVs& eksVs vkSj uhp
dke djus okys [ksfrgj etnwjksa ds fy, blesa dksbZ txg
gksrh gksxhA iapk;r dk QSlyk xkWo esa lcdksa ekuuk
iM+rk FkkA
iii) eqf[k;k ;k eqdn~ne % iapk;r dk ljnkj ,d eqf[k;k gksrk
Fkk ftls eqdn~ne ;k eaMy dgrs FksA dqN lzksrks ls ,slk
yxrk gS fd eqf[k;k dk pquko ds ckn mUgsa bldh eatwjh
tehankj ls ysuh iM+rh FkhA
iv) dk;Zdky% eqf[k;k vius vksgns ij rHkh rd cuk jgrk Fkk
tc rd xkWo ds cqtqxksZa dks ml ij Hkjkslk FkkA ,slk ugha
gksus ij cqtqxZ mls c[kkZLr dj ldrs FksA xkWo ds vkenuh
o [kpsZ dk fglkc&fdrkc viuh fuxjkuh esa cuokuk eqf[k;k
dk eq[; dke Fkk vkSj blesa iapk;r dk iVokjh mldh enn
djrk FkkA
86

v) [kpkZ O;; % iapk;r dk [kpkZ ml vke [ktkus ls pyrk


Fkk ftlesa gj O;fDr viuk ;ksxnku nsrk FkkA bl [ktkus ls
muds vf/kdkfj;ksa dh [kkfrjnkjh dk [kpkZ Hkh fd;k tkrk
Fkk tks le;&le; ij xkWo dk nkSjk fd;k djrs FksA nwljh vksj]
bl dks"k dk bLrseky ck<+ tSlh izkd`frd foinkvksa ls
fuiVus ds fy, Hkh gksrk Fkk vkSj ,sls tSls fd feV~Vh ds
NksVs&eksVs ckW/k cukuk ;k ugj [kksnukA
vi) dk;Z rFkk mRrjnkf;Ro % iapk;r dk ,d cM+k dke ;g
rlYyh djuk Fkk fd xkWo esa jgus okys vyx&vyx leqnk;ksa
ds yksx viuh tkfr dh gnksa ds vanj jgsaA iwohZ Hkkjr
esa lHkh 'kkfn;kW eaMy dh ekStwnxh esa gksrh
FkhaA ;wW dgk tk ldrk gS fd tkfr dh vogsyuk jksdus ds
fy, yksxksa ds vkpj.k ij utj j[kuk xkWo ds eqf[k;k dh
ftEesnkjh esa ls ,d FkkA
vii) vk; ds lzksr% iapk;rksa dks tqekZuk yxkus vkSj
leqnk; ls fu"dkflr djus tSls T;knk xaHkhj naM nsus ds
vf/kdkj FksA leqnk; ls ckgj fudkyuk ,d dM+k dne Fkk
tks ,d lhfer le; ds fy, ykxw fd;k tkrk FkkA blds rgr nafMr
O;fDr dks fn, gq, le; ds fy, xkWo NksM+uk iM+rk
FkkA bl nkSjku og viuh tkfr vkSj is'ks ls gkFk /kks cSBrk
FkkA ,slh uhfr;ksa dk edln tkfrxr fjoktksa dh vogsyuk
jksduk FkkA
viii) tkfrxr iapk;rsa % xzke iapk;r ds vykok xkWo esa gj
tkfr dh viuh iapk;r gksrh FkhA lekt esa ;s iapk;rsa
vyx&vyx

tkfr;ksa

ds

yksxksa

ds

chp

nhokuh

ds

>xM+ksa dk fuiVkjk djrh Fkha A os tehu ls tqM+s


nkosnkfj;ksa ds >xM+s lqy>krh Fkh] ;g r; djrh Fkha fd
87

'kkfn;kWa tkfrxr ekunaMksa ds eqrkfcd gks jgh gSa ;k


ugha vkSj ;g Hkh fd xkWo ds vk;kstu esa fdldks fdlds ij
rjthg nh tk,xhA deZdkaMh; opZLo fdl e esa gksxkA
QkStnkjh U;k; dks NksM+ ns rks T;knkrj ekeyksa esa
jkT; tkfr iapk;r ds QSlyksa dks ekurk FkkA
HOTS
vH;kl ds fy, izu
(Exercise for Practice)
iz'u 1-

eqxydky ds v/;;u ds L=ksr ds :i esa


^vkbu&,&vdcjh* ds fdUgha rhu lkDr rFkk
nks detksj igyqvksa dh foospuk dhft,A

Q.1.

Describe any three strengths and two


limitations of the Ain-i-Akbari as an
important documents in the study of the
mugal period.

iz'u 2-

eqxy dky esa d`f"k lEcU/kksa esa tehankj


dsUnz fcUnq D;ksa Fks\ O;k[;k dhft,A

Q.1.

Explain why the Zamindars were central to


the agrarian relation in the Mugal period.

CHAPTER-9
Kings and Chronicles
Ques. 1 Evaluate the concerns that shaped Mughal Policies and attitudes
towards Regions outside the sub continents?
The special attention was started on the North West Frontier areas from the
period of Akbar. The Political and diplomatic relations between the Mughal
Kings and the neighboring countries of Iran and Turan hinged on the control
88

of the frontier defined by the Hindu Kush Mountains that separated


Afghanistan from the regions of Iran and Central Asia.
A constant Aim of Mughal Policy was to check/ prevent outside Potential
danger by controlling strategic out posts- notably Kabul and Qandhar.
The relationship between the Mughals and ottomans was marked by
the concern to ensure free movement for traders and pilgrims in the
territories under ottoman control, where the important pilgrim centres of
Mecca and Madina were located.
Qandhar was a bone of contention between safavids and the Mughals,
the fortress town has initially been in the possession of Humayun
reconquered in 1595 by Akbar, in 1622 A Persian army besieged Qandhar.
The ill prepared Mughal army was defeated and had to surrender the fortress
and the city to the safavids.
The Mughal Emperor usually combined Religion and commerce by
exporting valuable merchandise to Aden and Mokha, Both red seaports and
distributing the proceeds of the sales in charity to the keepers of shrines and
religious men there.
On the basis of above mentioned causes we can say that Mughal
emperors were very much vigilant especially to the North West frontier
areas. Strong efforts had been made to control these areas upto the period of
Sharjahan but later his successors did not pay any attention on such
important areas and this resulted invasion of Nadir Shah and Ahmad shah
Abdali.
Ques No.2 Sher Shah Suri was the forerunner of Akbar Prove this
Statement by giving reasonable arguments.

89

Answer

Shershah Suri was the great Emperor of the Medieval Era. His

works and successes of Shershah Suri were so great that these became ideal
for the forthcoming Rulers.
Shershah was a hard working and disciplined personality. He was in
favour of equal law for each and everybody and he considered Judgment as
most holy religious work.
Keeping in view, the general welfare of the people and for the
effectiveness of empire, he divided his empire into Sarkars and the sarkar
into Parganas.
The biggest gift of Sher Shah Suri to Akbar is in the area of land
management. He divided the land and the land revenue according to the
produce of the land.
Sher Shah Suri got shady trees planted along the road sides for
convenience of the general public.
For the encouragement of the traders and convenience of general
people. He introduced Gold, Silver, and copper coins and a certain amount
of metal was kept in the coins.
Shershah was the first emperor who adopted religious liberty and
equal behavior. He separated politics to the religion.
He recruited a vast central permanent army. HE gave cash
payment to the Army, horse branded, getting the description rolls of the
soldiers recorded and their recruitment and inspection of the troop from time
to time.
He opened hospitals for the poor. He also encouraged the expansion of
Education.
He was very much interested in the construction of the buildings. The
tomb of Sahsram is an important construction which is a symbol of
coordination of Mohamadden and local architectural styles.
90

By the micro analysis of the above mentioned works/ reforms of the


Shershah. It becomes clear that Akbar adopted many works/ reforms of the
Shershah as it is or by some modifications. Therefore

Shershah can be

called as the forerunner of Akbar.


Ques No.3 What is Mansabdari system? Evaluate the merits and
demerits of this System.
Answer The word mansab is derived from an Arabic word which
means Fixing the place or rank. The mansabdars were the holders of Ranks
in the emperors service. Every Commander to Public servant was given a
rank of mansab. Each mansabdar was required to maintain a number of
soldiers.
All officers holding a mansab of 5000 or less were divided into three
classes.
i.

If the zat and sawar figures were equal, the officers belonged
to the first class.

ii.

If the sawar figure was more than half of the zat figure, he
belonged to the second class.

iii.

If the sawar figure was less than half of the zat figure, he was
put in the third class.

The mansabdars were directly recruited, promoted, suspended and


dismissed by the emperor. Unlike the Jagirdari system, the mansabdari
system was not hereditary. The mansabdars could be transferred by
the emperor upon his sweet will. The mansabdari troops were
recruited by the mansabdar himself. The king however, laid down
general rules for recruitment, maintenance and payment of troops.
The mansabdars were highly paid. Akbar preferred to pay them
salaries in cash. After the death of mansabdar his immovable property
91

was taken by the king. Mansabdar had to maintain the record of


soldiers and horses so that these may come in the use of the king
while required. That is why this system could become the main base
of the power of Mughal Empire. Mansabdars also created situations
for the development of literature. Folk Art and Paintings were also
flourished under the guidance of these mansabdars. There was very
much dissimilarity in the salaries and allowances of the army
regiments of the mansabdars. The soldiers of mansabdars were not
responsible to the centre. Generally such kind of army used to obey
the mansabdar not the army commander.
By evaluating above mentioned merits and demerits, it becomes clear
that during the powerful kings this system contributed in the
expansion and consolidation of the empire but during the weak
successors mansabdars started to be out of control to the king and
became an important cause in time decline of Mughal Empire.

v/;k; 9
'kkld vkSj fofHkUu bfro`Rr
izu l-1 mu eqn~nks dk ewY;kdu dhft, ftUgkus Hkkjrh;
miegk}hi ls ckgj {ks=ks ds izfr eqxy uhfr;ks o fopkjks dks
vkdkj fn;kA

92

mRrj& vdcj ds 'kkludky ls gh lkefjd egRo ds {ks=ksa ij foks"k


fuxjkuh j[kh tkus yxh Fkh vr% eqxy jktkvksa rFkk bZjku o
rwjku ds iMkslh nskks ds jktuhfrd] jktuf;d fjrs vQxkfuLrku
dks bZjku o e/; ,fk;k ds {ks=ks ls i`Fkd djus okys fgUnqdqk
ioZrks }kjk fu/kkZfjr lhek ds fu;U=.k ij fuHkZj djrs FksA
eqxyuhfr dk ,d izeq[k mn~ns;] dkcqy ,oa dU/kkj ij
fu;U=.k j[kdj ckgjh jktuSfrd [krjksa dk Hkkjr esa izosk jksduk
FkkA
vkWVkseu lkezkT; ds lkFk eqxyksa us vius lEcU/k bl
izdkj cuk;s fd os vkWVkseu fu;U=.k okys {ks=ksa esa
O;kikfj;ksa vkSj rhFkZ;kf=;ks ds LorU= vkokxeu dks cjdjkj
j[kok lds tgkW eDdk ,oa enhuk ds egRo&iw.kZ rhFkZLFky
fLFkr FksA
dU/kkj lQkfc;ksa vkSj eqxyks ds chp >xMs+ dh tM+
FkkA ;g fdyk uxj vkjaHk esa gqek;Ww ds vf/kdkj esa Fkk ftls
1595 bZ- esa vdcj }kjk iqu% thr fy;k x;kA 1622 bZ- esa ,d
Qkjlh lsuk us |sjk Mky fn;k eqxy lsuk dks iwjh rjg rS;kj u gksus
ds dkj.k ijkftr gksuk iM+k vkSj mls fdyk rFkk uxj lQkfc;ks dks
lkSius iMsA
vkWVkseu jkT; ds lkFk vius lEcU/kksa es eqxycknkkg
vke rkSj ij /keZ vkSj okf.kT; ds eqn~nksa dks feykus dh
dksfkk djrk Fkk og yky lkxj ds cUnjxkg vnu vkSj vks[kk dks
cgqewY; oLrqvksa ds fu;kZr dks izksRlkgu nsrk Fkk vkSj budh
fcdzh ls vftZr vk; dks ml bykds ds /keZ&LFkyks o Qdhjksa esa
nku esa ckWV nsrk FkkA
mi;qZDr dkj.kks ds vk/kkj ij ge dg ldrs gS fd 'kq:okrh
eqxy lezkV m-i- lhek izkUr ds izfr vR;f/kd lrdZ FksA'kkgtgkW
93

ds 'kkludky rd ml {ks= ij fu;U=.k ds dkQh lkDr iz;kl fd;s x;s


ijUrq ijorhZ 'kkldks ds }kjk bl {ks= ds izfr mnklhurk us gh
ukfnjkkg vkSj vgen 'kkg vCnkyh ds vkdze.k lqfufpr dj fn;sA
izu la- 2& ksjkkg vdcj dk vxz.kh FkkAmfpr rdksZ dh lgk;rk
ls bl dFku dh iqf"V dhft,A
mRrj 'ksjkkg lwjh e/;;qxhu Hkkjr dk ,d egku 'kkld Fkk ml dh
lQyrk,a vkSj dk;Z brus egku Fks fd os mlds ijorhZ 'kkldks ds
fy, vknkZ cu x,A
'ksjkkg ,d dBksj ifjJeh]deZkhy vkSj vuqkklufiz; O;fDr
FkkAog leku U;k; dk i{kikrh Fkk vkSj U;k; dks 'kklu dk ifo= ?
kkfeZd drZO; ekurk FkkA
'ksjkkg us vius lkezkT; dks izkklu dh lqfo/kk ds fy;s rFkk
mles dk;Zdqkyrk ykus ds fy, jkT; dks ljdkj rFkk ljdkj dks
ijxuk esa ckWVk gqvk FkkA
'ksjkkg dh vdcj dh lcls cM+h nsu Hkwfe izcU/k ds {ks=
es gSAlkjh Hkwfe dh uki djokdj Hkwfe dj fu;r dj fn;kAyksxks
dh lqfo?kk gsrq lMdks ds fdukjs Nk;knkj o`{k yxok;sA
O;kikj dks izksRlkgu nsus ds fy, rFkk xjhc turk ds vkjke
dks /;ku esa j[krs gq;s 'ksjkkg us vusd NksVs&cMs lksus]
pkWnh rFkk rkWcs ds flDds pyk;s Fks mu flDdks esa ,d
fufpr /kkrq vuqikr Hkh j[kk FkkA
'ksjkkg igyk lezkV Fkk ftlus /kkfeZd mnkjrk rFkk leku
O;ogkj dh uhfr dks viuk;kA mlus /keZ dks jktuhfr ls vyx j[kkA
'ksjkkg us fokky dsUnzh; LFkk;h+ lsuk dk fuekZ.k
fd;kAlsuk dks udn osru] |ksMksa dks nkx yxokuk]lSfudks ds
izfk{k.k vkSj fujh{k.k uhfr;ks ij foks"k cy fn;kA

94

'ksjkkg us fu/kZuks ds fy, fu%kqYd Hkkstuky; vkSj


vLirky [kksys FksAmlus fk{kk ds izlkj dks Hkh c<+kok fn;kA
'ksjkkg us Hkou fuekZ.k esa cgqr :fp yhAfogkj esa lgljke
esa cuok;k x;k mldk edcjk mldh Hkou fuekZ.k dyk dk LFkkuh;
rFkk eqfLye 'kSfy;ks es leUo; dk izfrd gSA
'ksjkkg ds mi;qZDr dk;ksZ dk lw{e foys"k.k djus ij ;g Li"V
gksrk gS fd mlds vkxkeh eqxykkld vdcj us bUgh
dk;ksZ@lq/kkjksa dks ;Fkkor ;k FkksMs cgqr lakks/ku ds lkFk
ykxw fd;k gSA vr% 'ksjkkg dks vdcj dk vxz.kh ekuk tk ldrk
gSA
iz'u la- 3 eulcnkjh O;oLFkk D;k gS\ blds xq.k vkSj nks"kks dk
ewY;kdu dhft,A
mRrj&

'kCn eulc vjch Hkk"kk ls fy;k x;k gS ftldk vFkZ gS

LFkku ;k inAeqxy O;oLFkk es eulc ljdkjh vf/kdkjh dk og in Fkk


tks vf/kdkjh oxZ esa mldk ntkZ] mldk osru vkSj njckj es mldk
LFkku fufpr djrk FkkA ;g ml vf/kdkjh }kjk j[ks x, lSfudks]
gkfFk;ksa] |qMlokjks ] gdMks vkfn dh la[;kW ds okjs es Hkh
tkudkjh nsrk FkkA
5000 ;k blls de ds eulcnkjks dks rhu Jsf.k;ks es foHkDr
fd;k x;k Fkk%
1- ;fn fdlh eulcnkj ds tkr vkSj lokj in leku gksrs Fks rks mls
izFke Js.kh dk eulcnkj dgk tkrk FkkA 2- ftl eulcnkj dk lokj in tkr
in ls vk/kk ;k mlls vf/kd gksrk mls nwljh Js.kh dk eulcnkj dgk
tkrk Fkk 3- ftl eulcnkj dk lokj in mlds tkr in ds vk/ks ls de
gksrk og r`rh; Js.kh dk eulcnkj dgykrk FkkA
lezkV Lo;a eulcnkj fu;qDr djrk Fkk rFkk ogh mldks Wpk
ntkZ ns ldrk Fkk ;k inP;qr dj ldrk FkkA
95

tkxhjnkjh izFkk dh HkkWfr eulcnkjh izFkk oakkuqxr ugh


FkhA lezkV viuh bPNk ls eulcnkj dks LFkkukUrfjr dj ldrk
FkkAeulcnkj viuh lsuk esa HkrhZ Loe djrk Fkk ijUrq lezkV
eulcnkjks dh lsuk dks HkrhZ djus o mudks izfk{k.k rFkk osru
nsus ds fu;e Lo;a cukrk FkkA eulonkjksa dks aps osru fn,
tkrs FksA vdcj budks osru udn nsuk ilUn djrk FkkAeulonkjks
dh e`R;w ds i'pkr mldh vpy lEifRr dks tCr dj fy;k tkrk Fkk
muds fy, vius |ksMks dks nkxuk vius lSfudks ds gqfy;s ntZ
djuk vfuok;Z Fkk rkfd og fufpr la[;k es lezkV dh lgk;rk ds fy,
iSny lSfud vkSj |ksMs rS;kj j[ks blh dkj.k ;g eqxy lkezkT; dh
'kfDr dk izeq[k vk/kkj cu ldhA eulonkjks us lkfgR; ds fodkl ds
fy, ifjfLFkfr;kW mRiUu dh ,oa bUgh ds laj{k.k es yksddyk;sa o
yksd fp=dkfjrk Qyh QwyhA
vdcj ds 'kkludky es eulcnkjkas dh lSU; VqdfM;ks esa
osru o HkRrs dh n`f"V ls vlekurk FkhAeulonkjksa dh lsuk
dsUnz ds izfr mRrjnk;h ugh Fkh lkekU;r% bl idzkj dh lsuk
lSfud dek.Mj dh ckr u ekudj eulonkj ds vuq:i dk;Z djrs FksA
mi;qZDr iz.kkyh ds xq.k nks"kksa dk ewY;kdau djus ij
Li"V gksrk gS fd 'kfDr 'kkyh 'kkldks ds nkSjku rks bl iz.kkyh us
lkezkT; ds lqn`<hdj.k esa ;ksxnku fn;k ysfdu tc ijorhZ 'kkld
detksj gksus yxs rks eulonkj mPN`a[ky gksus yxs vkSj ;g
O;oLFkk eqxy lkezkT; ds iru dk ,d dkj.k cuhA

96

CHAPTER-10
mifuoskokn vkSj nsgkr
ljdkjh vfHkys[kksa dk v/;;u
COLONIALISM AND THE
COUNTRYSIDE
Exploring Official Archives
Q. 01.

What are the problems of using official


sources in wirting about the history of
peasants.

Anns.

Following are the problems in using official sources


in working about the history of peasants :
(i)

There are official sources and reflect only


British official concerns and interpretation of
all events from the outlook and angles of the
English. For example, the Deccan riots
commission was specifically asked to judge
whether the level of Government revenue
demand of the cause of the revolt.
(ii) Most of the events, revolts and happening
have been presented in a biosed manner. The
colonial Government and official had their
own political, economic, religious, cultural
and social interest. The had always tried to
present picture of Indian Society people
tradition culture and even the achievements.
(iii) The sources have been presented and
recorded by such clever and naughty people
who have intentially presented things with
falls evidences also. For example, the Deccan
Riot Commission alter presenting all the
97

findings with such evidences which was


utilize to give authencity to the report of the
commission. The commission has presented
this fabricated fact the Government demand
was not the cause the peasants angles. It
was the moneylenders (again Indian) who
were to blames such argument is found very
frequently in British colonial records. This
shows that there was a persistent on the part
of the colonial government to admit that
popular discontent was ever on account of
Government action.
(iv) Official reports, thus are invaluable sources
for the reconstruction of history. But they
have to be always read the case and just
opposed
with
evidence
called
from
newspapers, unofficial accounts, legal records
and, where possible, oral sources.

Q. 02.

What steps taken by the British East India


Company to control the Zamindars ?

Anns.

The British East India Company took the following


steps mainly to maintain its control over the
Zamindars.
(i)

(ii)

The zamindars troops were disband,


customs,
duties
abolished,
and
their
cutcheries (Courts) brought under the
supervision of collector appointed by the
company.
The power to deliver local judgement was
also taken away from zamindars. In fact
zamindars hold their control and leadership
through local caste and other panchayats.
They lost their power to organize local police.
Over time the collectorate emerged as an
altenative centre of authority, severely
restricting what the zamindar could do.
98

(iii) In case a Raja (powerful zamindars) failed to


pay the land revenue, a Company official was
speedly dispatched to his zamindari which
explicit instruction to take charge of the
District and to use the most effectual means
to destroy all the influence and the authority
of the zamindar and his officers.
(iv) Some of the scholars believe that some
trouble creaters were also used as tools to
reduce the influence of Rajahs. For example,
when the zamindar despactched their amlah
(collector of revenue or representative of
zamindar). Some naughty people use to
create problem for zamindars. Some ryots
deliberately delayed payment. Rich ryots and
village headmen jotedars and mandals-were
only too happy to see the Zamindar in
trouble. The zamindar could therefore not
easily arrest his power over them.

Q. 03.

Why was the jotendars a powerful figure in


many areas of rural Bengal ?

Anns.

The jotedars a power figure in many areas of rural


Bengal become while several Zamindars were
facing a crisis at the end of the 18 th century, a
group of rich peasants were consolidating their
position in the villages. For example, in rural area
of North Bengal we get reference about a rich
class of peasent they were known as jotedars.
Causes :
(i)

by the early nineteenth century, jotedars had


acquired vast areas of land-sometimes as
much as several thousand areas.

99

(ii)

They controlled local trade as well as


moneylending, exercising immense power
over the poorer cultivators of the region
(iii) A large part of their land was cultivated
through
share
croppers
(adhiyars
or
bargadars) who brought their own plough,
loboured in the field, and handed over half
the produce to the jotedars after the harvest.
(iv) Within the villages, the power of jotedars was
more effective than that of zamindars. Unlike
zamindars who often lived in urban areas,
jotedars were located in the villages and
exercised direct control over a considerable
section of poor villagers.
(v) Jotedars fiercely resisted efforts by zamindars
to increase the jama of the village, prevented
zamindari officials from executing their
duties, mobilized ryots who were dependent
on them, and deliberately delayed payment
of revenue to the zamindars. In fact, when
the estate of the zamindars were auctioned
for failure to make revenue payment, jotedars
were often amongst the purchasers.

v/;k; 10
izu 01- fdlkuksa dk bfrgkl fy[kus esa ljdkjh L=ksrksa
ds mi;ksx ds ckjs esa D;k leL;k, vkrh gSa \
mkj % fdlkuksa laca/kh bfrgkl fy[kus esa ljdkjh
Jksrksa ds mi;ksx ds nkSjku vkus okyh leL;k,
(Problems during the use of Government
sources to write history of farmers)
1- fdlkuksa ls lEcfU/kr bfrgkl fy[kus ds dbZ L=ksr
gSa ftuesa ljdkj }kjk j[ks x, jktLo vfHkys[k] ljdkj }
kjk fu;qDr losZ{k.kdrkZvksa ds }kjk nh xbZ
fjiksVksZ o if=dk,sa ftUgsa ge ljdkj dh i{k/kj dg ldrs
gSa] ljdkj }kjk fu;qDr tkap vk;ksx dh fjiksVZ vFkok
100

ljdkj ds fgr esa iwokZxzg ;k lksp j[kus okys


vaxszt ;kf=;ksa ds fooj.k vkSj fjiksVZ vkfn 'kkfey
gSA
2- ,sls ,sfrgkfld L=ksrksa ij n`f"Vikr djrs le; gesa
;g ;kn j[kuk gksxk fd ;s ljdkjh L=ksr gSa vkSj os ?
kVukvksa ds ckjs esa ljdkjh ljksdkj vkSj vFkZ
izfrfcafcr djrs gSaA
mnkgj.kkFkZ % v nDdu naxk vk;ksx ls
foks"k :i ls ;g tkap djus ds fy, dgk x;k Fkk fd D;k
ljdkjh jktLo dh ekax dk Lrj fonzksg dk dkj.k FkkA
lEiw.kZ lk{; izLrqr djus ds ckn vk;ksx us ;g lwfpr
fd;k Fkk fd ekax fdlkuksa ds xqLls dh otg ugha
FkhA
c fjiksVZ dk eq[; lkj ,oa nks"k (Main Gist
and Defect of the Report) % blesa lkjk nks"k
_.knkrkvksa ;k lkgwdkjksa dk gh Fkk blls ;g ckr Li"V
gksrh gs fd vkSifuosfkd ljdkj ;g ekuus dks dHkh
Hkh rS;kj ugha Fkh fd turk esa vlarks"k ;k jks"k
dHkh ljdkjh dk;Zokgh ds dkj.k Hkh mRiUu gqvk
FkkA
l ljdkjh L=ksrksa dk ego ,oa lko/kkfu;k
(Importance of Government sources and
precautions) % ljdkjh fjiksVZ bfrgkl ds iqufuekZ.k
ds fy, cgqewY; L=ksr fl) gksrh gS ysfdu mUgsa
geskk lko/kkuhiwoZd i<+k tkuk pkfg, vkSj lekpkj
i=ksa] xsj&ljdkjh o`kkarksa] oSf/kd vfHkys[kksa
vkSj ;FkklaHko ekSf[kd L=ksrksa ls ladfyr lk{; ds
lkFk mudk feyku djds mudh fooluh;rk dh tkap dh
tkuh pkfg,A
izu 02- bZLV bf.M;k dEiuh us tehankjksa ij viuk
fu;a=.k c<+kus gsrq D;k&D;k dne mBk, \
mkj % bZLV bf.M;k dEiuh us tehankjksa ij viuk fu;a=.k
c<+kus gsrq fuEu dne mBk,&
vtehankjksa dh lSU; VqdfM+;ksa dks Hkax dj
fn;k x;kA
101

clhek 'kqYd lekIr dj fn;k x;k kvSj mudh


O;ogkfj;ksa dks dEiuh }kjk fu;qDr dysDVj dh
ns[kjs[k esa j[k fn;k x;kA
l tehankjksa ls LFkkuh; U;k; vkSj LFkkuh; iqfyl
dh O;oLFkk djus dh 'kfDr Nhu yh xbZA
n
le; ds lkFk&lkFk] dysDVj dk dk;kZy; lkk
ds ,d fodYih dsUnz ds :i ls mHkj vk;k vkSj
tehankj ds vf/kdkj dks iwjh rjg lhfer ,oa
izfrcaf/kr dj fn;k x;kA
izu 03- xzkeh.k caxky ds cgqr ls bykdksa esa
tksrnkj ,d rkdroj gLrh D;ksa Fks\
mkj % xzkeh.k caxky ds cgqr ls bykdksa esa tksrnkj ,d
rkdrokj gLrh blfy, Fks] D;ksafd %
v18oha 'krkCnh ds var esa tgk ,d vkSj dbZ
tehankj vkfFkZd n`f"V ls ladV dh fLFkfr ls xqtj
jgs Fks ogha tksrnkj /kuh fdlkuksa ds :i esa
vusd xkoksa esa viuh fLFkfr etcwr fd, gq,
FksA
c19oha 'krkCnh ds 'kq: ds o"kks ds vkrs&vkrs
bu tksrnkjksa us tehu ds cM+s&cM+s
Hkw&[kaMksa ij tks dHkh&dHkh dbZ gtkj
,dM+ esa QSys Fks izkIr dj fy, FksA
l LFkkuh; O;kikj vkSj lkgwdkj ds dkjksckj ij Hkh
bu tksrnkjksa dk fu;a=.k Fkk vkSj bl rjg ds
vusd {ks=ksa ds xjhc dkrdkjksa (Tillers of
the land) ij O;kid 'kfDr dk iz;ksx fd;k djrs FksA
n
izk;% ;s tksrnkj viuh tehu dk cgqr cM+k
Hkkx cVkbZnkjksa ds ek/;e ls tqrokrs FksA ;s
cVkbZnkj ,d rjg ls tksrnkjksa ds v/khu gksrs
FksA cVkbZnkj muds [ksrksa ij esgur djrs
FksA vius gy vkSj cSy vkfn ykrs Fks vkSj Qly
ds ckn dqy iSnkokj dk vk/kkj Hkkx tksrnkjksa
dks ns nsrs FksA
; dbZ xkoksa esa tksrnkjksa dh rkdr
tehankjksa dh rkdr dh rqyuk esa vf/kd
izHkkokkyh gksrh FkhA ;s tksrnkj tehankjksa
dh rjg tehuksa ls nwj 'kgjksa esa ugha cfYd
xko esa jgrs Fks vkSj bl rjg xkoksa ds xjhc
102

xzkeh.kksa ds dkQh cM+s oxZ ij lh/kk fu;a=.k


djrs FksA
j tc tehankj xko dh tek yxku dks c<+kus
dh dksfkk djrs Fks rks ;s tksrnkj mu
tehankjksa dk ?kksj fojks/k djrs FksA ;gh ugha
tehankjh vf/kdkfj;ksa dks tksrnkj muds
dkZO;ksa dk ikyu djus ls jksdrs FksA tks jS;r
dkrdkj ;k tehu tksrus okys tksrnkjksa ds
i{k esa gksrs Fks os tehankjksa dk tek] yxku
bUgha tksrnkjksa ds bkkjs ij nsj ls Hkqxrku
djrs FksA bl rjg tehankjksa dh gkyr [kLr gks
tkrh FkhA mudh tehankfj;ksa dh uhykeh gksrh
Fkh rks tksrnkj vius /ku vkSj cVkbZnkjksa ds
lg;ksx ls tehuksa dks [kjhn ysrs FksA
HOTS
vH;kl ds fy, izu
(Exercise for Practice)
iz'u 1-

vesfjdh x`g;q) us Hkkjr esa jS;r leqnk; ds


thou dks dSls izHkkfor fd;k \

Q.1.

How did the American Civil War affect the


lives of ryots in India ?

izu 2-

igkfM+;k yksxksa dh vkthfodk laFkkyksa dh


vkthfodk ls fdl :i ls fHkUu Fkh \

Q.2.

In What ways was the Livlihood of the


paharias different from that of the Santhals.

iz'u 3jktLo jkfk ds Hkqxrku esa caxky ds tehankj


izk;% pwd D;ksa djrs Fks\
Q.2.
Why
Bangal
Zamidars
defaulted
on
payment ?

103

ikB&11
foksg vkSj jkt
1857 dk vkanksyu vkSj mlds O;k[;ku
Rebels and the Raj
(1857 revolt and its Representation)
1.

Why did the Indian think during British period that their
religion was in danger?

Ans. (i)

Conservative Indians were angered by the various

social reforms initiated by the British. The abolition of


sati, legalizing of widow remarriages were regarded as
unwanted interference in Indian Social.
(ii)

Indian sentiments were also hurt by the Christian


Missionaries.

(iii)

In 1850, the government passed the Hindu property


law

under

Christianity

which
one

even

could

after

inherit

converting
one's

to

ancestral

property.
(iv)

The people's resentment was further fuelled by the


Maulvis

and

Brahmins

whose

cry

that

their

respective religions were in danger cloaked their


104

selfish interests as these classes now lost their


former importance.

2.

What was the system of Subsidiary Alliance? How did it


help the Britishers to consolidate their position in India?

Ans. The Subsidiary Alliance was a Boat of agreement between


the British and on Indian ruler on the basis of Mutual
understanding for performing administrative, military
and political function.
Provisions of the Subsidiary Alliance:
(i)

The Indian ruler accepting the Alliance would not


enter into alliance with any other power.

(ii)

Would not declare was against any power without


permission of the British.

(iii)

World allows the British resident to stay in his state.

(iv)

Would acknowledge the Britishers as the paramount


power.

(v)

Would maintain some British force at his own


expense in his state.

(vi)

In return for accepting all these condition, the


British would protect the Indian ruler from internal
and external danger.

Advantages of the Subsidiary System to the British.


(i)

The British were able to raise army at the expense


of the Indian rulers.
105

(ii)

They were able to raise army at the expense of the


Indian rulers.

(iii)

Successful in checking the French.

(iv)

Increased their control without waging war.

(v)

Chances of revolts on the part of Indian ruler were


minimised.

3.

A very high degree of Hindu Muslim Unity was observed


in the 1857 revolt Explain with example.

Ans. Unity of Hindus and Muslims : A very high degree of


Hindu-Muslim

unity was reflected in the 1857 Revolt.

There was scarcely a man of either faith who did not


show unity. An English man wrote, "....... the infanticide
Rajput, the bigoted Brahman, the fanatic Musalman and
the luxury living, Martha joined together in the cause.
Cow killer and the cow-worshipper, the pig hater and the
pig eater revolted jointly." Several Hindu rulers accepted
Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah as their leader. Bahadur
Shah had many prominent Hindu officers, who fought
togetherly against the Britishers.
In Awadh prominent leaders of the revolt belonged
to both the communities.
4.

Analyse the causes of the unrest against the British rule


in India.
or
"The revolt of 1857 came as a culmination of popular
discontent with British policies and exploitation, "In the
106

light of the statement explain the reasons of discontent of


Indian people before 1857.
Ans. (i)

Ruin of Indian economy

(ii)

Wealth drain fro India

(iii)

Decay of Indian handcrafts

(iv)

Dispossession of several Indian rulers from their

kingdoms.
(v)

Discriminatory social policies of the rulers.

(vi)

Interference in religious affairs of the people of India

(vii) Low

salaries

to

Indian

Military

personal

as

compared with their Europeur counterparts


(viii) Arrogance of the English people.
5.

Did the Revolt of 1857 have a popular character? Give


reasons in support of your answer.

Ans. Yes, it was a popular Revolt.


(i)

Participation by civilians.

(ii)

Common Symbol like chapatis and Red Lotus

(iii)

Involvement of several regions

(iv)

Hindu-Muslim unity.

(v)

Involvement of the local leaders of different part of


India.

6.

Explain the causes of the failure of the Revolt of 1857.


or
"The weaknesses of the Revolt were deeper" Explain why
the Revolt failed inspite of some patriotic leaders.
107

Ans. (i)

Lack of a common cause

(ii)

Lack of National consciousness

(iii)

Uncoordinated efforts

(iv)

Absence of effective Leadership

(v)

Lack of Nation wide Dimensions

(vi)

Loyalty of Several Rulers to the British

(vii) Lack of Resources


(viii) Lack of Good Generals
(ix)

Regular supply of the British forces

(x)

The British Supremacy on the sea.

(xi)

British Diplomacy.

(xii) Hostility of several indigenous rulers.

ikB&11
iz'u 1.
Hkkjrh;ksa us fczfVk dky es ;g D;ksa lkspk fd
mudk /keZ [krjs esa gS\

(i)

vf/kdrj Hkkjrh; fczfV'k ljdkj }kjk lrhFkk ij frca/k o


fo/kkok fookg dks dkuwuh ekU;rk nsus dks] lekt ds
vkarfjd ekeyksa esa gLr{ksi le>rs FksA

(ii)

blkbZ fe'kufj;ksa us Hkkjrh;ksa


Hkkoukvksa dks Bsl igqapk;hA

(iii)

1850 bZ- esa vaxzstksa us Hkkjrh; lEifk dkuwu ikl


fd;k ftlesa mu Hkkjrh;ksa dks lgqfy;r nh tks
blkbZ /keZ Lohdkj djrs gSaA

dh

/kkfeZd

108

(iv)

turk ds vlarks"k dks eqYyk o iafMrksa us Hkh


c<+k;k fd mudk /keZ vaxzstksa ds dky esa vlqjf{kr
gSA

iz'u 2.
lgk;d la/kh Fkk D;k Fkh\ blus vaxzstksa dks
lkezkT; foLrkj esa fdl dkj lgk;rk dh\

ykWMZ osystyh ds dky esa Hkkjrh; 'kkldksas o


vaxzstksa ds e/; 'kklu] lsok o jktuhfrd dk;ks ij ijLij
le>kSrk FkkA
'krs &
(i)

ftu Hkkjrh; 'kkldksa us lgk;d la/kh ij gLrk{kj fd;s


gSa( vius jkT; esa vaxzstksa ds vykok vU; fdlh 'kfDr
ls le>kSrk ugha djsaxsA

(ii)

vaxzstksa ls fcuk Lohfr dksbZ ;q) ugha yM+saxsA

(iii)

,d vaxzst jsftMsUV dks vius jkT; esa jgus nsaxsA

(iv)

jkT; dks vius [kpsZ ls ,d vaxzsth QkSth VqdM+h


j[kuh gksxhA

(v)

lgk;d la/kh dh 'krs Lohdkj djus okys jkT; dh lqj{kk


dh xkjaVh fczfV'k bLV b.M;k dEiuh nsrh FkhA

lgk;d la/kh Fkk ds Qk;ns &


(i)

vaxzstksa us bl O;oLFkk ds }kjk dbZ jkT;ksa ij viuk


fu;a=k.k LFkkfir fd;kA

(ii)

Hkkjrh; 'kkldksa ds [kpsZ ls ,d vaxzsth QkSt


vaxzstksa ds fy, rS;kj gks x;hA

(iii)

kal dh rkdr ij fu;a=.k yxkus esa lQyrk feyhA

(iv)

fcuk ;q) ds vaxzsth lkezkT; dk foLrkj gqvkA


109

(v)

vaxzstksa ds fo#) foksgksa esa deh vkbZA

iz'u 3.
1857 ds foksg ds nkSjku mPp Lrj dk
fgUnw&eqfLye rkyesy dk vuqHko gqvkA dFku dh
mnkgj.k lfgr O;k[;k djsaA
1857 ds foksg ds nkSjku mPp Lrj dh fgUnw&eqLye
,drk ns[kus dks feyhA vaxzst bfrgkldkjksa us bldks
Lohdkj djrs gq, dgk gS fd xk; dkVus okys o xk; dh iwtk
djus okys] lqvj ls ?k`.kk djus okys o lqvj dks [kkus
okyksa ds e/; ,d:irk FkhA dbZ fgUnw 'kkldksa us
cgknqj'kkg dks viuk usrk Lohdkj fd;kA cgknqjkkg ds
usr`Ro es vusds fgUnw o ewfLye usrk ,d lkFk vaxsztks
ds fo:) yMsA
cgknqj'kkg ds cgqr lkjs lSfud dek.Mj fgUnw Fks rFkk vo/k
ds eq[k usrk nksuksa gh leqnk;ksa ls FksA

iz'u 4.
dhft,A

1857 ds foksg ds dkj.kksa dk fo'ys"k.k

vFkok
^^1857 dk foksg fczfV'k ljdkj dh uhfr;ksa o 'kks"k.k
ds fo#) tu vlarks"k dk n'kZu Fkk** bl dFku ds lanHkZ
esa 1857 ds foksg ds dkj.kksa dk fo'ys"k.k dhft,A

(i)

Hkkjrh; vFkZO;oLFkk dk iru

(ii)

Hkkjrh; /ku dk fons'kksa esa iyk;u

(iii)

gLrf'kYi dk iru

(iv)

Hkkjrh; 'kkldksa ds jkT;ksa dh gM+i


110

(v)

vaxzsth 'kkldksa }kjk lkekftd HksnHkko

(vi)

Hkkjrh;ksa ds /kkfeZd ekeyksa eas gLr{ksi

(vii) ;wjksih;ksa o Hkkjrh; lSfudksa ds osru esa varj


(viii) vaxzstksa dk tkfrxr vgadkj

iz'u 5.
D;k 1857 dks foksg vf[ky Hkkjrh; pfj= dk Fkk\
leFkZu esa rdZ nsaA
gka] fuEu rdks ls ;g fl) fd;k tk ldrk gS fd 1857 dh kafr
dk pfj= vf[ky Hkkjrh; Lrj dk Fkk &
(i)

vke yksxksa dh Hkkxhnkjh

(ii)

,d tSls rhdksa dk mi;ksx tSls jksVh] dey dk Qwy

(iii)

ns'k ds fofHk Hkkxksa dk lg;ksx

(iv)

fgUnw&eqfLye ,drk

(v) nsk ds fofHkUu Hkkxkas ds LFkkuh; usrkvksa }kjk


Hkkx fy;k tkukA

iz'u 6.
1857 ds foksg dh vlQyrk ds dkj.kksa dh
O;k[;k djsaA
vFkok
^^foksg dh dfe;ka xgjh FkhaA** bl dFku ds lanHkZ
esa ;g crkb;s fd foksg ds jk"Vh; usrkvksa ds usr`Ro ds
ckotwn vlQy D;ksa gqvk\
(i)

ms'; dh ,d:irk dk vHkko

(ii)

jk"Vh; psruk dk vHkko

(iii)

vkilh rkyesy dh deh


111

(iv)

;ksX; usr`Ro dh deh

(v)

O;kid foLrkj dk vHkko

(vi)

dqN 'kkldksa dh vaxzstksa ds lkFk lgkuqHkwfr

(vii) lalk/kuksa dk vHkko


(viii) lsukifr;ksa ;ksX; dh deh
(ix)

vaxzstksa dks ckgjh lSfud lgk;rk

(x)

leq ij vaxzstksa dk vf/kd 'kfDr'kkyh gksuk

(xi)

vaxzstksa dh dwVuhfr

(xii) dqN
lgkuqHkwfrA

LFkkuh;

'kkldksa

dh

vaxzstksa

ds

fr

112

CHAPTER-12
vkSifuosfkd 'kgj
uxjhdj.k uxj&;kstuk] LFkkiR;
COLONIAL CITIES
Urbanisation, Plannings and
Architecture
Q1. How did prominent Indian merchants establish
themselves in the colonial city ?
Anns.

Prominent Indian merchant establish themselves


in colonial city in different phases. They establish
themselves in all the three metro colonial cities
i.e., Madras (Channai), Bombay (Mumbai) and
Calcutta (Kolkata).
First of all these Indian merchants tried to
establish their relation of the agents of the
company. As there all colonial cities were trade
centre and administrative official. Therefore the
Indian merchants could easily get establish their
relation with the Europeans. There cities were
having different types of comforts such as modern
113

hotels, restaurant, lodging, boarding, transport


fancilities, roadways and shipping.
Later on Bombay become a major trade centre of
opium with China. Prominent Indian merchant
played active role in collecting opium from
different places of Rajasthan and Malwa. They use
to bring opium on the back of horses, ponies,
camels by road transport etc. They use to earn a
lot of money as middle man between farmers and
companies agents and officials. Not only East India
Company but some of the government official and
later or other European also participated in illegal
trade of opium. The Indian prominent merchant
become very rich. They constructed big building in
all big cities of colonial period.
As the industrial revolution in England started and
expanded. These colonial cities became entry
point for British manufacture goods and for the
expert of Indian ram materials (which was to be
used in large scale industries and factories of
England). The prominent Indian merchant also
participated in there trade activities.
The introduction of railways in 1853 meant a
change in the fortunes of towns. Economic activity
gradually shifted away from traditional towns
which were located along old routes and rivers.
Every railway station became a collection depot
for raw materials and a distribution point for
imported goods. For instance, Mirzapur on the
Ganges, which specialized in collecting cotton
goods from the Deccan, declined when a railway
link was made to Bombay. With the expansion of
the railway network, railway workships and
railways colonies were established Railways towns
like Jamalpur, Waltair and Bareilly developed.
The Indian merchants included the people of
different communities and castes such as Parsi,
114

Marwari, Konkani, Arbs, Gujarati. Baniyas, Boras


and Jews. Some of the members of this community
invested money in modern big industry, shipping
and Airlines also. They donated money for
construction of inns, wells, tanks, temples,
Mosque, Churches and other places of religion and
worships.

Q2.

To what extent are census data useful in


reconstruction patterns of urbanization in
the colonial context ?

Anns.

Census data are very useful in reconstructing


pattern of urbanization in the colonial context.
(i)

We knew that every colonial government


believe in colour and racial discrimination.
There census data provide us the total
number of the people in this way these data
are useful of know extact number of
population as well as the total population of
while and balcks.
(ii) After knowing the number and exact
population of white and blacks. It becomes
easier to prepare town, planning, design its
formation, provision for future expansion,
keeping in view living standards, needs and
style of the whites as well as of the blacks.
These data also tell us upto what extant total
number of people or total population had
been effected adversely by the fearful or
deadly diseases.
(iii) Census data provide us complete information
about total number of different communities,
their language, their works and means of
livelihood as well as about their caste and
religion also.
(iv) The growth of cities was mentioned through
regular head counts. By the midnineteenth
115

(v)

century several local censuses had been


carried out in different regions. The first allIndia census was attempted in 1872.
Thereafter, from 1881, decimal (conducted
every ten years) census become a regular
feature. This collection of data is an
invaluable source for studying urbanization in
India.
When we look at these reports it appears that
we have heard data to measure historical
change. The endless pages of tables on
disease and death, or the enumeration of
people according their age, sex, caste and
occupation, provide a vast mass of figures
that creates an illusion of concreatensess.
Historians have however, found that the
figures can be misleading. Before we use
these figures we need to understand who
collected the data, and why and how they
were gathered. We also need to know what
was measured and what was not.

Q3:-

Assess the impact of health and defence


needs on town planning in Colonial Calcutta.

Ans.

In 1756, Sirajudula the Nawab of Bengal sacked


the small fort which the British traders had built to
house their goods. Consequently when Sirajudaula
was defeated in the Battle of Plassey, the British
built a new fort. Fort William could not be easily
attacked.
Around Fort William, a vast open space was left
which came to be known as the Maidan or garermath. This was done so there would be no
obstructions to a straight time of fire from the Fort
against an advancing enemy army. Soon the
British began to move out of the Fort and build
residences along the periphery of the Maidan. This
was how the English Settlement in Calcutta started
taking shape. The vast open space around the Fort
116

became Calcuttas first significant town planning


measure.
Lord Wellesley was concerned about the conditions
that existed in the Indian part of the city the fith,
overcrowding and the poor drainge. He wrote a
minute (an administrative order) in 1803 on the
need for town planning and set up various
committees for this purpose.
It was believed that creating open places in the
city would make the city healthier. Consequently
many bazaars, ghats, burial ground and tanneries
were cleared or removed.
After Wellesleys departure, the Lottery Committee
carried on with the work of Town Planning. In its
drive to make the Indian areas cleaner, the
committee cleared the river bank of encroachment
and pushed the poor to the outskirts of Calcutta.
The outbreak of cholera and plague epidemics in
the 19th century gave a further impetus to town
planning. The government believed that there was
a direct link between living conditions and the
spread of disease. Densely built up areas were
regarded as insanitary as it obstructed sunlight
and circulation of air.
Read the following passage carefully. Answer all the questions given after it.
Escaping to the country side. (Page No. 3/8 Part III)
This is how the famous poet Mirza Ghalib described what the people
of Delhi did when the British forces occupied the city in 1857.
Limiting the enemy and driving him before them, the vectors (i.e. the
British) overran the city in all direction. All whom they found in street they
cut down.
For two to three days every road in the city from the Kashmiri gate to
Chandni Chowk, was a battle field. Three gates, the Ajmeri, the Turocaman
and the Delhi were still held by the rebels at the naked spectacle of this
117

vengeful wrath and malevolent hatred the colour fled from mens faces and a
vast concourse of men and women. took to precipitate flight through these
three gates. Seeking the little villages and shrewdness outside the city, they
drew breath to wait until such time as might favour their return.

Passage Based Questions


Ques No. 1 Who was Mirza Ghalib?

Ques No.2 What has been described by Ghalib about the people of Delhi
when the British forces occupied the city in 1857?
3
Ques. No.3 Describe the Role of the British forces, just after occupying the
city?

Ques No.4 Write the names of all historical gates mention in the above
passage?
2
ANSWERS
Ans .1 Mirza Ghalib was a famous Urdu Poet of Delhi in 19th Century.
Ans 2. (a) The People of Delhi were driven by the vectors (i.e the British).
Some rebels faced the British forces for two or three days. They kept under
their control the gates of Delhi- the Ajmeri gate, the Turocaman gate and the
Delhi gate.
(b) All the naked spectacle of the vengeful wrath and malevolent hatred the
colour fled from mens face.
(c) A vast concourse of men and women of Delhi took to percipate flight
through different gates of the city.
(d)Seeking the little villages and shrines outside the city, the people of Delhi
drew breathe to wait until such time as might favour their return.
118

Ans 3 (i) Smiting the Mughal forces, other rebellious troops and the people
of Delhi the British troops occupied most parts of the city in last days of the
meeting of 1857, the forces engaged themselves in overrunning the city in
all direction. (ii) All whom they found in the street they cut down. For two
or three days every road in the city from the Kashmiri Gate to Chandni
Chowk was a battlefield, after three days most of the rebels were forced to
send way to seek shelters in little villages and shrines.

v/;k; 12
izu 01- izeq[k Hkkjrh; O;kikfj;ksa us vkSifuosfkd
'kgjksa esa [kqn dks fdl rjg LFkkfir fd;k \
mkj % izeq[k Hkkjrh; O;kikfj;ksa us vkSifuosfkd 'kgjksa
vFkkZr~ enzkl psUubZ] cEcbZ eqacbZ vkSj
dydkk dksydkrk esa dEiuh ds ,tsUV ds :I esa
jguk 'kq: fd;kA ;s lHkh cfLr;k O;kikfjd vkSj izkklfud
dk;kZy;ksa okyh FkhA blfy, Hkkjrh; O;kikfj;ksa
dks ;g 'kgj lqfo/kktud yxsA ;g rhuksa 'kgj canjxkg
Fks vkSj buesa lM+ds] ;krk;kr] tgktjkuh ds
lkFk&lkFk dkykarj esa jsyksa dh lqfo/kk izkIr gks
xbZA Hkkjrh; xzkeh.k O;kikjh vkSj Qsjh okys 'kgjksa
esa eky xko ls [kjhndj Hkh ykrs FksA vusd Hkkjrh;
O;kikjh tc iqjkus vkSj e/;dkyhu 'kgj mtM+ x, rks
mUgsa NksM+dj os bu cM+s 'kgjksa esa vk x,A
mUgksaus O;kikfjd xfrfof/k;k djus ds lkFk&lkFk m|
ksx&/ka/ks Hkh xk,A viuh vfrfjDr iwth bu 'kgjksa
esa fuosk dhA O;kikfjd xfrfof/k;ksa ds ckjs esa j[ks
x, ljdkjh fjdkMksZ vkSj foLr`r C;kSjksa ls dbZ izdkj
dh tkudkjh izkIr djrs FksA 'kgjksa dh leL;kvksa ds
lek/kku ds fy, uxjikfydkvksa ls lg;ksx fy;k x;kA vusd
O;kikjh bu cM+s 'kgjksa ds miuxjh; {ks=ksa esa
Hkh jgus yxsA mUgksaus ?kksM+kxkM+h vkSj
u, ;krk;kr ds lk/kuksa dks Hkh iz;ksx fd;kA Hkkjrh;
O;kikjh dEiuh ds O;kikj esa egoiw.kZ Hkwfedk
119

fuHkkrs FksA eqEcbZ ds jgus okys O;kikjh] phu dks


tkus okyh vQhe ds O;kikj esa fgLlsnkj FksA
mUgksaus eqEcbZ dh vFkZO;oLFkk dks ekyok]
jktLFkku vkSj fla/k tSls vQhe mRiknd bykdksa ls
tksM+us esa lgk;rk nhA dEiuh ds lkFk xBtksM+ ,d
equkQs dk lkSnk Fkk ftlls dkykarj esa ,d iwthifr
oxZ dk fodkl gqvkA Hkkjrh; O;kikfj;ksa esa lHkh
leqnk;&ikjlh] ekjokM+h] dksad.kh] eqlyeku] xqtjkrh
cfu,] cksgjk] ;gwnh vkfn 'kkfey FksA
izu 02- vkSifuosfkd
lanHkZ
esa
'kgjhdj.k
ds
#>kuksa dks le>us ds fy, tux.kuk laca/kh
vkadM+s fdl gn rd mi;ksxh gksrs gSa \
mkj % vkSifuosfkd laca/k esa 'kgjhdj.k ds #>ku dks
le>us ds fy, tux.kuk laca/kh vkdM+s cgqr mi;ksxh
gksrs gSa %
vblls 'osr vkSj vosr (White and Black) yksxksa dh
dqy tula[;k ;k vkcknh dks tkuus esa lg;ksx feyrk
gSA
c'osr vkSj vosr Vkmu ds fuekZ.k] foLrkj vkSj
muds thou laca/kh Lrj] Hk;adj chekfj;ksa ds tula[;k
ij iM+s nq"izHkko vkfn dks tkuus esa Hkh tux.kuk
laca/kh vkdM=s rqjUr tkudkjh nsus okys if;ksa dk
dk;Z djrs gSaA
l tux.kuk laca/kh vkdM+s fofHkUu leqnk;ksa]
dk;ks] tkfr;ksa dh tkudkjh nsrs gSaA
izu 03- vkSifuosfkd dydkk esa uxj fu;kstu ij LokLF;
vkSj lqj{kk dh t:jrksa ds izHkko dk ewY;kadu
dhft,A \
mkj % Hkkjr esa mifuoskokn dk lh/kk izHkko uxj fu;ktu ij
n`f"Vxkspj gksrk FkkA dEiuh ,oa vaxszth ljdkj us
Hkkjr ds izeq[k canjxkg okys 'kgjksa dks fu;ksftr
<ax ls clkus dk fopkj fd;kA bu 'kgjksa esa ,d 'kgj
Fkk&dydkk] tks caxky lwcs dk ,d egRoiw.kZ 'kgj]
vaxszth lkk dh jkt/kkuh ,oa okf.kT; dk dsUnz FkkA
dydkk 'kgj ds fu;kstu dk izFke pj.k ykWMZ
osystyh ds dk;Zdky es aizkjaHk gqvkA
120

v LokLF; % LokLF; ds n`f"Vdks.k ls cgr lkjs


cktkjksa] ?kkVksa] dfczLrkuksa vkSj peZkks/ku
bdkb;ksa dks lkQ fd;k x;kA buesa ls dqN dks gVk
fn;k x;kA 'kgj dk ,d uohu uDkk rS;kj fd;k x;kA blesa
lM+d ds fdukjs ,oa vU; voS/k dCtksa dks gVkus dh
flQkfjk dh xbZA 1817 esa gStk rFkk 1896 esa Iysx
egkekjh us dydkk dks viuh pisV esa ys fy;kA
fpfdRld bldh Bksl otg ugha crk ik,] fdarq
^tuLokLF;* dh vo/kkj.kk dks cy feykA ljdkj ,oa tkx:d
ukxfjd n~okjdkukFk VSxksj ,oa :Lre th
dksoklth ;g ekuus yxs fd 'kgj dks LokLF;o/kZd
cukuk vko;d gSA vr5 ?kuh vkcknh okyh cLrh rFkk
>ksifM+;ksa dks gVk;k x;kA LokLF; ds vk/kkj ij
OgkbV ,oa CySd Vkmu tSls uLyh foHkktu gq,A
clqj{kk % dydkk 'kgj ds fu;kstu dk Hkkj ljdkj
us vius ij blfy, fy;k] D;ksafd ;g 'kgj lqj{kk ds
n`f"Vdks.k ls laosnukhy FkkA 1756 esa uokc
fljktqn~nkSyk us dydkk ij geyk fd;k Fkk rFkk
dEiuh dks djkjh fkdLr nh FkhA
dEiuh us 1757 esa tc fljktqn~nkSyk dksijkftr fd;k
mlds ckn mlus dydkk 'kgj dh fdykacnh 'kq: dh]
rkfd vklkuh ls dydkk ij geyk u fd;k tk ldsA rhu
xko lqrkukrh] dksydkrk vkSj xksfoUniqj dks feyk dj
dydkk 'kgj clk;k x;kA QksVZ fofy;e ds vklikl [kqyh
txg NksM+h xbZ] rkfd geykojksa ij vklkuh ls
xksyhckjh dh tk ldsA
bl izdkj ;g Li"V :i ls ns[kk tk ldrk gS fd dydkk 'kgj
ds fu;kstu esa lqj{kk ,oa LokLF; dk O;kid izHkko
FkkA

xzkeh.k {ks=ks dh vksj iyk;u


1857 esa fczfVk lsuk }kjk 'kgj ij vf/kdkj djus ds ckn fnYyh ds
yksxks us D;k fd;k bldk o.kZu izfl) 'kk;j fetkZ xkfyc bl izdkj
121

djrs gS%&nqeu dks ijkftr djus vkSj Hkxk nsus ds ckn


fotsrkvksfczfVk us lHkh fnkkvks ls 'kgj dks mtkM+
fn;kAtks lMd ij feys mUgs dkV fn;k x;kA nks ls rhu rd dehjh
xsV ls pkWnuh pkSd rd 'kgj dh gj lM+d ;q)Hkwfe cuh jghA rhu
}kj& vtesjh] rqdZeku rFkk fnYyh vHkh Hkh fonzksfg;ks ds
dCts es Fks------------A bl izfrkks/kh vkdzksk rFkk |`.kk ds
uaxs ukp ls yksxks ds psgjksa dk jax mM x;k] vkSj cMh la[;k
esa iq:"k vkSj efgykW, ----------- bu rhuks }kjks ls gM+cM+k dj
iyk;u djus yxsAkgj ds ckgj NksVs xkWoksa vkSj nsoLFkyksa
es 'kj.k ys viuh okilh ds vuqdwy le; dk bartkj djrs jgsA
vuqPNsn vk/kkfjr izu
1- fetkZ xkfyc dkSu Fkk \
mkj fetkZ xkfyc 19 oh 'krkCnh esa fnYyh dk ,d izfl) mnwZ
Hkk"kk dk dfo FkkA
2- 1857 esa fczfVk lsuk }kjk 'kgj ij vf/kdkj djus ds ckn fnYyh
ds yksxks ds ckjsa xkfyc us D;k o.kZu fd;k gS\
mkj v nqeu dks ijkftr djus ds ckn vkSj Hkxk nsus ds ckn
fczfVk yksxks us lHkh fnkkvksa ls 'kgj dks mtkM fn;kA tks
lM+d ;q) Hkwfe cuh jgh rhu }kj& vtesjh] rqdZeku rFkk fnYyh
vHkh Hkh fonzksfg;ks ds dCts esa FksA\
cfczfVk lsuk ds izfrjks/kh vkdzksk rFkk |`.kk ds uaxs ukp
ls yksxksa ds psgjs dk jax mM+ x;kA
l cM+h la[;k es iq:"k vkSj efgyk;s rhuksa }kjks ls gMcM+k
dj iyk;u djus yxsA
nkgj ds ckgj NksVs xkaoks vkSj nso LFkyksa es 'kj.k ys
viuh okilh ds vuqdwy le; dk bartkj djrs jgsA
3- mi;qZDr x/kakk es of.kZr pkjks ,sfrgkfld }kjks ds uke
fyf[k;sA
mkjdehjh xsV] rqdZeku xsV] fnYyh xsV] vtesjh xsV
Ajmeri gate,Turcoman gate, Delhi gate, Kashmiri gate.
mkj 4- fnYyh ij dCtk djus ds ipkr fczfVk lsuk dh Hkwfedk
D;k jgh\
122

1857 dh dzkafr ds vfUre funks rd fczfVk lsuk us fnYyh


ds vf/kdkak Hkkx ij dCtk dj fy;kA fczfVk lsuk us lHkh
fnkkvksa ls 'kgj dks mTkkM fn;kA tks lM+d ij feys mUgs dkV
fn;k x;kA nks ls rhu fnuksa rd dehjh xsV ls pkanuh pkSd rd
'kgj dh gj lM+d ;q+)Hkwfe cuh jghA cMh la[;k esa iq:"k vkSj
efgyk,a rhu }kjks ls gM+cM+k dj iyk;u djus yxs rFkk 'kgj ds
ckgj NksVs xkaoks vkSj nsoLFkyksa esa 'kj.k ys viuh okilh ds
vuqdwy le; dk bartkj djrs jgsA
HOTS
vH;kl ds fy, izu
(Exercise for Practice)
iz'u 1-

^fczfVk ljdkj us viuh tkrh; Js"Brk trkus ds fy,


lksp&le> dj enzkl 'kgj dk fodkl fd;kA** mfpr
rdZ nsdj bl dFku dh iqf"V dhft,A

Q.1.

The
British
Government
consciously
developed the city of Madras to reflect their
racial superiority. Justify the statement
giving suitable arguments.

iz'u 2-

cEcbz esa lkoZtfud Hkouksa ds fuekZ.k esa


vaxsztksa }kjk iz;ksx esa ykbZ xbZ fdUgha
nks okLrqdyk 'kSfy;ksa dk o.kZu dhft,A
izR;sd dk ,d mnkgj.k nhft,A

Q.1.

Describe any two architectural styles used


by the British in the construction of public
buildings in Bombay. Give one example from
each.

iz'u 3-

vkSifuosfkd 'kklu esa u;s uxjksa ds lkekftd


thou esa vk, fdUgha pkj cnykoksa dh O;k[;k
dhft, \

Q.1.

Explain any four changes that come about in


the social life in the new cities under colonial
rule.

123

124

CHAPTER:-13
Mahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement.
Ques. 1 Non Cooperation was a form of Protest. Evaluate this statement.
Ans:- Gandhiji was one of the greatest personality of the world. His main
principles were Truth and Non Violence. Gandhiji decided to start noncooperation as a unique form of protest freedom struggle against the British
rule. He hoped that by coupling non cooperation with khilafat, Hindu and
Muslims could collectively bring an end to colonial rule.
During NCM (Non Coorperation Movement) Students stopped going
to school and colleges run by the British Government.
Lawyers refused to attend the court.
The working class went on strike in many towns and cities.
The country side was seething with discontent.Hill tribe in Northern
Andhra violated by the forest laws. Farmers in Awadh did not pay taxes.
These protest movements were sometime carried out in defence of the local
nationalist leadership.
By the Analysis of the above mentioned facts it can be said that
undoubtedly this was the first freedom struggle movement, in which most
of Indian castes and communities participated to protest British rule.
Ques.2 How did Mahatma Gandhi transform the nature of the National
movement?
Ans:- Gandhiji transformed the nature of the National movement by the
following thoughts, methods ideology, working styles movements etc.
The main principles of his philosophy were
i.

Satyagrah
125

ii.

Non violence

iii.

Peace

iv.

True sympathy for the poorest.

v.

Empowerment of the lady.

vi.

Communal Harmony

vii.

Indian Rural areas and to think about interest of the people residing
in the villages and to motivate the other people to think, to act and
to inspire resourceful and influencial high up of the society in
favour of down trodden.

viii. Opposing untouchablility with his full vigor and strength.


ix.

To stress both equally and their purity of aim and means alike.

x.

To launch public welfare programme.

xi.

To stress importance of cottage Industry.

xii.

Charkha

xiii. Spinning wheels


xiv.

Khadi etc

xv.

To oppose colour discrimination alike.


Gandhiji utilized south Africa as practical lab for his ideological and

philosophical development. He raised his voice at full pitch their against


wrong policies and injustice done by the government of South Africa. He
utilize Satyagraha in South Africa also in several places in India.
When Gandhiji returned to motherland in 1915. In fact that time still
Indian National congress was confined in only urban areas upto people of
middle educated classes. He knew very well that its natural power rests
with the rural people, labour, ordinary men and women and young boys
and girls till all sections and people of Indian society would not join
freedom struggle against the colonial British power then it would be very
difficult to finish British authority from India.
126

`Gandhiji said that British rule have rewarded India through out
spreading Poverty, hunger, low quality of life ,illiteracy, superstitions and
social disunity and disharmony.
Gandhiji opposed the owners of Indigo plantation of champaran. He
also press the cotton textile mill owners to revise the minimum wage of
the labourers.
Gandhiji was a true economic and social reformer. He advocated the
use of charkha and khadi. He stressed the importance of cottage and very
small industries.
Infact due to his efforts the face of Indian National Movement turns
from palaces to hunts, from urban areas or cities towards villages where
the real India resides. This was the greatest work of Gandhiji. This
converted the shape of National movement into a mass movement.

Ques3:-The Quit India Movement was truly a mass movement. Justify


this statement.
Ans:- Due to the failure of the Cripps mission, Gandhiji decided to
launch his third major movement against British rule. This was called
Quit India Movement. This was to be a mass struggle on non violent lines
under leadership of Gandhiji. But on the Next day of the approval of
India Quit Movement resolution. Gandhi and other main congress leaders
were arrested. But the younger activist organized demonstrations and
strike in factories, schools and colleges in all parts of the country.
Particularly active in the underground resistance were socialist members
of the congress such as Jaya Prakash Narain and Ram Manohar Lohia,
Aruna Asif Ali. In some areas such as Satara and Midnapur Independent
governments were proclaimed. The movement took the form of a violent
127

out break. The government succeeded in crushing the movement yet it


took more than 12 months to suppress this rebellion.
By Analysising above mentioned incidences it can be said that the
Quit India Movement was truly a mass movement. It brought into its
ambit hundreds of thousands of ordinary people. It brought the nationalist
feelings among the youth to such a stage that the day was not far off
when the British would have to Quit India.

v/;k; &13
egkRek xka/kh vkSj jk"Vh;
vkUnksyu
iz'Uk&1 vgl;ksx vkUnksyu ,d rjg dk izfrjks/k Fkk bl
dFku dk ewY;kadu dhft,A
mRrj & xka/kh foo ds egkure O;fDrRoks es ls ,d
FksAmuds izeq[k fl)kUr Fks & lR; vkSj vafglk A mUgksus
fczfV'k 'kklu ds f[kykQ vlg;ksx vkUnksyu dks izfrjks/k ds ,d
mR"V lk/ku ds :i esa 'kq: djus dk fu.kZ; fy;kA mUgsa vk'kk
Fkh fd f[kykQr dks vlg;ksx ds lkFk tksM+us ls fgUnw vkSj
eqlyeku la;qDr :i ls vkSifuosf'kd 'kklu dk vUr dj ldrs gSaA
vlg;ksx vkUnksyu ds nkSjku fo|kfFkZ;ksa us vaxzst
ljdkj }kjk lapkfyr Ldwy vkSj dkWyst tkuk NksM+ fn;kA
odhyksa us vnkyr esa tkus ls badkj dj fn;kA
128

cgqr ls dLcks ,oa 'kgjksa esas Jfed oxZ gM+rky ij pys


x;sA
vlg;ksx vkUnksyu dk izfrjks/k ns'k ds xzkeh.k {ks= esa
Hkh fn[kkbZ ns jgk FkkA mRrjh vkU/kz dh igkM+h tutkfr;ksa
us oU; dkuwuksa dh vogsyuk dj nhA vo/k ds fdlkuksa us dj
ugha pqdk;kA bu fojks/kh vkUnksyuks dks dHkh&dHkh
LFkkuh; jk"Voknh usr`Ro dh voKk djrs gq, dk;kZfUor fd;k
x;kA
mi;qZDr rF;ksa dk fo'ys"k.k djus ij ;g dgk tk ldrk gS fd fu
%lansg ;g jk"Vh; la?k"kZ dk ,slk igyk vkUnksyu Fkk ftlesa
Hkkjr dh T;knkrj tkfr;ksa ,oa leqnk;ksa us fczfV'k 'kklu dk
izfrjks/k djus gsrq Hkkx fy;kA
iz'Uk-2 egkRek xka/kh us jk"Vh; vkUnksyu ds Lo:i dks
fdl rjg cny Mkyk\
mRrj & xka/kh th us jk"Vh; vkUnksyu ds Lo:i dks
fuEufyf[kr

fopkjksa]

rjhdksa]

fopkj/kkjk]

dk;Ziz.kkyh]

vkUnksyuksa vkfn ds }kjk cny MkykA


muds n'kZu ds eq[; fl)kUr Fks & 1 lR;kxzg] 2
vfgalk] 3 'kkfUr 4 nfjukjk;.kksa ds izfr lPph gennhZ
129

5 efgykvksa dk l'kfDrdj.k 6 lkEiznkf;d lnHkko 7


Hkkjrh; xzkeh.k {ks= ,oa muesa jgus okys yksxksa ds fgrksa
ds ckjs esa lkspuk] djuk vkSj yksxksa dks izsj.kk nsuk] 8
vLi`';rk dk fojks/k djuk 9 lk/ku ,oa lk/; nksuksa dh ifo=rk ij
cy nsuk 10 dY;k.kdkjh dk;Ze 'kq: djuk] 11 dqVhj m|
ksx ds egRo ij cy nsuk] 11 pj[kk] [kknh vkfn viukus ij cy
nsuk] 12 jaxHksn dk fojks/k djukA
xka/khth us nf{k.k vhdk dks vius oSpkfjd ,oa nk'kZfud
fodkl dh O;ogkfjd iz;ksx'kkyk ds :i esa mi;ksx fd;kA mUgksaus
nf{k.k vhdk ljdkj dh xyr ,oa vU;k; iw.kZ uhfr;ksa dk [kqydj
fojks/k fd;kA mUgksaus dbZ ckj nf{k.k vhdk ,oa Hkkjr esa
lR;kxzg 'kq: fd;kA
tc 1915 esa xka/kh th viuh ekr`Hkwfe ykSVs okLro esa
ml le; rd dkaxzsl e/;eoxhZ; f'kf{kr yksxksa dh ikVhZ FkhA og
vPNh rjg ls tkurs Fks fd bl jk"V dh rkdr xzkeh.k yksxksa]
Jfedksa] loZlk/kkj.k] efgykvksa] ;qokvksa vkfn esa fufgr gSA
tc rd ;s lHkh yksx jk"Vh; la?k"kZ esa ugha tqM+sxsa rc rd
fczfV'k lkk dks Hkkjr ls lekIr djuk laHko ugha FkkA

130

xka/kh th us dgk fd Hkkjr esa tks loZ= nfjrk] Hkq[kejh]


fuEu thou Lrj] vf'k{kk] vU/k fo'okl vkSj lkekftd QwV ns[kus
dks feyrh gS og fczfV'k 'kklu ds dkj.k gSA
xka/kh th us pEikju ds uhy ckxkuksa ds ekfydksa dk
fojks/k fd;kA oL= feyksa esa dke djus okys etnwjksa dh
U;wure etnwjh dks la'kksf/kr djus ds fy, fey ekfydksa ij ncko
MkykA
xka/khth ,d lPps vkfFkZd o lekt lq/kkjd Fks mUgksaus
pj[kk ,oa [kknh ds iz;ksx dh odkyr dhA mUgksaus dqVhj vkSj
vfry?kq m|ksxksa ds ego ij cy fn;kA
okLro esa mUgha ds iz;klksa ds ifj.kkeLo:i jk"Vh;
vkUnksyu dks egyksa dh txg >ksifM+;ksa] 'kgj dh txg xkao
vkSj e/;e oxZ rd lhfer vkUnksyu dks loZlk/kkj.k rd izlkfjr djus
esa lQyrk izkIr gqbZA ;g xka/kh th dk lokZf/kd egRoiw.kZ
;ksxnku FkkA blls dkaxzsl tu&tu dh laLFkk cu xbZA blus
jk"Vh; vkUnksyu ds Lo:i dks O;kid dj fn;kA
iz'Uk 3& Hkkjr NksM+ks vkUnksyu lPps vFkks esa
O;kid tukUnksyu FkkA bl dFku dh iqf"V dhft,A

131

mRrj & fI'k fe'ku ds vlQy gksus ds dkj.k dkaxzsl us


xka/kh th dh v/;{krk esa 8 vxLr 1942 bZ- dks Hkkjr NksM+ks
vkUnksyu izLrko ikl fd;kA ;g vfgalkRed vkUnksyu Fkk ysfdu
vkUnksyu dh Lohfr ds vxys gh fnu xka/kh th ,oa vU;
egoiw.kZ dkaxzslh usrkvksa dks fxjrkj dj fy;k x;kA ijUrq
ns'k ds ;qok dk;ZdrkZ gM+rkyksa rFkk rksM+QksM+ dh
dk;Zokfg;ka djds ns'k esa vkUnksyu pykrs jgsA Jherh v:.kk
vklQ vyh] jke euksgj yksfg;k] t;izdk'k ukjk;.k tSls lektoknh lnL;
Hkwfexr

izfrjks/k

xfrfof/k;ksa

eas

lcls

vf/kd

lf;

FksA

foksfg;ksa us lrkjk vkSj fenukiqj vkfn ftyksa esa Lora=


ljdkjsa LFkkfir dj yhA vaxzstksa us bl vkUnksyu dks
ccZjrkiwoZd nckus dk iz;kl fd;k fQj Hkh bl O;kid foksg dks
nckus esa yxHkx 12 eghus dk le; yx x;kA
mi;qZDr ?kVukvksa dk lw{e fo'ys"k.k djus ds i'pkr~ dgk
tk ldrk gS fd okLro esa Hkkjr NksM+ks vkUnksyu lPps vFkks
esa fczfV'k 'kklu ds fo:) O;kid tukUnksyu FkkA bl vkUnksyu us
cM+h la[;k esa gtkjksa uo;qodksa] tulkekU; dks viuh vksj
vkdf"kZr fd;kA bl vkUnksyu us uo;qodksa esa bl Hkkouk dk
lapkj fd;k fd Hkkjr ls fczfV'k 'kklu dh lekfIr esa vc T;knk oDr
ugha gSA
132

Chapter 14
Understanding Partitions- Politics, Memories
Experiences
Q1.Examine the factors responsible for the growth of communalism in India.
Ans.

At the outset it must be admitted that in spite of strenuous efforts


made by the congress leaders and rationalists, communalism could not
be checked. Ultimately communalism won when India was partioned
and Pakistan was created on the communalism theory of two nations.
133

It may be stated that communalism grew on account of the Divide


and Rule policy of the British. Jinnah was not the sole originator of
this theory of two nations. The policy of Divide and Rule
encouraged Sir Syed Ahmed Khan to fight for the right of the
Muslims. Lord Curzon in 1905 encouraged the Muslims when he
divided Bengal and created a Muslim majority province. Iqbal in 1930
also favored separate treatment to the Muslims. The Hindu
Mahasabha established in 1916 also worked on communal lines
following factors led to communalist tendencies.
(1)
(2)

Divide and Rule Policy of the British.


Fear of the Muslim minority of its Suppression the Hindu

majority.
(3)

Overemphasis on the glory of ancient India.

(4)

Emergency of political parties on communal lines.

(5)

Separate electorate for Muslims.

(6)

Lack of education among the Muslim community.

(7)

Frustration of the Muslim league on its inability to win election


in 1937.

(8) Demand for partition of India at the Lahore session of the Muslim
league in 1940.
(9) Direct Action by the Muslim league in 1946 and Communal riots.
Q2. Analyse the experiences of women from the partition?
Ans. The experiences of women in partition violent time were harrowing.
Women were raped, abducted, sold, often many times over, forced to
settle down to a new life with strangers in unknown circumstances.
Deeply traumatised by all that they had undergone. Some began to
134

develop, new family bonds in their changed circumstances. Their


money and ornaments were looted. At times therefore when the men
feared that their women wives, daughters, sisters, would be violated
by the enemy they killed the women themselves.
Q3 Pointing upon the destruction or slaughter on Mass scale at the time of
partition ,compare Indian holocaust with Germany?
Ans. Because several hundred thousand people were killed and innumerable
women raped and abducted. Millions were uprooted, transformed into
refugees in alien lands. Estimate of casualties were 2,00,000 to
50,00,000. In all probability, some 15 million had to move across
hastily constructed frontiers separating India and Pakistan. Stripped of
their local or regional cultures. They were forced to begin picking of
their life from scratch. There fire partition is considered as holocaust.
The Survivers themselves have often spoken of 1947 through other
words like maashal (Martial law), mara-mari, raula or hullar.
Though the people do not see any difference between the events of
India and Germany . Afterall this much difference we find that in
1947-48, the sub contitnent did not witness and state driven
extermination as was the case with Nazi Germany where various
model used. The ethnic cleansing That characterized the partition of
India was carried out by self self styled representative of religious
communities rather than by state agencies.
Q4 The Partition of India was indispensable.Explain?
Ans. By the strength of Indian National Congress and power of mass
movement ultimately British Government ready to free India in 1947.
But freedom could given with the partition of India in two separate
135

countries India and Pakistan. The causes for acceptance of the


Independence with partition were as under:
The British had been following a policy of creating feelings of
bitterness among the different communities in India. This policy of
Divide and Rule aimed to check the growth of Nationalism .When
they failed in their objectives, they decided to divide the country and
leave it.
The attitude of Mr. Jinnah, the most prominent leader of the Muslim
League, led to the partition of the country. Hepreached that the Hindus
and Muslims were two separate nations. Hence they could not pull
well together.
The British government followed the policy of appeasement towards the
Muslims. They asked the Muslim League leaders to ask for more and
more concession. They encouraged the Muslim to stress their demand
for Pakistan.
The recommendation of the various mission sent by the British Government
to solve the Indian Problem indirectly accepted the Muslim demand of
Pakistan.
The failure of Interim Government also made the partition of t he country
inevitable. In the absence of cooperation between the two major
parties of the country, the Muslim League and the Congress , the
Government could be run effectively.
Lastly we can say that willing of leaders for the freedom, Hindu Muslim
Riots , it was essential the partition of India.

iz'u 1

Hkkjr esa lkEiznkf;drk ds mn; ds fy, mkjnk;h

dkj.kksa dk ijh{k.k dhft;sA


136

;g loZ lR; gS fd jk"Vh; usrkvksa o dkaxzsl lnL;ksa }kjk


vFkd iz;Ru ds ckotqn h lkEiznkf;drk dks ugha jksdk tk
ldkA vUrksxrok lkEiznkf;drk dh thr ml le; gks x;h tc Hkkjr
dk foHkktu nks jk"Vksa ds :i esa gqvkA ;g lc fczfVk
ljdkj dh QwV Mkyks vkSj jkt djks dh uhfr dk ifj.kke FkkA
bl uhfr dks lj lS;n~ vgen [kku }kjk eqlyekuksa dks
vf/kdkj fnykus ds fy, cy fn;kA 1905 esa ykMZ dtZu }kjk
caxky foHkktu dks Lohdkj dj c<+k;kA 1930 esa eksbdcky }kjk eqlyekuksa dks vyx lek/kku ds uke ij cy fn;kA
1916 esa fgUnw egklHkk dh LFkkiuk gqbZ vkSj mlus
Hkh bl {ks= dks c<+k;kA
vU; egRoiw.kZ dkj.k lkEiznkf;drk ds fy, fuEu Fks %&
1- vaxzstksa dh QwV Mkyks vkSj jkt djks dh uhfrA
2- fgUnw cgqer ls vYila[;d eqlyekuksa dks Hk;
3- izkphu Hkkjr dks vR;f/kd xkSjokkyh crkus ij tksj
4- lkEiznkf;d ikfVZ;ksa dk mn;
5- eqlyekuksa dks vyx izfrfuf/kRo
6- eqlyekuksa esa fk{kk dk vHkko
7- 1937 ds pqukoksa esa eqfLye yhx dh gkj
8- 1940 ds yhx vf/kosku esa }h&jk"V fl}kUr dh Lohd`fr
9- 1946 esa eqfLye yhx }kjk izR;{k dk;Zokgh fnol o
fgUnw eqfLye naxks dh
'kq:vkrA
izu 2 caVokjs ds le; vkSjrksa ds vuqHkoks dk foys"k.k
dhft;sA

137

mkj

caVokjs ds le; vkSjrksa ds vuqHko izk;% cgqr [kjkc

jgsA vusd vkSjrksa dks vxok dj fy;k x;kA muds lkFk


vekuoh; O;ogkj fd;k x;kA vusd ;qofr;ksa ls cykRdkj ;k
tcju fookg vFkok fudkg fd, x,A vusd efgykvksa ds xqIr
vax dkV fn, x,A vusdksa ds lkeus muds lqgkx ;k xksn
mtkM+ nh xbZA vusd efgykvksa ls /ku vkSj xgus ywV
fy;s x,A vusd efgykvksa dks 'kkafr LFkkfir gksus ds ckn
muds ifjokj tuksa us gh mUgsa Lohdkj ugha fd;kA
mUgsa viuk isV Hkjus ds fy, os;ko`fr tSls fuanuh; O;olk;
dks viukuk iM+kA vusd iq:"kksa us viuh eka] cgu] iRuh
vkSj csVh dks thfor gh Lo;a tyk fn;k ;k ekj fn;k D;ksafd
mUgsa nwj ls vkrh HkhM+ dks ns[kdj ;g iwjk ;fdu gks
tkrk Fkk fd og vc vius efgyk ifjokjtuksa dh bTtr ugha cpk
ik;saxsA
izu 3 Hkkjr foHkktu ds le; ds lkewfgd tu lagkj dh Hk;kudrk
dks js[kkafdr djrs gq;s] Hkkjrh; egk/oal dh teZuh ls rqyuk
dhft,A
mkj D;ksafd foHkktu ds le; dbZ yk[k yksx ekjs x;s u tkus
fdruh vkSjrks dk cykRdkj vkSj vigj.k gqvkA djksMks mtM
x,A yxHkx 20]00]000 ls 50]00]000 rd yksx ekjs x,A
jkrksjkr yxHkx Ms< djksM yksxks dks kjr vkSj ikfdLrku
ds chp [kMh dh xbZ ljgnksa ikj tkuk iMk LFkkuh; o
{kS=h; laLd`fr;ksa ls oafpr ;s yksx nksckjk frudks ls viuh
ftanxh [kMh djus ds fy, etcqj gks x;sA blfy, kjr foHkktu
dks egk/oal dh laKk nh xbZ gSA
ftUnk cp tkus okys 1947 dks vdlj ekkZy ykW] ekjkekjh
jkSyk ;k gqYyM vkfn 'kCnks ls lEcksaf/kr djrs gSAHkkjr o
138

teZuh dh |Vukvksa ds chp dksbZ T;knk QdZ ugh Fkk ;k


vUrj Fkk rks ek= ;g Fkk fd 1947&48 es Hkkjrh; miegk}hi
es lQk, dh dksbZ ljdkjh eqfge ugh pyh tcfd ukRlh teZuh
es fgVyj ds usr`Ro es ;gqfn;ks dk lQk;k gks jgk FkkA
ogka yksxks dks ekjus ds fy, fu;a=.k vkSj laxBu dh reke
vk/kqfud rduhdks dk bLrseky fd;k x;kAHkkjr foHkktu ds
oDr tks uLyh lQk;k gqvk og ljdkjh fudk;ks dh ugh]
cfYd /kkfeZd leqnk;ks ds Loa; Hkwa izfrfuf/k;ks dh
dkjxqtkjh FkhA
izu 4 Hkkjr dk foHkktu vifjgk;Z Fkk Li"B dhft,A
Hkkjrh; jk"Vh; dkaxzsl o tu lgHkkfxrk ds dkj.k
varrksxRok nsk dks 1947 bZ- es vaxzst Hkkjr NksMus
dks rS;kj gks x;sA ysfdu Hkkjrh;ks dks ;g Lora=rk
foHkktu ds lkFk Lohdkj djuh iMh ftlds dkj.k fuEu Fks %&
1- vaxzstks us 'kq: ls gh lkEiznkf;d rkdrks dks c<+kok
fn;k rFkk ckaVks vkSj jkt djks dh uhfr dk vuqlj.k
fd;kAtc mUgs 1947 esa nsk NksMuk iM+k rks tkrs
tkrs nsk dks Lora=rk foHkktu ds lkFk iznku dhA
2- ftUuk dh gB/kfeZrk Hkh blds fy;s ftEesnkj jgh D;ksfd
fdlh Hkh fLFfr esa Lora=rk fcuk foHkktu ds ysus dks
rS;kj u gq,A
3- vaxzstks us eqlyekuksa ds lkFk rqf"Vdj.k dh uhfr
viukrs gq;s mUgsa ikfdLrku dh ekax ds fy, izsfjr fd;kA
4- vaxzsth ljdkj }kjk Hkkjrh; leL;kvks ds lek/kku ds fy,
tks Hkh dfeku Hksts] mUgksus Hkh vizR;{k :i ls
foHkktu dh ifjfLFkfr;k rS;kj dhA

139

5- varfje ljdkj esa Hkh fgUnw&eqfLye lg;ksx dk okrkoj.k


u cu ik;k vkSj foHkktu dh ifjfLFkfr;kW rS;kj gqbZA
6- izR;{k dk;Zokghfnol ds ckn eqfLye yhx us fgUnw
eqfLye naxks dh 'kq:okr dh ]ftldk ,d ek= lek/kku
foHkktu FkkA
blfy, var es ge dg ldrs gS] jk"Vh; usrkvks dk Lora=rk
ds izfr eksg] lkEiznkf;d ruko o naxks ds pyrs nsk dk
foHkktu vfigk;Z FkkA
&&&&&&&&&&

Chapter 15
FRAMING THE CONSTITUTION.
Ques.1 The Resolution cast the horoscope of our Sovereign Democratic
Republic. Prove this Statement.
140

Ans:- On December 13, 1946, Pandit Nehru described the objective


resolution as a Solemn Pledge to our people. It gave expression to the
aspiration and ideals for which the people of India had worked and struggled
and embodied the broad objectives which the constituent assembly was to
set before itself.
The resolution ensured that safeguards would be provided to the
minorities, backward and tribal areas, depressed and other classes. The
resolution proclaimed that the ancient land would attain its rightful and
honored place in the world. This republic would be a union of autonomous
units in which residuary powers should be with the latter.
The Resolution also stated that the constitution framed by the
Assembly must guarantee and secure to all the people of India Justicesocial, economic and political; equality of

status, of opportunity and

equality before law; freedom of thoughts , expression, belief, faith, worship,


vocation, subject, association and action subject to law and public morality.
Infact, all important elements had been included in the objective
resolution, constituent assembly had to frame the constitution by following
them: the Statement The Resolution cast the horoscope of our sovereign
Democratic Republic, given by Dr. K.M. Munshi seems to be true.
Ques.2:- Why Parliamentary system has been adopted in India? Is it relevant
today?
Ans:- The Chief merit of Parliamentary government lay in its ability to
satisfy the essential test of a democratic Executive viz.. a combination of
stability and responsibility. In India when the poverty and illiteracy of the
masses might well encourage the growth of Executive Despotism,
Responsibility was no less important than stability.
141

According to Dr. Ambedkar-under the parliamentary system there is


daily and periodic assessment of the responsibility of the Government.
On the basis of the assessment of last 58 years, it can be said that to
include parliamentary system in our constitution was a positive and praisable
effort which has played an important role in the stability of Democracy in
India.
Ques3:- How will you define the term Secular? Is India a Secular state?
Ans:- The term secular means that the state has no Religion of its own. The
State is neither religious, nor anti religions. The state observes complete
neutrality in Religious matter on the basis of following given detail India can
be called a secular nation.
In the Indian Constitution, the articles 25-28 of the right to freedom
of Religion have been granted to all persons residing in India. Accordingly
by all the persons are equally entitled to freedom of conscience. Indian
citizens are free to change their religion on their own will.
Ques 4: Analyse the Relevancy of emphasis on the need
government by the constitute assembly.

of a strong

Ans. The constituent Assembly was emphasizing that the powers of the
centre had to be greatly strengthened to enable it to stop the communal riots
because this might lead many partitions of India, a strong government was
also demanded because only this could plan (Government). Only a strong
centre could plan for a well being of the country, mobilised the available
economic resources, establish a proper administration and defend the
country from any foreign aggression.
The chief reason for a strong centre was partition of India.That is why
emphsis on strong centre was being given instead of giving more autonomy
to the provinces. A strong demand for the need of centralization of the
powers was due to communal riots especially in Bengal and Punjab during
1946 1947.
By observing contemporary circumstances it is clear that demand of a
strong government at centre was relevant
142

v/;k;&15
lafo/kku fuekZ.k dk ;qx
iz'u 1& ms'; lEcU/kh izLrko gh gekjs Lora= x.kjkT; dh
tUedq.Myh gS bl dFku dh iqf"V dhft,A
mRrj & 13 fnlEcj 1946 dks if.Mr tokgj yky usg: }kjk
lafo/kku ds ms';ksa lEcU/kh izLrko lHkk esa izLrqr fd;k x;kA
usg: ds vuqlkj bl izLrko esa gekjh og vkdka{kk;sa lfEefyr
gSa ftuds fy, geus brus dBksj la?k"kZ fd;s gSa lafo/kku lHkk
bUgha ms';ksa dks lEeq[k j[kdj gekjs lafo/kku dk fuekZ.k
djsxhA
bl izLrko ls ;g fo'okl gqvk fd vYila[;dksa] fiNM+s gq,
dckbyh {ks=ksa] fiNM+h vkSj detksj tkfr;ksa ds fgr lqjf{kr
fd;s tk;saxsA izkphu vkSj egku Hkkjr ns'k fo'o esa ,d lEekutud
izfr"Bktud LFkku izkIr djsxkA
ms'; lEcU/kh izLrko ds }kjk ;g ?kks"k.kk dh xbZ fd Hkkjr
dks Lora=] iw.kZ izHkqlkk lEiUu] yksdra=kRed x.kjkT; cukuk
vko';d gSA Hkkjrh; x.kjkT; jkT;ksa dk la?k gksxk rFkk vof'k"V
'kfDr;k jkT; esa fufgr gksaxhA lafo/kku lHkk }kjk cuk;k x;k
143

lafo/kku ,slh 'kklu O;oLFkk LFkkfir djsxk ftlesa lHkh yksxksa


dks leku vkfFkZd] jktuhfrd rFkk lkekftd volj feysaxs] lekurk ds
vk/kkj ij lcdks iw.kZ U;k; feysxk rFkk lHkh yksx dkuwu dh
n`f"V ls leku gksaxsA lHkh ukxfjdksa dks vius fopkj O;Dr djus]
/keZ vkSj mikluk] dke vkSj O;kikj] lkgp;Z rFkk f;kdykiksa dh
iwjh Lora=rk gksxhA
okLro esa ms'; lEcU/kh izLrko esa os lHkh rRo 'kkfey
fd;s x;s ftu ij pydj lafo/kku lHkk dks lafo/kku cukuk FkkA
Mk- ,e-ds- eqa'kh dk ;g dFku lR; gh izrhr gksrk gS fd ms';
lEcU/kh izLrko Lora= x.kjkT; dh tUedq.Myh gSA
iz'Uk 2& Hkkjr esa lalnh; iz.kkyh dks D;ksa viuk;k x;k
gS \ D;k ;g orZeku esa Hkh izklafxd gS \
mRrj & lalnh; iz.kkyh dh eq[; fo'ks"k;rk ;g gS fd ;g
yksdra=h; dk;Zdkfj.kh dh dlkSVh ij [kjk mrjrh gS vFkkZr~ ;g
ljdkj fLFkjrk rFkk vius mkjnkf;Ro ds izfr tkx:d gksrh gSA
yksxksa dh xjhch rFkk vf'k{kk ds dkj.k dk;Zdkfj.kh dks
rkuk'kkgh izfr dks izksRlkgu feyrk gS] mkjnkf;Ro Hkh mruk
gh egoiw.kZ gS ftruk fd fLFkjrkA

144

Mk- vEcsMdj ds vuqlkj] lalnh; iz.kkyh esa ljdkj ds


mkjnkf;Ro dk izfrfnu dk rFkk FkksM+s&FkksM+s le; ds
vUrjky ds i'pkr~ vuqeku yxk;k tk ldrk gSA foxr 58 o"kks ds
vkdyu ds vk/kkj ij ;g dgk tk ldrk gS fd lafo/kku esa lalnh;
iz.kkyh dk 'kkfey djuk ,d ldkjkRed ,oa iz'kaluh; iz;kl Fkk ftlus
Hkkjr esa yksdra= ds LFkkf;Ro esa egoiw.kZ Hkwfedk vnk
dh gSA
iz'u 3& /keZfujis{k 'kCn dk D;k vFkZ gS \ D;k Hkkjr ,d
/keZfujis{k jk"V gS\
mRrj & /keZfujis{k 'kCn dk vFkZ gS & jkT; dk viuk dksbZ
/keZ ugha gksrkA jkT; u gh /kkfeZr gksrk gS vkSj u gh
xSj/kkfeZdA jkT; /kkfeZd ekeyksa esa lHkh /keksZ ds lkFk
leku O;ogkj djrk gSA
fuEufyf[kr o.kZu ds vk/kkj ij Hkkjr dks ,d /keZfujis{k
jk"V ekuk tk ldrk gS & Hkkjrh; lafo/kku ds vuqPNsn 25&28 ds
rgr Hkkjr ds lHkh fuokfl;ksa dks /keZ dh Lora=rk dk vf/kdkj
fn;k x;k gS rnuq:i lHkh ukxfjdksa dks vUr%dj.k dh Lora=rk
gSA Hkkjrh; ukxfjd viuh bPNk ls /keZ ifjorZu ds fy, Lora=
gSaA
145

iz'Uk 4& Hkkjrh; lafo/kku lHkk }kjk ,d 'kfDr'kkyh ljdkj dh


vko';drk ij fn, x;s cy dh izklafxdrk dk fo'ys"k.k dhft,A
mRrj & Hkkjrh; lafo/kku lHkk }kjk ,d 'kfDr'kkyh ljdkj dh
vko';drk ij blfy, cy fn;k tk jgk Fkk D;ksafd txg&txg gks jgh
fgald ?kVukvksa ds dkj.k ns'k ds VqdM+s&VqdM+s gksus dk
Hk; Fkk] blh dkj.k cgqr lkjs lnL; pkgrs Fks fd dsU dh
'kfDr;ksa esa Hkkjh o`f) gksuh pkfg, rkfd og lkEiznkf;d fgalk
dks jksd ldsA ,d 'kfDr'kkyh dsU dh blfy, Hkh vko';drk Fkh
rkfd og ns'k ds fgr esa ;kstuk cuk lds] miyC/k vkfFkZd
lalk/kuksa dks tqVk lds] ,d mfpr O;oLFkk LFkkfir dj lds vkSj
ns'k dks fons'kh vke.kksa ls lqjf{kr j[k ldsA
'kfDr'kkyh dsU dh LFkkiuk ij cy nsus dk loZizeq[k dkj.k
Fkk& Hkkjr dk foHkktuA blhfy, izkUrksa dks vf/kd Lok;krk
nsus ds LFkku ij ns'k esa ,dkfRed ljdkj LFkkfir djus ij cy fn;k
tkus yxkA 1946&47 bZ- esa txg&txg lkEiznkf;d naxksa ds
dkj.k Hkh 'kfDr;ksa ds dsUh;dj.k dh vko';drk vkSj Hkh tksj
idM+ xbZA
rRdkyhu ifjfLFkfr;ksa dk voyksdu djus ij ;g Li"V gksrk gS fd bl
izdkj dh fo"ke ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa ,d 'kfDrkkyh ljdkj vko;drk
izklafxd FkhA
146

&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&
&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&

147