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in fish nutrition

- Phospholipids that
make a difference
to filet quality and
- Improving survival
rates in shrimp
- Parasite Control in
European Farmed
March | April 2016

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Roger Gilbert
Professor Simon Davies
Associate Editors
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Dr Yu Yu
Dr Kangsen Mai (Chinese edition)
Editorial Advisory Panel
Abdel-Fattah M. El-Sayed (Egypt)
Professor Antnio Gouveia
Professor Charles Bai (Korea)
Colin Mair (UK)
Dr Daniel Merrifield (UK)
Dr Dominique Bureau (Canada)
Dr Elizabeth Sweetman (Greece)
Dr Kim Jauncey (UK)
Eric De Muylder (Belgium)
Dr Pedro Encarnao (Singapore)
Dr Mohammad R Hasan (Italy)
Editorial team
Eloise Hillier-Richardson
Peter Parker
Malachi Stone
Andrew Wilkinson
Roy Palmer (Editor - Asia Pacific)
International Marketing Team
Darren Parris
Tom Blacker
Latin America Marketing Team
Ivn Marquetti
Tel: +54 2352 427376


India Marketing Team

Ritu Kala
Nigeria Marketing Team
Nathan Nwosu

14 Aquaculture Training

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Expert Topic - Common Carp


Industry Events

64 The Market Place

Design Manager
James Taylor
Circulation & Events Manager
Tuti Tan

Industry News

66 The Aquafeed Interview



Industry Faces

16 Brewers yeast products - excellent for
use in aquafeeds
20 Carbohydrates in fish nutrition

24 Krill oil - phospholipids that make a

difference to filet quality and quantity

26 Improving survival rates in shrimp

30 Parasite Control in European Farmed


36 Potential abounds in Mexico

Ioannis Zabetakis

Roy Palmer

7 Dr Alexandros Samartzis



Cage culture in Indian reservoirs

50 A Breath of Fresh Air in Fish Farming

Professor Simon Davies

Croeso - welcome

Welcome to this Spring Edition of International Aquafeed

for 2016. I have just returned from a 10-day working trip
to the USA, where I visited California briefly and Atlanta,
Georgia whilst also attending the Aquaculture 2016 event
in Las Vegas on behalf of my institution, Harper Adams
University in England.
There, I was able to catch up with many friends and
associates in academia, industry and many technical areas;
with the ever expanding needs of the industry for research,
development and commerce. It was great to see so many
familiar faces and to meet many new people also engaged
in such a wide range of disciplines. The scientific talks were
interesting and covering an extensive range of issues and
The trade exhibition was well-presented by key stakeholders
and the industry including a number of feed companies,
specialists in the fish and shrimp health areas such as the
Fish Vet Group and the presence of 5M publishing and
Benchmark visible. I had many invaluable meetings and
discussions where I learned much. It was good to catch up
again with Albert Tacon and my PhD student friend and
shrimp farmer Kurt Servin from Mexico and of course

Michael New OBE with so much prior experience of major

WAS events and a Past President.
At the Paris Hotel I was interviewed on the future of fish
nutrition research and feed technology, although this is
a vast subject and difficult to do complete justice to in
such a short time frame. This was my second visit to Las
Vegas and most enjoyable too. Next time it will be just
for the shows and with so many attractions to entice your
In this issue we have our usual news, technical articles
and features with many writers and contributors providing
their expert opinions on emerging trends. We obviously
focus on the Aquafeed industry but increasingly include the
associated feed milling engineering and feed management
systems with features also bridging nutrition, health
management and disease prevention through better diets.
Our regular fish species focus is a popular section and is
helpful in providing regional spotlights on both traditional
and novel candidate fish for culture based on various
production systems.
In this current issue, we have some very exciting features to
get you in the mood for spring. As well as a report from the
World Aquaculture Summit in Las Vegas, we also have an
article by Dr Laxmappa, who has provided us with a very in
depth discussion on Indian cage fish farming. Leiber have
also been so kind as to provide us with a very informative
piece on the use of brewers yeast in aquaculture.
Watch out for our species section too, which this month
focuses on breams and carps, with a very interesting article
on lobsters included in this section too.
Our fish farming technology section features articles
written from the point of view of those who are directly
involved with the industry. This includes an article on RAS
technology from Rob Davis at AquaBiotech, one on aeration
and oxygenation from Linde Gases and a feature focussing
on graders (which was a collaboration between IAF and
Faivre), all of which are now essential techniques that serve
only to strengthen the industry.
This edition also has a very healthy events section where, as
well as our coverage and a report of our time in Las Vegas,
we have also included previews of both Aquaculture UK
and Asian Pacific Aquaculture shows.
Our interview this month is with the newly appointed president
of the World Aquacultural Society, Dr Juan Pablo Lazo. In
this interview IAF discussed Dr Lazos experiences in the
aquaculture industry, and his plans and his vision for the WAS.
Our magazine now has an excellent track record in its
translation into both Chinese and Spanish, the latter
covering all of Latin America where aquaculture has
such a great potential. We also value our strong Chinese
connections and I wish all our Chinese readers a very Happy
New Year.
Please enjoy our latest edition and keep providing us with
excellent information and world class leading articles for
Professor Simon Davies

Meet the team at up-coming international events

stand no 114

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The unique qualities enjoyed by Latin

American and Caribbean aquaculture
First of all, I would like to extend my warmest regards to all
the readers of International Aquafeed magazine. For me it is
an honour and a privilege to start writing the editorial of the
Spanish version on this prestigious magazine. I would like to
sincerely thank Roger Gilbert for the invitation and Simon
Davies for the warm welcome to the team.
As we all know, formulated feed is one of the key factors
for aquaculture development, and the Latin American and
Caribbean region has particular qualities that differentiate it
from other regions in the globe; particularities that we will
discuss in the next issues of this magazine.
Latin America and the Caribbean is, from my viewpoint,
the region with the largest aquaculture potential in the world.
Our region has unique conditions that make it the ideal place
to perform many kinds of aquaculture; although, it also
faces great challenges in topics such as inequality, poverty,
infrastructure, governability, insecurity, competitiveness and
capacity building.
During my career I have had the opportunity to experiment
aquaculture through the producer, government, academic, and
service provider perspectives; as well as I have represented
the aquaculture sector in several international arenas. I hope
that during the next issues of International Aquafeed I could
share what I learned and perceived through those years as well
as comment the most relevant regional and global events that
directly or indirectly impact the aquaculture activity.
Today the Latin American and Caribbean regions represent
only a small portion of the global seafood production; also
Latin America has an annual consumption per capita below the
world average. There are a large percentage of small farms,
most of whom are under the production equilibrium threshold
and contribute only a small portion of the total production.
There is also a few farms that contribute to almost all of it. In
most cases, in the region, we have to reinvent the way that we
perform aquaculture.
I think it is important to remark that although we should
never forget about the large producers, we also need to
focus our efforts in the small ones that can still grow and
be competitive in the globalized economy; the potential is
enormous. Aquaculture can become one of the best tools to
avoid major migrations from the rural areas to the cities as
well as it could be a major engine for wealth generation and
economic development.
Aquaculture is change, innovation, progress; but most of all
it is an activity that involves much, but very much, passion.
I hope I will be able to share some of it with you during the
upcoming issues. See you soon.
Antonio Garza de Yta, Ph.D.
Director, World Aquaculture Society (WAS)

Dr Antonio Garza de Yta. Bachelor of Science

in Chemical Engineering from the Instituto
Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de
Monterrey, Campus Monterrey (1997). M.Sc. (2001)
and Ph.D. in Aquaculture (2009) from Auburn
University. He is also the Director General
for Planning, Programming and Evaluation
of the National Commission for Aquaculture
and Fisheries in Mexico (CONAPESCA).

Ioannis Zabetakis

Why whole fish is better than oil extracts?

here are an increasing number of papers and reports
suggesting that the nutritional value of whole fish
is higher than the one of fish oil extracts. This
is a rather interesting area for aquaculture and
pharmaceutical industries, since many neutraceutical
and pharmaceutical products, claiming that they
are good sources of Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids, are in fact
extracts. Are these products really efficient in protecting us against
the onset of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs)?
Given that theory guides, experiment decides, we decided
to compare head to head a whole fish to an oil extract. We chose
sardines and cod liver oil. So the aim of our study was to compare
the biological activities of polar lipids of sardine fillets and cod liver
oil against atherogenesis.
The total polar lipids of these two sources were extracted and
fractionated by TLC and these fractions were assessed for their
ability to inhibit the platelet-activating-factor (PAF)-induced platelet
aggregation (PAF-antagonists) or to induce platelet aggregation
(PAF-agonists), since PAF plays a crucial role in the initiation and
development of atherosclerosis.
We chose to focus on the polar lipids since previous studies have
underlined that the antithrombotic properties of foodstuffs are
mainly attributed to polar lipid micro-constituents.
We found that sardine fillet polar lipids induced platelet
aggregation, while the polar lipids of cod liver oil had a bimodal
effect on platelets. Overall, sardine polar lipid fractions showed
stronger in vitro antithrombotic activities than the cod liver oil
ones. It could be thus suggested that for the prevention of CVDs,
the nutritional value of whole sardines is rather higher than the one
of cod liver oil.
It should be also highlighted that sardines lipids were found to
consist of about 58 percent polar lipids as opposed to cod liver oil
that contained only 1 percent of polar lipids. This data suggests that
in the manufacturing process of cod liver oil as it is carried out
today by leading pharmaceutical manufacturers, the polar lipids of
oils are not extracted and this has rather important negative effect on
the nutritional value of the final extract in relation to the prevention
of CVDs.
We would suggest that the extraction and purification industrial
processes should be re-evaluated with the view to obtain a final
extract richer in polar lipids.
After an Academic career spanning 12 years in
the Univ. of Athens, Ioannis joined University of
Limerick (UL) as a Lecturer on Food Lipids where
the ongoing focus of his work will be towards the
cardioprotective properties of food lipids with particular
emphasis on dairy and aquaculture products.

International Aquafeed - March | April 2016 | 3

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Roy Palmer

Charity Commission of the UK has confirmed that the

registration of Aquaculture without Frontiers

his year has got off with a big bang as far

as Aquaculture without Frontiers (AwF)
is concerned and generally we could not
be happier with its progress; although
we will not be resting on our laurels as
we still have much to do.
The giant news was that The Charity Commission
of the UK has confirmed that the registration of
Aquaculture without Frontiers (AwF UK), as a
Charitable Incorporated Organisation. AwF (UK) CIO
status will see a few changes to AwF (USA-Global) and
AwF (Australia) in that it will connect with the milling
and grain industry as well as its usual connections with
the seafood industry.
This new UK charity will see a unique program
created, initially called Loaves and Fishes, which will
enable it to attract donators, sponsors and supporters to
engage in either milling and/or aquaculture programs as
they are established.
Roger Gilbert, publisher of this magazine, is the
inaugural Chairman and Trustee for AwF (UK) CIO.
Rogers company produces Milling and Grain magazine
(first published in 1891), the International Milling and
Grain Directory as well as this magazine.
Milling is pivotal to affordable, safe and plentiful
food supplies from flour, cereal and rice-based
foodstuffs to animal feed rations, our publications deal
in technological advancement throughout the transport,
storage and production chain and in nutritional
developments that improve the efficiency and safety of
food production globally Mr Gilbert said, adding that
As the industrys oldest magazine, we are particularly
keen to see the continued and timely transfer of that
information to make a difference in the poorer countries
of the world.

Establishing the charity

Our first actions will be to establish a strong, skilled

Board and to start the process to undertake projects that
are consistent with AwF UKs objectives. Now that we
have the approval in place we can start getting our plans
moving. The UK will allow us to have that north-south
type of arrangement, through which we can utilise

connections that are already in place in the UK with

Africa, and then build on these relationships.
Cliff Spencer, CEO of the United Nations-backed
Global Biotechnology Transfer Foundation (already has
a MoU with AwF) and Goodwill Ambassador for the
New Partnership for Africas Development (NEPAD)
has agreed to join the charitys new board.
We are also very thankful for the effort of Simon Birks,
Director, Sherbornes Solicitors Limited; in being very
thorough with the administration involved in setting up
a charity will be working with us into the future.
Roger and I discussed the new organisation, following
the announcement, in a short video which can be viewed
We have worked with WAS-APC is providing the
opportunity for students and female aquaculture people
to attendAsia Pacific Aquaculture 2016, which takes
place from the 26th to 29th April 2016.
The awardees are Menaga Meenakshisundaram;
Nikoleta Ntalamagka; Arlyn Mandas; Christopher
Ongko; Amit Ranjan; Claudia Miglietta; Vaishali Joshi
and Renata Melon Barroso. We at AwF are looking
forward to seeing them at the event in Surabaya,
At that event the WAS Board alsoapprovedthe
M.C.Nandeesha Award which will be held for the first
time at APA16. The award will be for the Best Young
Scientist Presentation in Aquaculture/Sustainable
Small-Scale Aquaculture Programs/ Research and
Dissemination/Gender Studies is strongly based on
what Nandeesha would have wanted for this award.
Nandeesha was a great champion for AwF.

AwFs first board meeting

Aquaculture without Frontiers (AwF) held its first

board meeting on the east coast USA during the annual
Seafood Expo North America (SENA) event in Boston,
The current board acknowledged the fine efforts of John
Forster who was not seeking re-election on the board
but had agreed to stay engaged with the organisation by
being one of the leaders of the new Technical Advisory
Group. Additionally the board thanked John Cooksey

4 | March | April 2016 - International Aquafeed

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for his extraordinary efforts in being Treasurer/Secretary

since inception and who had resigned due to an increased
workload and has been replaced by Dave Conley. We also
decided to expand the size of the board and are excited
to announce that the three new members approved were
Albert G.J. Tacon Ph.D; Ms Polly Legendre and Michael
D. Lee Ph.D.
All three new board members bring new skills and
experience to AwF at an important time. Albert, a
well credentialed write for this magazine, is a 40 year
well seasoned and travelled aquaculture professional
with experience in research and development, with
a specialty focus on aquatic feeds and nutrition and a
large global following. Albert is well known throughout
the global aquaculture industry and is keen to bring his
know-how to assist our organisation.
Polly is a Founding Principal of Polished, a specialised
marketing group with headquarters in San Francisco
and was the first American to graduate from the Ecole
Suprieure de Cuisine Franaise, working/cooking for
nine years in some of the top, Michelin-starred kitchens
in Paris. Branding strategy and communications are
Pollys strong skills along with her infectious energy.
Michael is Director of International Studies at the
California State University (CSU) East Bay campus
advising approximately 80 majors and teaching a
capstone course on globalisation and international
development. He is also Director of Education
and Policy for the CSUs Moss Landing Marine
Laboratories Aquaculture Centre. Michaels current
research interests are focused on determining the full
life cycle costs of aquaculture production in California.
The new board members will join Mary Larkin, Gorjan
Nikolik, Cormac OSullivan, Dave Conley and Roy
Palmer making a new board of 8 people. Agreement
was reached to meet on a quarterly basis so there could
be more consistent involvement of the board.
The AwF board learned that through the new
arrangements with Florida Atlantic University (FAU)
we have been invited to submit a full application
proposal for the 2016 Farmer-to-Farmer Small Grants
competition following the approval of the concept
The newly-formed partnership between FAUs
Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute (HBOI) and
Aquaculture without Frontiers (AwF) will see both
organisations work jointly on projects which emanate
from the US.
Facilitating self-sufficiency and sustainability is
critical in helping to alleviate hunger and malnutrition
worldwide, and we are very excited to join forces with
Aquaculture without Frontiers to address this important
need, said Megan Davis, Ph.D., HBOI interim
executive director and a leading aquaculture researcher,
adding that Aquaculture is perhaps our best hope to
feed our ever-growing global population. As a good
source of protein, fish are much more efficient to raise
than other leading sources of protein, which require
huge amounts of grain and water to grow big enough
to eat.
HBOI has well-established multi-species aquaculture
production, nutrition research, and aquatic animal

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health laboratory infrastructures, and is a world leader

in aquaculture research, development, training and
education. HBOI recently also entered into a partnership
with Zeigler Bros., Inc. to collaborate on the development
of high quality and more sustainable shrimp feeds. The
work involves applied studies on how diet affects the
growth, health and quality of shrimp and fish.

Aquaculture can contribute towards poverty


In addition to the health benefits of fish, aquaculture

can contribute towards poverty alleviation, food
security, and social well-being, said Marty Riche,
Ph.D., HBOI research professor in fish nutrition. By
teaching and training farmers to grow native fish species,
to incorporate locally available feed ingredients, to
develop and follow bio-security protocols and to reuse
fish effluents to irrigate row crops, vegetables, and
tree crops, fish farmers can develop truly sustainable
farming methods.
Riche and Paul Wills, Ph.D., HBOI research professor
and associate directer for research, along with Antonio
Garza De Yta (Mexico & Latin America) and I
presented at the AwF Session at Aquaculture 2016 in
Las Vegas and held further discussions regarding the
Founded in 1971, Harbor Branch Oceanographic
Institute at Florida Atlantic University is a research
community of marine scientists, engineers, educaters
and other professionals focused on Ocean Science
for a Better World. The institute drives innovation in
ocean engineering, at-sea operations, drug discovery
and biotechnology from the oceans, coastal ecology
and conservation, marine mammal research and
conservation, aquaculture, ocean observing systems and
marine education. For more information, visitwww.

We need to build on our collaborations

I was able to have many meetings in Washington

D.C recently establishing contact with many charity
and NGO organisations ensuring that we build on
collaborations through our arrangements with the
Volunteers Economic Growth Alliance.
Finally Dr. Veikila Vuki (Fiji) and Professor Indah
Susilowati (Indonesia) were announced as February
and March Women of the Month respectively. It is
always fascinating to read such fascinating stories
about women in aquaculture/fisheries who make such a
fabulous contribution to the cause.
If you would like to nominate a woman to be the next
Woman of the Month, please check the website for the
criteria and nominate on the form provided.
Roy Palmer is the Executive Director
at Aquaculture without Frontiers,
Executive Director at Association of
International Seafood Professionals and
Chairman at Global Initiative for Life &
leadership through Seafood (GILLS)

International Aquafeed - March | April 2016 | 5

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Shaping the future of salmon farming through Modern Apprenticeship

Modern Apprenticeship programmes are shaping the next generation of talent.

bove are the words of Scott Landsburgh, chief

executive of Scottish Salmon Producers
Organisation as Scotlands salmon farmers
celebrate the success of its Modern Apprenticeships (MAs)
during Scottish Modern Apprenticeship Week.
At the close of 2015, salmon farmers reported
88 employees had successfully completed Modern
Apprenticeships at levels two and three while a further 74
employees signed up to new MA programmes.
Mr Landsburgh continues: Thriving businesses need a
workforce to help them face the future with confidence.
Recruiting people on Modern Apprenticeships helps
farmers fill skill
gaps within
the workforce,
sustainability while
arming the younger
generation with the
specialist knowledge
they need to succeed.
Living and
working in remote
areas of the
Highlands and
Islands can make
finding long-term
and well-paid
careers challenging.
However, MAs
offer employees
formal education,
qualifications and
career progression
opportunities where
they live and work
and choose to raise
their families.
opportunities are
open to school
leavers and to
existing staff
with a number of
experienced staff
who have already
completed this path
to further study and
potential career advancement.
Some of the employees already benefitting from MAs
include 31-year-old Hayley Eccles from Strathcarron
in the Highlands. She has recently finished a Modern
Apprenticeship SVQ Level 3 in Aquaculture at Scottish
Sea Farms and Inverness College UHI. Hayley works as a
Freshwater Technician at the Couldoran Hatchery in Kishorn.
Her devotion to animal welfare is one of her key attributes,
which is vital for someone working in a salmon hatchery.

Lisa Askham, aged 24 from Lochcarron, has completed

a Modern Apprenticeship SVQ Level 2 in Aquaculture
at Inverness College UHI. She works as a Freshwater
Operative at Russelburn Hatchery, Kishorn, owned by
The Scottish Salmon Company. Lisa is a competent fast
learner and understands the importance of fish health, fish
husbandry, and the importance of a stable environment to
maximise production and ensure the fish are stress free and
29-year-old Martin Mladenov has completed his Modern
Apprenticeship SVQ Level 3 in Aquaculture at Scottish
Sea Farms (SSF) and NAFC Marine Centre, part of
the University of
Highlands and
Islands. Martin
is working at a
for SSF, which
involves feeding and
monitoring salmon,
observing behaviour,
taking weekly
samples and making
sure they remain
healthy. His ambition
is to become site
manager one day.
In recognition
for their efforts,
Hayley, Lisa and
Martin have been
nominated as finalists
at the prestigious
LANTRA Learner
of the Year awards
this year. Selected
from nominations
across Scotland, the
award recognises and
rewards exceptional
individuals within the
environmental and
land-based industries.
The winner will
be announced at a
prestigious ceremony
later this week.
From an industry
perspective, MAs
have been key to
developing a committed and competent workforce,
helping to increase productivity and improving
business performance. Investing in skills and training
demonstrates we are looking after our businesses to
ensure they have every opportunity to realise their
full potential in years to come. Scotlands economy
continues to benefit from a highly skilled workforce
using the latest technological advancements, says Mr

6 | March | April 2016 - International Aquafeed

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Dr Alexandros Samartzis

Raw material variability: Impact on feed formulation

ormulating aquaculture feeds may be a very
exciting process, but it is equally challenging
and demanding. There are a great number
of parameters that have to be taken into
consideration and an even greater number of
restrictions that have to be managed.
Feed quality is mainly driven by three factors; knowledge
of nutritional requirements of each target species, the
manufacturing processes employed and finally; the raw
ingredients used.
The quality and dietary composition of the raw ingredients
are influenced by the nutritional value, type, quality,
inclusion levels, price, regulatery limitations; among
others. The feed quality and cost is a key consideration
when selecting the raw ingredients based on actual nutrient
contents and monitoring their variation; not only their price
and nutrient profile.
The nutrient variation in raw ingredients will ultimately
result in increased variation of nutrients in the final feed.
The factors contributing to that mainly include genetics,
environmental conditions and current season. The nutrients
provided (food or soil fertility respectively for animal and

Argentinian SBM contains higher Met (percentage of CP)

level compared with SBM originated from India.
In general the information regarding the nutrient content
of raw ingredients can be obtained from various sources.
But it has to be highlighted the importance of consistent
and methodical analysis of the raw ingredients and in
contrast to book and other sources values that are usually
outdated and less accurate.
Wet chemistry analytical laboratories that most feed
mills have for proximate analysis are vital for the quality
control of the raw ingredients; and the feeds consequently.
However, the accuracy and precision of the procedures
should be constantly calibrated.
A significantly more economic, fast and reliable
method that is established worldwide is the near infrared
reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS). The whole idea behind
NIRS is the different chemical bonds (within the various
organic components) will absorb and reflect light to
different degrees (i.e. for AA predictions the NIR spectral
is between 1,100 and 2,500nm).
The accuracy of the predictions is heavily relied on the
accuracy of the calibration equations, which are crated based

plant protein sources) prior to harvest. Equally factors like

temperature and pressure during the manufacturing and
finally storage and transportation condition and analytical
methodologies after the manufacturing process.
In practice, we can observe higher variability in animal
compared with plant protein sources. The main two and
most commonly used protein sources from each category
are fish meal (FM) and soybean meal (SBM).
It is the exceptional nutritional properties of FM that
made it the raw ingredient of choice, since the dawn of
the industry. In this particular raw ingredient the seasonal
differences of production and the species (or type, i.e.
seafood waste) used mainly contribute to the variations.
Although, if we plot SBM from two different countries
(i.e. India and Argentina) we will observe variations in Met
(Percentage of CP) and CP, where for the same CP level the

on the wet chemistry data. The overall benefit of analysing

the raw ingredient and understanding the nutritional
profile variations, comes down to obtaining precise and
indispensable knowledge of the feed components and finally
being able to create an aquaculture feed customised to the
targeted species by meeting its nutritional requirements on
the lowest production cost possible.

Dr. Alexandros Samartzis, is the Aquaculture

Technical Sales Manager for Evonik (SEA) Pte.
Ltd., based in Singapore. He holds an MRes
and PhD in fish nutrition from the University
of Plymouth, UK. Also he has an MBA from
the Agricultural University of Athens, GR.

International Aquafeed - March | April 2016 | 7

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FAUs Harbour Branch, Aquaculture without Frontiers partner to

alleviate poverty and malnutrition

HBOI Aquaculture Facility: Megan Davis, PhD (pictured on the left) and
Marty Riche, PhD, overseeing production, nutrition research, and aquatic
animal health laboratory infrastructures in HBOIs well-established multispecies aquaculture facility.

he old proverbial saying, Give a man a fish and

you feed him for a day. Teach a man to fish and you
feed him for a lifetime, aptly describes the newlyformed partnership between Florida Atlantic Universitys
Harbour Branch Oceanographic Institute (HBOI) and
Aquaculture without Frontiers (AwF), a global nonprofit
organisation. HBOI and AwF will work jointly to support
and promote responsible and sustainable aquaculture
farming to help enhance food security and alleviate
poverty and malnutrition in developing and impoverished
Discussions between HBOI and AwF are under way for
the first joint project, which is expected to commence
mid-year and will involve a number of countries in Africa.
It is expected that the partnership will concentrate efforts
on Africa and Latin America in the early stages. Working
together, the organisations will advance aquaculture
in these developing countries to provide much-needed
protein sources as well as economic stimulus through
diversification of livelihoods and sustainability of coral
reefs that are vital to maintaining healthy ecosystems.
The farming of aquatic organisms includes fish, molluscs,
crustaceans and aquatic plants.
Facilitating self-sufficiency and sustainability is critical
in helping to alleviate hunger and malnutrition worldwide,
and we are very excited to join forces with Aquaculture
without Frontiers to address this important need, said
Megan Davis, PhD, HBOI interim executive director and a
leading aquaculture researcher.
Aquaculture is perhaps our best hope to feed our evergrowing global population. As a good source of protein,
fish are much more efficient to raise than other leading
sources of protein, which require huge amounts of grain
and water to grow big enough to eat.
HBOI has well-established multi-species aquaculture
production, nutrition research, and aquatic animal health
laboratory infrastructures, and is a world leader in
aquaculture research, development, training and education.
Aquaculture without Frontiers believes that by
collaborating and working with like-minded organisations
such as Florida Atlantic University, we will be able
to make major contributions to the core of our main

Aquaculture Kenya: The Farmer-to-Farmer program

at work in a small town in Kenya, Africa, teaches small
groups how to increase economic development and
food security using aquaculture to farm fish.

objectives, said Roy Palmer, executive director of AwF.

We are very excited about the arrangement and
discussions we are having about the future with FAU.
AwF is a member of the Volunteers for Economic
Growth Alliance (VEGA), which is a global network
of experienced volunteers who are committed to be a
catalyst for change as a means to improve the nutrition
and health of people and to foster social and economic
development through supporting responsible and
sustainable aquaculture. The United States Agency for
International Development (USAID) founded VEGA in
2004 to be a procurement partner. More than 10 years later,
VEGA stands on its own as a respected non-governmental
organisation with alliances with other member institutions.
AwF believes that aquaculture is critical to underpin the
future health of all humans by providing the essential
nutrients and vitamins currently missing from many diets,
and at an affordable price.
In addition to the health benefits of fish, aquaculture
can contribute to poverty alleviation, food security, and
social well-being, said Marty Riche, PhD, HBOI research
professor in fish nutrition.
By teaching and training farmers to grow native fish
species, to incorporate locally available feed ingredients,
to develop and follow bio-security protocols and to reuse
fish effluents to irrigate row crops, vegetables, and tree
crops, fish farmers can develop truly sustainable farming
Mr Riche and Paul Wills, PhD, HBOI research professor
and associate director for research, will be presenting at
the AwF Session at Aquaculture America in Las Vegas on
Friday, February 26 when further discussions will be held.
According to the Hunger Project, 795 million people,
or one in nine people worldwide, do not have enough to
eat, and 98 percent of the worlds undernourished people
live in developing countries. Seventy-five percent of the
worlds poorest people, 1.4 billion women, children and
men, live in rural areas and depend on agriculture and
related activities for their livelihood. The World Food
Programme states that hunger is the No 1 cause of death
in the world, killing more than HIV/AIDS, malaria, and
tuberculosis combined.

8 | March | April 2016 - International Aquafeed

Predictable performance

May the force be with you!

SMn-A-AP-15.07-EN Avalone
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PanLogica working with innovative Cobia producer Open Blue

Tasmanian company who plays a vital role in more

than one quarter of the worlds farmed Atlantic
salmon production is now helping innovative deep
ocean fish farming company Open Blue in Panama.
PanLogica is a Hobart-based company that provides
unique and world leading value chain planning software
called Neptune.
Neptune takes account of financial, biological and
processing considerations for the aquaculture sector
and allows decision makers to consider literally
millions of potential outcomes to any planning
situation and choose the most sustainable and
profitable one for the business.
Open Blue is an innovative new company who farm a
popular species of fish called Cobia in submerged pens 8
miles off the Panama coast.
The submerged pens in strong ocean currents facilitate
water circulation resulting in excellent fish health and
improved environmental outcomes.
Excellence and innovation is at the heart of everything
that we do at Open Blue and we see the same attributes
in PanLogica. Neptune will enable us to explore the best

plans for Open Blue to deliver the perfect fish to our global
customers said Shayne De Lima, Director of Corporate
Development at Open Blue Sea Farms.
We are thrilled to be working with such an exciting
company, especially given their innovative approach to
aquaculture and environmental sustainability, Dr David
Wright said.
Neptune helps our clients produce fish in the most
efficient and environmentally sustainable way, and it
has huge potential to expand into other aquaculture
opportunities such as shellfish and other fish species.
We are very lucky to be working with some of the most
exciting aquaculture companies in the world, while being
based here in Tasmania, Dr Wright said.
The relationship with our customers such as Marine
Harvest and Huon Aquaculture has been one of the
foundations for us to continue to grow and innovate with
our product.
Huon Aquaculture is widely recognised as one of the
most innovative aquaculture companies in the world, and
Marine Harvest is listed on the New York and Oslo stock
exchanges and is the largest producer in the world.

50 percent of shrimp feed produced in Mexico in 2015

contained Calibrin-Z

ifty percent of shrimp feed

produced in Mexico in 2015
contained Calibrin-Z to fight the
damaging effects of Early Mortality
Syndrome (EMS) with positive
feedback given by current customers.
The Calibrin-Z market penetration
rate was significant as the product was
introduced to the Mexican market just
months earlier.
Calibrin-Z is a bacterial toxin
control product that protects the

hepatopancreas from the damaging

effects of EMS in shrimp, which was
first reported in Mexico in 2013.
This fairly new disease appears
during the first seven to 30 days after
planting and is caused by toxins
secreted by the bacteria Vibrio
parahaemolyticus (V.p.).
V .p. is transmitted orally and
colonises the shrimps gastrointestinal
tract, causing tissue destruction and
dysfunction of the vital digestive

organ, hepatopancreas.
Calibrin-Z works by adsorbing
the V.p. bacterial toxin in the body,
thereby increasing the rate of survival
in a shrimp crop.
Studies have shown improvements in
survivability, up to 84 perecent versus
controls, when shrimp challenged with
the V.p. toxin were fed Calibrin-Z.
EMS is characterised by a high
mortality rate, often reaching 100 percent
within the first 30 days. The complete
studies, which can be found here, were
conducted at the University of Arizona.

10 | March | April 2016 - International Aquafeed

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ASC appoints four new members to Supervisory Board

he Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC) is
pleased to announce that Aldin Hilbrands, Meghan
Jeans, Scott Nichols, and Ling Cao have joined the
ASC Supervisory Board.
Im excited that Ling, Scott, Aldin and Meghan have
joined the board of the ASC, said Chris Ninnes, CEO of
We look for talented, exceptional individuals to expand
our capacity to provide an effective programme for
responsible aquaculture and we are fortunate to have found
four outstanding additions to our board.
Their expertise will be an enormous advantage in
our mission to transform the aquaculture industry. The
combination of academic, industry and global business
insights they bring will be key to our ongoing efforts
to meet the growing demand for responsibly farmed
fish, and to communicate the value of our certification

Aldin Hilbrands

Aldin Hilbrands is the Technical

Director of FSSC 22000, an agency
created by the Foundation for Food
Safety Certification to help businesses
effectively manage food safety issues.
He also serves as the Director of
Aquaculture with IDH, the Sustainable

Trade Initiative.
Aldin previously worked for Royal Ahold and has served
in many different capacities on boards and working groups
of leading organisations such as the Global Food Safety
Initiative (GFSI), British Retail Consortium (BRC),
International Featured Standards (IFS), GlobalGAP,
Global Social Compliance Program (GSCP), Business
Social Compliance Initiative (BSCI), European Animal
Welfare Platform (EAWP), Marine Stewardship Council
(MSC), Marine Aquarium Council (MAC), and recently
co-founded the Global Seafood Sustainability Initiative
Aldin earned a Masters Degree in Animal Husbandry,
Aquaculture & Fisheries from Wageningen University.

Meghan Jeans, JD

Meghan Jeans is the Director of

Conservation at the New England
Aquarium in Boston, Massachusetts
where she oversees work related to
seafood sustainability, ocean policy and
marine protected area management.
She also serves as an advisor to the
Fair Trade USA, the International Sustainable Seafood
Foundation (ISSF), and the Marine Stewardship Council

(MSC). Previously, Meghan directed the Fisheries

Leadership and Sustainability Forum at Stanford
An environmental lawyer, Meghan worked in fisheries
and marine wildlife conservation for Ocean Conservancy,
the Marine Fish Conservation Network, the Conservation
Law Foundation and the National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). She also served as
an attorney and policy advisor in Kauai, Hawaii and the
British Virgin Islands.
Meghan attended Colby College where she received a
BA in Biology and Environmental Science. She earned
a JD and Masters of Studies in Environmental Law from
Vermont Law School.

Scott Nichols, PhD

Scott Nichols is the founder of

Foods Future, a consultancy dedicated
to providing economically and
environmentally sustainable food for an
expanding world.
Before founding his own consultancy,
Scott worked at DuPont, where he led
the project to develop Verlasso, a new brand of farmed
salmon produced with a low dependence on forage
fisheries, developed in a joint project with AquaChile.
Verlasso became the first ocean-raised farmed salmon
to achieve a Seafood Watch good alternative ranking.
Previously, he worked extensively on biodiversity projects
in Africa and South America.
Scott earned both his BS in Biochemistry and his PhD
in Biochemistry and Metabolism from the University
of California at Los Angeles, and is a graduate of the
University of Pennsylvania Wharton School Advanced
Management Program.

Ling Cao, PhD

Ling Cao is a Research Scholar at the

Stanford University Woods Institute for
the Environment. She is trained as an
agronomist and environmental scientist,
and has focused on interdisciplinary
research at the interface between the
sustainability of food and natural systems.
Lings dissertation quantitatively assessed the
sustainability of emerging shrimp farming systems and
technologies, with a focus on applying these results
to producers and consumers in China and the US. She
is primarily working on issues related to aquaculture,
fisheries, and food security in China.
Ling completed her PhD in Natural Resources and the
Environment at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Do you want more industry news?

The Aquaculturists blog is part of International Aquafeed magazine. While the bi-monthly magazine covers
aquafeed issues in-depth, the Aquaculturists takes a lighter approach. Our columnists have a keen eye for
the most interesting, relevant and (lets face it) bizarre aquaculture stories from across the world.
Each weekday we scour the internet for top-notch news and package it for your perusal in one neat daily
digest. We welcomed over 25,000 unique visitors to our blog this past month.

International Aquafeed - March | April 2016 | 11

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Outsourcing solutions
for manufacturers
of functional
ingredients and food

t this years Vitafoods,

SternMaid will present its wide
offer of services.
These range from blending, drying
and processing to a complete package
that includes purchase of raw materials,
co-packing, warehousing and delivery.
The contract manufacturer has facilities
for blending and optimising practically
any product in the food or life science
industry and packaging it as requested.
State-of-the-art fluid bed technology,
for example, makes it possible to adjust
and standardise the properties of foods,
ingredients and food supplements to
meet individual requirements.
From instantisation, dust reduction
and solubility to microencapsulation
of active ingredients fluid bed
technology offers an enormous
range of possibilities for optimising
lifestyle and health products such as
dietetic drinks, protein preparations,
dry beverage bases and specialities
for athletes. Since the process can be
carried out at low temperatures, the
products are normally only exposed
to moderate heating between 30
and 50C. This serves to protect
heat-sensitive ingredients such as
flavourings, vitamins and peptides,

maintaining their nutritional and

functional properties.
Besides presenting different
processing methods, SternMaid
will give an insight into its blending
capabilities. The company has a total
of eight blending lines to meet all
manner of different requirements.
On all the lines, liquid ingredients
can be sprayed onto the powder
homogeneously through special
nozzles. This permits extremely fine
distribution of microcomponents such
as flavourings, oils or emulsifiers.
For highly sensitive applications like
allergen-free foods, SternMaid has a

SternMaids state-of-the-art fluid bed technology makes it possible to adjust and

standardise the properties of foods, ingredients and food supplements to meet individual

SAIC in new collaboration with

leading European institute

completely separate and independent

section of the plant with a countercurrent container blending unit
designed to pharmaceutical standards.
In the co-packing sector, too,
SternMaid has the latest packaging
lines and the necessary know-how for
filling both large industrial containers
and consumer packs for the retail trade.
Besides filling sacks, fibreboard boxes
and FIBCs, the lines can handle cans,
tubular bags and folding boxes in sizes
from 50 to 5000 grams.
Vitafoods 2016 will take place on 1012 May 2016 in Geneva, Switzerland.
SternMaid will be at Stand E69.

n a move to advance work in its four priority

innovation areas (PIAs), the Scottish Aquaculture
Innovation Centre (SAIC) has entered into a new
collaboration with Nofima, one of Europes leading
institutes for applied research into aquaculture, fisheries
and food.
The new Strategic Research Collaboration (SRC) will
see SAIC and Nofima work together on projects of mutual
interest. In particular, those addressing SAICs four PIAs:
sea lice control, sustainable feeds, rapid detection of
pathogens and diseases, and shellfish spat.
A Letter of Intent setting out shared objectives and goals
for an initial period of three years was signed during a
recent visit to the institutes head office in Tromso, where
representatives from SAIC, the Institute of Aquaculture
and the University of Stirling were given a behind-thescenes tour of Nofimas ground-breaking research facilities
and activities.

Commenting on the new collaboration, SAIC CEO

Heather Jones said: This is a must-seize opportunity for
SAIC to join forces with one of Europes leading names
in aquaculture research and deliver real competitive
advantage to the industry. The new SRC will enable us to
forge a close working relationship with Nofima; access an
even broader range of competencies; and explore possible
avenues of funding together.
Added Nofima Aquaculture Director Nils Haga:
Scotland and Norway are two of the most dominant and
dynamic forces in aquaculture. Now, thanks to the new
SRC, we can bring our collective vision, expertise and
resources together to make even more significant advances
for challenges common to the fish farming industries in our
countries and in Europe.
Keen to capitalise on the new collaboration as soon
as possible, SAIC will be involved in the Nofimachaired ZERO LICE workshop at the North Atlantic
Seafood Forum (NASF) meeting, 1-3 March in Bergen,
aimed at coordinated industry innovation. In addition,
Nofima are invited to participate in SAIC workshops at
AquacultureUK 2016, 25 & 26 May in Aviemore.

12 | March | April 2016 - International Aquafeed

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015 has been a very important and significant year for

Ferraz in terms of sales and brand consolidation in
many countries around the world, especially in Latin
America. Companies that were already customers purchased
once again new equipment and complete factories projects
as well as the development of a number of new customers.
Last year, Ferraz expanded its presence to more than 30
countries around the world, indicating that it is still one of
the largest manufacturers of extruder feed of the world and
has a strong presence in the global market.
There were installed 06 factories in Africa, Middle East,
Latin America and the Caribbean, representing 20 percent
more than 2014. Even in 2015, Ferraz participated in
important international trade fairs, such as Agrena and
AquaMe in the Middle East and Egypt, with the purpose of
bringing its own technology to external markets and create
new partnerships.
Among its major new projects, Ferraz can highlight
a complete production line for laminated feed with a
production capacity of 3 tons/hour for Sky Complex
Company located in Asuncion, Paraguay. In the same
country, specifically in Fram city, Ferraz sold a complete
extrusion feed line with a capacity of 6 tons/hour to
Trociuk Company.
In Venezuela, Ferraz closed two important sales: for the
Total Group, a complete factory with a production capacity

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Ferraz and its presence abroad

during 2015

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of 10 tons/hour of feed meal and 6 tons/hour of pelleted feed;

for Marco Technology, an entire factory whose machines
and equipment are made all in stainless steel and which will
produce extruded rice at a rate of about 3 000 kg/hour.
In Guayaquil, Ecuador, Ferraz sold the Agripac company
a complete plant for the production of extruded feed, with
a production capacity of about 4000 kg/hour. In Peru,
Ferraz sold various equipment for their client Rinti S/A,
located in Lima: the clients factory will have a production
capacity of approximately 15 tons/hour of extruded feed
and most of its equipment is supplied by Ferraz - the new
model M-1200 mill and model MH-4000 mixer both
making their debuts.
So far, Ferraz have already exported three consignments
of equipment in 2016: an E-100 extruder will be installed
in Santa Cruz de La Sierra, Bolivia for the CEPAC
company, the Forrajes El Palmito company in Jalisco,
Mexico has taken receipt of one M-700 mill and one
E-200R extruder and the Extrusion-Link company in
England has bought a pre-conditioner extruder.
In 2016, Ferraz plans to increase its share of exports in
relation to sales as a whole, since in 2015 it reached 20
percent. For that, Ferraz will strengthen their partnerships
with local representatives, increasing their sales team
and trained technicians in order to meet and offer a better
commercial and technical support to the foreign market,
investing in participation in more international trade fairs
and events, expanding their participation which already
includes countries such as Mexico, United States, Holland,
Egypt, United Arab Emirates and others.

International Aquafeed - March | April 2016 | 13

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The Memorial University Fisheries and Marine
Institute will inaugurate the new Master of Marine
Studies in Marine Spatial
Planning (MSP) and
Management, the first
graduate program of its kind
in Canada, in September
Marine spatial planning is an
emerging and important field
that is gaining prominence as
global demands on our coastal
spaces and oceans increase,
said Carey Bonnell, head of the
Marine Institutes School of
We want to position our
graduates to apply technologysupported knowledge and expertise and provide the best
advice to sustain and use our marine resources through

marine spatial

responsible ocean economic activity.

The program focuses on governance, policy/
legislative, ecological, socio-economic, cultural,
and technological elements of sustainable ocean and
coastal zone development, planning and management.
Students will study the mapping and analysis of human
activities and environmental features as part of planning
environmentally/economically sustainable use of coastal
and marine environments. Students will also learn conflict
management and facilitation to effectively engage coastal
and ocean regulators and stakeholders.
The program has been developed with input from
international MSP experts from western Canada, the
USA, Ireland, Scotland and the Netherlands, who also
serve as key contacts for international internships and
research projects. The WOC looks forward to engaging
program participants as interns.
More information is available at
or by contacting Krista Sweetland at 709-778-0395 or

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14 | March | April 2016 - International Aquafeed




An international event with visitors from over 30 countries, meet:


Visit for more information
or contact


- excellent for use in aquafeeds

by Dr. Holger Khlwein, Leiber GmbH, Germany

Inactivated, unextracted brewers yeast

rewers yeast and derived products

have been successfully used in animal
nutrition, including aquafeeds, for
several decades now. Leiber GmbH,
with two production sites in Germany
and further facilities in Poland and
Russia, have manufactured brewers
yeast products for more than 60 years.
The following article will shed more
light on production background, well-known properties as well
as new insights into by-products of beer production and their
efficient use in aquaculture.

Inactivated brewers yeast is characterised by a moderate to

high protein content of approximately 46 percent. Furthermore,
high levels of minerals and trace elements, amino acids, vitamins
and enzymes as well as many micro-nutrients are accumulated by
the fermentation process. All components are organically bound
and therefore highly bioavailable. Brewers yeast is especially
well-known for its high levels of B vitamins (with the exception
of vitamin B12), selenium and chromium.
Table 1 compares B vitamin contents and important trace
element levels of Leiber brewers yeast, soybean meal and fish

Reinheitsgebot: German Purity Laws

Autolyzed brewers yeast

Beer brewing has a centuries-long tradition, and especially the

famous Reinheitsgebot, sometimes called the German Purity
Law of beer brewing. From the year 1516, this regulation has
enormously contributed to the great acceptance of beer as a highquality, food-grade product.
In fact, the Reinheitsgebot is a collective name for a series of
regulations limiting the ingredients for beer brewing to water,
barley (in specific cases wheat), hops and yeast.
Consequently, processing this yeast to a refined quality by
Leiber GmbH after the brewing process results in a premium,
standardised, quality consistent, guaranteed non-GMO raw
material free from other contaminants or additives (e.g. additional
flavor components, enzymes or even antibiotics and heavy
The yeast used during beer brewing is Saccharomyces
cerevisiae. The average cell size ranges between 5 13 m with
the yeast cell wall being approximately 200 nm thick (which
constitutes 25 40 percent of the total dry mass of the cell).
For animal nutrition and dietetic purposes, brewers yeast can
be used as the whole, inactivated yeast cell (either drum-dried
or spray-dried). Furthermore, several products derived from the
yeast cell can be produced depending on the production process,
e.g. autolysed yeast, yeast cell walls, yeast extracts and highly
purified -glucans.

Vertebrate as well as invertebrate organisms do not possess

the enzymes necessary for the breakdown of the yeast cell wall.
When the whole, inactivated yeast is administered through the
diet this can only be achieved through bacterial fermentation by
the gut microbiota.
Alternatively, the yeast collected from the breweries however
may be subjected to a gentle autolysis process, instead of direct
drying to produce inactivated, unextracted yeast.
This action is achieved by the yeasts own enzymes, which
then leads to a break-up or perforation of the yeast cell wall. As
a result, the highly valuable cell contents including amino acids,
nucleotides and nucleosides, vitamins and trace elements, etc.
are released, and are therefore considerably easier and earlier
available to the organism during intestinal passage. This is
especially beneficial for organisms with a short digestive tract
like in shrimp.
Another characteristic of autolysed brewers yeasts are high
native levels of natural DNA and RNA components, named
nucleotides, nucleosides and pyrimidine and purine bases. They
are the building blocks for the synthesis of bases and nucleotides
for doubling of the DNA (cell division). During periods of
high requirements and physiological stress e.g. reproduction,
high growth and immunological stress; there is a clearly higher
demand for those components.

16 | March | April 2016 - International Aquafeed


The organism can build up DNA and RNA by itself but only
with great energy expenditure and over a long period of time.
Thus, nucleotides are considered to be semi-essential; in order
to support and accelerate cell division, cell regeneration and cell
repair they need to be supplemented in sufficient amounts.

Table 1: Vitamin and trace element levels (mg/kg dry matter; DM) of
various aquafeed ingredients.
Vitamins and trace
elements (mg/kg DM)


Soybean meal

Fish meal















Folic acid



Pantothenic acid















Brewers yeast cell walls

The production process may not stop after autolysis of

the yeast cells. High power centrifuges are used in order to
separate soluble and insoluble components; such as the yeast
cell walls. The soluble cell contents are then predominantly
processed into various products for the food industry. The
insoluble yeast cell walls are used for dietetic purposes and in
animal nutrition. Yeast cell walls are naturally rich in -glucans
and mannanoligosaccharides (MOS), e. g. Leibers yeast cell
wall product Biolex MB40 contains approx. 25 30 percent
-glucans and 20 25 percent mannans.
Yeast cell wall supplementation leads to various effects in the
gastro-intestinal tract of the animal including a prebiotic effect
on beneficial gut microbiota, binding and deactivation of certain
mycotoxins and agglutination of a range of pathogens and
their toxins. Further direct and subsequent effects include the
formation of a biofilm on the gut mucosa (additional protective
layer against infections), the improvements in immunity as well
as increased growth performance and feed conversion.
The overall aim of using yeast cell wall products is the
improvement of gut health, which is considered highly important
in animal husbandry. The gut is in many cases the main port of
entry for pathogens; a breaking of these pathogens through the
intestinal barrier often leads to disease outbreaks.
Brewers yeast products however have an additional major

(Data for soybean meal and fish meal according to NRC, 1998)

advantage over yeast products sourced from other industries

(e.g. yeasts from bioethanol production, bakers yeast):
they contain bioactive hop substances which remain from
the beer brewing process. Hops have not only been used in
beer brewing for centuries to give the typical bitter taste, but
also to preserve the beer. Important hop constituents include
humolones ( acids) and lupulones ( acids) plus xanthohumol,
as well as significant amounts of polyphenols (> 10 percent).
While xanthohumol is attributed with having cancer-inhibiting
properties, alpha and beta acids help defend the hop plant
against predation and pathogens.


Great things are done by a series of small things brought together.
Vincent Van Gogh

Wenger develops and assembles unique components

that allow our clients to meet specific industry and
application demands. Whether dictated by raw
material availability, species requirements, growth
stages or feeding habits, Wenger will tailor a system
to meet your specific needs.

If maximum volume is crucial, the Wenger TX-3000

High Capacity Aquafeed Extruder produces the
full range of products at capacities up to 12,000
kg/hour. Complement the TX-3000 with the High
Intensity Preconditioner (HIP) and use higher levels
of fish oil or slurries.

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International Aquafeed - March | April 2016 | 17




6/24/15 5:51 PM


The bioactive hop components have calming, antioxidative, and

most importantly bacteriostatic effects. This bacteriostatic effect
has been proven in a range of inhibition tests against a pathogenic
Staphylococcus aureus strain with Leiber brewers yeast products,
and due to the high concentration of hop constituents on the yeast
cell wall, Biolex MB40 showed the strongest inhibiting effect on
Staphylococcus aureus and seems to be particularly effective in
this respect.

Highly purified -glucans

Saccharomyces cerevisiae -glucans are considered highly

effective immunomodulators. They are located in the middle of
the three layers of the yeast cell wall, and their actual function in
yeasts is to provide strength and rigidity against environmental
influences. By a particularly gentle process, developed by Leiber
GmbH, the (1,3)-(1,6)--D-glucan molecules are isolated from
the brewers yeast cell wall. However, the original structure of
the glucan molecules is retained. As a result, their full biological
activity is guaranteed and Leiber Beta-S exerts an active
immune-modulating effect during intestinal passage. Due to
high levels (> 80 percent) of -glucans Leiber Beta-S is able to
effectively support the animals metabolism and immune system
in a long lasting manner.
-glucans are administered through feed to prophylactically
support and augment the competence of the immune systems
of aquatic species. The reason is that under todays intensive
rearing conditions, a variety of stressors including pathogens,
high stocking densities, handling and transport and suboptimal/
poor water quality may occur and negatively affect the
animals immune status. These factors compromise the immune
competence of fish, subsequently promoting outbreaks of
infectious diseases. Immune modulators like -glucans which
activate the immune system can contribute to improve immune

status and animal performance.

Leiber Beta-S was shown to have a significant influence in
improving health and immunological status in fish when fed
to rainbow trout and carp in a dose-response trial for 4 weeks
supplemented to the feed at dosages of 0 g (control), 100 g, 200
g, 500 g and 1000 g per ton of feed. Analysis of various immune
parameters in blood serum after 4 weeks of feeding confirmed a
significant increase of the immune status.
Subsequently, trout were challenged with Aeromonas
salmonicida and carp with Aeromonas hydrophila to determine
if the increase in the immune status also translates into a higher
disease resistance. Indeed, compared to the control the survival
rates were significantly higher in both species with Leiber
Beta-S supplementation after the challenges. It should also be
noted however that with the highest supplementation (1000 g/to)
the increase was less pronounced emphasising the importance of
meeting the optimal dosage.
In conclusion, an optimum dosage of 200 g Leiber Beta-S per
ton of feed is recommended for both species.


Brewers yeast is a high quality by-product of the beer brewing

industry and offers great opportunities to be refined into a whole
set of different products with specific properties in a sustainable
way. Depending on the aquaculture industrys needs these
properties range from nutrient-rich and dietetic unextracted
brewers yeast to very sophisticated, highly purified -glucans
augmenting the immunocompetence of aquatic species in order to
aid in the reduction of disease outbreaks and mortalities.
Future investigations will further explore antimicrobial
properties of brewers yeast products which enable to formulate
feeds with functional benefits to face a new and sustainable future
in aquaculture.

18 | March | April 2016 - International Aquafeed


Carbohydrates in fish nutrition

An overview of what could decide, limit and improve

the use of nutritive carbohydrates in fish
by Biju Sam Kamalam and Stephane Panserat

arbohydrates are an excellent

source of energy and carbon in
feed formulations. They can be
easily distinguished from the other
energy yielding nutrients in terms
of their abundance and low price.
To illustrate, the collective global
production of the major cereal grains
i.e., maize, wheat and rice amounted
to a colossal 2.5 billion tonnes in the year 2013 (FAO). The
total carbohydrate content and the digestible fraction of starch
and sugars in these grains can be roughly estimated to be about
2.1 and 1.75 billion tonnes, respectively (
Besides, the unit cost of carbohydrate sources is almost three to
five fold less than that of the protein and lipid sources of interest.
Therefore, the inclusion level of carbohydrates in commercial fish
feed assumes direct economic significance i.e., in terms of lower
feed cost per unit weight gain.
On the other hand, though not strictly essential in the biological
sense, optimal inclusion of dietary carbohydrates is known to
increase the retention of protein and lipid in farmed fishes and
reduce nitrogen discharge in farm effluents. These are factors that
are relevant to the sustainability of any aquaculture operation.
Moreover, the presence of carbohydrates in the ingredient
mixture during the process of cooking extrusion inevitably
helps in pellet binding, stability and floatability. These are
characteristics that minimize nutrient leaching and feed wastage.
Taken as a whole, carbohydrate is an often underrated but vital
cog in the fish feed manufacturing wheel.
In the evolving context of fish feed production, it is important to
note that increasing amounts of carbohydrates are inadvertently
added when competitively priced plant origin ingredients are
used to replace expensive and limited marine ingredients. Among
the different forms of carbohydrates that are abundant in plant
sources, only starch and sugars (energy reserves) have nutritive
value in fish nutrition and therefore they will be the focus of
this article. Whereas, structural non-starch polysaccharides
(fibre) mostly have negative nutritional value and so will not be

discussed further.
Farmed fishes have the entire biological machinery of digestive
and metabolic enzymes, hormones, glucose transporters and
glucose sensing components, which are essential to use glucose
as a cellular energy currency. Nevertheless, certain divergence
in regulatory mechanism makes them less able to use digestible
forms of carbohydrates to meet energy requirements, when
compared to other livestock.
There are remarkable differences in carbohydrate utilisation
between and even within fish species linked to their diverse
feeding habits, anatomical features, physiology and rearing
habitats. Particularly, farmed carnivorous fishes such as salmon
and trout are considered to be less tolerant to carbohydrate rich
meals mainly due to slow blood glucose clearance.
Consequently, the dietary inclusion level and appropriate source
of carbohydrate is decided based on protein sparing without
any adverse effect on growth and physiology of the fish. The
maximum recommended levels of dietary carbohydrate inclusion
fall within 15-25 percent for salmonids and marine fish, while it
can go up to 50 percent for herbivorous and omnivorous species
(NRC, 2011).

What could decide carbohydrate utilisation in fish?

A complex array of biological, dietary and environmental

factors determines the capacity of a fish to use a carbohydrate
rich meal (Fig. 1). Among the biological factors, natural feeding
habit and the resultant evolutionary adaptation is considered
as the primary determinant. For instance, omnivorous and
herbivorous fishes like carp, tilapia and catfish are known to have
superior amylase activity, intestinal glucose uptake capacity and
control of glycaemia as compared to carnivorous trout, salmon
and seabass. At the same time, it is important to note that the
optimum inclusion level of carbohydrates varies with the cultured
size or age of the fish, irrespective of its feeding habit.
The existence of genotypic differences within species also
remains possible in fish, as shown in terms of glucose tolerance
and metabolism in two experimental lines of rainbow trout.
Likewise, transgenic salmon with growth hormone gene construct

20 | March | April 2016 - International Aquafeed




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reportedly have an enhanced ability to digest and metabolically

utilise dietary levels of carbohydrates well above those known
to be used by their non-transgenic counterparts. Interestingly,
sustained swimming exercise can possibly be used as a metabolic
promoter to abolish the glucose intolerant phenotype of rainbow
trout fed carbohydrate rich meals, by augmenting glucose uptake
and use in skeletal muscle.
In fish feed, the nutritional and technical value of a starch
constituent depends on its characteristics such as starch granule
shape, size, distribution and amylose to amylopectin ratio, which
in turn are linked to their botanical origin. For example, the
surface area available for digestive enzymes to act differs with
the starch granule size of wheat (22 m) and potato (40-100 m),
resulting in significantly different digestibility estimates of 58 and
5 percent in rainbow trout. Similarly, the physical quality of the
feed pellet is also influenced by the starch source.
With respect to the degree of polymerisation, the apparent
digestibility and intestinal uptake generally decreases with
increasing complexity (glucose > starch), whereas the vice versa
is mostly true in case of protein sparing and economic viability.
However, the net energy value of simple sugars and complex
starch varies in a species-dependent manner. Altering the physical
state of starch through the hydrothermal process of gelatinisation
substantially improves its digestibility and use by fishes, more
significantly in carnivores like trout, seabass and seabream. In
technical terms, more addition of process water in the extruder
augments the degree of starch gelatinisation and digestibility.
Further, several studies have ascertained that the best use
of energy from dietary carbohydrates in fish depends on the
macronutrient composition of the diet. High level of dietary lipids
Bierhefe was found to reduce starch digestibility, elevate postprandial Beta-S
glycaemia and prolong blood glucose clearance. In rainbow
trout and Senegalese sole, this phenotype was metabolically
characterised by an increase in the hepatic activity of the
gluconeogenic enzyme glucose 6-phosphatase, concomitant
decrease in the activities of glycolytic and lipogenic enzymes,
and impaired insulin signalling. Similarly, high level of amino
acids can elicit a cellular signalling response that can weaken
insulin action and attenuate the insulin mediated down-regulation
of gluconeogenesis, indicating that alterations in dietary protein
content can impair glucose homeostasis. These findings reinforce
the necessity to consider dietary macronutrient interface when
optimising carbohydrate usage levels.
Moreover, meal timing was found to have a significant effect on
carbohydrate utilization in gilthead seabream, i.e., carbohydrates
from a morning meal was used more efficiently than from an
afternoon meal, resulting in considerable protein sparing. On a
cautionary note, in any case, inclusion of carbohydrates beyond
tolerable limits causes decrease in starch digestibility, hepatic
dysfunction, impaired growth and even undesirable epigenetic
Being ectotherms, changes in temperature can modify the
processing of dietary inputs in fish. Within the optimal range, an
increase in the temperature of the rearing water is often known
to improve amylase activity and starch digestibility, leading to
a differential time course of blood glucose i.e., relatively rapid
rise and fall, higher activity of glycolytic enzymes and ultimately
better protein sparing regardless of the feeding habit of the fish.
The common understanding of warmwater fish having an edge
in carbohydrate utilisation over coldwater fish is also apparently
In euryhaline fishes like rainbow trout and salmon, changes
in salinity was found to interact with the regulation of glucose
metabolism and starch digestibility was lower in seawater


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International Aquafeed - March | April 2016 | 21

Produktanzeige Biolex 90 x 270 AquaFeed magazine 02/15.indd 1

09.02.15 11:30


Figure 1: Illustration of the various factors known to influence

carbohydrate utilisation in fish (Source: Kamalam et al.,
Aquaculture (2016),

than in freshwater, both possibly related to the osmoregulatory

adaptation of the fish. Other environmental variables such as
photoperiod also have an effect on glucose tolerance and possibly
carbohydrate utilisation in fish. For example, Atlantic salmon
reared under continuous light showed higher glucose regulation
capacity than those fish exposed to simulated winter photoperiod.
What could limit carbohydrate utilisation in fish?
Logically, the slow glucose turnover and hyperglycaemic
phenotype in fish can be related to low body temperature, oxygen
consumption and metabolic rate. But as mentioned earlier,
carnivorous fishes have evolutionarily adapted their anatomy,
physiology and metabolism according to their natural diet that
contains very limited or no nutritive carbohydrates (Fig. 2).
Consequently, they are not able to regulate their intestinal glucose
uptake capacity and efficiently clear the glucose influx after a
carbohydrate rich meal, resulting in a prolonged high level of
glucose in the blood and earning them the glucose intolerant tag.
All the fish investigated to date has the ability to hydrolyse and
absorb simple and complex carbohydrates in their gastrointestinal
tract. However in carnivores, starch digestion and glucose
absorption is limited by low activity levels of -amylase
and disaccharidases, their inhibition by high level of dietary
carbohydrates and low capacity of intestinal glucose uptake
due to lower densities of transporters and smaller amounts of

Figure 2: Summary of biological limitations for carbohydrate utilisation

in carnivorous fish (Source: Kamalam et al., Aquaculture (2016), http://

absorptive tissue. For instance, compared to omnivorous tilapia,

the total carbohydrase activity in carnivorous Atlantic salmon,
rainbow trout, European seabass and gilthead seabream was 9,
22, 31 and 33 percent, respectively. More importantly, in the wild,
carnivores do not switch diets variedly like omnivores, so they
lack the phenotypic flexibility to modulate digestive enzymes
and glucose transporter levels to match dietary starch levels.
Nevertheless, the utility of carbohydrates as an energy source is
not only linked to digestibility.
After digestion and absorption, most of the glucose uptake
from the bloodstream into the cells of different tissues occurs
passively through the members of the facilitative glucose
transporter family. Among the four members of the class 1 subfamily of glucose transporters (GLUT1-4) hitherto cloned and
characterised in different fish species, GLUT4 is the only insulin
sensitive member that possibly plays an important role in glucose
homeostasis. However, trout GLUT4 was found to have relatively
lower affinity for glucose and poor sequestration characteristics
i.e., insulin stimulated recruitment to cell surface for glucose
uptake. Moreover at the transcriptional level, GLUT4 expression
in the white muscle of rainbow trout was reportedly inert to a
carbohydrate rich meal, consistent with the poor ability of the
peripheral tissue to adapt to a high influx of glucose.
Insulin and glucagon are the two major pancreatic endocrine
hormones that regulate glycaemia and the underlying metabolism
in fish, as in higher vertebrates. Even in carnivorous rainbow
trout, the existence of insulin sensitivity, intact functional
mechanisms and classic metabolic adjustments has been
demonstrated through several studies. Plasma insulin levels in
fish can rise as high as 8.6 nM after a carbohydrate rich meal,
along with an increase in the number of muscle insulin receptors.
However, it is apparent that secretion and physiological action
of insulin may depend on a maze of complex interactions with
other hormones. For instance, insulin secretion is inhibited by
hypersomatostatinemia even at the transcriptional level. Besides,
very low number of insulin receptors is present per microgram
of membrane protein in trout muscle, possibly limiting insulin
action in peripheral tissue metabolism even when plasma insulin
levels are high. As such, the potency of inherent insulin secretion
to ameliorate hyperglycaemia remains enigmatic in carnivorous
fish. On the other hand, postprandial glucagon levels in rainbow
trout were found to be inversely related to the carbohydrate
content of the diet. But, this adaptive response was independent
of insulin secretion, indicating that the regulation of glucagon and
insulin may be dissociated in fish.
In the metabolic context, the net hepatic glucose flux resulting
from the simultaneous regulation of glucose-disposal and
glucose-producing pathways is a key determinant of blood
glucose concentration. Disparity in the regulation of these
metabolic pathways is linked to poor carbohydrate utilisation in
some fish species. The hypothesis concerning limited glucose
phosphorylation was refuted when the existence of an inducible
hepatic glucokinase with adaptive response to carbohydrate rich
diets was evident in all the examined fishes. However, there is
uncertainty over its capacity to regulate glucose homeostasis in an
insulin dependent manner. Further the lack of coherent regulation
of the rate limiting glycolytic enzymes and sluggish flux may
underlie poor glucose use in some fish after a carbohydrate rich
More importantly, the uncontrolled hepatic endogenous
glucose production in carnivorous fish through gluconeogenesis,
regardless of the dietary carbohydrate content, trigger the
glucose intolerant phenotype that eventually leads to poor use of

22 | March | April 2016 - International Aquafeed


carbohydrates for energy. Particularly, the absence of inhibition

in the activity/expression of glucose 6-phosphatase was possibly
due to functional reorientation of the evolutionarily duplicated
genes. Changes in blood glucose levels are also correlated
to deposition and mobilisation of hepatic glycogen reserves.
Nevertheless, excessive glycogen deposition that accompanies
a carbohydrate rich meal can compromise the overall function
of the liver. Carbohydrates consumed in excess of energy needs
could be stored as lipid in the liver and adipose tissue through
the process of de novo lipogenesis (DNL), a kind of metabolic
safety valve or glucose sink. However, the amount of DNL
from glucose is apparently limited in carnivorous fish and the
regulation of the glucose-fatty acid cycle is yet to be completely
Poor utilisation of glucose in the principal insulin sensitive
peripheral sites such as skeletal muscle and adipose tissue could
probably be another key limitation for carbohydrate utilisation in
carnivorous fish. For instance, the contribution of skeletal muscle
disposal of glucose was less than 15 percent of the total glucose
turnover in rainbow trout. The underlying reason can be low
insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake with possible consequences
for the regulation of glucose metabolism. In fact, the activities
of enzymes involved in glucose oxidation/disposal are not
responsive to the presence or levels of carbohydrates in the diet.

What could improve carbohydrate utilisation in fish?

There are certain promising strategies that are being

investigated to overcome the challenges in carbohydrate utilising
in farmed carnivorous fishes. The possibility of tailoring
metabolic pathways or functions to improve carbohydrate use is
being tested applying the concept of nutritional programming.
The hypothesis is that high carbohydrate stimulus exerted
at critical developmental stages in early life may imprint an
adaptive ability to cope with high carbohydrate diets in later life.
This strategy was found to potentially improve starch digestibility
in rainbow trout and glucose oxidation/disposal in gilthead
However, the success rate depends greatly on choosing the
appropriate duration, source and magnitude of the stimulus and
the point of application (early developmental stage). It is also
equally important to understand the biological mechanisms
(e.g. epigenetic changes) that imprint the nutritional event until
adulthood. Another relevant prospect is the use of supplementary
enzymes, when cost implications are duly considered. The idea is
to catalyse the hydrolysis of complex carbohydrates by increasing
enzyme accessibility to substrates. But in practice, the exogenous
enzyme should withstand the rigours of feed processing, be less
susceptible to proteolysis inside the digestive tract of fish and
precisely dosed/delivered.
Based on observed genetic variability and phenotypic
plasticity in glucose tolerance and metabolism in carnivorous
fishes, specific genotypes that can adapt better to carbohydrate
rich diets can be selected and propagated. For instance,
selection for the ability to adapt to a totally plant based diet has
been proven to be successful in rainbow trout. The availability
of whole genome sequence can further facilitate the recognition
of relevant quantitative trait loci. However, the feasibility and
efficacy of non-destructive selection criterions is yet to be
explored. Other critical aspects that can improve carbohydrate
use is finding a fine balance between dietary macronutrients
in evolving feed compositions and acquiring a symbiotic gut
microbiome that can functionally contribute to carbohydrate
digestion and metabolism.
International Aquafeed - March | April 2016 | 23



Phospholipids that make

a difference to filet
quality and quantity

he nutritional quality of larvae diets

affects fishes fillet quality and quantity.
Studies show that phospholipids
increase fish larvae growth and
development; so phospholipids are
an essential component of the early
weaning diet.
During embryo and larval
development, yolk sac lipids or wild
prey provide young fish with ample amount of phospholipids.
In fish larvae diets, the aim is to provide larvae nutrition and an
effective diet that substitutes live prey as early as possible during
the larval development.
Scientists have studied the effectiveness of phospholipids
including those derived from soybean lecithin and dietary
marine phospholipids from krill. Krill phospholipids, rich on
docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), have
a positive effect on larvae performance and development, which
makes a difference later to filet quality and quantity.

Phospholipids: a core component to larvae development

Studies have shown that dietary phospholipids improve culture

performance, enhance growth and increase the survival of various
freshwater and marine species including ayu (Plecoglossus
altivelis), carp (Cyprinus carpio), Japanese flounder (Paralichthys
olivaceous), knife jaw (Oplegnatus fasciatus) and red seabream
(Pagrus major). Phospholipids also reduce incidents of skeletal
deformities in larvae and early juveniles, and increases fish
resistance to stress.
Phospholipids are the main structural component of cell
membranes, tissues and are vital organ development. They especially
play a vital role in the development of organs including the digestive
system. Dietary phospholipids play a contributing role to the
assimilation of dietary lipids; increase the efficiency of transporting
dietary fatty acids and lipid from the gut to the rest of the body.
So adding phospholipids to larval diets has unique benefits to the
development of larvae, juveniles and fishes later in life.

Efficient and effective krill phospholipids

Phospholipids include a large group of compounds, and the lipid

classes as well as the fatty acid content determine their effectiveness.

Studies show that dietary marine phospholipids, in comparison to
soybean lecithin, improve culture performance. Three recent studies
indicate the different benefits of this form of phospholipid.
In the first study, scientists compared the effect of krill
phospholipid to soybean lecithin in micro diets for gilthead
seabream larvae on molecular markers of antioxidative
metabolism and bone development. The results from the studies
show that marine phospholipids have a higher effectiveness
in promoting survival, growth and skeletal mineralization of
gilthead seabream larvae in comparison with soybean lecithin,
regardless of the dietary phospholipid level (R.Saleh, M.B.
Betancor, J.Roo, V. Benitez-Dorta, M. J. Zamorano, J.G. Bell and
M. Izquierdo, 2014).
The study was conducted as follows. Scientists fed larvae, from
16 to 44 days post hatching, three levels of phospholipids from
marine phospholipid and soybean lecithin (50, 70 and 90 g kg-1).
The increase of up to 70 g kg-1 marine phospholipid was enough
to see and improve larval gilthead seabream performance and
even the highest level of soybean lecithin (90 g kg-1) was unable
to provide similar successful results.
However, larvae that were fed diets without phospholipid
supplements, also known as the control diet, showed a very low
survival rate. This indicates that phospholipids are an essential
competent of the natal diet.
Despite increasing soybean lecithin up to 90 g kg-1 to
improve larval survival, stress resistance, growth and skeletal
development, the results showed that dietary marine phospholipid
was more effective in promoting these parameters. Krill
phospholipids higher content in PC, LPC, ARA, antioxidants
factors such as carotenoids (astaxanthin) eicosapentaenoic acid
(EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), promotes digestion,
transport and deposition of dietary lipids, and contributes to
reduce skeletal anomalies.
The study also showed that krill phospholipids affect skeleton
malfunction, bone mineralization, biochemical composition,
oxidative status and selected genes expression.
Just like the results from other studies, by increasing marine
phospholipids in species such as Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)
and European sea bass (D. labrax), larvae growth increases.

24 | March | April 2016 - International Aquafeed


Marine phospholipids appear to be a superior component to

enhancing larvae growth and development, compared to when
phospholipids are incorporated in micro diets through soybean
In a second study (R. Saleh, M.B. Betancor, J. Roo, T. BenitezSantana, M. J. Zamorano and M. Izquierdo, 2013) phospholipids
derived from krill improved larval growth and survival more
effectively than soybean phospholipids. Krill phospholipids
enhanced n-3 HUFA and incorporated EPA incorporation into
larval tissues.
A significant correlation was found between length and final
weight, and phospholipids in the diet. Sea bream larvae that
were fed diets without phospholipid supplements showed the
lowest survival, growth, and stress resistance.
Increasing the dietary phospholipid content improved stress
resistance determined as survival after handling, regardless
of whether the phospholipid was derived from marine or
soybean. Feeding sea bream larvae with krill phospholipids
particularly improved total length and body weight.
This is because krill phospholipids contain higher n-3 HUFA
and DHA levels than soybean lecithin.

Optimal diet with krill phospholipids

The third study recently conducted on the benefits of krill

phospholipids, looked at the the optimum dietary levels of krill
phospholipids for Sea bream (Sparus aurata) larvae, its influence on
larval development and digestive enzymes activity. All increases of
dietary krill phospholipids up to 120 g kg-1 significantly improved
larval survival, growth and digestive enzyme activity. Further
increase did not improve those parameters.

Krill phospholipids are also attractants

In addition to fish larvae diet being nutritious and including

beneficial components to larvae growth and health, the initial
diet needs to be attractive. It needs to be the right size to fit
into the larvaes mouth and taste good. Krill phospholipids
have shown to be an attractant, not only attracting larvae to
the consumption of feed with krill phospholipids but also
increasing the amount of food consumed.
Krill phospholipids have nutritional benefits that stand out

from phospholipids derived from other sources. Today krill

phospholipids in krill oil are a crucial component of krill meal.
Work is also being conducted to extract this oil and make it into
a separate product; given its distinct features and benefits to the
larvae, juvenile fish and fish farmer given the improved filet
quality and quantity.

WorkiNG to improve the

sustaiNability of
CompouNd feed produCtioN

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26 - 28 April 2016, Brussels, Belgium
Booth 4026 in Hall 9

GlobalG.a.p. News Conference

27 April 2016, 3 - 4 p.m.
Hall 11, Room 1124, 3rd Floor

International Aquafeed - March | April 2016 | 25



Two experiments were conducted to illustrate the effects of soy protein in the
diet of shrimp over a period of six weeks. In the first experiment, different soybased protein concentrates were screened and compared in an attractability
and palatability trial followed by a growth trial. Inclusion of ten percent these HP
protein concentrates, replacing fishmeal resulted in a slightly slower growth, but
higher survival.

26 | March | April 2016 - International Aquafeed




by Eric De Muyler, Crevetec.

he quality and digestibility of proteins

is one of the most important issues
in shrimp nutrition. Marine proteins
(mainly fish meal) can only be partially
replaced by standard vegetable proteins
like soybean meal.
Vegetable proteins show lower
digestibility of proteins and phosphorus
compared to fishmeal and diets with
high soybean meal inclusion are less attractive and palatable
for shrimp. Hamlet Protein produces high quality protein
concentrates based on soy and other sources, designed for feed
palatability, digestibility and health in order to deliver optimal
production performance.
However, Hamlet also produces Soybean protein
concentrates and blends with other protein sources such as

Figure 1: Average weight of shrimp in first experiment


Two experiments were conducted to illustrate the effects of soy

protein in the diet of shrimp over a period of six weeks. In the
first experiment, different soy-based protein concentrates were
screened and compared in an attractability and palatability trial
followed by a growth trial. Inclusion of ten percent these HP
protein concentrates, replacing fishmeal resulted in a slightly
slower growth, but higher survival.
In the second experiment, a dose-response trial with an
optimized HP product , at lower inclusion rates (three, six and
nine percent) was executed. The idea of reducing the content of
fish meal in shrimp diets is relevant because of the volatility of its
price which in recent years reached prohibitive levels. I

Inclusion of HP product at the expense of fishmeal

reduces the feed cost

Soy protein concentrates are especially used in diets for young

Figure 2: Average weight of shrimp in second experiment

International Aquafeed - March | April 2016 | 27


Table 1: Composition of experimental diets of first experiment

Control 1

Test 1

Test 2

Test 3

Chili fish meal





Wheat flour





Soybean meal















Other raw materials include Corn gluten, rice bran, soybean lecithin, fish
oil, binders and premix. Diets contained 38 percent protein and 7 percent
lipids and were balanced to meet the shrimp nutrient requirements.

Table 2: Protein leaching of diets

Control 1

Test 1

Test 2

Test 3

30 minutes





60 minutes





Table 3: Attractability and palatability of experimental feeds in first trial.

Nr of shrimp on feed tray

Control 1

Test 1

Test 2

Test 3

5 Minutes





15 Minutes





30 Minutes





85.1 %

73.0 %

72.3 %

70.0 %

Feed Consumption

Table 4: Summary of growth results in experiment 1

Control 1

Test 1

Test 2

Test 3

Initial avg weight





Final avg weight


9.00 b

9.22 b

9.25 b

Weekly growth





91.88 %

91.88 %

94.38 %

91.88 %

1,.0 a

1.51 b



Table 5: Composition of experimental diets of second experiment





Corn gluten





Danish fish meal LT





Wheat flour





Fish oil














Other raw material include Soybean meal, rice bran lecithin, binder, premix,
The HP product replaced mainly of Danish fish meal. Corn gluten, wheat
flour and fish oil content were adjusted to obtain isonitrogenous and isocaloric
feeds; 38 Proteins and 8 percent lipids.

HP 3

HP 6

HP 9
1.22 a

Initial avg weight

1.23 a

1.20 a

1.21 a

Final avg weight

6.51 ab

6.70 a

6.52 a

6.11 b

Weekly growth

0.88 ab

0.92 a

0.88 a

0.81 b

85.0 % ab

90.0 % a

90.0 % a

80.0 % b

1.52 ab

1.41 a

1.44 a

1.62 b


Testing product parameters

Table 1 includes the composition of experimental diets of first

experiment. These diets were submerged in water for 30 minutes
and 60 minutes and protein loss was calculated. Table 2 shows the
results of this test and from these results we can observe a higher
leaching of protein in the diets containing soyprotein concentrates,
which might be a problem. However the results also show that
soyprotein proteins are much more water soluble than other
A higher water solubility is also interesting to attract shrimp. An
attractability and palatability test was also performed; the results of
which can be found in Table 3.
Attractability was measured by counting shrimp consuming feed
on each feed tray after 5, 15 and 30 minutes. All diets were put at
the same time in a larger tank. After 30 minutes, leftover feed was
removed, dried and weighed to count percentage consumption.
The results from this trial indicated that soyprotein concentrates
are attracting shrimp more quickly, and that after 30 minutes the
control diet had attracted the same number of shrimps. The same
four diets were used in a growth trial and gave the results that can
be seen in figure 1 and table 4 which show the average weights of
the shrimp throughout the test period.

Performance of optimised product and protocol

Basically, the results with soyprotein concentrate are not as good

as those of the control diet. But test feeds two and three were
preforming better than Test diet one. There is a positive effect
on survival in diet two. The probable cause of this was that the
inclusion rates were too high for optimal growth, which is why a
second experiment was launched, using a HP product designed for
shrimps by combining technologies used in diet two and three, but
at lower inclusion rates of three, six and nine percent, which can be
seen in table 5.
There was a slightly higher average weight of the shrimp on the
feeds containing three percent HP compared to the control, as seen
in Figure 2. At six and nine percent HP, there is a lower average
weight. There is a statistically lower weight for the nine percent
inclusion rate compared to HP6 and the control.
Similarly, table 6 includes a summary of growth results from
experiment 2. These results show that diets with three and six
percent inclusion level of HP result in a lower FCR than the
control, but the diet with nine percent HP shows higher FCR.
Shrimp fed diets with three and six percent show higher survival
rates than shrimp without HP. This is also the reason why a lower
FCR was observed in the groups fed these diets.


Table 6: Summary of growth results in experiment 2


animals because of their high digestibility and health benefits,

which include a higher survival rate and better growth; much to the
delight of shrimp farmers.
The second experiment showed that shrimps fed diets with three
and six percent optimized HP showed significant lower FCR and
higher survival rate than shrimp without HP in the diet.

The best results are obtained with the diets with three percent
HP. Inclusion of nine percent HP is surely too high to obtain
good results which confirms earlier findings with the ten percent
inclusion rate. Inclusion of three percent HP however, shows a
positive effect on growth and survival, resulting in the lowest FCR.
It is also worthwhile to mention that the inclusion of three percent
HP lowers the cost of the feed by ten percent compared to the
control diet.

28 | March | April 2016 - International Aquafeed










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International Aquafeed - March | April 2016 | 29


control in
ParaFishControl aims to develop
advanced tools and research
strategies for parasite control in
European farmed finfish

30 | March | April 2016 - International Aquafeed

Adult female sea lice

showing evidence of
blood feeding
Credit Bron


araFishControl (Advanced Tools and

Research Strategies for Parasite Control
in European farmed fish) is a 8.1 million
European Union Horizon 2020-funded
research project that aims to increase
the sustainability and competitiveness
of the European aquaculture industry by
improving our understanding of fishparasite interactions and developing
innovative solutions and tools to prevent, control and mitigate
harmful parasites which affect the main finfish species farmed in
Europe (Atlantic salmon, rainbow trout, common carp, turbot,
European sea bass, and gilthead sea bream). ParaFishControl
addresses the most harmful parasitic species affecting either one
or more of these six fish hosts.
Aquaculture is the fastest growing animal food production
sector worldwide, currently providing half of all aquatic animals
for human consumption. If responsibly developed and practiced,
aquaculture can generate lasting benefits for global food security
and economic growth.
However, the aquaculture industry faces a number of challenges
to its progress including the significant issue of disease outbreaks.
Financial losses due to disease outbreaks are estimated at 20%
of total production value, and parasites and related infections are
increasingly responsible for such diseases.
Economic losses inflicted by parasites accrue from direct
mortalities, morbidity, poor growth performance, low
reproduction efficacy, increased susceptibility to other diseases,
high cost of treatments and decreased value or marketability of
fish products. Exact data on the economic impact of parasites in
aquaculture is scarce but it is estimated that the highest economic
cost for parasite control in European aquaculture amasses from
sea lice infecting Atlantic salmon, the main farmed fish species in
European nations and associates spend 170 million annually
to control sea lice, with annual global losses estimated to
exceed 300 million. Parasites can also affect the end users
of aquaculture products and therefore their monitoring and
eradication are essential for ensuring the safety of European
While bacterial and viral diseases of cultured finfish have been
extensively studied and have witnessed substantial advances in
their control, parasitic diseases have received less attention so
far. Currently, there are no commercial vaccines for fish parasites
and the available diagnostic tools do not cover the main parasitic
diseases or are not harmonised.
In addition, the number of licensed veterinary medicines
targeting parasites remains low and many of those employed can
have major environmental impacts and show reduced efficacy
due to parasite drug resistance. Furthermore, some aquaculture
parasites have attracted public attention due to the transfer of
parasites between farmed and wild fish populations or because
of the environmental impact of treatments used. Such issues
negatively affect the public image and performance of European
finfish aquaculture.
These challenges are currently being tackled by the
ParaFishControl partnership, integrating world-leading,
complementary, cross-cutting expertise drawn from academia and
industry across Europe.
ParaFishControl seeks to advance the field by contributing
to both fundamental scientific knowledge in relation to key
fish parasites, and also developing applied technological

International Aquafeed - March | April 2016 | 31


Adult female sea lice feeding

on Atlantic salmon.
Credit Conway & Bron

Adult female sea

louse with salmon
blood in gut.
Credit Bron

and industrial solutions to increase the sustainability and

competitiveness of the European aquaculture industry. In
addition, at the consumer and societal level, the partnership
will work towards reinforcing the confidence of fish processors,
traders and consumers in farmed fish products.
ParaFishControl is a ground-breaking project aiming to
deliver innovative solutions at all levels. Responding to the
identified significant need for the availability of effective, rapid,
quantitative and validated tests for endemic and emerging
parasitic infections of fish, the partnership is currently working on
developing reliable, cost-efficient detection and diagnostic tools.
The commercial offer of fish parasitology services from animal
diagnostics professionals is quite limited and this role is currently
filled by academic laboratories, more focused on particular
diseases, and whose level of proficiency and use of diagnostic
tools is variable. Several parasites lack methods beyond

Credit Aquark

microscopic and histological observation, leaving substantial

room for innovation.
Based on current and newly developed knowledge and tools
the project will generate improved and novel sensitive, reliable
and cost-effective point-of-care diagnostic tests for parasitic
The project will also focus on the harmonisation and validation
of current procedures for the confirmatory diagnosis of parasitic
infections at the laboratory level. The partnership expects that
availability of diagnostic tests for parasitic diseases harmonised
across the European Union and globally will facilitate the growth
of national industries and international trade.
The adoption of these procedures will allow a more proficient,
accurate and homogeneous diagnosis of parasites at laboratory
level, reducing the uncertainty and facilitating accurate
monitoring of parasites in fish production, fish trade, and

32 | March | April 2016 - International Aquafeed


epidemiological or environmental studies. The existence of

reference methods will facilitate their adoption by veterinary
health laboratories and providers, who currently cannot provide
these services due to deficient know-how and absence of
validated methods and reagents.
In addition, simple to use point-of-care diagnostic tests for
some diseases generated in the project can be marketed for
quick parasite assessment, taking diagnosis out of centralised
laboratories and allowing very rapid on site management
decisions and appropriate actions to be made.
Concerning preventative practices, a major issue is that
currently there is no commercial vaccine for any fish parasite.
ParaFishControl tackles this challenge by aiming to develop
several different candidate vaccines focusing on those parasite
infections for which natural immunity seems to prevent reinfection.
The research behind this is very innovative and only affordable
with the collaboration and concerted action of all partners in a
big collaborative research project such as this, where research
and industry are working directly together. Measures that will
be developed are vaccination and improvement of fish immune
status through use of in-feed immune-stimulants and other
additives that will target host immunity.
Other measures, such as innovative water treatments and use
of biological controls will target parasites prior to infection.
Coupled with a range of management tools, these measures will
be incorporated into effective new integrated pest management
strategies (IPMS) for European aquaculture.
In relation to curative practices, the use of available antiparasitic drugs in aquaculture is currently limited by issues such
as drug availability, developed parasite resistance, toxicity of
chemicals and persistence of chemical residues.
Moreover, many drugs previously widely used in fish farming
are now prohibited as environmentally undesirable. There are no
licensed anti-parasitic compounds for Mediterranean fish species
and common carp and official Minimum Residue Levels currently
available are extrapolated mainly from salmonids. Thus, there is
a strong need for development of new effective drugs for parasite
ParaFishControl is working on improving existing treatments
and developing novel treatments for both ecto- and endoparasites. The partnerships approach includes extensive
screening of antiparasitic products already available in the
pharmaceutical industry for other veterinarian and human uses,
as well as searching for prebiotics, probiotics and bioactive
compounds from bacteria, plants and other natural sources.
ParaFishControl is also expected to generate new feed
formulations against parasitic diseases and will increase the
knowledge on the basis for fish immunity improvement that could
be used for other future formulations.
Since most of the pathogens causing diseases in fish farms
are also found in wild fish, reciprocal movements of pathogens
between aquaculture populations and wild fish represent a twosided risk. Farmed fish may pick up infections from wild fish, but
can also act as pathogen-amplifiers that disseminate pathogens
into the wild. ParaFishControl will implement sensitive and
strain-specific diagnostic assays to determine to what extent such
transfers of fish parasites take place.
This will enable the development of European policies
protecting the health of wild aquatic animal populations,
while allowing responsible use of the aquatic environment for
aquaculture purposes.

Although it is generally assumed that farmed fish products have

a very low or zero prevalence of zoonotic helminths, which are
parasitic worms that have the potential to transfer to humans,
this assumption has not been demonstrated scientifically for the
majority of European fish farmed species.
As recommended by the European Food Safety Authority
(EFSA), ParaFishControl will monitor marine and freshwater
fish farms to provide data on presence or absence of zoonotic
helminths and effects of different farming practices on their
diffusion. An innovative Food Safety Programme with protocols
and good practice guidelines will be established to avoid and
decrease even more zoonotic risks in farmed fish.
ParaFishControl will directly address the needs of fish
producers, veterinary practitioners and other aquaculture
professionals by producing booklets and guidelines and
organising international training courses on the IPMS on farms.
A ParaFishControl Industry Forum (IF) will be set up in spring
2016 to facilitate engagement between the consortium and
industrial companies and fish farmer associations to ensure
essential Knowledge Exchange.
ParaFishControl will improve control of the major parasites
of European aquaculture by assisting fish farmers to improve
survival, decrease feed conversion ratios, reduce economic
impact of the diseases and increase the industrys long term
The focus will be on development of effective practical
industry solutions that improve fish health and welfare, reduce
environmental impact and ensure a safe final product for the
Some of the parasitic species that are studied in this project
have impacts beyond the European borders, not only because
their respective hosts are also farmed worldwide, such as Atlantic
salmon, rainbow trout or common carp, but also because they
have low host specificity and can infect several fish species,
including major game fish in international waters. The results
from ParaFishControl will therefore have a major positive impact
on the global aquaculture industry.

ParaFishControl consortium

The ParaFishControl consortium comprises 29 partners

from academic, research and industry, based in 13 European
countries, who are considered leaders in their respective
domains of expertise.
The ParaFishControl project will run from 2015 to 2020,
with a total budget of 8.1 million, of which 7.8 million
is funded by the European Union. The project is coordinated
by the Agencia Estatal Consejo Superior de Investigaciones
Cientificas (CSIC), Spain.
Dr Ariadna Sitj-Bobadilla, ParaFishControl project
coordinator, is the head of the fish pathology group at the
Institute of Aquaculture Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC).
CSIC is the largest public research institution in Spain and
the third largest in Europe. Its main objective is to develop
and promote research that will help bring about scientific and
technological progress. CSIC covers all fields of knowledge
from basic to applied research.
AquaTT (Ireland) is the project dissemination partner.

International Aquafeed - March | April 2016 | 33


Excited trout at feeding time make for turbulent waters at Pisciculture Jorgensen in Abbeville, Picardie,
France. The Jorgensen family originally began farming fish in Denmark in 1893 before moving the
business to France in the 1930s.
They have also enjoyed a long business relationship with the aquaculture equipment manufacturer
Faivre, who supply them with a great many of their tools of the trade - everything from water aerators
to fish graders.
Recently International Aquafeed visited three of the family's trout farms in and around Abbeville. You
can read about it in the up-coming May/June 2016 edition of International Aquafeed.



by Roy Palmer

exico, with a population

of 122 million is the most
populous Spanish-speaking
country in the world. The
country is known for its
Pacific and Gulf of Mexico
beaches and its diverse
landscape of mountains,
deserts and jungles. Ancient
ruins such as Teotihuacan (Aztec), Chichen Itza (Mayan) and
Spanish colonial-era towns are scattered throughout the country.
Infectious Mariachi music, sombreros and vitamin T are
also some of the great highlights. Vitamin T includes Tacos,
Tostados, Tamales, Taquitos, Tortas and Tortillas all washed down
with Tequila.
Rather cheekily last year, Mexico offered some US based
aquaculture businesses the opportunity to raise their fish south of
the border where they promised regulaters had a more modern
approach to offshore aquaculture than they could experience in
their own country.

Mexico has recently become serious about aquaculture

Mexico has in the last few years become a serious aquaculture

country and there is a major effort by Mexican offshore fish
farmers and government officials to make their country the
place for raising fish offshore in North America.
Aquaculture is supported in Mexico by the Federation through

the Secretariat of Agriculture, Livestock, Rural Development,

Fisheries and Food (SAGARPA) and CONAPESCA. The head
of the National Commission of Aquaculture and Fisheries
(CONAPESCA), Mario Aguilar Snchez has said on many
occasions that boosting aquaculture provides a great opportunity
to contribute to the growth of the industry, with products having
nutritional and protein quality available to Mexicans, according
to press reports.
Mexico has indeed gone further than most countries in the
area of seafood consumption and understanding the need for
promotion and marketing and this is assisting the drive/desire for
In 2012 the National Institute of Statistics and Geography
(INEGI) completed a survey and found that Mexican households
spent monthly 34 percent of their income in food, out of which
8.5 percent was seafood, Of the 31.5 million households that
were surveyed by, on average , only 24.4 percent said that their
food basket are included seafood. The indications at that stage
showed Mexican seafood consumption at around the 9kgs per
person per annum.
Mexico has been mentioned as being in the top three
countries in terms of obesity, and Coneval, the governments
social development agency, has advised that the poverty rate
is approximately 46.2 percent of Mexicos population, and
equivalent to 55.3 million people. Coneval defines poverty as
living on no more than 2,542 pesos ($157.70) a month in cities
and 1,615 pesos in rural areas.

36 | March | April 2016 - International Aquafeed


Utilising the survey the Commissioner produced a paper

Fisheries and aquaculture, and its impact on Mexicos food
security, highlighting that in Mexico the fishing and aquaculture
sectors contribute significantly to the development and welfare
of large segments of the population, especially in rural and
regional areas. At present, approximately 25 percent of Mexicos
population lives rurally.
Following meetings in 2013 and participating in a forum
organised by the FAO , Sustainable Food Systems - A
comprehensive policy on food and nutrition the Commissioner
said Mexico is seeking to increase fish and shellfish
consumption per capita in the next decade. The implementation
by the Government of the new fisheries/aquaculture policy will
enable Mexico to increase per capita consumption of seafood
over the next decade.
It has been well demonstrated that fish and shellfish are an
important source of nutrients of animal protein and one of the
pillars of the National Crusade Against Hunger, recognised by
CONAPESCA. As a result of the policies and strategies for the
development of aquaculture and fisheries in Mexico, from 2013
to 2018 there is an emphasis on the promotion of consumption of
fishery and aquaculture products.
One of the other important strategies of the SAGARPA/
CONAPESCA is the annual Foro Economico de Pesca y
Acuacultura, which enables industry and government to engage,
discuss and update. These events are usually held in November in
Mexico City and at the last one, which was attended by over 1500

people we learned that consumption has increased to about 13kgs

per person per annum.
Currently Mexicos most important aquaculture activity is based
in the north west of the country, is based on Shrimp and in 2015
was 110,000 tonnes. Cultivated shrimp now accounts for almost
70 percent of total national production; with the heart of this
transition being the states of Sinaloa and Sonora. The industry
with support of the government is fighting their way back from
disease issues, which have had an impact in many other countries
besides Mexico.

The impact of Early Mortality Syndrome on Mexican


The disease, Early Mortality Syndrome (EMS), ensured that

the production of farmed shrimp dropped sharply between 2012
and 2013, but is now in full recovery and expansion. EMS first
appeared in 2009 in the southern part of China, and then spread
to Vietnam, Malaysia and Thailand. SAGARPA reported that
the disease shows up in the first 20 to 30 days of life of the
shrimp, and especially affects tiger (Penaeus monodon) and white
(Litopenaeus vannamei) shrimp. The disease adversely impacted
thousands of producers, with shrimp mortality rates as high as 98
The strain of EMS found in Mexico is very similar (but not
identical) to the Asian strain. It is unclear how it arrived in
Mexico and whether or not it was transferred across the Pacific.
CONAPESCAs figures highlight that Shrimp aquaculture

International Aquafeed - March | April 2016 | 37


items such as power tariffs, accessible

electricity and other important infrastructure
Over the past few years some US based
aquaculture companies have decided to
farm their fish offshore in Mexican waters.
There are good examples in tuna ranching,
sea bass, yellowtail, and hybrid striped bass
which are now farmed in Mexican waters.
What is clear is that Mexicos government
and private sector are working hand-inhand to build an industry that can be an
alternative but time will see if that continues
as and when US offshore fish-farming gets
off the drawing table.

Regal Springs: A 21st Century

Aquaculture Business

has a value of more than all of the fisheries of Shrimp, Tuna

and Sardines combined in Mexico. They also point out that the
recovery has been mainly because of the process engaged in
aquaculture. The ponds utilised are emptied and dried for a whole
season, not because of any regulation but because the producers
have initiated improved systems and methods. Additionally the
producers have an excellent program aiming to select strains of
Shrimp more for resistance rather than growth.

The largest potential for aquaculture expansion in

Mexico is Tilapia

Dr. Antonio Garza de Yta, has been in the role of Director

General de Planeacin, Programacin y Evaluacin at
CONAPESCA for the last two years and is very proud of
Mexicos activities in both fisheries and aquaculture.
The largest potential for aquaculture expansion in Mexico
is Tilapia in the South; Catfish in the North; Shrimp along all
the coast especially using super intensive systems; Oysters in
Tamaulipas and Baja California and Sea Cucumber in Baja
California and Yucatan. There have been many local species
evaluated for potential growth but no successful culture has been
developed at this stage. Stated Dr. Antonio Garza de Yta, adding
There is good interest in Yellowtail species and Totoaba
(Totoaba macdonaldi) which is listed onCITES,theIUCN
Red List of Threatened Species, and theEndangered Species
Act(ESA) is formerly endemic in the Gulf of California has
some potential to be the Mexican Salmon through aquaculture
fish growth has been measured at 9 grams per day. Within
CONAPESCA our priorities at this stage are to continue to
improve our management measures, zoning and policies for
Aquaculture. It would be true to say that Mexico has the
potential to produce more than 2 million MTs per annum,
however, in order to achieve that it needs a whole of government
approach to recognise aquaculture as a priority and to include

Regal Springs is what might be termed a

21st century aquaculture business and has
a solid background in both sustainable and
social areas specialising in eco-balanced
Tilapia. One of its newest operations is
nestled in the lush, green hills of Chiapas,
Mexico. The facilities consist of a hatchery,
juvenile fry nursery, floating grow-out cages
and a state of the art production facility.
Lake Penitas, on which the tilapia are raised
in floating cages, boasts pure, fresh water
surrounded by unspoiled natural beauty. Once grown, the fish are
processed in a cutting edge production facility.
The facility is able to accommodate 40-50 metric tons of frozen
storage capacity in addition to fresh processing and custom
cutting. When fully operational, the production facility alone will
employ 850 to 1000 local residents.
Regal Springs are noted for adding value to communities with
whom they engage and they have stated that they are committed
to supporting the Chiapas community, as they have done in
Honduras and Indonesia. Regal Springs also have many projects
in the pipe-line which include supporting the opening of a new
school and pledging support for the Ocote Jungle Biosphere
Framed by the Sierra de las Viente Casas (Twenty Houses of
Sierra) mountain range, it has almost 50 thousand hectares and
was created in 1982 for the preservation of the flora and fauna in
the northern region of the state of Chiapas.

Mexico and the need for capacity and capability

The Blue Economy and along with the recent and various Trade
Agreements are enormous prospects for Mexico and the need
for capacity and capability building is crucial and is a major
challenge. Food Safety and Workplace Health and Safety are
essential elements amongst the main education needs. Without
these important foundations attracting the right investors/
investments will be difficult.
Like with all governments, there is a struggle with changing
from the typical evolution of departments of fisheries to employ
more aquaculture experts who have a broader training than just
capture fisheries but also in aquaculture, in conservation, and in
changing ecosystems. There is need for a new paradigm of the
Dr. Garza de Yta is confident that Mexico is on the right
pathway but says There is still much work to be done but the
future for Mexico and Aquaculture is very promising.

38 | March | April 2016 - International Aquafeed

Welcome to Expert Topic. Each issue will take an in-depth look at a
particular species and how its feed is managed.

40 | March | April 2016 - International Aquafeed


Czech Republic


No stomach for it:

why carp dont share our culinary tastes

hen farming animals

and fish, there is often
a danger that we may
assume that their dietary
requirements match
our own. However,
those of the common
carp, Cyprinus carpio,
certainly do not.
For one thing, carp have no stomach. Food passes directly from
mouth to intestine, without the acidic conditions of a stomach
to quickly break meat down and maximise protein extraction.
As a result, the length of the intestine will actually be partly
determined by what they are fed during early life. In other words,
what is fed to them as juveniles really will affect what you can or
cant feed them as adults.
Each day, your average common carp needs about 1g protein
per kg bodyweight to maintain itself. As much as 12g per kg will

give maximum protein retention, but nitrogen use for growth is

actually most efficient at a much lower rate: seven or eight grams
per kilo per day. In various eastern European countries and in
Israel, crossbreeding programmes are also employed to speed
Extruded feeds are generally more popular for carp than pellets
as they float and last longer in the water. However, the extrusion
process involves cooking, and this tends to destroy vitamins, so
recipes for such feeds tend to have a vitamin level two to five
times that actually required by the fish. Not vitamin C though
- from the fingerling stage onwards, they make their own from
But the surprises dont end there. It also appears that a
substantial amount of magnesium is obtained by the fish, not
from food taken in through the mouth, but rather is absorbed
from the surroundings via other parts of the body; this may be an
important factor to consider in pond aquaculture.
Source: FAO

International Aquafeed - March | April 2016 | 41

Myxozoan parasites in common carp Importance for aquaculture, ongoing
research and future perspectives

by Astrid Holzer & Ashlie Hartigan, Laboratory of Fish Protistology, Institute of Parasitology, Biology
Centre of the Czech Academy of Sciences, 37005 Cesk Budejovice, Czech Republic
ommon carp, Cyprinus carpio is one
of the oldest domesticated species of
fish for food production. Carp culture
in China dates back to the 5th century
BC, while the earliest attempts in
Europe were made during the Roman
Empire. Considered a delicacy by the
Romans, modern carp has lost some
of its exquisiteness but has acquired
outstanding importance in freshwater aquaculture, with currently
about 14 percent of total global production, over 7.1 million
tonnes per year.
Asia is the largest producer with China claiming 60 percent
of the worlds production while the European market is much
smaller. Seven out of the top ten species of farmed fish species
are carp and Common carp production continues to increase
by an average global rate of over 10 percent per year. Benefits
of carp aquaculture include minimal feed requirements, hardy
species able to survive a variety of temperatures and water
conditions, high cost-benefit ratio as intensive culture year round
is not a problem with minimal labor.
In Central Europe, carp ponds are the center of attention at
the end of the year, when the season for fallowing the ponds
and marketing their meaty carp (Figure 1) arrives so that a
favourite Christmas dish lands on the plate in time. But not

every carp makes it to the harvest date. In fact, the largest

losses in carp pond cultures occur in juvenile carp in their first
summer, when temperatures are high, oxygen levels are low
and fingerlings receive a bombardment with a wide range of
pathogens in the ponds, while they have not yet developed full
immunocompetence. Koi Herpes Virus (KHV) is presently
the most serious threat to carp farming in Europe and Asia,
Figure 1: Carp Harvest in Trebon, Czech Republic

42 | March | April 2016 - International Aquafeed

Saprolegnia is the major fungal pathogen and a number of

parasites are of great importance.
Myxozoans are morphologically extremely reduced cnidarians,
with jellyfish (Medusozoa) as their closest free-living relatives
(Figure 4). Interestingly, to the present knowledge, myxozoans
have their highest diversification rate in cyprinid hosts, with

common carp being host to more than 50 species around the

world. Many of these species are only distinguishable by
molecular methods as they share morphologically similar spores
leading to misconceptions about the number of species found in
a host and pathogen identification. This also creates problems for
diagnostic and quarantine screening of imported carp stocks for

Complete Plants and Machines

for the Production of Fish Feed

Contrary to conventional extruders, the KAHL extruder OEE is equipped

with a hydraulically adjustable die.

AMANDUS KAHL GmbH & Co. KG Dieselstrasse 5-9 D-21465 Reinbek / Hamburg Phone: +49 40 727 71 0

International Aquafeed - March | April 2016 | 43

Figure 2: General life cycle of myxozoan parasite

either food/fish oil production or with ornamental koi carp from

Asia for the pet trade in Europe.
Myxozoans infect two types of hosts within their life cycle,
a vertebrate and an invertebrate; species known from carp
use freshwater oligochaetes or bryozoans to complete their
development and transmission between hosts occurs via spore
stages (Figure 2). Some infections are innocuous, and others
have been linked to significant disease in carp; for many of the
known Myxozoa from cyprinid species the invertebrate host
is unknown. This and the fact that it is close to impossible to
eradicate oligochaetes from pond sediments makes disruption of
the life cycle almost impossible. Only management strategies are
possible, such as fallowing ponds and adjusting stocking dates
to periods of low infective spore concentrations in the water
The features of carp aquaculture that make it a profitable
industry i.e. intensive stocking in non-flowing, organically
enriched waters with minimal/low cost feed input, expose carp to
a high risk of myxozoan infections and disease. Crowded, lowoxygen conditions create stressed populations which are more
susceptible to disease, carp feed on aquatic invertebrates and
burrow into the mud where they are easily exposed to infectious
spore stages from invertebrate hosts and stagnant ponds also
concentrate infectious stages.

Several myxozoans are known to be highly

pathogenic to carp species around the globe, and the
importance of some species to the aquaculture industry
has led to the inclusion of myxozoans in carp into
a European Union funded Research and Innovation
program (ParaFishControl, www.parafishcontrol.
eu), targeting the development of tools to control or
prevent diseases in European farms. In this project,
we are responsible for the coordination of research on
myxozoans in carp, some of the most significant are
shown in Figure 3.
An important research target is Thelohanellus kitauei,
the agent of Intestinal Giant Cystic Disease in Asian
carp. This myxozoan produces tumor-like cysts in the
intestinal wall that block the intestinal lumen, leading
to starvation of the host, with important mortality
rates reported. T. kitauei invasion of European ponds
from the East has been predicted, in relation to trade
and movement of fish, especially commercially valuable Koi
carp. The parasite was recently detected in Hungarian waters,
and we are currently determining its spread in European carp
production sites by analysis of water samples from a number of
sites in Czech Republic, Hungary, Germany and Austria, with
quantification of infective stages in the water column.
The second species of major importance is Sphaerospora
molnari, the agent of gill and skin sphaerosporosis in carp,
which has been reported as an emerging pathogen in Europe,
which additionally functions as a co-factor in Swim Bladder
Inflammation of carp. We are establishing the first myxozoan
in vitro model using proliferative blood stages of S. molnari.
This model can be used in the future e.g. for testing potentially
myxoicidal substances for in-feed treatments. Such applied
studies are of particular importance as a legalised treatment
against myxozoans for fish destined to human consumption does
not presently exist.
On the host side, we investigate S. molnari proliferation in
carp by quantitative PCR at different temperatures and study the
transcriptomic characteristics of the highly proliferative blood
stages. According to the International Panel on Climate Changes
Fifth Assessment Report, climate change will have an overall
negative impact on the worlds fisheries and aquaculture through
increased water temperatures, acidification and oxygen depletion.

Figure 3: Myxozoan
parasites important to
carp aquaculture

44 | March | April 2016 - International Aquafeed

The European Environmental Agency states

that water temperatures in European freshwater
habitats have increased by 1-3C over the last
century. At higher temperatures and subsequent
lower oxygen levels in stagnant ponds fish may
receive a higher dose of infective spores due to
increased ventilation volumes passing through
the gills, apart from increased proliferation rates
in the fish host. Increased severity of myxozoan
related diseases at higher temperatures has
been shown e.g. in Enteromyxum species
causing inflammatory enteritis in pufferfish and
Mediterranean sea bream or in Tetracapsuloides
bryosalmonae causing Proliferative Kidney
Disease in salmonids. Furthermore, it is
likely that temperature impacts on the density
and number of annual cohorts produced by
the invertebrate hosts. Overall, emerging or
increasing severity of myxozoan diseases can
be predicted for the future.
Research on myxozoans has traditionally
been of taxonomic focus, resulting in the
description of just under 3000 species. The
first life cycle was described only in 1984,
and at present, invertebrate and vertebrate
hosts are known for only about 50 species, an
indication for the fact that our knowledge of
this parasite group is still marginal. However,
for the species of importance to fisheries
and aquaculture, research has gone beyond
taxonomy and life cycle investigations. For

Figure 4:
Myxozoans are
with jellyfish
(Medusozoa) as
their closest freeliving relatives

example we now have extensive seasonal and

flow-related monitoring data for Ceratonova
shasta, a species that causes mortality in
salmonids in the Klamath river basin (Western
USA) through intestinal perforations and cooccurring bacterial infections.
Functional approaches were hindered greatly
by the lack of genomic and transcriptomic data
which have only very recently become available.
The final breakthrough was the publication of the
genome of T. kitauei, the first genome sequenced
for myxozoans, which, at the end of 2014,
provided us with a basic idea of the molecular
and physiological changes that happened in this
diverse group of cnidarians that became parasitic
to fish. Genomic and transcriptomic data offer
incomparable opportunities for research into
molecules that are of particular importance for
host-parasite interaction, since the proteins active
on this interface are likely good future drug
targets to disrupt the parasites development or
the disease process.
Considering that emerging diseases are
anticipated as a major limiting factor for future
carp aquaculture, support for such targeted
anti-myxozoan strategies is now needed now
from industry and governments to be ahead of
the problems we will face in providing carp
in the future and to ensure the production of
Christmas carp in Central Europe also in the

International Aquafeed - March | April 2016 | 45


Cage culture in Indian reservoirs: Present status and prospects

Cage culture is an
emerging technology,
through which fishes
are reared from fry to
fingerling, fingerling
to marketable size
while captive in an
enclosed space that
maintains the free
exchange of water
with the surrounding
water body. A cage
is enclosed on all
sides with mesh
netting made from
synthetic material
that can resist
decomposition in
water for a prolonged
period of time.

he growing and production of farmed aquatic organisms in caged enclosures has

been a relatively recent aquacultural innovation. The cage aquaculture sector has
grown very rapidly during the past two decades and is presently undergoing rapid
changes in response to pressures from globalization and growing demand for
aquatic products in both developing and developed countries.

Potential for

or man-made
lakes are huge water bodies that are
created primarily for irrigation, power
generation and other water resource
development purposes. India has 19,
370 reservoirs spread over 16 states and
this is expected to increase due to the
execution of various water projects in
the country.
The reservoirs of India have a
combined surface area of 3.25 million
hectares, mostly in the tropical zone,
which makes them the countrys most
important inland water resource, with
huge untapped potential.
Cage culture is an alternative to inland
pond culture, whereby existing water
resources are used to increase fish
production, and the fish are enclosed
in a cage allowing the water to pass
freely between the fish. The young fish
and other aquatic species are kept, fed
and grown to marketable size in these
cages, which are made of high-density
Now cage fish farming started in the
reservoirs of states like Tamil Nadu,
Jharkhand, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala,
Odessa, Karnataka, West Bengal,
Chhattisgarh, Assam, Tripura, Manipur,
Bihar, Srinagar (J&K), Uttar Pradesh,
Andhra Pradesh, as well as Telangana, to
name but a few.

Present status

In India cage culture in inland water bodies was initiated for the first time in air breathing fishes in
swamps, for raising major carps in running water in Jamuna and Ganga at Allahabad and for raising carps,
snakeheads and tilapia in lentic water bodies of Karnataka. Thereafter, the cages have been used for rearing
fry in many reservoirs and floodplain wetlands to produce advanced fingerlings for stocking main water
The Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute (CIFRI), Barrackpore, Kolkata has taken lead role in
popularising fish rearing in net cages in freshwaters especially in reservoirs as well as wetlands in the
46 | March | April 2016 - International Aquafeed


There is an enormous diversity of types, size, shape, and design of this cage; so they have been developed to suit the
varying demands of the fish growers in open waters. In India, cages are constructed using locally sourced materials
like bamboo poles, GI pipes, iron/plastic drums, synthetic ropes and nets etc. These cages are mostly rectangular and
rarely round in shape. But, cages made of revolutionary HDPE Modular Floating Buoys, which are more durable, are
now replacing the conventional cages.
These HDPE buoys are cubical in shape and modular in nature that enables easy assembly and dismantling of cages.
Being modular in nature, they can be easily arranged to form a cage frame of any size. The cage net shall be of custom
size provided with GI pipe lower frame of 0.5 diameter at the bottom to maintain shape and resist the water current.
Various cage net options are available. Standard netting materials used are welded polymer square mesh of 15 mm, 8
mm and 6 mm and also nylon nettings of various mesh sizes.

Culture practices

Species cultured: The choice of species depends to a large extent on availability of fish seed, feed and market
demand. However, the main desirable characteristics of the candidate species for cage culture are potential for fast
growth, high survival, capacity to withstand overcrowding, rapid adoption to artificial feeds, high-feed conversion
rate, quality flesh and resistance to diseases. At present, cage farming in India predominantly includes the farming of
sutchi catfish, Pangasius hypophthalmus and Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

Stocking density: The number of fishes that can be stocked in cage is variable and depends on carrying capacity of
the water, water exchange, species of fishes and quantity and quality of supplementary feed input. In each cage (6m
x 4m x 4m size) 5 000 fingerlings are stoking and allow them to grow for 8 10 months period by adopting proper
management methods. Depending on the farmers choice, some cages allow for tilapia fish culture and some cages
allow for pangas catfish to be cultured separately.
Feed & feeding methods: Floating pellet feed is given to the fish that are grown in cages. The feed is in different
sizes i.e. starter, grower and finisher with varying crude protein levels. Feeding is done twice a day i.e. morning and
Production level: At the end of the culture period, which ranges from eight to ten months, three to five tonnes of
fish are produced just from one cage compartment i.e. 6m x 4m x 4m size. Generally each battery consists of 12 cage
International Aquafeed - March | April 2016 | 47

Images: Reservoirs,
or man-made lakes
are huge water
bodies that are
created primarily
for irrigation, power
generation and
other water resource
purposes. India has
19, 370 reservoirs
spread over 16 states
and this is expected
to increase due
to the execution
of various water
projects in the


The National Fisheries

Development Board
(NFDB) currently
supports several
initiatives in cage
culture in reservoirs

compartments. But it varies from place to place and

reservoir to reservoir.

Role of NFDB

About the author

Dr B. Laxmappa,
Officer, Department
of Fisheries,
Mahabubnagar 509
001, Telangana,
India. E-mail:

National Fisheries Development Board (NFDB)

currently supports several initiatives in cage culture
in reservoirs; first introduced in Jharkhand (Chandil
Reservoir), later in Chhattisgarh (Kabirdham) and Assam
(Samuguri Beel). Now it is spread to many states of the
Indian reservoirs.
Cage culture proved to be highly successful, increasing
fish production and productivity from open water bodies
on one hand and improving income and livelihoods of
local fishers on the other.
NFDB is also providing financial assistance to Fisheries
Research and Training Institutes for capacity building
to fisher folk and fishery officials on cage fish farming
system in reservoirs of the country.


The commercial prospects for cage farming are so good

in India. Though the many species of fish are suitable for
cage culture, picking the fish species that will do well in
cages in the particular location is important.
There must be a multidisciplinary approach in the

selection of a species for cage culture and therefore the

species introduced have to be selected under economic
and biological limitations, such as the existing and
potential markets; which should precede the selection of
species for cage culture.
Knowledge of the biology and culture requirements
of each species is crucial in optimising production from
cages. The species chosen for culture is usually based on
a number of biological and economical criteria, as well as
the prevailing conditions of the culture site.
The success of the adoption of any innovation or new
technology lies in its economic performance. The rate of
financial return on investment is the economic indicator
that guides the investor to choose a particular enterprise
or practice.
It is essential of cage culture in inland open water
is stocking of reservoirs and culture of economically
important fishes for augmenting fish production. Stocking
with the right fish species, using seed of appropriate
size and introducing it at the right time are essential
to optimising fish yield from reservoirs. The success
demonstrated at different localities in the country has
paved way for thinking of cage culture as one of the
investments for enhanced fish production and livelihood
in the country.

48 | March | April 2016 - International Aquafeed


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A Breath of Fresh Air in Fish Farming

by Stefan Dullstein & Hans Joerg Meissner, Linde

In the past 50 years,

the global demand
for fish products has
doubled, and more
than 45 percent of the
worlds seafood today
now comes not from
wild catches, but from
either land-based or
offshore fish farms. To
meet this rising demand
for seafood worldwide,
more fish have to be
raised in fish farms,
and aquaculture is an
essential link in the
agricultural chain.

he Food and Agriculture Organisation, a United Nations agency, has recently

stressed the importance of fish farming, noting its place as the most sustainable
and fastest growing food sub-sector in the world. The organisation stated that
fish provide the world with 17 percent of its animal protein and emphasised the
importance of fish farming as a global trade.
However, with increased fish farming comes more responsibility from operators
to ensure that their farms are maintaining the best possible fish growing conditions;
including appropriate nutrition, prevention of disease and maintaining a healthy
water environment.

The importance of healthy water

The most important factor for achieving healthy fish is to have healthy water. Therefore, controlling the
concentration of oxygen dissolved in water is crucial in aquaculture. Maintaining the right level of oxygen
in water improves utilisation of feed, reduces fish mortality and reduces the need for vaccination and
This is particularly important in sea cages. Though some have sufficient oxygen levels from surrounding
seawater, there are instances where this is not the case particularly in locations experiencing rising water
temperatures that contain low levels of oxygen. As there is lower solubility of oxygen at higher water
temperatures, this situation becomes more critical during summer months than in winter.
Linde, the worlds largest industrial gases and gases engineering company has a long history of working
in the area of food security to give food processors and consumers the reassurance that the food they eat
is fresh, authentic and sustainable. The company has been supporting fish farmers through its SOLVOX
50 | March | April 2016 - International Aquafeed


range of products, which comprises a variety of oxygen
dissolution and distribution systems, which offer a
comprehensive range of oxygen supply modes.
Late last year, the company introduced the latest in the
SOLVOX family SOLVOX DropIn which was
designed specifically to meet the need for oxygenation in
sea cages.

DropIn: A New Way of Delivering Oxygen

Representing an innovative and effective new way of

improving the delivery of oxygen into fish farming sea
cages, the pioneering DropIn technology was originally
developed for use in improving oxygenation during sea lice
treatment. It now also can also be used in sea cages which
experience unhealthy water conditions due to poor oxygen
levels or where supplementary oxygen is needed, including
in harvesting tanks.
The product was designed to be compact and lightweight
and highly portable, eliminating the need to drag perforated
hoses across cage floors. It comprises an electric pump
plus a patented oxygen dissolver and distribution system
featuring a venturi nozzle. SOLVOX DropIn distributes
oxygen evenly across a wide radius, delivering it in a
pinwheel form, which makes for more homogenous oxygen
throughout the cage.
The innovative design represents a break-through in
oxygen delivery and is the first of its kind on the market. It
provides 50kg of oxygen in the water at 2.2 kilowatts per
hour. Typically for the same amount, wastewater treatment
will use more than ten kilowatts per hour, which represents
a considerable step forward in terms of energy savings.

International Aquafeed - March | April 2016 | 51

Left hand page:

The Sovlox DropIn
aerator in action
Right hand page:
The Solvox DropIn


lowered to a desired water depth. The oxygenation unit

works by sucking water into the lower part of the unit
and mixing it with oxygen. The oxygenated water is then
distributed throughout the cage through four nozzles situated
at the top. The microbubbles created have a low rising
velocity so extends the bubble residence time in the water.
Combined with the large surface-to-volume ratio, this
increases the efficiency of the oxygen dissolution, even
at low pressures. It has also been observed that this much
less disruptive method of delivering increased oxygen
has resulted in calmer fish behaviour during the delousing
The technology is supplied in two delivery options, with
one option featuring SOLVOX DropIn as a standalone unit,
and the other comprising of not only just the unit itself but
in conjunction with a Twin Kit with additional operational
accessories including starter box, dosing panel, hose and
power cable.
The Twin Kit is ideal for short-term oxygenation and
de-lousing treatment that requires installation and quick
removal, reducing laborious handling, while the standalone
unit makes sense for continuous oxygenation where
repetitive installation and removal of the unit is not required.

Whats Next for DropIn

Mitigating Sea Lice

The Solvox
centre, Norway

Sea lice are parasites well known to the aquaculture

industry for posing a significant threat to fish farmers. They
can compromise the health of fish, and damage their hosts
skin through feeding, causing lesions and infections through
viruses and bacteria. Though they occur naturally in the
marine environment, sea lice can represent a particular issue
among farmed fish where a more concentrated population
means that infestations can spread quickly.
If a sea lice concentration reaches above a certain
threshold, fish farmers need to apply treatments. In sea
cages, these can only be applied once the cages have been
completely wrapped in foil to maintain the necessary
concentration of delousing chemicals within the water.
However, as the foil cuts off new oxygen supply from
outside the cage, a supplementary oxygen supply is
needed; this has traditionally been done by using a series of
perforated hoses, which have to be dragged over the cages
and then lowered onto the cage floors.
Although this is a labour-intensive and time-consuming
process, it does not always deliver optimum distribution of
oxygen. SOLVOX DropIn was designed to overcome the
operational and effectiveness issues involved with more
traditional methods of de-lousing.


The most outstanding aspect of the technology is its

method of application; as it was specifically designed to
deliver ease of operation when supplementing oxygen to sea
Using a small crane, SOLVOX DropIn can be easily

Since its launch in autumn 2015, SOLVOX DropIn has

been very well received by the fish farming market and is
currently in operation in fish farms in Australia and Norway.
During trials, customers provided feedback that SOLVOX
DropIn operated at high levels of efficiency and they
experienced up to 40 percent less oxygen usage as compared
to existing oxygenation systems utilised. The technology
has also recently won a coveted innovation award at the
Industriens Motemesse show in Norway.
It is expected that the technology will be rolled out to
other key fish farming geographies including New Zealand,
Scotland, Chile and Canada this year. Opening market
potential and providing the world with more protein,
aquaculture will be a growing trend, and SOLVOX DropIn
is designed to enable this going into the future.
As with many other areas of industrial gases development,
innovation involving digitalisation and data analysis will be
key. Linde is already well set on course to developing more
intelligent, smart technologies in the area of aquaculture
which will serve significantly beneficial to fish farming
operations in terms of productivity.

Linde Innovation Centre for Aquaculture

Linde undertakes the research and development

of all its aquaculture technology at its pioneering
Innovation Centre in lesund, Norway. With its highly
equipped laboratories demonstration tanks, the Centre
allows aquaculture technologists to observe how the
latest oxygenation technologies impact farmed fish
Since its opening in 2012 Linde has introduced
the capability to run warm water trials to understand
and assess the performance of its technology in high
temperature water environments inhabited by more
tropical species. Additionally, they have recently
installed an external floating dock where technology
trials including SOLVOX DropIn - can be
performed in the surrounding fjord.

52 | March | April 2016 - International Aquafeed


Indo 1 22/03/2016 10:42:57





International Aquafeed - March | April 2016 | 53

Industry Events
Profitability, Sustainability and
Responsibility for future will be the
theme for Asian-Pacific Aquaculture

Events listing
n 01-02 March 2016

Global Catfish Conference

n 13-15 March 2016


n 15-17 March 2016

Oceanology International

n 29-31 March 2016


n 18-20 April 2016

IFIF 5th Global Feed & Food Congress

n 26-29 April 2016

Asia Pacific Aquaculture 2016

n 25-26 May 2016

Aquaculture UK 2016

n 02-04 June 2016

Middle East Aquaculture Forum

n 04-06 June 2016

FutureFish Eurasia 2016

n 20-23 September 2016

Aquaculture Europe

n 27-28 September 2016

Humber Seafood Summit

n 24-28 October 2016

The Micronutrient Forum - Mexico

For more industry event information

- visit our events register

n 15-18 November 2016


n 28 November 2016

Latin American & Caribbean

Aquaculture 2016

Algae: A brave new industry



International Aquafeed also organises

conferences - we will be working with
VIV to host the Aquatic series in 2016

The Asian-Pacific Aquaculture 2016 or APA 2016 is a major podium where

the giants of world aquaculture gather as a region. Aquaculture in the Asia
pacific region is a rapidly expanding business venture providing employment
in rural and coastal areas of many Asian countries and contributing towards
the growth on their respective economies.
Profitability, Sustainability and Responsibility for future will be the theme
for APA 2016. As the highest producers in the world aquaculture, long term
profitability cannot be acquired without being responsible for the environment
or caring about the sustainability. Almost all the Asian uprising economies
will gather to discuss about the latest developments, newest technologies in a
period where recent climate changes have become a challenge for the industry.
Hosted by Ministry of Marine Affairs & Fisheries (MMAF), APA 2016 will
be held on 26th to 29th of April 2016 at Grand City, Surabaya, Indonesia.
With more than 17,000 islands and with an achievement of around 50 percent
production increase by utilizing only a 20 percent area increase for the last 5
years, Indonesia is undoubtedly the prominent location for the world to gather
and share the latest developments on aquaculture. Apart from that, being an
interesting tourist destination will attract more scientist and business holders
from all over the world.
APA 2016, will also include Asia Pacific Aquaculture 2016, IndoAqua 2016,
FITA 2016 and International Symposium on Tilapia (ISTA) 2016. A special
industry session consisting the up-to-date applied technologies for Indonesian
aquaculture producers and technical sessions covering on all the aspects of
Indonesian and South Asian aquaculture will be parts of the Asia Pacific
Aquaculture 2016. Parallel sessions that cover the full scope of Asia pacific
aquaculture, submitted oral and poster presentations with student sessions and
plenary sessions will also be a portion of APA 2016.
The APA 2016 will be an exceptional prospect for academics as well
as aquaculture experts to enhance and share the knowledge, have peer
engagements, widen the network, to expand the vision. Itll also be a
perfect international platform for industry to meet with potential business
partners and acquire new markets while taking pleasure in a comforting and
memorable time in Indonesia.

During AlgaEurope you could feel the vibrant atmosphere where this industry
is in. With over 220 participants (+24% compared to 2014), 10 table tops,
65 speakers and 60 poster presentations this conference is becoming the
reference conference on algae in Europe.
Well-known contributors and scientists from 28 countries worldwide were
present at AlgaEurope. Presentations given by leading scientists, CEOs, and
authorities from all over the world together with poster presentations gave a
clear insight into the latest technological innovations, the economic outlook
and the international developments in the algae industry.
The conference is organised by the European Algae Biomass Association
(EABA) and the Directorates General for Energy of the European Commission
in collaboration with DLG Benelux (German Agricultural Society).
The next AlgaEurope is scheduled to take place from 6-8 December 2016 in UK.

54 | March | April 2016 - International Aquafeed

Industry Events
Nutriad supports Aquaculture
Aqua India 2016, a bi-annual event organised by the Indian
Society of Aquaculture Professionals (SAP), was held this year
in Vishakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh - January 29-30. Nutriad
showed its commitment to the Indian Aquaculture Industry
through a Gold Sponsorship for the event. The conference
focused on the theme of Indian Aquaculture: Assuming
Responsibilities & Adapting to Changes.
Seafood exports from India have increased fivefold in the
last 15 years reaching 6.5 billion USD, converting India into the
fourth global seafood exporter, said Ms Leena Nair, chairman
of Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA).
67 percent of the export value is shrimp of which 77 percent is
farmed. Increased production costs and diseases are likely to slow
Indians shrimp production in 2016.
A more than 10 percent production decline due to flooding





Dr Peter Coutteau receiving the gold sponsor award for Nutriad
at Aqua India 2016 from Dr P Ravachandran, Member Secretary
of the Coastal Aquaculture Authority


and disease outbreaks was already seen in 2015. A recovery is

likely to be marginal due to lower returns from farming, stated S
Muthukaruppan, president of SAP.
White spot virus (WSSV) continues to be the predominant
threat to farmed shrimp in India, but new diseases are
increasingly important too, according to Dr Shankar Alavandi,
principal scientist at CIBA.
Surveillance programs have revealed new diseases such as the
running mortality syndrome (RMS), white faeces syndrome, and
Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei, a microsporidian causing slow
growth and bad feed conversions. India still has an enormous
potential to expand production of Penaeus vannamei into new
farming areas in the states of West Bengal, Odisha and Gujarat.
During the interactive sessions at Aqua India, participants
expressed the need for increasing capacity of quarantine and
broodstock multiplication centers, enhanced bio-security
measures to avoid spreading new diseases, genetic programs,
and new technologies to control microbial development in pond
systems including probiotics and specific functional feeds.
Upon receiving the gold sponsorship award Dr Peter Coutteau,
Nutriad BU Manager Aquaculture stated: Nutriad has been
working alongside producers in India for many years. Together
with them we develop concept that address the current and future
challenges of the industry.
Nutriad delivers products and services to over 80 countries
through a network of own sales offices and distributors.
Supported by four application laboratories and five
manufacturing facilities on three continents.


P.O. Box 8
100 Airport Road
Sabetha, KS 66534, USA
Phone: 785-284-2153
Fax: 785-284-3143

ET-275C.indd 1

12/22/15 3:33 PM

Industry Events

As the aquaculture sector continues to grow globally, with this growth

come new challenges that call for innovative research and technology
solutions. The innovation thread ran through the 2016 programme
and it is exemplified by presentations on the industry-led Innovation
Centres that have been established recently in Norway and Scotland to
facilitate collaborations with academic researchers.
Questions of fish health, containment, environmental security,
marine biofuel development and spatial planning all featured strongly
in the industrys strategic considerations and these themes were
addressed throughout the programme.
At Oceanology International 2016, a selection of hand picked
representatives from throughout the aquaculture industry, addressed
an audience that at its peak contained an impressive tally of sixty
delegates, on a variety of issues that their organisations are currently
striving to resolve.
Richard Slaski, SARF
The days first speaker was Richard Slaski, who is currently working
with Marine Scotland on the new European Maritime and Fisheries
Fund, as well as administering the Scottish Aquaculture Research
Forum. Therefore, Mr Slaski was able to provide a very detailed
insight into the current state of international and UK aquaculture.
He spoke of how the FAO are not looking at Europe for growth:
instead India and Asia at large are highlighted for further growth.
Mr Slaski also suggested that Europes biggest aquaculture species is
mussels, which currently constitute 26 percent of the industry.
Mr Slaski noted that the trend in Europe is for more and more
offshore aquaculture, typically 1-6 miles offshore in the N-E Atlantic,
increasingly using sub-surface equipment.
He also discussed the economics of seeded and self-seeding large
seaweed farms for algae.
Alex Adrian, Crown Estate
Mr Slaski was followed by Alex Adrian, who is Aquaculture
Operations Manager for The Crown Estate, responsible for the
organisations finfish, shellfish and seaweed cultivation business
activities throughout the UK.
Mr Adrians key argument was that aquaculture access is a very
important issue and should be accepted as an integral part of the
seafood sector and should be recognised for its net benefit by all
sea users accordingly. Mr Adrian also argued that salmon is now
the shining star of offshore aquaculture that is currently driving
the innovation, technological advances and social licenses needed;
however, he also added that it needs investment, research and
stewardship from the top.
Mr Adrian concluded his address by stating that the fishermenaquaculture shared seas initiative deserves to gain more equal

Keith Jeffrey, Aquaculture Development Officer, CEFAS

Following the very comprehensive address by Mr Adrian, the next
speaker to address those in attendance was Keith Jeffrey, Aquaculture
Development Officer, CEFAS.
Keith Jeffrey has worked at CEFAS in Weymouth, UK for the last
14 years, spending much of this time carrying out statutory inspection
duties on aquaculture businesses in England and Wales. Recently,
Keith has changed his role, with greater involvement in promoting the
future development of aquaculture.
The key topic examined during Mr Jeffreys address was Scottish
salmon. Scotland is currently the third most prominent producer of
salmon in the world after Norway and Chile, according to Mr Jeffrey,
and in terms of Scotlands exports it is second only to whisky.
Scotland could increase their productivity further by addressing the
problem of location, according to Mr Jeffrey: Locations are often in
rural areas as the only industries in that area, employing RAS systems
for smolts on-land first. Obtaining isolated new sites was also
described as being the biggest challenge to expansion, with only 16
new sites [created] over the last 10 years.
Mr Jeffrey gave his audience an example of a model in which
SARF/CEFAS used an intermediate land based system for a Scottish
government project. He outlined the development of a bio-economic
model with Scottish industry visits and checks, employing RAS and
PAS (pump ashore) systems and with FCR ratios and daily growth
rates (DGR) all based around Skretting feed tables. Then, according
to Mr Jeffrey, the SARF/CEFAS collaboration then left the industry to
take forward the economic data relevant to them from the findings.
The next step saw a best-working example created for 1kg smolts.
However, UK electricity costs were double the costs of electricity in
the USA. But as with most things, there are always many pros and
cons, and according to Mr Jeffrey, all of the pros move towards
removing short term constraints to growth, and better management of
risks of offshore sites.
However, according to Mr Jeffrey, in this particular case the cons
are financial start up costs, infrastructure disjointments, the costs
of post-smolt 1kg being more than net-pen 1kg fish, with increased
production and environmental costs, including specially designed
smaller net sizes for cleaner fish.
Mr Jeffrey concluded his address by stating that, according to his
ideal model, one would need two harvests in one area but allowing
for a fallowing area, meaning that a total of three sites would be
operational in rotation at any one time. As a minimum, Mr Jeffrey
suggested that investment of UK40-70m is needed, for sites in a
minimum of 6m depth of water and which can be serviced by high
tension (HT) electricity lines.
In Cefas models, cost per 1kg post-smolt delivered to cage side is
estimated to be UK3.34; additional cage production estimates are
55 million per annum net.

56 | March | April 2016 - International Aquafeed

Industry Events
Lawrie Stove, Founder, AquaMoor
Following this very comprehensive address from Mr
Jeffrey, the next speaker to take the stand was Lawrie
Stove. Mr Stove, who is the founder of AquaMoor Limited,
a company focused on developing innovative mooring technologies
for niche applications, discussed catenary chain moorings.
He spoke in most detail about chain moorings in more exposed
situations, such as those in more aggressive wave climates, or a
once-in-ten-years storm event, and their effects on salmon cages and
floating fish farms.
Mr Stove made his point by describing a product model that
presents an ideal solution. His model would be able to withstand
peak loads of between roughly 60kN and 95kN of waves and
Waves can often make for a good site as, according to Mr Stove,
water quality improves with currents, ie, the mix of water is
better. However, the flipside of the better water quality is that these
conditions cause increased rates of abrasion, wear and tear, as well
as damage to the seabed, possibly to the anchor and its touchdown
point, due to drag from high waves with unmanaged loads, adding
that the correct chains can take up to 75 percent of the load in
AquaMoors own models.
In conclusion, Mr Stove stated that Shock movements of storms
and their waves can cause damage and breakages in the chains of
feed barges and pens. He also imparted that one solution presented
by AquaMoor is the addition of extra elastomers, which provide
better management of loads and so reduce the mooring footprint and
the risk of damage and breakages.
Shock absorbers are also needed more, according to Mr Stove,
and industry specific anchor designs and tailored technology also
need to be developed for short-scope moorings. The track record of
AquaMoors products in increasing safety on working platforms, as
well as in reducing the need to evacuate feed barges prematurely, are
the two key commercial considerations that Mr Stove concluded his
address with.
Dr Arne Fredheim, Research Director, Department of
Aquaculture Technology, SINTEF
Shortly after Mr Stoves address, the next speaker to share his
knowledge with the assembled audience was Dr Arne Fredheim,
who is the current Research Director for the Department of
Aquaculture Technology at SINTEF Fisheries and Aquaculture
and the Adjunct Professor at the Centre for Autonomous Marine
Operations and Systems, Department of Marine Technology at the
Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU).
Dr Fredheims first point in his discussion was, Agriculture:
Volume worldwide is plants, value is in finfish and molluscs.
Whilst discussing this topic, he described how valuable types of
finfish production are conducted by SINTEF both in Scotland and in
Norway and he listed their volumes in descending order from large
to small: Atlantic salmon, rainbow trout, Japanese amberjack, silver
salmon, gilthead seabream, European seabass and then Japanese
The next generation of offshore fish farms was Dr Fredheims
next key point for discussion. He listed the three biggest problems
that face the current and next generations
of ocean farmers as: sealice, sealice and
sealice. He cited the examples of SalMar
-who currently invest UK50-60m per
site - and Nordlaks, both of whom have
recently implemented anti-sealice skirts on
their rectangular structured pens.
Like Mr Stove previously, Dr
Fredheim discussed the hazards

of so-called good sites. The main issue is that once the sites have
been chosen, the good waves and currents can make installation
and maintenance even more challenging. At present, two wave
buoys - one at a Marine Harvest site and the other at a SalMar site are on exposed sites gathering data. Dr Fredheim also stressed that
Sites also need good oxygen and water quality, with in some cases
200,000 fish in 10 cages all eating concurrently, which means that a
lot of oxygen is needed.
The further farming is conducted offshore, the more the operations
will be like ordinary maritime operations but as aquaculture is with
live animals at all times, fish behaviour and welfare is one of the
paramount areas of importance.
Dr Fredheim concluded by stating that he believes that large
capital investments are needed in the blue economy and in seafood
production, adding that there was great interest and potential in
cross-blue sector collaboration, what with currently low oil prices.
Jason Cleaversmith, Scottish Aquaculture Innovation Centre
The next speaker to address the audience at Oceanology
International 2016 was Jason Cleaversmith. Following the beginning
of his association with the Scottish Aquaculture Innovation Centre
(SAIC) in April 2015, Mr Cleaversmith was given a mandate to help
transform the relationship between industry and academia, whilst
concurrently facilitating economic growth for the aquaculture sector.
Mr Cleaversmiths key point of discussion was an overview of the
projects that the SAIC are currently undertaking. At only 18 months
old, the SAIC currently have nine active projects worth UK9.35m,
having currently invested around UK2.4m, whilst also investing
UK1.3m capital equipment investment in the Higher Education
Institute (HEI) network. Twenty SAIC scholars and joint PhD
students have to date been invested in.
The next topic that Mr Cleaversmith discussed was how SAIC
are looking for projects/bolt-on projects as well as currently being
open to open knowledge transfers, with avenues currently open with
Norwegian, Chilean and Faroe Islands salmon farming. He also
described how SAIC plan to invest a further UK11million over the
next five years and will continue to do their utmost to help remove
industry-identified bottlenecks.
Mr Cleaversmith concluded his address by stressing that SAIC
will continue to support research into EPA/DHA and other protein
sources and sustainable feeds. They then
plan to utilise this research to make the
manufacturing process more efficient with
less raw material input and possibly lower
costs, with more efficient FCR rates.

International Aquafeed - March | April 2016 | 57

Jeff, Cody and Samantha from DeepTrekker

Industry Events



What happens in Vegas ...

... stays in Vegas!
This proverb of the twentieth century undoubtedly cannot be
applied to Aquaculture 2016. Organised by WAS in Las Vegas from
22nd- 26th February at the Paris Hotel and Convention Centre, Las
Vegas, US, in this instsance at least, what really happened in Las
Vegas, in terms of aquaculture, will certainly have an international
The event, as always, was very well organised by the WAS team,
and they had everything ready from the day before the show was
even due to start when the International Aquafeed team arrived at
the Expo Centre of the wonderful Paris Hotel. We got to the Paris
Hotel, from Bally Hotel , where Roger Gilbert, Tuti Tan and Darren
Paris and I stayed, that was located very close and joined by a
large corridor full of shops, machines and gaming tables.
The opening ceremony took place at night, with a reception held
in a ballroom of the Paris Hotel and attended by most exhibitors,
lecturers, experts and students from different universities in the US.
This was a great opportunity to meet many friends of the industry
and old friends and establish new networks within the industry. The
next day the exhibition hall blew up! There were more than one
hundred visitors eager to know all about business, who asked many
questions and of course, some companies closed important business
58 | March | April 2016 - International Aquafeed

Industry Events

and established representations in the USA.

The Stand of International Aquafeed was not the
exception, and we had the pleasure of welcoming many
people, from professionals, CEOs of companies to
university students searching for the No 14 stamp, which
gave them the possibility of a free trip to the next event to
be held next year.
The hotels conference rooms were then completely
invaded by industry professionals. James Anderson,
director of a new Institute for Sustainable Food Systems
and Professor of Food and Resource Economics at the
University of Florida, who spoke about The Future of
Aquaculture and its Role in the Global Food System,
conducted the plenary session.
The presentations and conferences lasted the three
days, and covered the most diverse issues from algae,
recirculation systems, to climate change and its influence on
the culture of different fish species. During the three days,
the halls were overcrowded and the students, as well as
professional taking notes about the various new trends and
developments in all sectors within the aqua industry.
Back in our booth, the team started to work on covering
the impact of each of our customers and potential customers
through video interviews and small commercial meetings,
who explained the purpouse of their presence in Las Vegas,
new products and future plans. The videos can be seen in
the online platform of our magazine International Aquafeed
for Latin America and the blog The Aquaculturist.
During the second day of the event, a very important
International Aquafeed - March | April 2016 | 59

Industry Events

announcement took place in our stand for the Global Aquaculture Industry.
It was that the establishment of Aquaculture Without Frontiers UK had taken
place. In Charge of the announcement was Roy Palmer, director of AWF and
Roger Gilbert, director of International Aquafeed magazine. With no doubt
it was a step forward to the development of Aquaculture within the United
Kingdom, as this organisation will be focused on the main aspects affecting the
Aquaculture and its challenges in that important market.
As the event closed, a big party took place in a nearby disco, with a great
dinner, drinks and music that fitted the moment perfectly. The place and
atmosphere were amazing and helped us all to relax a little and look forward to
the future of aquaculture in the US and the next edition of Aquaculture America.
Autor: Ivn Marquetti, Director Regional de International Aquafeed in

60 | March | April 2016 - International Aquafeed

Industry Events

International Aquafeed - March | April 2016 | 61

Industry Events

A great success
- A statement from the organiser
Aquaculture 2016, the very successful triennial meeting of the
World Aquaculture Society, National Shellfisheries Association
and Fish Culture Section, AFS was held at the Paris Hotel &
Convention Centre in Las Vegas, Nevada February 22 26, with
the theme, All in for Aquaculture.
The United States Aquaculture Society (chapter of the World
Aquaculture Society, USAS/WAS), the National Aquaculture
Association (NAA) and the Aquaculture Suppliers Association
(ASA) hosted Aquaculture 2016.

"Aquaculture 2016 conference included over 2700

participants from 88 countries. The conference offered
14 concurrent sessions over 4 days with 87 sessions,
both technical and industry oriented, with 800+
oral presentations and 200 posters. The trade show
featured 207 booths with many companies new to
aquaculture. "
In 2017, Aquaculture America 2017 will be hosted in San
Antonio, Texas, February 19-22, 2017.

62 | March | April 2016 - International Aquafeed

Edinburgh International Conference Centre (EICC)

Edinburgh, Scotland
20-23 September, 2016

Organised by the European Aquaculture society with the cooperation

and support of Marine Scotland, part of the Scottish Government,
and The Marine Alliance for Science and Technology for Scotland
AE2016 Gold Sponsor

Elevator buckets
+90 212 465 60 40
Tapco Inc
+1 314 739 9191

Welcome to the market place, where you will find suppliers of products
and services to the industry - with help from our friends at The International Aquafeed Directory (published by Turret Group)

+34 91 726 43 04

+41 61 8113355
+49 618 1596785
+34 902 157711
+31 499 364800

+44 141 945 2924
Romer Labs
+43 2272 6153310

Elevator & Conveyor Components

+1 204 233 7133

4B Braime
+44 113 246 1800

Animal Health & Nutrition

+1 760 736 9901

Mondi Group
+43 1 79013 4917

Bin dischargers
+33 2 37 97 66 11

Bulk storage
Bentall Rowlands
+44 1724 282828
Chief Industries UK Ltd
+44 1621 868944
Croston Engineering
+44 1829 741119
Silo Construction Engineers
+32 51723128
Silos Cordoba
+34 957 325 165

Ab Vista
+44 1672 517 650

GMP+ International

Vigan Enginnering
+32 67 89 50 41

+1 450 799 2000

Equipment for sale

Colour sorters
Bhler AG
+41 71 955 11 11

Amino acids
+49 618 1596785

+31 71 4023701

TSC Silos
+31 543 473979


Laboratorio Avi-Mex S.A. de C.V
+55 54450460 Ext. 1105

+33 2 41 72 16 80

ExtruTech Inc
+1 785 284 2153

Event organisers
+31 30 295 2772

+81 82 420 8560

Computer software
Adifo NV
+32 50 303 211
Format International Ltd
+44 1483 726081

+31 575 572666
Amandus Kahl
+49 40 727 710

Colour sorters
SEA S.r.l.
+39 054 2361423

Coolers & driers

Consergra s.l
+34 938 772207
FrigorTec GmbH
+49 7520 91482-0
Geelen Counterflow
+31 475 592315
Muyang Group
+86 514 87848880
Wenger Manufacturing
+1 785-284-2133

+45 72 160300
+49 203 7788 0
Buhler AG
+41 71 955 11 11
Dinnissen BV
+31 77 467 3555
Ferraz Maquinas e Engenharia
+55 16 3615 0055
Insta-Pro International
+1 515 254 1260
+31 79 593 22 21

64 | March | April 2016 - International Aquafeed

Ugur Makina
+90 (364) 235 00 26

Wenger Manufacturing
+1 785-284-2133
Zheng Chang
+86 21 64188282


+34 973 21 60 40

Borregaard LignoTech
+47 69 11 80 00
+47 69 11 80 00

Buhler AG
+41 71 955 11 11
+86 514 87848880

+43 2782 803 0
+ 33 562 745 555

Leonhard Breitenbach
+49 271 3758 0
OJ Hojtryk
+45 7514 2255

Safety equipment
+49 2961 740 50

Second hand equipment

Sanderson Weatherall
+44 161 259 7054

+49 6227 732668

CB Packaging
+44 7805 092067

+31 318 545 754

Aqua TT
+353 1 644 9008



+1 312 738 3700


Shrimp feed additives

+45 72 160300
Visit us!

Fr. Jacob Shne GmbH & Co. KG, Germany

Tel. + 49 (0) 571 95580 | www.

Doescher & Doescher GmbH

+49 4087976770

NIR systems

Dol Sensors
+45 721 755 55

Used around

all industrial

Moisture analyzers

+44 1483 468900

+41 55 2562100

Jacob Sohne
+49 571 9580

+44 1444 870055

CHOPIN Technologies
+33 14 1475045

+33 2 97 89 25 30

Pipe systems

BinMaster Level Controls

+1 402 434 9102
FineTek Co., Ltd
+886 2226 96789


Rentokil Pest Control

+44 0800 917 1987

Laboratory equipment

Level measurement

Tornum AB
+46 512 29100

Pest control

Hatchery products

+90 312 395 67 87

+34 91 726 43 04

Akzo Nobel
+46 303 850 00

Tel.: +351 249 435 145

Reed Mariculture
+1 877 732 3276

+86 514 87848880

Pellet binders


Wynveen International B.V.

+31 26 47 90 699

+90 382 266 2245

Ehcolo A/S
+45 75 398411

Aller Aqua
+45 70 22 19 10

+90 382 2662120

Kepler Weber Group

+55 11 4873-0300

Mondi Group
+43 1 79013 4917

International Aquafeed - March | April 2016 | 65

Ridgeway Biologicals
+44 1635 579516

Wynveen International B.V.
+31 26 47 90 699

Weighing equipment
Parkerfarm Weighing Systems
+44 1246 456729

Yeast products
ICC, Adding Value to Nutrition
+55 11 3093 0753
+ 33 562 745 555
Leiber GmbH
+49 5461 93030
Phileo (Lesaffre animal care)
+33 3 20 81 61 00

To include your company in the International

Aquafeed market place in print, and a
company page on our website contact Tom
+44 1242 267700

the interview
Dr Juan Pablo Lazo
The World Aquaculture Society (WAS) was created in 1969 and currently has nearly 3,000 members in about 100 countries.
The international character of the society and the need to address specific the specific issues in various regions of the world,
they currently have local chapters in the United States, Japan, Korea, the Asia-Pacific region and in Latin America and the
Caribbean. Its annual meeting was held in Las Vegas, Nevada, from 22nd to 26th February this year.
At their most recent gathering, the societys new president, Dr. Juan Pablo Lazo shared some of the strategies that he intends to
implement to achieve the societys objectives.

What does being elected president of The World

Aquaculture Society (WAS) meant to you?

It is an honor and a privilege for me to take charge of the

World Aquaculture Society for the next presidential term.
I am committed to promoting our Society in continuing its
position as the leader in Science, Technology and Education
Information exchange throughout the world.

Prior to becoming WAS president, what was your role in

the organisation and what issues were you dealing with?

I have been a member of the society since the early 90s

and have been involved in organising several international
symposiums on Aquaculture Nutrition as well as other WAS
sponsored meetings. I served as the President of the Latin
American and Caribbean Chapter of WAS from 2009 to 2011,
and my role focused on encouraging greater integration
between research, educational institutions and businesses,
whilst promoting aquaculture development within the
chapter. I then served on the board from 2011 to 2014 as
a Director. As Chair of the Affiliations Committee, I focused
on promoting and enhancing alliances with aquaculture
organizations through the world.

Would you tell us about your background and

how that experience will help the WAS and its

I obtained my BS in Biochemical Engineering at the Monterrey

Institute of Technology and Higher Education (ITESM). I then
pursued a MS degree at LSU in Fisheries and Aquaculture and
a PhD in Marine Science at the UT Austin, with a specialty
in marine fish nutrition. I returned to my home country
(Mexico) in 2000 to work as professor and research scientist
in the Department of Aquaculture at the Center for Scientific
Research and Higher Education of Ensenada (CICESE), a
federal research centre dedicated to basic and applied
research. I perform basic and applied research to support
the development of marine fish farming in Mexico and Latin
America. One of my research goals is to identify and evaluate
ingredients that could potentially replace fishmeal and fish oil
in formulated diets.
I have taught undergraduate, masters and doctoral courses
at several universities in Latin American and has served as
a thesis advisor for several masters and doctoral students
in the US and Latin America. I have participated in several
collaborative projects and consultancies aimed at the
development of sustainable culture protocols of marine fish in
the Latin American region.

What is your key objective(s) for your team as

President? Where do you see the organisation
benefiting most from your direction?

I believe that through adequate leadership and collaboration

the society can significantly contribute to the sustainable
development and integration of the aquaculture industry
across the world. The quality of services provided to our
members must be improved to focus more specifically on their
particular needs closely coupled with our quickly changing
trends and to increase global representation within the society

of underrepresented groups particularly from Africa, Latin

America and some Asian regions. I would also like to make
WAS more visible and recognised in the global aquaculture
community, and to increase our member involvement with
our affiliates and vice-versa.
Social media plays a crucial role in the exchange of
information and WAS must embrace technological venues as
a means of communication and will be given a high priority if
elected. During my term, There is an urgent need to improve
the quality of our scientific journal, JWAS. A new Editor in Chief
and new strategies have been put in place to attract the
submission of higher quality papers and improve the impact
of our scientific journal.

How do you draw together the various sides of

the industry -aquaculture scientists, policymakers
and industry suppliers - to provide a cohesive

WAS serves as primary facilitator of information exchange,

technology transfer, policy development and communication
between all sectors engaged in aquaculture. I believe that
by making WAS more visible and recognised in the global
aquaculture community and by increasing our member
involvement with our partners we can draw all key-players
around the world together in developing the aquaculture
industry in a sustainable way. We are now implementing new
industry AWARDS to recognize industry leaders that have a
strong impact on aquaculture around the world and should
help in providing a more cohesive organization.

Since 2013 the supply of farmed seafood has overtaken

wild caught seafood in terms of consumer demand.
What is the position of WAS in supporting this growth in
a sustainable and responsible way?
We need to be aware of the Challenges presented to us for
meeting consumer demands for aquaculture products in the
next 10-15 years. Although we produce nearly 50 percent of
the fisheries products, we have a daunting task to double our
current production by 2030, but this needs to be done in a
sustainable manner using the Best Practices Guidelines around
the world and this is where our Society plays an important role.
We need to be concerned with what we leave to our future
generations and the environment.

What is your vision for the future in terms of the

organisation and the role of aquaculture in food

I see WAS as becoming the leading, high-profile and most

important aquaculture society in the world, committed to
promoting the development of sustainable aquaculture
across the five continents by assisting in the exchange of
the latest scientific and technological information between
the academic, private, government and non-profit sectors.
WAS must also further develop its capacity for identifying the
challenges faced by the aquaculture industry, and providing
solutions in a timely, efficient and scientifically sound manner.
I also envision WAS as a leading promoter of best-practice
guidelines for the aquaculture industry, a key component of
sustainable development

66 | March | April 2016 - International Aquafeed



GMV board welcomes Rene Smulders

ast November, GMV had to say goodbye to two very involved board members. Paul den
Ouden and Sander Schwartz made room for two new board members. One of these new
board members is Mr Ren Smulders, CCO at KSE Process Technology.

Result-oriented and a strategic approach are qualities of Ren on what we can count on
within GMV in the coming years, said Jacqueline van Oosten - FME.

Rene Smulders

Within the feed sector, Ren is surely not unknown. As in the entire agrifood sector, there
are many developments and there is plenty of work to do. Ren likes to contribute to rejuvenate
GMV and bringing it a step further.
Ren is responsible for the sections Biobased and Meat & Feed within the GMV board.

It is important to look further into the agrifood chain than just our own link in the chain,
said Ren Smulders.
By looking along the entire chain we can efficiently and effectively deal and solve the
challenges in the sector. This should ultimately result in a better cooperating chain and an
optimised process from seed to meat.

Alltech appoints new general manager for the UK

lltech is pleased to announce the appointment of Fergal McAdam to general manager

for the UK. Mr McAdam has worked for Alltech for the past nine years, managing
key accounts in Ireland and as sales manager for Northern Ireland.

Alric Blake, Alltech CEO, commented, We are delighted to have Fergal leading
the team here in the UK. Fergal possesses huge market knowledge and has a long track record
in the agricultural arena. I have every confidence Fergal will lead our sales team in providing
outstanding service to our customers across the UK and Northern Ireland.

Fergal McAdam

Coming from a strong dairy farming background, Mr McAdam received a degree in

agribusiness from Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology and is currently studying for a
masters at the UCD Michael Smurfit Graduate Business School. As general manager for the
UK, Mr McAdam will manage the UK team, liaising closely with feed compounders and
farmers throughout the market. Prior to joining Alltech, McAdam worked for Lakeland Dairies,
a major Irish dairy processing co-operative.
I look forward to working with the team in delivering superior value to our customers, said
Mr McAdam. We have a very diligent and dedicated team, and I aim to further develop this
market for the benefit of our customers.

Thomas Palm appointed new CFO of Cermaq Group AS

homas Palm (33) has been appointed new CFO of Cermaq Group AS. Over the last five
years, he has held several key positions in Cermaq including business development
analyst, Finance Director of Cermaq Chile and Finance Director of Cermaq Norway.

Thomas Palm holds a masters degree from the Norwegian School of Economics in
Bergen and a CEMS Master in International Management. He worked with SEB Enskilda and
with Statkraft before he joined Cermaq.

Thomas Palm

Cermaq is one of the worlds leading companies in the farming of salmon and trout, with
operations in Norway, Chile and Canada. Cermaq is a fully owned subsidiary of Mitsubishi
Corporation with head office in Oslo, Norway.

Aller Aqua appoints Commercial Director - Africa

ately Aller Aqua has increased its activities on the African continent significantly. As a
result they have restructured their organisation to further support this: Niels Lundgaard,
formerly International Relationship Manager, has now been appointed Commercial
Director - Africa.

Aller Aqua is a family owned company, with roots tracing back more than a thousand years,
producing fish feed for freshwater and saltwater aquaculture.

Niels Lundgaard

They have produced fish feed for more than 50 years, and this makes them one of the worlds
most experienced fish feed producers, delivering innovative products to their customers. Today
Aller Aqua has factories in Denmark, Poland, Germany and Egypt, and export their products to
more than 70 countries worldwide.
68 | March | April 2016 - International Aquafeed

Exhibition and conferences for feed

ingredients, additives and formulation

Exhibition and conferences for feed

processing technology


Asias premier aquafeed event

Symposium and Summit
The second ASEAN Feed and Rice
The second ASEAN Feed Summit

Contact details
For visitor, exhibition stand space and
conference information please visit: or

Specialist conferences
The exhibitions will be supported by their own specialist
conferences. They will include:
FIAAP Asia Animal Nutrition Conference 2016
Aquafeed Horizons Asia 2016

Co-located with
GRAPAS Asia 2016
Supported by
The Thailand Convention and Exhibition Bureau