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CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL BONDING

SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
3.1 Lewis Structure
Q1
A
Valence electrons are electrons in the outermost shell of an atom.

Q2
A
A Lewis symbol is the symbol of an element with one or more dots around it. These dots
represent the number of valence electrons in an atom of the element.

Q3
A

Q4
A
The tendency of an atom to achieve a configuration where its valence shell contains eight
electrons.

Q5
A
Zn2+:

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 (pseudonoble gas configuration)

Br :

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 (noble gas configuration)

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Mn2+: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d5 (half-filled orbitals)

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Q6
A
The transfer of electrons from an atom to an electronegative atom forms cations and anions.
The electrostatic force of attraction between these oppositely charged ions produces an ionic
bond.

Q7
A
The electronic configurations of sodium and fluorine are:
Na: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1
F: 1s2 2s2 2p5
The transfer of an electron from Na atom to F atom produces Na+ and F ions.
Therefore, the formula of the compound is NaF.

Q8
A

Lithium atom, Li has one valence electron. Each Li atom loses one electron to produce Li+
ion.
Nitrogen atom, N has five valence electrons. N atom should receive three electrons to achieve
the noble gas configuration. Thus, one N atom must react with three Li atoms to form one N3
ion and three Li+ ions.

Q9
A
The electronic configuration of magnesium is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2. Mg has two valence electrons,
hence it tends to lose these electrons to achieve a noble gas configuration. Therefore, the
stable ion formed is Mg2+ with the electronic configuration of 1s2 2s2 2p6. The electronic
configuration of chlorine is 1s2 2s2 2p2 3s2 3p5. Thus, Cl needs to gain one electron to achieve
the noble gas configuration. Hence, the stable ion formed is Cl (1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6).
To form a neutral compound out of Mg2+ and Cl ions, we need two Cl ions per Mg2+ ion. So
the formula is MgCl2.
Mg+ ion is very unstable because it does not have the noble gas configuration. Therefore,
MgC1 does not exist as a stable compound.

Q10
A
A covalent bond is the bond formed when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons. It
is usually formed between the non-metal elements. Example: Cl2 (chlorine gas)

Therefore, the covalent bonding in C12 is due to the sharing of a pair of electrons by two Cl
atoms.
An ionic bond is the electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged ions.
Example: NaCl

One electron from a sodium atom is transferred to a chlorine atom forming ions. The
electrostatic attraction between Na+ and Cl ions forms the ionic bond.

Q11
A

Q12
A

Q13
A

Q14
A

Q15
A
A covalent bond formed when a pair of electrons is contributed by only one of the bonded
atoms.

Q16
A
1. The donor atom must have a lone pair of electrons.
2. The acceptor atom must have an empty orbital to accommodate the pair of electrons.

Q17
A
Al3+ has empty orbitals.
Al3+:
3s

3p

3d

Each of the F ions uses one lone pair of electrons to form coordinate covalent bonds with six
empty orbitals of the Al3+ ion.

Q18
A

Formal charges on:


Hydrogen = 1 1 = 0
Singly bonded carbon = 4 4 = 0
Carbon = 4 4 = 0
Nitrogen = 5 5 = 0

Q19
A
(a) Formal charges:
Hydrogen = 1 1 = 0
Oxygen (bonded to H) = 6 6 = 0
Nitrogen = 5 4 = +1
Oxygen = 6 6 = 0
(double bonded)

Oxygen = 6 7 = 1
(singly bonded)

The formal charges of oxygen and nitrogen are 1 and +1 respectively while formal charges
of other atoms are zero. Therefore, the sum of formal charges is zero. Thus, this is a neutral
molecule.

(b) Formal charges:


Hydrogen = 1 1 = 0
Carbon = 4 4 = 0
Oxygen = 6 6 = 0
(doubly bonded)

Oxygen = 6 7 = 1
(singly bonded)

Since the formal charge of singly bonded oxygen is 1, therefore this formula represents an
ion (formate ion, HCOO).

Q20
A

Formal charges:

Formal charges:

Sulphur = 6 6 = 0

Sulphur = 6 7 = 1

Carbon = 4 4 = 0

(singly bonded)

Sulphur = 6 5 = +1
(triply bonded)

Carbon = 4 4 = 0
The structure S=C=S is preferred because each atom has a formal charge of zero.
The structure SCS is not preferred because a positive charge is placed on a very
electronegative atom, S.

Q21
A

Q22
A
Lewis structures having the same arrangement of atoms but differ from one another in the
position of their electrons.

Q23
A
A single structure which represents the actual contribution of resonance structures.
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Q24
A

Q25
A

Hybrid resonance of
SO2

3.2 Molecular Shape and Polarity


Q26
A
The electron-pairs around the central atom are orientated as far apart as possible to minimise
the repulsion among them.

Q27
A
A lone pair of electrons is the electron-pair that is part of an atoms valence shell but is not
involved in the covalent bonding.
A bonding pair of electrons is the electron-pair that is shared by two bonded atoms.

Q28
A

Q29
A

Q30
A

Trigonal planar

bent

The central atoms of both molecules are surrounded by three electron-pairs. BCl3 has three
bonding pairs around the central atom B and these electrons repel each other equally.
Therefore, the molecular shape of BCl3 is trigonal planar with 120 bond angles.
SnCl2 has two bonding pairs and one lone pair. The stronger repulsion between the lone pair
and the bonding pairs tends to compress the bonding pairs in SnCl2 closer. Thus, the bond
angle in SnCl2 is 95 which is less than the expected trigonal planar angle of 120.

Q31
A

Q32
A
Oxygen in H2O is surrounded by four electron-pairs (two bonding pairs and two lone pairs).
The bond angles in H3O+ becomes larger because one lone pair from the oxygen atom of the
water molecule bonds covalently to H+ to form a H3O+ ion. Thus, oxygen in H3O+ is
surrounded by three bonding pairs and one lone pair.
Therefore, the bond angle is larger in H3O+ as there is only one lone pair compared with two
lone pairs in H2O.

Q33
A
A polar bond is covalent bond formed between two bonded atoms of different
electronegativity, in which the electrons are not equally shared. Thus, one atom has a partial
positive charge and the other atom has a partial negative charge.
Example:

Chlorine is more electronegative than hydrogen. Therefore, chlorine attracts the bonding
electrons more strongly and closer to it, giving the partial negative charge, on Cl atom
and partial positive charge,

on H atom. Thus, the bond in HCl is polar.

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Q34
A
1. Shape of molecule.
2. The difference in electronegativities between atoms in a bond.

Q35
A
Electron affinity is the heat change when an electron is added to a gaseous atom or ion to
form a gaseous ion.
Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons to
itself.

Q36
A

CF4 has the same tetrahedral shape as CCl3F. Each CF bond in CF4 is polar because
fluorine is more electronegative than carbon. However, dipole moment of the bonds cancel
each other, so CF4 is a non-polar molecule.
In CCl3F, fluorine is more electronegative than chlorine. Thus, the dipole moment of the
bonds cannot cancel each other. As a result, the net dipole moment is pointing towards
fluorine. So, CCl3F is a polar molecule.

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Q37
A

Fluorine is more electronegative than iodine. So, the bond dipoles point toward fluorine. The
equatorial bond dipoles cancel each other because they point in opposite directions. Since
there is one lone pair at the central atom, the axial dipole is not cancelled. Thus, IF5 is a polar
molecule.

Q38
A
The molecular shape of BF3 is trigonal planar which is symmetrical. Although each bond is
polar, the bond dipole moments cancel each other. Therefore, BF3 is a non-polar molecule.
The molecular shape of PF3 is trigonal pyramidal which is not symmetrical. The bond dipole
moments do not cancel each other and PF3 is a polar molecule.

Q39
A
BH3 < NH3 < NF3
Increasing dipole moment

Q40
A
Since CO2 has no dipole moment, the two C=O bond moments must exactly cancel each
other. This can occur only if the two bonds are in a straight line. Therefore, the shape of CO2
is linear.

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3.3 Orbital Overlap and Hybridisation


Q41
A
The mixing of different types of atomic orbitals to produce a set of equivalent hybrid orbitals.

Q42
A
PF6: sp3d2

ICl4+: sp3d

Q43
A

Q44
A
Pi-bond () is formed by sideways overlapping of p atomic orbitals.

Sigma-bond ( ) is formed by the head-on overlapping of atomic orbitals.


Example: Overlapping of s and p orbitals.

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Q45
A

H:
1s

F:

2s

2p

The 1s orbital of hydrogen atom overlaps with an unpaired electron in the 2p orbital of
fluorine to produce a -bond in HF.

F:
2s


2p

Each F atom uses its unpaired electron in the 2p orbital to produce a -bond in F2.

Q46
A
The orbital diagram for valence electrons in nitrogen: N:

2s


2p

The nitrogen atom has three unpaired electrons. The electron will not be promoted from 2s
orbital to 2p orbital. However, 2s and 2p orbitals hybridised to form sp3 orbitals.

sp3 hybrid orbitals


sp3 orbitals of nitrogen overlap with s orbital of hydrogen atom.

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Q47
A

P (ground state):

3s

3p

3d

One of the 3s electrons can be promoted into an empty 3d orbital.

P (excited state):
3s

3p

3d

Five single electrons to form five covalent bonds in PCI5


The 3s, 3p and 3d orbitals are hybridised to form five sp3d hybrid orbitals.

sp3d hybrid orbitals


Each sp3d orbital of nitrogen overlaps with a p orbital of chlorine atom. The shape of this
molecule is trigonal bipyramidal.

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Q48
A

Q49
A
C (ground state):

2s
C (excited state):

2p

2s

2p

A carbon atom is bonded to two other atoms. Therefore, a carbon atom will form two sp
hybrid orbitals.
C:

hybridised sp orbitals

unhybridised 2p orbitals

3.4 Intermolecular Forces


Q50
A
Propane: London forces
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Propanol: Hydrogen bonds


Propanone: Dipole-dipole attraction

Q51
A
1 Molecular size
2 Molecular shape
3 Polarity of molecules

Q52
A
The boiling point of a substance is influenced by the strength of the intermolecular forces and
not by the strength of the covalent bonds within the molecules because vaporising of a liquid
involves separating the molecules from one another and it does not involve the breaking of
covalent bonds within the molecules. Thus, its vapour contains exactly the same molecules as
in the liquid.

Q53
A
H2 < Ne < CH4 < Xe

Q54
A
Both molecules are non-polar molecules but CBr4 has a higher molecular weight compared to
CCl4.
Therefore, the van der Waals forces between CBr4 molecules are higher. As a result, CBr4 has
a higher boiling point.

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Q55
A
The hydrogen bonding results from the intermolecular attraction between the hydrogen atom
in a polar bond (particularly HF, HO or HN) and a lone pair of electrons on a highly
electronegative atom of F, O or N on another molecule.

The hydrogen bond exists between a hydrogen atom in an NH3 molecule and the nitrogen
atom of an adjacent NH3 molecule.

Q56
A
F2 has the lowest boiling point because F2 is a non-polar molecule and thus have London
dispersion forces. HCl is a polar molecule and thus dipole-dipole forces occur between
molecules which is stronger than London dispersion forces.
CH3OH is also a polar molecule and it has hydrogen bonding between its molecules.
Hydrogen bonds are stronger intermolecular forces than dipole-dipole forces. Hence, CH3OH
has the highest boiling point.

Q57
A
Ethanol is more soluble in water than chloroethane because ethanol is polar and has an OH
group that can form hydrogen bonds with water molecules, whereas chloroethane cannot
form hydrogen bonds with water molecules even though it is a polar molecule.

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Q58
A
Both compounds have hydrogen bonds between their molecules. Water molecules can form
twice as many hydrogen bonds as HF. The total strength of four hydrogen bonds of water
molecules exceed the total strength of two hydrogen bonds of HF molecules. Hence, water
has a higher boiling point than HF.

Q59
A
Both molecules form hydrogen bonds intermolecularly but water has stronger hydrogen
bonds than ammonia as the oxygen atom is more electronegative than the nitrogen atom.
Thus, water has a higher boiling point.

Q60
A
BaCl2 is an ionic compound. The molecules are held strongly by the electrostatic force.
Hence, BaCl2 has a higher boiling point. CH4 is a simple covalent compound and has weak
van der Waals forces acting between molecules. CH4 has a lower boiling point.

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3.5 Metallic Bond


Q61
A
A metallic bond is the electrostatic attraction between the positively charged metal and the
sea of delocalised electrons.

Q62
A
Magnesium conducts electricity due to the delocalised electrons which can move freely
throughout the metal and carry an electric current.
Sulphur has a molecular structure and its electrons are in fixed positions in the atom and
cannot move throughout the solid. Thus, sulphur does not conduct electricity.

Q63
A
Aluminium is metallic. Metallic bonds are stronger, thus the melting point of aluminium is
much higher. Aluminium chloride has a lower melting point due to the weak van der Waals
forces that exist between the AlCl3 molecules.

Q64
A
Both aluminium and sodium are metallic. The strength of a metallic bond depends on the
number of valence electrons. Since aluminium has three valence electrons and sodium has
one valence electron, the metallic bonds in aluminium are stronger than sodium. Therefore,
aluminium has a higher melting point than that of sodium.

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CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

Structured Questions
1.
a) i)

ii) T-shaped
iii) sp3d
b) i)

ii) 4 bonding pairs and 2 lone pairs. Iodine is in Period 5 of the Periodic Table. It has
empty 5d orbitals, so it can expand its octet.
2.
a) 20Y: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2
2
2
5
9Z : 1s 2s 2p
b) YZ2
c) Z2 (covalent bond)

Essay Questions
1.
a) Species B.
NaCl is an ionic compound. The molecules are held strongly by the strong
electrostatic forces. Hence, it has higher boiling and melting points. Solid NaCl does
not conduct electricity because the ions are fixed in a lattice but it can conduct
electricity in aqueous solution and in the molten state because the ions are able to
move freely.
b) Species D.
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A covalent molecule has relatively low melting and boiling points because the
molecules are held by weak van der Waals forces. It also does not conduct electricity
when in solid or molten states as there are no delocalised electrons.
c) Copper is metallic. Metallic bonds are stronger, thus the melting point and boiling
point of copper should be higher. Copper conducts electricity in both solid and molten
states.
d) On melting, the particles remain close together and they are just loosened from
their lattice position.
On vaporising, the molecules of a liquid must overcome their intermolecular forces in
order to separate and form vapour. The greater the intermolecular forces, the greater
the energy required to pull the molecules away from each other, thus the boiling point
is higher.
2.
a) Covalent bonds.
b) Van der Waals forces.
c) Both CCl and CF bonds are polar bonds since Cl and F arem ore electronegative
than C atom.
CFCl3 is a polar molecule because the dipole moment of the bonds cannot cancel each
other. CFCl3 has a tetrahedral shape.

d) Both are polar molecules.


CF2Cl2 has a lower boiling point because it has a lower molecular mass than that of
CFCl3. The smaller the molecular mass, the weaker the van der Waals forces and the
lower the boiling point.

3.
a) 6C : 1s2 2s2 2p2
b) HCCH
ethyne
i) C(ground state):

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2s
C(excited state):

2s

2p

2p

One electron from 2s orbital is promoted to 2p orbital.


ii) sp
iii)

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