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012 - Electronic Devices and Circuits

Lecture 5 - p-n Junction Injection and Flow - Outline

• Review

Depletion approximation for an abrupt p-n junction

Depletion charge storage and depletion capacitance

(Rec. Fri.)

**qDP(vAB) = – AqNApxp = – A[2εq(φb-vAB){NApNDn/(NAp+NDn)}]1/2
**

Cdp(VAB) ≡ ∂ qDP/∂ vAB|VAB = A[εq{NApNDn/(NAp+NDn)}/2(φb-VAB)]1/2

• Biased p-n Diodes

Depletion regions change

Currents flow: two components

– flow issues in quasi-neutral regions

– boundary conditions on p' and n' at -xp and xn

(Lecture 4)

(Today)

(Lecture 6)

**• Minority carrier flow in quasi-neutral regions
**

The importance of minority carrier diffusion

Boundary conditions

Minority carrier profiles and currents in QNRs

– Short base situations

– Long base situations

– Intermediate situations

Clif Fonstad, 9/24/09

Lecture 5 - Slide 1

**The Depletion Approximation: an informed first estimate of ρ(x)
**

Assume full depletion for -xp < x < xn, where xp and xn are

two unknowns yet to be determined. This leads to:

$ 0

&

&#qN Ap

"(x) = %

& qN Dn

&

' 0

for

x < #x p

for #x p < x < 0

for 0 < x < x n

for

xn < x

ρ(x)

qNDn

-xp

x

xn

-qNAp

Integrating the charge once gives the electric field

$

0

!

& qN

&" Ap ( x + x p )

& #

Si

E(x) = %

& qN Dn ( x " x )

n

& #Si

&

0

'

Clif Fonstad, 9/24/09

!

for

x < "x p

for

" xp < x < 0

-xp

Ε(x)

xn

for

0 < x < xn

for

xn < x

x

E(0) = -qNApxp/εSi

= -qNDnxn/εSi

Lecture 5 - Slide 2

xp < x < 0 φ(x) φn -xp x for for xn 0 < x < xn φp φ(0) = φp + qNApxp 2/2εSi = φn − qNDnxn2/2εSi xn < x Insisting E(x) is continuous at x = 0 yields our first -x equation relating our unknowns. 9/24/09 qN Ap 2 qN Dn 2 "p + x p = "n $ xn 2#Si 2#Si x E(0) = -qNApxp/εSi = -qNDnxn/εSi 2 Lecture 5 .Slide 3 .The Depletion Approximation. xn and xp: Ε(x) p ! N Ap x p = N Dn x n xn 1 Requiring that the potential be continuous at x = 0 gives us our second relationship between xn and xp: ! Clif Fonstad.: Integrating again gives the electrostatic potential: % "p ' qN Ap 2 ' "p + x + xp) ( ' 2$Si " (x) = & ' " # qN Dn ( x # x ) 2 n ' n 2$Si '( "n for x < #x p for . cont.

9/24/09 Lecture 5 . no(x) nie±qφ(x)/kT E-field Clif Fonstad.Comparing the depletion approximation with a full solution: Example: An unbiased abrupt p-n junction with NAp= 1017 cm-3. Used with permission. . NDn= 5 x 1016 cm-3 Charge Potential po(x).Slide 4 Courtesy of Prof. Peter Hagelstein.

Depletion approximation: Applied bias Forward bias. Clif Fonstad.Slide 5 . all the applied voltage appears as a change in the the voltage step crossing the SCL Note: With applied bias we are no longer in thermal equilibrium so it is no longer true that n(x) = ni eqφ(x)/kT and p(x) = ni e-qφ(x)/kT. vAB < 0: vAB wn φ -wp x (φb-vAB) -xp 0 xn No drop in wire No drop at contact wn No drop in wire No drop in QNR No drop in QNR No drop at contact In a well built diode. 9/24/09 Lecture 5 . vAB > 0: φ vAB -wp (φb-vAB) x -xp 0 xn Reverse bias.

Adding vAB to our earlier sketches: assume reverse bias. 9/24/09 ! x xn "# = # b $ v AB and kT N Dn N Ap #b = ln q n i2 Lecture 5 . xn = (N Ap + N Dn ) (N Ap + N Dn ) Ε(x) ! -xp xn |Epk| x E pk ! 2q (" b # v AB ) N Ap N Dn = $Si (N Ap + N Dn ) φ(x) -xp (φb-vAB) Clif Fonstad. vAB < 0 2"Si (# b $ v AB ) ( N Ap + N Dn ) w= q N Ap N Dn ρ(x) qNDn w -xp xp xn xn x -qNAp N Ap w N Dn w xp = .The Depletion Approximation: Applied bias. cont.Slide 6 .

Slide 7 Courtesy of Prof.4 V Charge E-field Potential p (x) n (x) Clif Fonstad. Used with permission. Peter Hagelstein. 9/24/09 nie±qφ(x)/kT Lecture 5 .The Depletion Approximation: comparison cont. reverse biased -2. . Example: Same sample.

nie±qφ(x)/kT Lecture 5 . forward biased 0.The Depletion Approximation: comparison cont. Example: Same sample. 9/24/09 Potential p (x) n (x) Courtesy of Prof. Used with permission. Peter Hagelstein.Slide 8 .6 V Charge E-field Clif Fonstad.

what happens? Two things happen 1.The value of the depletion approximation The plots look good. 2. The depletion width changes • (φb . 9/24/09 Lecture 5 .vAB) replaces φb in the Depletion Approximation Eqs.Slide 9 . but equally important is that 1. Apply bias. It gives an excellent model for making hand calculations and gives us good values for quantities we care about: • Depletion region width • Peak electric field • Potential step 2. Currents flow • This is the main topic of today’s lecture Clif Fonstad. It gives us the proper dependences of these quantities on the doping levels (relative and absolute) and the bias voltage.

DP &v AB N Ap N Dn [N Ap + N Dn ] v AB =VAB N Ap N Dn q#Si 2[$ b " VAB ] [ N Ap + N Dn ] = A #Si w(VAB ) Lecture 5 .DP (v AB ) = "AqN Ap x p (v AB ) " = A v AB d = "A 2q#Si [$ b " v AB ] v AB =VAB Cdp (VAB ) % Many similarities. important differences. 9/24/09 = A &qA.Depletion capacitance: Comparing depletion charge stores with a parallel plate capacitor ρ(x) ρ(x) qNDn qA qB ( = -qA) -xp d/2 x x xn qA -d/2 -qNAp qB( = -qA) Depletion region charge store Parallel plate capacitor qA. Clif Fonstad.PP $qA.PP C pp (VAB ) # $v AB A" = d ! qA.Slide 10 ! .

φQNRp Forward bias. 9/24/09 In this region n(x) ≈ ni eqφQNRn/kT Lecture 5 . vAB > 0: vAB vAB -wp (φb-vAB) -xp vAB -wp vAB 0 xn φQNRp Reverse bias. However. cont. it is not true that n(x) = ni eqφ(x)/kT and p(x) = ni e-qφ(x)/kT because we are no longer in TE. vAB < 0: vAB φQNRn wn φQNRn (φb-vAB) vAB -xp 0 xn x vAB x wn vAB In this region p(x) ≈ ni e-qφQNRp/kT Clif Fonstad. assuming LLI.Slide 11 . outside of the depletion region things are in quasi-equilibrium.Bias applied.: With vAB ≠ 0. and we can define local electrostatic potentials for which the equilibrium relationships hold for the majority carriers.

Slide 12 . x Clif Fonstad.Current Flow qφ Unbiased junction Population in equilibrium with barrier x qφ Forward bias on junction Barrier lowered so carriers to left can cross over it. x qφ Reverse bias on junction Barrier raised so the few carriers on top spill back down it. 9/24/09 Lecture 5 .

Lecture 6 - wn B x Quasineutral region II Minority carrier flow here determines the hole current . Ohmic contact A + iD Uniform p-type Uniform n-type p n - vAB -wp -xp 0 xn Quasineutral region I Minority carrier flow here determines the electron current .Today's Lecture - Clif Fonstad. • Carrier equilibrium across the SCR determines n'(-xp) and p'(xn). 9/24/09 Ohmic contact Space charge region The values of n' at -xp and p' at xn are established here. the boundary conditions of the QNR minority carrier flow problems.Today's Lecture - Lecture 5 .Current flow: finding the relationship between iD and vAB There are two pieces to the problem: • Minority carrier flow in the QNRs is what limits the current.Slide 13 . .

t) = 0.4 TODAY Lecture 5 Lecture 5 . Non-uniform doping in thermal equilibrium (junctions. #0 "x! "x "x "t Clif Fonstad.Slide 14 .t) = 0. gL (x. thermal equilibrium (nopo product. gL (x. and E-field (photoconductivity): ! " = 0. Uniform doping and E-field (drift conduction.t) = 0. J e = J h = 0 "x "t Lecture 1 2. Ohms law): " " = 0. J e # qDe . E x constant "x "t ! Lecture 1 3. Uniform doping. Uniform doping. gL (t). 9/24/09 Lectures 3. n' # p'. = 0. non-uniform LL injection (QNR diffusion) "N d "N a "n' " = = 0. optical injection. Uniform doping and uniform low level optical injection (τmin): " = 0. no. n' << po "x ! Lecture 2 3'. interfaces) ! " = 0. po): " " = 0. n' << p o . gL (t) "x Lecture 2 4.Solving the five equations: special cases we can handle 1. = 0. Uniform doping. E x constant. gL (x. J e = J h = 0 "t 5.

t) = qµ e n(x.t) Electric field: E x (x.t) + qDe "x " [&(x)E x (x.t) +! = G # R $ Gext (x.t) # n(x. want to know): p(x.t) # n i2 ] r(t) "t q "x "p(x.t) = qµ h p(x.t) and n(x. five equations relating them: "p(x.t) = G # R $ Gext (x.e.QNR Flow: Uniform doping.t)E(x.t) p(x.t) # [ n(x.Slide 15 ! .t) 1 "J h (x.t) and J ex (x. non-uniform LL injection What we have: Five things we care about (i.t) Electron current density: J e (x.t) = $ q[ p(x.t) # n i2 ] r(t) "t q "x Electron continuity: "n(x.t) Hole current density: J h (x.t) # 1 "J e (x.t) And.t) + N d (x) # N a (x)] "x Hole continuity: We can get approximate analytical solutions if 5 conditions are met! Clif Fonstad.t) # qDh "x "n(x.t) p(x.t) Hole and electron concentrations: Hole and electron currents: J hx (x. 9/24/09 Lecture 5 .t)E(x.t) # [ n(x.t)] Charge conservation: %(x.

five flow problem conditions: 1. Quasineutrality holds n' " p'. cont. #n' " #p' # x #x #n'(x. Minority carrier!drift is negligible J e (x.t) 4. Uniform doping dn o dpo #n #n' #p #p' = =0 " = .QNR Flow. Low level injection ! ! Clif Fonstad. for example) %e 3. non-uniform LL injection Five unknowns. 9/24/09 2 i Lecture 5 .Slide 16 . = "t "t ! "t "t 2. = dx dx #x #x #x #x po " n o + N d " N a = 0 # $ = q( p " n + N d " N a ) = q( p'"n') n' n'<< po " ( np # n ) r $ n' po r = (in p-type.t) " qDe #x (continuing to assume p-type) ! Note: It is also always true that "n "n' "p "p' = . five equations.: Uniform doping.

t) q = [ p'(x.: Uniform doping.Slide 17 .t)E(x.t) J e (x.t) = qµ h p(x. cont.t) "n'(x.t) # n'(x. non-uniform LL injection With these first four conditions our five equations become: (assuming for purposes of discussion that we have a p-type sample) 1.t) " n'(x.t) 1 "J e (x.t) 1 "J h (x. 9/24/09 ! Lecture 5 .t) n'(x.t)] "x & In preparation for continuing to our fifth condition.t) + = # = gL (x.QNR Flow.t) # De = g (x.t) % +qDe "x "p'(x. we note that combining Equations 1 and 3 yields one equation in n'(x.t) + qDh "x "E(x.t) # L "t "x 2 $e The time dependent diffusion equation Clif Fonstad.2 : 3: 4: 5: ! "p'(x.t) # "t q "x "t q "x $e "n'(x.t) n'(x.t) J h (x.t): 2 "n'(x.

cont.: Uniform doping. 9/24/09 Lecture 5 . Quasi-static excitation gL (x.t) # De = g (x.t) # L "t "x 2 $e but things get much easier if we impose a fifth constraint: 5. is in general still very difficult to solve "n'(x. after rearranging the terms : ! d 2 n'(x) n'(x) 1 " = " gL (x) 2 dx De # e De The steady state diffusion equation Clif Fonstad. non-uniform LL injection The time dependent diffusion equation. which is repeated below.QNR Flow.Slide 18 ! .t) such that all " # 0 "t ! With this constraint the above equation becomes a second order linear differential equation: 2 d n'(x) n'(x) ! "De = gL (x) " 2 dx #e which in turn becomes.t) n'(x.t) " 2 n'(x.

cont. In a basic p-n ! diode. as: Lh " Dh # h Le " De # e ! We'll see that the minority carrier diffusion length tells us how far the average minority carrier diffuses before it recombines. we have gL!= 0 which means we only need the homogenous solutions.e.: Solving the steady state diffusion equation The steady state diffusion equation in p-type material is: d 2 n'(x) n'(x) 1 " = " gL (x) 2 2 dx Le De and for n-type material it is: d 2 p'(x) p'(x) 1 " = " gL (x) 2 2 dx Lh Dh ! In writing these expressions we have introduced Le and Lh. i. 9/24/09 p'(x) " = 0 2 Lh p-side: d 2 n'(x) n'(x) " = 0 2 2 dx Le Lecture 5 .QNR Flow. expressions that satisfy: n-side: d 2 p'(x) dx 2 Clif Fonstad.Slide 19 . the minority carrier diffusion lengths for holes and electrons.

we focus on the n-side to start with and find p'(x) for xn ≤ x ≤ wn. 9/24/09 Lecture 5 . Solving for them and putting them into this equation yields the final general result: ! "( w n "x n ) L h p'(x n )e( wn "x n ) Lh p'(x )e "( x"x n ) L h +( x"x n ) L h n p'(x) = ( wn "x n ) Lh e " e e " e"( wn "x n ) Lh e( wn "x n ) Lh " e"( wn "x n ) Lh for x n # x # w n Clif Fonstad.QNR Flow. p'(x) satisfies d 2 p'(x) p'(x) = dx 2 L2h subject to the boundary conditions: p'(w n ) = 0 and p'(x n ) = something we'll find next time ! The general solution to this static diffusion equation is: p'(x) = Ae"x L h + Be +x L h ! where A and B are constants that satisfy the boundary conditions.Slide 20 . cont.: Solving the steady state diffusion equation For convenience.

Instead. indicating that all of the excess minority carriers have recombined before getting to the contact. cont.QNR Flow. The ! corresponding hole current for xn ≤ x ≤ wn in Case I is dp'(x) qDh J h (x) " #qDh = p'(x n )e#( x#x n ) Lh dx Lh for x n $ x $ w n The current decays to zero also.: Solving the steady state diffusion equation We seldom care about this general result. for example. ! Clif Fonstad.Slide 21 .Long-base diode: wn >> Lh Case II . 9/24/09 Lecture 5 . which is the situation in an LED.Short-base diode: Lh >> wn Case I: When wn >> Lh. the solution is p'(x) " p'(x n )e#( x#x n ) L h for x n $ x $ wn This profile decays from p'(xn) to 0 exponentially as e-x//Lh. we find that most diodes fall into one of two cases: Case I .

This profile is a straight line. decreasing from p'(xn) at xn to 0 at wn. ! In Case II the current is constant for xn ≤ x ≤ wn: dp'(x) qDh J h (x) " #qDh = p'(x n ) dx wn # x n for x n $ x $ wn The constant current indicates that no carriers recombine before reaching the contact.QNR Flow. Clif Fonstad. cont.1# & )/! for x n 0 x 0 w n + % w n # x n (. which is the situation in integrated Si diodes. the differential equation simplifies to: d 2 p'(x) p'(x) dx 2 = 2 h L " 0 We see immediately that p'(x) is linear: p'(x) = A x + B Fitting the boundary conditions we find: ! * $ x # x 'n p'(x) " p'(x n ). 9/24/09 ! Lecture 5 . for example.Slide 22 .: Solving the steady state diffusion equation Case II: When Lh >> wn.

: Uniform doping. non-uniform LL injection Sketching and comparing the limiting cases: wn>>Lh. wn<<Lh Case I . 9/24/09 wn x [cm-3] 0 xn wn x [cm-3] Lecture 5 .Long base: wn >> Ln (the situation in LEDs) p'n(x) [cm-3] p'n(xn) Jh(x) [A/cm2] qDhp'n(xn) Lh e-x/Lh 0 xn xn+Lh wn x [cm-3] e-x/Lh 0 xn xn+Lh wn x [cm-3] Case II .Short base: wn << Ln (the situation in most Si diodes and transistors) p'n(x) [cm-3] p'n(xn) Jh(x) [A/cm2] qDhp'n(xn) [wn-xn] 0 xn Clif Fonstad. cont.QNR Flow.Slide 23 .

9/24/09 p'(x) " n'(x) + Once ! we solve the diffusion equation to get the minority excess.Slide 24 .QNR Flow.. Lecture 5 .. Then find p’: Clif Fonstad.: Uniform doping. we know everything. and Ex: First find Je: Then find Jh: ! Next find Ex: ! J e (x) " qDe dn'(t) dx J h (x) = JTot " J e (x) ' 1 $ Dh E x (x) " J e (x)) &J h (x) # qµ h po % De ( # dE x (x) q dx ! Finally. cont. Je. non-uniform LL injection The four other unknowns ⇒ Solving the steady state diffusion equation gives n’. ⇒ Knowing n'. go back and check that all of the five conditions are met by the solution... Jh. we can easily get p’. n'.

Ohmic contact A + iD Uniform p-type Uniform n-type p n - vAB -wp -xp 0 xn Quasineutral region I Minority carrier flow here determines the electron current Clif Fonstad.Lecture 6 next Tuesday - wn B x Quasineutral region II Minority carrier flow here determines the hole current Lecture 5 . . 9/24/09 Ohmic contact Space charge region The values of n' at -xp and p' at xn are established here. • Carrier equilibrium across the SCR determines n'(-xp) and p'(xn). the boundary conditions of the QNR minority carrier flow problems.Current flow: finding the relationship between iD and vAB There are two pieces to the problem: • Minority carrier flow in the QNRs is what limits the current.Slide 25 .

we could solve the flow problems and we could get n'(x) for -wp<x<-xp.Slide 26 . 9/24/09 Lecture 5 . and p'(x) for xn<x<wn … Clif Fonstad.The p-n Junction Diode: the game plan for getting iD(vAB) We have two QNR's and a flow problem in each: Quasineutral region I Ohmic contact A + iD Quasineutral region II p Ohmic contact B n - vAB x -wp -xp 0 n'(-xp) = ? x 0 xn n'p wn p'n p'(xn) = ? p'(wn) = 0 n'(-wp) = 0 x -wp -xp 0 x 0 xn wn If we knew n'(-xp) and p'(xn).

we can find Je(x) for -wp<x<-xp. and Jh(x) for xn<x<wn. and p'(x) for xn<x<wn.vAB)+Jh(xn.vAB)]… …but first we need to know n'(-xp.Slide 27 . 9/24/09 We will do this in Lecture 6.and knowing n'(x) for -wp<x<-xp.vAB) and p'(xn.vAB). Clif Fonstad. Lecture 5 .….vAB) = ? n' p p' n p'(xn. n'(-xp. and Jh(x) for xn<x<wn. we can get iD because we will argue that iD(vAB) = A[Je(-xp.vAB) = ? p'(wn) = 0 n'(-wp) = 0 -xp 0 x -wp Je(-wp<x<-xp)=qDe(dn'/dx) -wp Je 0 xn x wn Jh Jh(xn<x<wn)=-qDh(dp'/dx) -xp 0 x 0 xn x wn Having Je(x) for -wp<x<-xp.

012 .6. 9/24/09 Lecture 5 .Slide 28 .Electronic Devices and Circuits Lecture 5 .p-n Junction Injection and Flow .Summary • Biased p-n Diodes Depletion regions change Currents flow: two components (Lecture 4) – flow issues in quasi-neutral regions – boundary conditions on p' and n' at -xp and xn • Minority carrier flow in quasi-neutral regions The importance of minority carrier diffusion – minority carrier drift is negligible Boundary conditions Minority carrier profiles and currents in QNRs – Short base situations – Long base situations • Carrier populations across the depletion region (Lecture 6) Potential barriers and carrier populations Relating minority populations at -xp and xn to vAB Excess minority carriers at -xp and xn Clif Fonstad.

edu 6.mit.edu/terms.MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw. . visit: http://ocw.012 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits Fall 2009 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use.mit.

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