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ISSN No: 2309-4893

International Journal of Advanced Engineering and Global Technology

Vol-4, Issue-2, March 2016


Abeesh AB1, AbhayDev K J 2, Abdul Salam A3, Adarsh Pullokaran4, Harikrishnan A R5,
Linto P Anto6,C Kannan7

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nirmala College of Engineering, Thrissur, Kerala,

Design section, Hindustan Machine Tools Ltd, Kalamassery, Kerala, India
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nirmala College of Engineering, Thrisur, Kerala, India

CNC (Computer Numerical Control) is an NC system in which a dedicated stored program computer
is used to perform some or all the basic functions on accordance with control programmers stored in
read/write memory of the computer. Different cutting speed is needed for doing various works at the
constant torque. For this a separate gear box was designed in which power is transmitted to spindle
through a belt-pulley arrangement. A gear boxis introduced for a wide range of cutting speeds and
torques from a constant speed power input enabling proper cutting speeds.The heat generated inside
the head stock element gets conducted to spindle and cause spindle run out. To avoid this, a direct
contact of spindle with gears is made. Thus as a solution for both of the above problems a separate
gearbox is necessary. In this paper the results of the design of a separate gearbox for Stallion 200s
CNC lathe is presented. Implementing a separate gear box in Stallion 200 CNC has advantages like
easy accessibility for maintenance, achievement of different speed ratios, reduced size of gears and
shafts and thus low material cost, more compatibility, less design cost etc. High precision bearings
also could be used for better accuracy.

Keywords: spur gears, gearbox, static loading, stress analysis

A specially designed gear box provides a wide
range of cutting speeds and torques from a
constant speed power input, which enables
proper machining. Different cutting speeds are
needed to perform various lathe operations.
The step-less motor provides a constant torque
over a certain RPM. The step less drives
which do possess the torque / speed
characteristics are limited by the speed range
over which these characteristics can be
maintained. In order to provide for a wide
range of operating speeds together with
adequate torque at lower spindle speed range
to be covered in a number of discrete
steps.Thus with the implementation of a
gearbox for CNC stallion 200 lathe it is
possible to cover a speed range varying from a

lower RPM of 250 to a higher RPM of 8000.

The assumptions were made according to the
rules given in the PSG design data book [1]. All
the formulas used in this project are taken
directly from this book.
Juvinal R.C &MarshekK.M[2] as well
explained about all the basic design details for
the manufacturing process in his book on
machine design. He has given the steps for the
manufacturing of various parts required in the
fixture like the spur gear; bearings etc in detail
in this book.J.E Shigley[3] as well explained
about all the basic design details and load
calculation to find the reactions and support
loads at each point on shafts and journals.
George E.Dieter, Linda C Schmidt[4] hasgiven
detailed description of the calculations and


ISSN No: 2309-4893

International Journal of Advanced Engineering and Global Technology
Vol-4, Issue-2, March 2016
design process




circular holes in the pairs and concluded that

these circular holes can reduce the stress.

A study was presented by V Rajaprabakaran[5]

on the topic how to reduce the stress
concentration. Different shaped holes were
added on the spur gear to reduce stress
concentration. A finite element model of spur
gear having three teeth segment was subjected
to analysis by introducing various shaped
holes to the segment to reduce stress
concentration. Better results were induced by
the aero fin shape.Manoj Hariharan[6]
conducted stress analysis of different gears.
The stress analysis was based on the point load
acted on the gears. The point of contact where
maximum stress is developed was analized.
The gear ratio for which it is maximum is
determined and is taken for the application of
the forces and from all these analysis the weak
pair to carry out the stress relief study was
determined. The study was made by providing

A study was made using circular root fillet

instead of trochoidal root fillet by
ShanmugasundaramShankar[7] and concluded
that circular root fillets opt for lesser no of
teeth and trochoidal root fillet is opt for higher
no of teeth on pinion.A study on variation in
stress generated in spur gear and bevel gear
was done by vijaykumarkarma[8] and
ashwinijoshi[8].Vishwas S Jadav[9] generated a
fine mesh model and made a stress analysis at
different speed and also made an experimental
setup of strain gauge to measure the strain
variations directly by calibration.
An attempt was also made by M.Raja[10] to
summarise about contact stress developed in
mating spur gears of involute conditions.
Analytically these stress are calculated for
different module and mesh generated and
compared with ansys analysis.


Figure 1 Existing driving mechanism of CNC stallion 200 lathe



ISSN No: 2309-4893

International Journal of Advanced Engineering and Global Technology
Vol-4, Issue-2, March 2016

The motor in the existing system can provide only certain range of speed. The speed characteristics of
a motor are given below:

Figure 2 Speed characteristics of motor

From the power versus speed plot given in
Fig.2, it is clear that maximum torque is
produced only between the speed limits of
1500 RPM to 6000 RPM.

for slow and fine turning, the required speed

range is 250 RPM too 4000 RPM. So to convert
the speed it is necessary to implement a
gearbox and belt-pulley
pulley assembly.

This motor is used to turn the spindle of CNC

stallion lathe. But when comparing the speed


Figure 3 Proposed
roposed driving mechanism of CNC stallion 200 lathe


ISSN No: 2309-4893

International Journal of Advanced Engineering and Global Technology
Vol-4, Issue-2, March 2016

Figure.3 shows the proposed driving

mechanism for CNC stallion 200 lathe. In this
system a separate gearbox is attached to the
existing system. The installation of this
separate gearbox provides a wide range of
speed ratios at the constant torque provided by
the motor. From the slowest RPM of 250
which is generally used for thread cutting to
the highest RPM of 4000 used for surface
finishing is made available with this separate
gearbox. The second advantage is that it
reduces the direct contact with spindle thus

provide a more wear out life for the spindle. It

also reduces the heat generated with the direct
contact with the spindle. For the above
proposed system the different speed reduction
stages are:Motor pulley to gear box input,
gearbox input to gear box output and gearbox
output to main spindle pulley.A ray diagram
can be used to easily explain the speed
reduction stages.

Figure.4 Raydiagram
Motor gear box stage is the first V-belt stage.
V belt- pulley assembly is used to provide a
speed ratio of 1:2. Second stage is gear box
stage. Here two gear ratios are provided to
give the required speed range. The last stage is
another V belt stage with a speed ratio 1:5. All
these stages helps to get a speed range between
150 RPM to 4000 RPM with a constant power
from the induction motor. The diametrical
changes of the pulley initiate the first speed
reduction. The next speed reduction in the
gears depends upon the gear ratio. The gear
ratios are fixed to attain the required rpm in
the lathe. Thus by these three reduction stages
we could get a lower rpm of 150 to a higher
rpm of 4000 with the maximum torque/ power




The whole assembly design of the gearbox

consists of the gear pairs, input and output
shaft, shaft bearings. Also the design of the Vbelt drive should be done to complete the full
driving mechanism from motor to lathe
Gear pairs: The design of gear pair is the
most important to give desired speed ratio. The
various parameters like no of teeth, module,
pitch diameters etc should be designed.


Where y, mis chosen from PSG data book,

bis the stress and Z2 no teeth on pinion.


ISSN No: 2309-4893

International Journal of Advanced Engineering and Global Technology
Vol-4, Issue-2, March 2016
From the above equation module is selected as
2 mm. The material chosen is structural steel.

The dynamic capacity is calculated based on

the equation:

Table.1Specifications of both gear pairs







120 mm

60 mm

Noof teeth




2 mm

2 mm


2 mm

2 mm


3 mm

3 mm

Face width

27 mm

27 mm

Dynamic C = (

) .[1]

Where L is the life in hours P bearing

pressure, the dynamic capacity is calculated as
3750 kgf corresponding to shaft diameter.
Table. 3 specifications of shaft bearings

Input shaft
Output shaft

Shaft bearing
cylindrical roller
bearing NU 2306
bearing NU 2306

Gear shafts: The shaft should be properly

designed based on different loads acting on it.
The shaft carries the different loads acting on
the gearbox. It is with the rotation of shaft the
rear rotation is made possible.

V- Belts: The drive mechanism gets completed

only after designing the V-Belts.

Minimum shaft diameter,

Number of belts, r = design power/Ps[1]

D= (

10 (

The no of belts is calculated based on the



Table.4 Specifications of V-Belt

Where . is safety factor, recommended as 2,
recommended as 3

Motor to
Gear box

V-Belt Gear
box to

, endurance strength.

D is the shaft diametre

, yield

of B88918:2494 B88918:2494
V belt
V belt

Table.2 Shaft diameters
Input shaft

30 mm

Output shaft



D= 260mm
d= 130 mm

D= 195mm
d= 130mm


245 mm

279 mm


Shaft Bearings: The proper rotation of shaft is

made by fixing it in proper shaft bearing which
withstands all the shaft loads.

of 6 nos



ISSN No: 2309-4893

International Journal of Advanced Engineering and Global Technology
Vol-4, Issue-2, March 2016
The success of the design part is achieved when the designed model is converted into visual image
that gives the full view of the model. A 2D sketch of the gear box and a 3D model created using
modelling software Solidworks is presented in figure 5 and figure 6 respectively.

Figure 5 Drawing of gearbox assembly

Figure 6 3D model of gearbox



ISSN No: 2309-4893

International Journal of Advanced Engineering and Global Technology
Vol-4, Issue-2, March 2016


The safety of the design is a great factor. The modern powerful analysis softwares help us to make
detailed analysis on our design. The objective is to analysis the stress concentrated points in the gear
mesh. A meshed gear structure is shown in figure 7, the results of the stress analysis is provided in
figure 8 and the results of total deformation analysis is given in figure 9.

Figure 7 mesh figure of spur gear

Figure 8 Contour of equivalent stress



ISSN No: 2309-4893

International Journal of Advanced Engineering and Global Technology
Vol-4, Issue-2, March 2016

Figure 9 Contour of total deformation

like compactness, longer service life with

minimum breakdown periods. Gear box uses
existing casting of the mother machine. Since
the gear box is fixed on the machine casting
itself these is no need of separate base. Thus
no extra floor space is needed. Less power
motor is employed for supplying high torque.
Also the designed gear box is small yet
efficient, durable, reliable and provides
sufficient torque. If the size of the gear box is
not a design consideration, an intermediate
shaft can be employed for effective power
transmission. This eliminates overhanging
gear on motor shaft. Speed increasing drives
are not commonly used in gear box of machine
tools. So it can be replaced with a reduction
gear of suitable gear ratio. The economic
viability of design can be increased while
choosing factor of safety for each component.
However choosing an optimum factor of safety
development in material science and
manufacturing technology, new materials with
greater design stresses and reduced stress


The analysis given by the ansys shows that the
stress generated is within the limits. The value
of maximum stress obtained is 5.0463x109 Pa.
The value of minimum stress is obtained as
15723 Pa. Thus we concluded that there is no
need of further modifications. Maximum
stresses are generated at the teeth contact and
is minimum at the non-contact surfaces. The
maximum deformation occurs at the teeth
contact surfaces and is minimum at the noncontact surfaces.

The design of two speed variable speed gear
box for the headstock of CNC lathe as per the
requirement has done successfully. The
different speed ratios are now made available
with this gearbox. The works which require
lower rpm can done easily without any trouble.
The design is mainly based on consideration


ISSN No: 2309-4893

International Journal of Advanced Engineering and Global Technology
Vol-4, Issue-2, March 2016
[9]. Effect on Strength of Involute Spur Gear
by Changing the Fillet radius using FEA,
International Journal of Engineering and
technology, May 2010, (Volume 2 No.9)

concentration and precision machined will be

available. These results in a more compact,
safe and economical design suitable for

[10]. Constant pressure Analysis of Spur

Gear Using FEA, International Journal of
Advanced Engineering Applications, Jan 2014,
(Volume 7 No.3).

This paper is the outcome of hard work with
the help and cooperation from many sources.
We express our gratitude and sincere thanks to
college management and all the faculties of the
department of mechanical engineering,
NirmalaCollege of Engineering. Authors are
thankful to Design section, Hindustan Machine
Tool Ltd for their support and guidance.

Fundamentals of Machine component
Design, wileypubllications
[3]. J.E Shigley,Mechanical Engineering
Design, McGraw Hill Book Company
SchmidtEngineering Design, McGraw Hill
[5]. Effect of stress relieving features on
stress of involute spur gear under static
loading, International Journal of Engineering
and technology, May 2015, (Volume 1 No.5)
[6]. Stress Analysis of Mating Involute Spur
Gear Teeth, International Journal of
Engineering and technology, Nov 2015,
(Volume 1 No.9).
[7]. Spur Gear Tooth Analysis And Stress
Reduction, IOSR Journal of Mechanical and
Civil, Oct 2013.
[8]. Contact Stress Analysis of Spur Gear
Teeth Pair, World Accademy of science,
Engineering and technology,2002, Volume 3