MANUAL DEL PROGRAMA ZMAP

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MANUAL DEL PROGRAMA ZMAP

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SEISMICITY: ZMAP

Stefan Wiemer

S E I S M O L O G I S T

ELECTRONIC SEISMOLOGIST

Institute of Geophysics

ETH Hoenggerberg

CH-8093, Zurich

Switzerland

Telephone +41 633 6625

stefan@seismo.ifg.ethz.ch

Steve Malone

E-mail: steve@geophys.washington.edu

Geophyics, Box 351650

University of Washington

Seattle, WA 98195

Telephone: (206) 685-3811

Fax: (206) 543-0489

do some research in the field of seismology from time to

time. As an operator of a seismic monitoring network the

research done often is related to the seismicity of the monitored region. Detecting changes or trends in seismicity is relevant to earthquake and volcano hazards; but are the trends

detected real or only an artifact of changes in the network

operating parameters? Because all seismic networks evolve,

change staff, change software and hardware, there is always

the nagging feeling, if not outright knowledge, that interesting patterns in the catalog reflect network changes rather

than changes in the Earth. How can one tell the difference?

The ES is happy to report that there is a handy-dandy

software package ideally suited to answering exactly this

question (and many others). ZMAP, developed by Stefan

Wiemer, allows the user to examine an earthquake catalog

from many different angles. Not only does it include the traditional map, cross-section, and time sequence parameters,

but also several others, such as event size and mechanism.

These can be combined in interesting ways to present the

user with different views into the data. Considerable seismological acumen lies behind the use and presentation of

these parameters, which helps the user get the most out of

the analyzed catalog. ZMAP is fairly intuitive to use and produces attractive output. In fact, the ES actually has fun

playing with it and gets useful results besides. Perhaps one

of the best ways to get a sense of how ZMAP might be used

is to take a tour of case studies. The following includes many

examples, and if theyre not enough there are a slew of references where one can find more. In his traditional groveling

way the ES has prevailed on Stefan Wiemer to write this

months column for him.

374

Introduction

Earthquake catalogs are probably the most fundamental

products of seismology and remain arguably the most useful

for tectonic studies. Modern seismograph networks can locate

up to 100,000 earthquakes annually, providing a continuous

and sometime overwhelming stream of data. ZMAP is a set of

tools driven by a graphical user interface (GUI), designed to

help seismologists analyze catalog data. ZMAP is primarily a

research tool suited to the evaluation of catalog quality and to

addressing specific hypotheses; however, it can also be useful

in routine network operations. Roughly 100 scientists worldwide have used the software at least occasionally. About 30

peer-reviewed publications have made use of ZMAP. A comprehensive listing of ZMAP features is given in Table 1.

ZMAP was first published in 1994 and has continued to

grow over the past seven years. Concurrent with this article,

we are releasing ZMAP v. 6, which contains numerous bug

fixes and a few new features, as well an updated manual.

This paper illustrates some of the various capabilities

and applications of ZMAP by summarizing a few case studies

that have been published previously. The examples include

(1) catalog quality assessment and data exploration; (2) mapping b values beneath a volcano to infer information about

the location of magma; (3) estimating seismicity rate changes

caused by a large earthquake; (4) stress-tensor inversion on a

grid to measure the heterogeneity of a stress field; and (5)

mapping the magnitude of complete reporting.

The Philosophy of ZMAP

Matlab-based, open-source code. ZMAP is written in

Mathworks (http://www.mathworks.com) commercial software language, Matlab, a package widely used among

researchers in the natural sciences. Users must purchase a

Matlab license to run ZMAP. Although ZMAP is written in

Matlab, no knowledge of the Matlab language is needed

since ZMAP is GUI-driven. The ZMAP code is, however,

open, and users are welcome to modify or supplement as

desired by diving into the guts of the numerous scripts

(about 80,000 lines of native code in 600 scripts). ZMAP

should run on all platforms supported by Matlab. We have

tested it under Unix, Linux, PC, DEC ALPHA, and Macintosh computers (Caveat: Some code, such as stress-tensor

inversions, requires the compilation of external FORTRAN

or C programs).

March/April 2001

TABLE 1

Comprehensive Listing of ZMAP Functions and Relevant References

Tool

Objective

Histograms

Data Import

Data import as ASCII, column-separated files, using one of several existing input format filters or a custom-designed one.

Catalog Comparison

region. Plot of the mean difference in magnitude, depth, location, and

temporal evolution of these differences. Map of hypocenter shifts.

cumulative moment release. Significance of rate changes using z, , and

translation into probability.

Maps

rotation hypocenters. Cross-sections with one or multiple segments.

Link to M_Map toolbox. Importing an plotting topography files

(ETOPO5, ETOP2, GTOPO30, USGS 1deg). Importing hierarchical coastline data.

GENAS

magnitude signatures; compare FMS for two periods and model rate

changes.

Wiemer, 1999; Zuiga and Wyss, 1995)

Declustering

clusters. Based on Reasenbergs algorithm.

(Reasenberg, 1985)

Mapping Seismicity Rates Map seismicity rates in map view, cross-section, or 3D. Animate maps of (Maeda and Wiemer, 1999; Wiemer and Wyss,

z and values as a function of time. Compute alarm cubes, explore 6D 1994; Wyss et al., 1996; Wyss et al., 1997a;

parameter space,

Wyss and Wiemer, 1997, 2000; Wyss and Martyrosian, 1998)

Aftershock Decay Rates

Estimate aftershock decay rates based on modified Omori law. Compute (Kisslinger and Jones, 1991; Reasenberg and

probabilistic aftershock hazard. Compute maps and cross-section of p Jones, 1989, 1990; Wiemer, 2000; Wiemer et

values and aftershock probabilities. Link to ASPAR software.

al., 2001)

Frequency-magnitude Dis- Estimating a and b values and uncertainties using maximum likelihood (Wiemer and Benoit, 1996; Wiemer and

tribution

or weighted least squares as a function of depth, time, and magnitude. McNutt, 1997; Wiemer and Wyss, 1997; Wyss

Map b and a values in map view, cross-section, or 3D. Compute local et al., 1997b)

recurrence time maps. Differential b value maps for two periods. Create

synthetic catalog with constant b.

Magnitude of Completeness

Estimate magnitude of completeness based on the deviation of the FMD (Wiemer and Wyss, 2000)

from a power law. Analyze Mc as a function of time or depth. Map Mc in

map view or cross-section.

Fractal Dimension

integral. Create maps and cross-sections of the fractal dimension.

Quarry Maps

Compute and map out the daytime to nighttime ratio of events in order to (Wiemer and Baer, 2000)

identify explosion. Dequarry catalogs by removing daytime events at significantly anomalous nodes.

Time to Failure

Benioff strain.

Stress Tensor

Inversion for the best fitting stress tensor using Michaels or Gepharts External call, requires compilation of FORTRAN

approach. Uncertainty estimation. Maps/cross-sections of stress orien- and C code. (Gephart, 1990a; Michael, 1984;

tation and variance/heterogeneity of the stress field. Maps of the tempo- Wiemer et al., 2001)

ral change in the stress field.

Cumulative Misfit

Compute the cumulative misfit to a predefined stress tensor. Cumulative External call, requires compilation of FORTRAN

misfit as a function of time, depth, magnitude, lat, lon, or in map view or and C code. (Lu et al., 1997; Wyss and Lu,

cross-section.

1995)

Jaume and Sykes, 1999; Varnes, 1989)

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375

Figure 1. Snapshots of some ZMAP windows. The upper left frame shows the cumulative number of events (0 < M<1.2; thick line) for the creeping

section of the San Andreas Fault north of Parkfield. The thin line is the z value, which measures the significance of a seismicity rate change. Note the

decrease in rate around 1995. The lower left shows catalog completeness, Mc, as a function of time, computed for overlapping windows each containing

1,000 earthquakes. The upper right shows the annual rate of earthquakes as a function of magnitude. Rates are computed based on the periods 19901995

(o) and 19952000 (x). Note the decrease in the detection ability for M < 1.2 after 1995. The top frame is the cumulative, the middle frame the noncumulative form. The bottom frame shows the magnitude signature. The lower right window plots a histogram of hypocentral depth.

Interactive data exploration. ZMAP combines many standard and advanced seismological analysis tools, aspiring to

make data exploration easier and more efficient. The user

can quickly select subsets in space, time, and magnitude,

plot histograms, compute b or p values, compare the frequency-magnitude distributions of different time periods

and locations, compare daytime versus nighttime activity,

compute the fractal dimension of hypocenters, create crosssections, overlay topography, compute stress-tensor inversions, and much more (Table 1). The ability to apply and

combine these analysis tools within one software platform

helps users explore or mine their data in detail. A typical

snapshot of some ZMAP windows is shown in Figure 1.

Mapping seismicity parameters. Identifying and evaluating

spatial and temporal variations in seismicity is one of the primary research objectives of ZMAP. By creating dense spatial

grids and sampling overlapping volumes of circular (2D) or

spherical shape (3D), users can map such parameters as seismicity rate changes, b values, p values, stress-tensor orienta376

user can interactively view the source of the parameter under

investigation (e.g., a frequency-magnitude plot) and compare neighboring volumes.

Maps are computed on an interactively defined grid that

generally excludes low-seismicity areas (Figure 2B). There are

two methods programmed into ZMAP to map seismicity:

using either constant radii or a constant number of samples.

The first method produces maps with a continuous spatial

resolution but varying sample sizes. Consequently, uncertainties can vary significantly in space. A constant sample

size, on the other hand, results in more homogeneous uncertainties, but the resolution, which is inversely proportional

to the density of earthquakes, will vary across the region of

interest. This is demonstrated in Figure 2B, where we plot a

cross-sectional view of the hypocenters beneath Mt. St.

Helens. Circles plotted at selected nodes indicate the volumes sampled around each particular node. The grid spacing

is generally chosen such that the volumes overlap significantly, providing a natural smoothing of the results.

March/April 2001

1

2

Depth [km]

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

0.5

1

b-value

1.5

Distance [km]

Figure 2. (A) The b value as a function of depth at Mount St. Helens. The seismicity for the period 19871995 with M > 0.3 was analyzed, using a

sliding window of 100 earthquakes. Vertical bars indicate the uncertainty in b, horizontal bars the depth range sampled. (B) Cross-sectional view (northsouth) through Mount St. Helens. Crosses mark the locations of nodes of an interactively selected grid (spaced at 0.2 0.2 km) used to compute the bvalue image shown in (C). For selected nodes, the circles mark the volumes sampled, each containing N = 100 earthquakes. (C) Image of the b-value distribution underneath Mount St. Helens, computed using the grid shown in (B). Dark colors indicate low b values.

Sample Applications

The sample applications shown below are intended to illustrate some of the capabilities of ZMAP. The images shown

were all created with ZMAP, edited manually using the Matlab edit capabilities, and then imported as JPEG files or

Windows metafiles into PowerPoint to be arranged on a

page. The online help (http://www.seismo.ethz.ch/staff/stefan/) discusses in detail how each analysis was performed.

Each case study is taken from published work that discusses

the science and interpretation in detail.

Assessing Catalog Homogeneity and Interactive Data

Exploration

ZMAP can be used to investigate or monitor the reporting

history and health of a seismic network. The user can address

questions such as: Did the detection threshold change in a

particular area at a certain time? Did the meaning of magnitude change? A long list of man-made changes in earthquake

catalogs has by now been documented (Habermann, 1983,

1986, 1987, 1991; Wyss and Toya, 2000; Zuiga and

Wiemer, 1999; Zuiga and Wyss, 1995). These changes in

the reporting rate can be introduced by modifications to the

network and can either mask or mimic natural changes in

the seismicity. Using GENAS (investigation of rate changes

as a function of magnitude threshold), magnitude signa-

attempt to unravel the reporting history of earthquake catalogs as a function of space and time.

A simple example of network quality assessment is

shown in Figure 1. The cumulative number of events along

the creeping section of the San Andreas Fault north of Parkfield (0 < M < 1.2) indicates a decrease in the rate of small

earthquakes around 1995. The cumulative and noncumulative number of events as a function of magnitude is compared for two periods (19901995 and 19952000). This

plot reveals that the number of events with M < 1.2 dropped

by about 65% in the latter period, whereas no change is

observed for larger earthquakes. The simplest explanation of

this pattern is that there was a change in the network configuration or processing strategy which decreased the detection

ability of the CALNET network in the creeping section after

1995.

The b Value beneath Mount St. Helens

ZMAP is frequently used to facilitate spatial mapping of the

b value in various seismotectonic regimes. The b value,

defined as log10N = a bM, where N is the cumulative number of earthquakes, and a and b are constants related to the

activity and earthquake size distribution, respectively

(Gutenberg and Richter, 1944; Ishimoto and Iida, 1939),

March/April 2001

377

meters to tens of kilometers (e.g., Wiemer and Benoit, 1996;

Wiemer and Katsumata, 1999; Wiemer and McNutt, 1997;

Wiemer et al., 1998; Wiemer and Wyss, 1997; Wyss et al.,

2000). These variations are related to differences in stress,

pore pressure, and material heterogeneity and therefore can

give important constraints when analyzing the seismotectonics and hazard potential of a region. High b values are often

correlated with the presence of magma in volcanic regions

(Jolly and McNutt, 1999; Murru et al., 1999; Power et al.,

1995; Wiemer and McNutt, 1997; Wiemer et al., 1998;

Wyss et al., 1997b). We present as an example data from

Mount St. Helens (Wiemer and McNutt, 1997), using

earthquakes of magnitude 0.4 and greater recorded by the

local network during the period of 19881995, a total of

about 2,000 events.

Using ZMAP, we can investigate spatial variations in b

value in one, two, and three dimensions. Looking at b values

as a function of depth (Figure 2A), we find high values of b

(b > 1.1) at around 2.5 km and deeper than 6 km below sea

level. For this analysis, a constant number of events per sample (100) is used, incremented downward by 25 events for

each step. The two-dimensional gridding along a 2-kmwide, north-south-trending cross-section (Figure 2B) shows

that indeed the b value exhibits its strongest variations as a

function of depth. The orientations of the cross-section and

the hypocenters are shown in Plate 1A. Finally, a threedimensional gridding is applied and a perspective view of the

topography of Mt. St. Helens added (Plate 1A). For this particular case study, the 3D view contributes little to the scientific analysis of the data, since the seismicity distribution is

largely one-dimensional. Creating an artistic image such as

Plate 1A often requires some effort using the editing options

in Matlab in order to get the perspective and the light properties right; however, the outcome may be worth the effort.

To verify that the mapped differences in b value are indeed

significant, we plot in Figure 3A comparisons of b values for

the shallowest earthquakes (b = 0.77) and the depth range 2

3 km (b = 1.82). The difference in the frequency-magnitude

distributions is clear to the eye and highly statistically significant, which is established using a statistical test proposed by

Utsu (1992).

still depends on the ingenuity of the analyst. Based on the

analysis of the b-value at Mt. St. Helens and nine other volcanoes (Jolly and McNutt, 1999; Murru et al., 1999; Power

et al., 1998; Wiemer and McNutt, 1997; Wiemer et al.,

1998; Wyss et al., 1997b; Wyss et al., 2000), we have proposed that (1) the b value underneath volcanoes is not generally higher, but pockets of high b exist in otherwise quite

normal crust. (2) These pockets of high b may signal the

presence of magma, since in the vicinity of a substantial body

of magma, high pore pressure, high temperature gradients,

and high b values all favor high b values. The absence of high

b values, on the other hand, should be taken as a strong indication that no substantial magma body is present near this

volume.

Mapping Seismicity Rate Changes

Measuring changes in the seismicity rate is a tricky business.

It is important, because rate changes are believed to be

directly related to changes in stress or pore pressure (Dieterich, 1994; Dieterich and Okubo, 1996). Applications

include constraining stress changes caused by Coulomb failure (Harris, 1998; Stein et al., 1992) or precursory rate

changes (Katsumata and Kasahara, 1996; Maeda and

Wiemer, 1999; Wiemer and Wyss, 1994; Wyss and Habermann, 1988; Wyss and Martyrosian, 1998; Wyss and

Wiemer, 1997). Measuring rate changes is difficult because

(1) artificially introduced rate changes are common in seismicity rates, (2) aftershocks and other clustered events

should be excluded before measuring background rates, and

(3) defining the significance of an observed rate change is not

simple.

ZMAP helps in various ways to deal with each of these

obstacles. As an example, we investigate the change in the

seismicity rates in southern California associated with the

1992 M 7.3 Landers earthquake. For details, please refer to

Wyss and Wiemer (2000). The first task is preparing a

homogeneous input data set. We spatially map the magnitude of complete reporting, Mc, for different periods. Areas

with higher Mc, such as the offshore region and south of the

Mexican border, can thus be excluded based on an objective

criterion. We next test for the presence of explosions in the

Plate 1. (A) Left: Cross-section view through Mount St. Helens, overlain by topography. The orientation of the cross-section is shown in the inset at

lower left. Hypocenters are color-coded by depth; symbol size indicates magnitude. Right: Three-dimensional image of the b values beneath Mount St.

Helens, based on the seismicity from 19871995. Red colors indicate high b values. Horizontal planes are drawn at 8 and 3 km depths. (B) Perspective

view of southern California, centered on the Landers region. Colors map the change in the seismicity rate between the periods 19851992.48 and 1992.5

1999.7. Red colors, or negative z values, indicate an increase in the seismicity rate in the latter periods and vice versa. Triangles mark the epicenters of

the Landers, Big Bear, and Hector Mine main shocks. (C) Map of southern California, centered on the Landers region. Bars indicate the orientation of the

stress field obtained by inverting the 100 focal mechanisms nearest to each node of a grid spaced 2 2 km. The period investigated is 19922000. Stars

mark the hypocenters of the 1992 Landers and 1999 Hector Mine main shocks. The variance of the individual stress tensor inversions is color-coded, with

blue to purple colors indicating high variance, hence a heterogeneous stress field. The two insets show individual stress-tensor inversions and their

uncertainties, obtained using a bootstrap method (yellow: 1; red: 2; blue: 3). (D) Map of the western U.S.; the magnitude of complete reporting, Mc,

computed by measuring the deviation from an assumed power law, is color-coed. The inset shows the frequency-magnitude plots for two subvolumes

marked A and B.

378

March/April 2001

Hector Mine

Big Bear

N

Rate

decrease

Landers

Z-value

Rate

increase

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379

1000

p = 1.4e010

900

800

Cumulative Number

Cumulative Number

10 2

b = 0.77 0.17

10 1

500

400

200

0.5

1.5

2.5

100

Magnitude

Figure 3. Comparison of the cumulative frequency-magnitude distribution for shallow earthquakes at Mount St. Helens (filled circles) and for

the depth range 23 km (open squares). The probability that the two samples come from the same population is about 1.410, based on Utsus

(1992) test.

ratio of events. A significantly enhanced ratio is indicative of

quarry blast contamination that often remains in the data

regardless of the network operators efforts (Wiemer and

Baer, 2000). We identify a number of explosion-prone

regions, which we exclude. By studying the homogeneity of

reporting as a function of time and magnitude, we search for

artificial rate changes in the data and the suitable overall Mc

cut-off. Finally we settle for a data set for the period 1985

1999.8 (before the Hector Mine earthquake) with an overall

Mc of 1.7. This data set is then declustered using Reasenbergs (1985) approach.

We spatially map the remaining seismicity rate changes,

comparing the periods 19851992.48 and 1992.61999.8,

using constant sample volumes of 20 km radius and a grid

spacing of 5 km. Two different statistical functions have been

implemented in ZMAP to measure the significance of rate

change: z values (Habermann, 1981, 1988) and values

(Matthews and Reasenberg, 1988; Reasenberg and Simpson,

1992). A map of rate changes measured by z is shown in

Plate 1B. Red colors signify rate increases, blue colors rate

decreases. The map is wrapped on top of the GTOPO30

topography; this is possible in ZMAP only when the Matlab

mapping toolbox is available. We can interactively select circular or polygonal volumes from the map and view the

cumulative number of events as a function of time and the z

values that measure rate changes (Figure 4).

The pattern of rate change mapped by this technique is

quite remarkable, since it reveals long-range (> 100 km) and

long-duration (> 7 years) rate changes associated with the

1992 Landers main shock. The pattern of increased and

380

600

300

10 0

700

0

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

Time in years

Hector Mine hypocenter. In this volume, the seismicity rate dropped drastically after the 1992 Landers earthquake. The thin line indicates the significance of rate changes, measured using the z value.

changes caused by the combined static and dynamic stress

changes predicted for the Landers rupture (Stein et al.,

1992). In order to establish a significant rate decrease, it is

generally necessary to compare observations for several years.

Stress Tensor Inversions

In addition to hypocenter information, ZMAP can be used

to analyze focal mechanism data either by analyzing the

cumulative misfit of a set of focal mechanisms to a given

stress tensor (Lu and Wyss, 1996; Lu et al., 1997; Wyss and

Lu, 1995), or by computing inversions for the best-fitting

stress tensor. Two inversion programs are called from ZMAP,

Michaels (Michael, 1984, 1987a, 1987b, 1991; Michael et

al.) and Gepharts (Gephart and Forsyth, 1984; Gephart,

1990a; Gephart, 1990b). ZMAP allows the computation of

individual stress-tensor inversions, stress tensor as a function

of time and depth, and inversions on a grid in either map

view of cross-section (using Michaels method only).

An example application, again for southern California,

is shown in Plate 1C. We use the relocated set of focal mechanisms from 1992.482000.5 by Hauksson (2000), with a

solution misfit < 0.1. First we create a grid with a 2 2 km

spacing, excluding areas of low seismicity. The nearest 100

earthquakes to each node are sampled and their focal mechanisms inverted using Michaels approach. The resulting

directions of the principal stress axes, 1, are plotted as lines

on a map underlain by topography. We further color-code

the variance of the resulting inversion at each node. Blue to

purple colors indicate a high variance (i.e., heterogeneous

March/April 2001

results and their uncertainties, obtained using a bootstrapping approach (Michael, 1987a).

The overall stress directions obtained agree reasonably

well with a more detailed study by Hauksson (1994). Results

suggest that areas that experience a high slip during the main

shock show a more heterogeneous stress field which cannot

be fit by a single stress tensor, whereas areas outside the main

rupture show a low variance, hence a more homogeneous

stress field (Wiemer et al., 2001).

not trivial to find the appropriate script and variable in order

to extend or improve ZMAP.

As with any software, the garbage in-garbage out principle applies to ZMAP. If you try, for example, to estimate spatial and temporal variations of b values and your catalog

contains only 200 events, you may get colorful maps but

their meaning is questionable at best.

The quality of all regional and local earthquake catalogs

decreases with distance from the center of the network.

Obvious boundaries of deterioration are coastlines, international borders, and seams between networks. To avoid problems that could be introduced in seismicity studies by

heterogeneity of Mc, ZMAP allows the user to map Mc to

define the spatial extent of the high-quality part of the catalog (e.g., Wiemer and Wyss, 2000). The technique used most

frequently to assess Mc is based on estimating it from the

FMD itself. This is often done in seismicity studies by visual

examination of the cumulative or noncumulative FMD;

however, we prefer to apply a quantitative criterion, where

we measure the goodness of fit to an assumed power law

(Wiemer and Wyss, 2000). An example of a map of Mc for

the western U.S., based on the CNSS catalog for the period

19952000, is shown in Plate 1D. Mc ranges from > 2.5 offshore Mendocino to < 1 in central California.

be occasional future updates of ZMAP, largely driven by

research interests. New features that have been partially

implemented or are being considered are:

SUPPORT

(Frankel, 1995) (Bender and Perkins, 1987) or timedependent fashion. We are developing a module based

on ZMAP that will compute probabilistic aftershock

and foreshock hazard maps (Wiemer, 2000) in near-real

time and display the results on the Internet.

Implementation of the M8 algorithm for earthquake

prediction (Kossobokov et al., 1997).

A different declustering algorithm based on the ETAS

model (Ogata et al., 1995, 1996).

A real-time module to monitor the quality of seismicity

data and search for artifacts in reporting.

Computing Coulomb stress changes with uncertainties

and comparison with observed rate changes.

Suggestions for future developments and criticisms of the

existing package are highly encouraged!

http://www.seismo.ifg.ethz/staff/stefan to download the current version of ZMAP (version 6). The compressed files are

about 5 Mb and should run under Matlab 5.x and 6.0.

Other resources on the ZMAP home page include a list of

papers published using ZMAP, a collection of sample data

files, and a collection of presentations made using the ZMAP

software. If your Internet connection does not allow downloading via the Internet, we can send you a CD-ROM version of ZMAP. Please contact stefan@seismo.ifg.ethz.ch.

The only support currently available beyond the online

documentation is contacting me via e-mail. Help requests

will be addressed as quickly as possible, but as they increase

in volume this may become unmanageable. A ZMAP help email list is being considered.

KNOWN PROBLEMS

From the responses from the 100+ scientists using ZMAP, it

is clear that, although designed to work on any Matlab-supported platform, some users experience problems while running various functions. Others become frustrated with the

variable robustness of certain features of ZMAP and the

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The author would like to thank Matt Gerstenberger, Steve

Malone, Charlotte Rowe, and Max Wyss for comments and

suggestions that greatly helped to improve the manuscript. I

am deeply indebted to all those who helped through their

programming to make ZMAP a better tool: Alexander Allman, Denise Bachmann, Matt Gerstenberger, Zhong Lu,

Francesco Pacchiani, Yuzo Toda, and Ramon Zuiga. Special

thanks to Max Wyss, whose relentless support and creative

ideas over the past eight years has made ZMAP possible. The

support from an IASPEI PC software development grant has

been a great motivation. I am thankful to the University of

Alaska Fairbanks, the Science and Technology Agency of

Japan, and ETH Zurich for supporting the development of

ZMAP.

REFERENCES

Bender, B. and D. M. Perkins (1987). SEISRISK III: A computer program for seismic hazard estimation, U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1772, 20 pp.

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381

and potential for large earthquakes in the Alaska-Aleutian region,

Pure Appl. Geoph. 142, 8399.

Bufe, C. G. and D. J. Varnes (1996). Time-to-failure in the AlaskaAleutian region: An update, Eos, Trans. Am. Geophys. U. 77

(F456).

Dieterich, J. (1994). A constitutive law for rate of earthquake production and its application to earthquake clustering, J. Geophys. Res.

99, 2,6012,618.

Dieterich, J. H. and P. G. Okubo (1996). An unusual pattern of seismic quiescence at Kalapana, Hawaii, Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 447

450.

Frankel, A. (1995). Mapping hazard in the central and eastern United

States, Seism. Res. Lett. 66, 821.

Gephart, J. W. (1990a). FMSI: A FORTRAN program for inverting

fault/slickenside and earthquake focal mechanism data to obtain

the original stress tensor, Comput. Geosci. 16, 953989.

Gephart, J. W. (1990b) Stress and the direction of slip on fault planes,

Tectonics 9, 845858.

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SRL encourages guest columnists to contribute to the Electronic Seismologist. Please contact Steve Malone with your

ideas. His e-mail address is steve@geophys.washington.edu.

March/April 2001

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