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Unit: IV

Social Process LH-6

Unit Syllabus
a) Development of the social individual, socialization, conformity norms.
b) Aggregate social process: Change as a basic process, Accommodation, Assimilation;
Alienation, integration, isolation.
c) Collective behavior: proximate influences situations, Broad influence process, factors
in collective behavior.
d) Social mobility-career mobility, Generational mobility, other factors in mobility
e) Population dynamics-Fertility and mortality, migration, Urbanization
f) Conflict disintegration-Family patterns, community conflict, crime, industrial conflict

Social Process
The entire panorama of social behavior, therefore, cannot be seen without developing the
dynamic aspects on the structural base built up earlier. The individual and group forces at
work in a social setting may described in various ways.

Development of the Social Individual

We have learned to respond to the influences of our social heritage and environment. Our
behavior is certain biological factors and socio-psychological factor.

Socialization is incorporating the values of a group into the growing individual is called
socialization. A leading sociology text develops two perspectives, from the point of view of
society and of the individual. From society’s vantage point the individual is fitted into an
organized way of life while the opportunity for the full unfolding of the person.

Socialization is not only transmission of attitudes, value and beliefs but it is also serves as a
means of development of individual and awareness of self.
Socialization begins early in life. In individual life span where people are important in
shaping the young individual, adults, parents and other family members play a leading role in
passing on their own attitudes and values as well as being the transmitters of border cultural
Attitudes can be transmitted very subtly as perceptive children recognize is and is not done
within the group.

Conformity to Norms
The rules that every society uses to point tout what kind of behavior is desirable or
appropriate are called norms. These guidelines for behavior are based on cultural values.
“Cleanliness is next to godliness” reflects that has received much support in the past. Norms
are fundamental to socialization. In this process the child incorporate rates the values of the
society by being reinforced for following the rules. Conformity to norms is learned rewards
are in the form of social approach while punishment comes in the disproval manifested in
various ways.

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Aggregate Social Processes
As we have just seen, the impact of culture on the individual the mediation of the cultural
characteristic by other, primarily the parents. The family serves as the main channel through
which the broad attitudes and values pass on the child. The prior interaction processes of the
group thus have their effect on single individuals, but they may be viewed in wider
perspective. The changes that cultural patterns undergo and the concomitant changes in
interaction among groups will be the subject of this aspect of the dynamic involved in social
A well-known example of an attempt to formulate a cohesive system emphasizes the
interaction of many factors.

Change as a Basic Process

As old statement, attributed by some to Benjamin Franklin, has it that “we can be certain of
nothing except of nothing except death and taxes.” To this we can add “change” for we may
be sure that no matter what else occurs, change is inevitable. We may not recognize it or
otherwise be cognizant of it we may oppose it or we may even try to accelerate it. Change
makes its course in the evolution of human effort.
Norms are fundamental to socialization. Society is not a static system; it is in dynamic state
and constantly undergoing change. Individual has learned some new thing and it is easier for
modification and change.

Concepts of Change
The concept of change is coming from the decline of civilization. Most of Greeks and Indian
scholar was do many researches in social change. Changes are proceeding from “trail and
error” experiments of an individual and next phase in the process is the stage of inventing.
This concept goes beyond the production of a technological product and includes the
“invention” if an elaborate organizational structure and process. The final stage historically is
characterized by planning and planed thinking.

Social Change
Attitudes toward change are individual cultural products. Western society, particularly US
remains neutral in feeling about change or more positive attitudes toward finding new and
better ways to do thing.
Why Social Change?
1. Due to Environmental Change- Climatic conditions have changed very drastically
2. People want better ways to live.
3. Impact of technology

World was change from Stone Age to the Bronze and then to the Iron Age. We focus on the
innovations in material without really illustrated the profound change.

Society is developed in this phase

Phase Era Material Power
Eotechnic 1000-1750 Wood Wind and water
Paleotechnic 1750-Date Iron Coal
Neotechnic Date Alloy Electricity

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Now atomic energy may be more a characteristic power source.

Even with positive attitudes toward the introduction of new methods there is usually a time
lag between the availability of a technological innovation and the general acceptance of it.
Culture lag, however, extends beyond acceptance of technology. Social stratification also
bring the social change but recent events bear witness to the widespread activity involved in
the links between technological and social change. For instance, mechanization of agriculture,
particularly in the South, has reduced the need for human labor. Some time changes bring the
traumatic readjustment of behavior and attitudes.

Change in Groups
The process of change in small groups and organizations occupies attention of many
researcher in various applied areas-industry, education the military, and government.
Change in Groups was occur by the rapidly develop social and technological events.
The responses to change are both individual and group. Attitudes, motivation and ability play
a role within the broad area of individual personality. Communication plays the crucial in
change in group behavior.

Individual Factors in Change

Individual Factors are:
1. Personality
2. Attitude
3. Motivation
4. Age

Personality is important change agent for individual behavior change. Attitudes are very basic
to the functioning of individuals. Some one is positive attitude for new or novel events, they
are liberal and some one is negative attitude for new or novel events, they are conservative.
Attitudes are learned behavior. The family is the prime source of attitudes, surpassing the peer
group or other agencies outside the agencies outside the family in this respect.

Motivation must be considered as equally important factor in individual behavior change. For
instance, “You can lead a horse to water but you can’t make him drink”.
Age is considered to be related to attitudes. Youth attitude is liberal and old age is more

The process of adjustment that takes place when individuals agree to various compromises or
develop working relationships in order to be able to function together is called
A married couple reaches a point where there is recognition of what can or cannot be done to
preserve a relationship of harmonious equilibrium. Labor management relations are
characterized by accommodation processes such as arbitration, negotiation, conciliation or


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Assimilation is the melting of individuals with previously diverse backgrounds into the
general society to the point where attitudes and values are held commonly in that society. The
immigration who goes to developed countries faced with new patterns and styles of life. The
accompanying values structures may be slowly adopted by assimilation. Many Northern
communities are experiencing the problems of assimilation o migrants from the different
social setting of South has promoted. Gradually social concepts and behavior fusion is

Alienation is opposite of accommodation and assimilation. When two process increasing the
gap alienation is arising. For example, gap between union and company in a bringing labor
An earliest developer of the concept of alienation was Karl Marx. It was his hypothesis that
the technology of an industrial and capitalist economy was responsible for the alienation of
the working man from society by depriving him of the control over and responsibility for his
Alienation is arising by:
1. The isolation form ownership of property
2. Isolation from Means of production
3. Decline in freedom

Marx concentrated on class struggle between workers and owners under the capitalist system.
Alienation is more in industrialized society or capitalist society. For example: Human
resource turnover, conflict and civil disturbances featuring like rioting & looting.
The alienation also appears by cynicism about political event and deep distrust or suspicion of
political leaders.

The term integration is social organization contact existing between social groups within the
society. When groups exists in harmony within a central framework and can work with each
other and communicate back and forth is essential features for integration.

The lack of integration in a society is known as isolation. Complete isolation and partial
isolation is appearing in society. Isolation is appearing by:
1. Absence of social bond.
2. Due to mutual rejection
3. Attitude change in passage of time
4. Conflict arising in groups.

A “normlessness” that results form an individual departure from values is anomie. The term
was coined long ago by the French sociologist Emile Durkheim, write in his book on Suicide
(1951). Most recently, Merton has expanded the concepts to focus on the relationship between
means and ends. Anomie is arising due to lack of means or ends or both.
Anomie is a sociological term meaning "personal feeling of a lack of norms; normlessness". It
was popularized by French sociologist Émile Durkheim in his influential book Suicide (1897),
which borrowed the word from French philosopher Jean-Marie Guyau.

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For Durkheim, anomie arises more generally from a mismatch between personal or group
standards and wider social standards, or from the lack of a social ethic, which produces moral
deregulation and an absence of legitimate aspirations. Though anomie is commonly
associated with low regulation, Durkheim postulated that overly rigid (e.g. totalitarian)
societies would also produce anomic individuals:

Anomie in common parlance is thought to mean something like "at loose ends." The Oxford
English Dictionary lists a range of definitions, beginning with a disregard of divine law,
through the 19th and 20th century sociological terms meaning an absence of accepted social
standards or values. Most sociologists associate the term with Durkheim, who used the
concept to speak of the ways in which an individual's actions are matched, or integrated, with
a system of social norms and practices ... Durkheim also formally posited anomie as a
mismatch, not simply as the absence of norms. Thus, a society with too much rigidity and
little individual discretion could also produce a kind of anomie, a mismatch between
individual circumstances and larger social mores. Thus, fatalistic suicide arises when a person
is too rule-governed, when there is … no free horizon of expectation.

Collective Behavior
The study of amorphous and largely unorganized social interaction is the area commonly
designated as collective behavior. Social situations such as crowds, riots and mobs are coming
in collective behavior. This area also includes such social and

Collective Behavior
The study of amorphous and largely unorganized social interaction is the area commonly
designated as collective behavior. Collective behavior is study of behavior of more than 2
persons or collective mass of people. For instance, crowds, riots and mobs are collective
behavior. Social and economic phenomena as fads and fashions, cults and crazes as well as
booms, rumor and propaganda are collective behavior.

Proximate Influence Situations

A glance at newspaper headline, Television News and Internet Blog has explored present day
social scene. Collective behavior goes beyond the phenomena demonstrate about collective
human nature.

A loosely Knit gathering of individuals in one place is commonly designated a crowd. Some
crowds may be very casual and passive and some are quite emotional and highly active. For
instance, audience in theater, congregation in a religious setting, group attending in
deliberative assembly or spectators at a sports event.

A crowd is a large and definable group of people, while "The crowd" is referred to as the so-
called lower orders of people in general (The mob). A crowd may be definable through a
common purpose or set of emotions, such as at a political rally, at a sports event, or during
looting, or simply be made up of many people going about their business in a busy area (eg

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i) Mob: A crowd that gets out of hand and displays aggression or other types of antisocial and
destructive activity is known as mob. For example: Looting and lynching (hanging, killing).

ii) Riot: Big mass or group is involved in an antisocial activity the situation can be called a
riot. It involves widespread aggression and destruction of property, possibly by many
different kinds of randomly acting crowds.

A riot is a form of civil disorder characterized by disorganized groups lashing out in a sudden
and intense rash of violence against people or property. While individuals may attempt to lead
or control a riot, riots are typically chaotic and exhibit group behavior.

Historically, riots have occurred due to poor working or living conditions, government
oppression, taxation or conscription, conflicts between races, food supply or religions (see
race riot, sectarian violence and pogrom), the outcome of a sporting event or frustration with
legal channels through which to air grievances.

Riots typically involve vandalism and the destruction of private and public property. Targets
can include shops, cars, restaurants, state-owned institutions, and religious buildings.

Dealing with riots is often difficult task for police departments, and police officers sent to deal
with riots are usually armed with ballistic shields and riot shotguns, mainly because of the
larger spread of the shorter barrels. Police may also use tear gas and CS gas to stop rioters.

Panic: Panic is an uncoordinated irrational response to fear. Source of fear make people
disorganized and unable to cope effectively with the situation. Some aggressive responses
outlined from panic.

Panic is a sudden fear which dominates or replaces thinking and often affects groups of
people or animals. Panics typically occur in disaster situations, or violent situations (such as
robbery, home invasion, a shooting rampage, etc.) which may endanger the overall health of
the affected group. The word panic derives from the Greek pertaining to Pan, because Pan
was reputed to give a loud, chaotic and anxiety.

Rumors: Rumor is collective behavior of people. Rumors spring up (disseminate) highly

ambiguous (unclear) and emotional situations helping to develop the other forms of mass
behavior as well. A rumor is a “specific proposition for belief, passed along from person to
person, usually by word to mouth, without reference to secure standards of evidence.

A rumor is often viewed as "an unverified account or explanation of events circulating from
person to person and pertaining to an object, event, or issue in public concern". However, a
review of the research on rumor conducted by Pendleton in 1998 found that research across
sociology, psychology, and communication studies had widely varying definitions of rumor.
Thus, rumor is a concept that lacks a particular definition in the social sciences.. In addition,
some scholars have identified rumor as a subset of propaganda, the latter another notoriously
difficult concept to define. Rumors are also often discussed with regard to "misinformation"
and "disinformation". Rumors thus have often been viewed as particular forms of other
communication concepts

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Broad Influence Process
Crowds and Rumor focuses on the influence of immediate and transitory events. Fashion,
Fads, Crazes, boon have more economic and political impact in the long run than do the short
and limited collective process.

Fashion may be described as socially sanctioned variation in material form or activity.
Change in dress, life style, music or art are important factor of fashion. Automobile
manufactures, furniture designer and boutique creator have grate impact of fashion choices.
Most dynamic and obvious variations come in are of women’s apparel (dress). For example:
women’s skirt and jean pant have change very drastically over short periods of time.

The more technical term, costume, has become so linked in the public eye with the term
"fashion" that the more general term "costume" has in popular use mostly been relegated to
special senses like fancy dress. This linguistic switch is due to the fashion plates which were
produced during the Industrial Revolution, showing the latest designs. For a broad cross-
cultural look at clothing and its place in society, refer to the entries for clothing, costume and
fabrics. The remainder of this article deals with clothing fashions in the Western world.

Fads: A limited and more superficial manner of dress or other behavior is called fad. These
come and go very quickly. Fads have fewer acceptances than fashions and they are quite
prevalent in particular area or age group.

A fad is a practice or interest followed for a time with exaggerated zeal. The nature of fad is
individual. It could be called as a like in a guy an individual/individual society'
s over interest
in some thing which is considered to have consist of some virtue i.e. fad diet, exercise etc.

Crazes: A pattern of activity that is more emotional and more intensive than a fad can be
called a craze. It may sometimes be difficult to distinguish between dad, a craze and fashion.
For example: witchcraft mania of 16th and 17th century, jazz and rock in 20th century.

A craze is a product, idea, cultural movement, propensity or model that gains popularity
among a small section of the populace then quickly migrates to the mainstream. Crazes are
characterized by their lightning fast adoption and swift departure from public awareness.
Being of temporary nature is one of the major characteristics of craze. Crazes and fads are
also characterized by their unusually high interest and sales figures relative to the time they
are active in the marketplace, as compared with other similar products, ideas, cultural
movements or models.

i) Cult: Emotional involvement tends to show some continuing organization is

known as cult.
ii) Trend: A Trend is a line of general direction of movement, a prevailing tendency
of inclination, a style or preference, a line of development, or the general
movement over time of a statistically detectable change. In a few words, "trend" is
a synonym to "tendency".

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Booms: A more expansive and economic involvement than a craze can be called a boom.
Booms usually represent response to get rich quick schemes.

The term boom refers to a great buildup in the price of a particular commodity or, alternately,
the localized rise in an economy, often based upon the value of a single commodity, followed
by a downturn as the commodity price falls due to a change in economic circumstances or the
collapse of unrealistic expectations.

Boom phenomena have existed for centuries. During a "boom" period, buyers find themselves
paying increasingly higher prices until the "bust", at which time the goods and commodities
for which they have paid inflated prices may end up as valueless or nearly so.

Examples of "Booms”
• The Tulip mania of the 1630s, in Holland
• The narrow gauge railroad movement of the 1870s in the United States
• Towns such as Bodie, California that prospered during the California Gold Rush of the
late 1840s and early 1850s then became ghost towns.
• The Roaring Twenties in the United States, followed by the Wall Street Crash of 1929
and the Great Depression.
• The Dot-com bubble, involving new electronic technology and the internet, in the late
• The American subprime lending boom in the 1990s and early 2000s, followed by the
Sub prime mortgage crisis of 2006 and beyond.

Social Movements:
Social movements are a type of group action. They are large informal groupings of
individuals and/or organizations focused on specific political or social issues, in other words,
on carrying out, resisting or undoing a social change.

Modern Western social movements became possible through education and increased
mobility of labor due to the industrialization and urbanization of 19th century societies. It is
sometimes argued that the freedom of expression, education and relative economic
independence prevalent in the modern Western culture is responsible for the unprecedented
number and scope of various contemporary social movements.

American Civil Rights Movement is one of the most famous social movements of the 20th
century. Martin Luther King is giving his "I Have a Dream" speech, in front of the Lincoln
Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom

The term "social movements" was introduced in 1850 by the German Sociologist Lorenz von
Stein in his book "History of the French Social Movement from 1789 to the Present" (1850).

Tilly argues that the early growth of social movements was connected to broad economic and
political changes including parliamentarization, market capitalization, and proletarianization.
Political movements that evolved in late 18th century, like those connected to the French
Revolution and the Polish Constitution of May 3, 1791 are among the first documented social

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movements. The labor movement and socialist movement of the late 19th century are seen as
the prototypical social movements, leading to the formation of communist and social
democratic parties and organisations. Similar tendencies were seen in other countries as
pressure for reform continued, for example in Russia with the Russian Revolution of 1905 and
of 1917, resulting in the collapse of the Russian State around the end of the First World War.

In 1945, Britain after victory in the Second World War entered a period of radical reform and
change. In the post-war period, women' s rights, gay rights, peace, civil rights, anti-nuclear and
environmental movements emerged, often dubbed the New Social Movements. Some find in
the end of the 1990s the emergence of a new global social movement, the anti-globalization
movement. Some social movement scholars posit that with the rapid pace of globalization, the
potential for the emergence of new type of social movement is latent -- they make the analogy
to national movements of the past to describe what has been termed a global citizens

Factors in Collective Behavior

To understanding collective behavior we must be know social and psychological bases for the
behavior. Some factors which play the major role in collective behavior development:

1. General Characteristics: Collective behavior manifest some general aspects that

may be described casually as being products of an ambiguous and changing social
situation. Rapid change brings with it new and emotionally touched values. There are
high degrees of insecurity in the change. In group people are confuse for what to do.
2. Emotional Contagion: Emotional contagion is the tendency to catch and feel
emotions that are similar to and influenced by those of others. One view developed by
John Cacioppo of the underlying mechanism is that it represents a tendency to
automatically mimic (imitate) and synchronize (harmonize) facial expressions,
vocalizations, postures, and movements with those of another person and,
consequently, to converge emotionally. A broader definition of the phenomenon was
suggested by Sigal G. Barsade—"a process in which a person or group influences the
emotions or behavior of another person or group through the conscious or unconscious
induction of emotion states and behavioral attitudes".

Emotional contagion refers to a mood the individuals in the group or crowd have in
common. A shared set of emotions can be seen in a highly excited mob or the controlled
aura of a religious service. In crowd people support from others in their behavior and are
especially sensitive to other peoples activity. The behavior further reinforces the similar
behavior of others, and the process becomes a circular one. When the individuals in the
group share common needs and attributes, the common behavior patterns are even more
firmly fixed. Mob scenes and riots illustrate the freedom from the usual restraints felt by
many people who have strong ties to a norm group in this highly emotional state. The
significance of emotional contagion to the individuals involved may serve as an
explanation of the phenomenon.

3. Broad Patterns: Fashion has fascinated observers for centuries. Various

suggestions as to the impact of fashions on human behavior have been made in the
past. There is general agreement that the reasons for fashions center on the need for

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some prestige or recognition and pull of conformity in order to achieve that
recognition. A pinpointing of the bases of fads proves to be even more frustrating for
researchers. Apparently fads find a rapidly changing society congenial (friendly) to
their development and dissemination. It might be further hypothesized that fads must
fit with the stream of culture, especially the interests and motivations of a broad
segment of the target population, although advertising and promotion can provide
much of the impetus where knowledge or interest is weak. Fads are most popular
among teenagers. For example: Long hair and social process groups.In crazes and
booms the irrationality of behavior encountered is even more evident than in fads and

Social Mobility
Social Mobility: In the social sciences, as well as in common political discourse, social
mobility refers to the degree to which an individual' s family or group's social status can
change throughout the course of their life through a system of social hierarchy or
stratification. Subsequently, it is also the degree to which an individual's or group' s
descendants move up and down the class system. The individual or family can move up or
down the social classes based on achievements or factors beyond their control.
These different levels in the social hierarchy are not static (constant) but it is movement or
dynamic. Movement through the various strata may be either downward or upward mobility.
Social mobility arising due to following reason:
i. Better opportunity
ii. Education
iii. Social stratification
iv. Carrier Mobility

Career Mobility:
Like most people, you’ll explore several different career options in your professional life.
You’ll have the opportunity to build your career in different professional.
We can provide you with the education and experience you need to grow, continue learning
and to realize your career goals.

So, if you like choice, put your ideas to work with us and you’ll have access to a range of
career options that you just won’t find anywhere else. The movement of individuals during
their career has been a topic of continuing interest down through the years. An open society in
the US does permit movement, but many factors combine to limit the vertical occupational
mobility of an individual during his career. The high educational requirements of a complex
technological society have brought the mobility.

Generation Mobility

Occupational mobility from one generation to the next shows patterns that resemble career
mobility patterns. There is a substantial amount of downward mobility from one generation to
the next, even more upward mobility and still more similarity between the occupational

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choices of different generations. Sons have a tendency to follow in the footsteps of their
Miller has comparison of 18 countries, found more similarity and social mobility between the
United States and USSR then US and Great Britain.

Intergenerational mobility
Inter-generational mobility is a measure of the changes in social status which occurs from the
parents'to the children'
s generation. It can affect anyone in the population, as one’s economic
standing can increase or decrease from the position they were born into. Our society is
constantly changing, and because of this various opportunities can cause one to advance or
digress in their economic standing. One’s talents can cause them to surpass the economic
position into which they were born.

Many see intergenerational mobility as a way of measuring the equality present in the
economic opportunities of a society. It takes a realistic approach of how much of your future
economic standing is determined by your childhood experience and how much is determined
by an individual’s talents and capabilities. Inter-generational mobility can best be determined
by analyzing where children from the least or most affluent families end up in terms of
incomes and earnings as adults. Their income as adults is then compared to what their parents

Inter-generational mobility is generally measured in terms of intergenerational elasticity, or a

statistical correlation between parent’s and children’s economic standings. The higher the
intergenerational elasticity, the less social mobility a society offers.

Other Factors in Mobility

Mobility is come from following factor:
1. Social and economic factors: Society and economic is dynamic so it is mobility factor.
2. Political factor: Political entity of nation is changeable in course of time so it is next
mobility factor.
3. Industrial development: Industrial revolution has brought rapid change. Large
numbers of manual worker are change in semi manual and now automated. It is also
one major factor.
4. Education and Skill: Education and skill of people are dramatically changed. People
shift from blue collar (low profile jobs) to white collar (high profile job) job. For this
reason they have improved education and skill.
5. Individual factors (Attitudes, values, education, level of aspiration, and perception of
opportunities): It things brought the mobility of people.

Population Dynamics
Growth and decline of population and its movement from place to place are social facts
are study in demography or population science. Basic social facts such as population
however must be studied for their own sake and for influence to other. All the data of
population was taken form census and it is more about birth and death rates, immigration
and mobility. This area of study is known as social demography and it studies about broad
aspects of social process.

Fertility and Mortality

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The most significant factor in modern times in the increase of population has undoubtedly
been the reduction of the death rate. Greater degree of mortality came in the early years of
birth. Scientific and economic gains like housing, sanitation, and education had radical
drops in mortality.
The impact of the rise in births and drop in deaths is greatest in the underdeveloped
countries. Many parts of the world, the birth of children demonstrate the masculinity of
the father; so much the better it they are male.

Fertility: Fertility is the natural capability of giving life. As a measure, "fertility rate" is
the number of children born per couple, person or population. Infertility is deficient
fertility. Human fertility depends on factors of nutrition, sexual behavior, culture, instinct,
endocrinology, timing, economics, way of life, and emotions.

Mortality: Mortality rate is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a
specific cause) in some population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit time.
Mortality rate is typically expressed in units of deaths per 1000 individuals per year; thus,
a mortality rate of 9.5 in a population of 100,000 would mean 950 deaths per year in that
entire population.

1. The crude death rate, the total number of deaths per year per 1000 people. As of July
2009 the crude death rate for the whole world is about 8.37 per 1000 per year
according to the current CIA World Factbook[1].
2. The perinatal mortality rate, the sum of neonatal deaths and fetal deaths (stillbirths)
per 1000 births.
3. The maternal mortality rate, the number of maternal deaths due to childbearing per
100,000 live births.
4. The infant mortality rate, the number of deaths of children less than 1 year old per
1000 live births.
5. The child mortality rate, the number of deaths of children less than 5 years old per
1000 live births.
6. The standardised mortality rate (SMR)- This represents a proportional comparison
to the numbers of deaths that would have been expected if the population had been of
a standard composition in terms of age, gender, etc..[2]
7. The age-specific mortality rate (ASMR) - This refers to the total number of deaths
per year per 1000 people of a given age (e.g. age 62 last birthday).

Intercontinental Movement and Internal Migration
Human migration is physical movement by humans from one district to another,
sometimes over long distances or in large groups. The movement of populations in
modern times has continued under the form of both voluntary migration within one' s
region, country, or beyond, and involuntary migration (which includes the slave trade,
trafficking in human beings and ethnic cleansing). People who migrate are called
migrants, or, more specifically, emigrants, immigrants, or settlers, depending on historical
setting, circumstances and perspective.

The pressures of human migrations, whether as outright conquest or by slow cultural

infiltration and resettlement, have affected the grand epochs in history (for example, the

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Decline of the Roman Empire); under the form of colonization, migration has transformed
the world (such as the prehistoric and historic settlements of Australia and the Americas).
Forced migration has been a means of social control under authoritarian regimes; yet free
initiative migration is a powerful factor in social adjustment and the growth of urban

Different types of migration include:

Seasonal human migration mainly related to agriculture. Rural to Urban, more common in
developing countries as industrialization takes effect (urbanization)
Urban to Rural, more common in developed countries due to a higher cost of urban living

History of Migration
Migration of peoples has been occurring since prehistoric times. Ancient and modern
peoples alike have shown some geographic mobility.

Intercontinental Movement
Both in terms of numbers and distance, the migration of European peoples to North and
South America represented the greatest movement of population in history. No more than
5 million people migrating in the 3000 years prior to the beginning of 19th century. The
size of the movement is increasing by introducing Negroes as slave trade in US. Foreign
countries are alarmed by the ‘brain drain’ by loss of top level manpower to other

Internal Migration
Movement within the borders of a country has also significance role in population studies.
Mobility has always been an important aspect of the American scene. People always like
the shifting from one place to another.

History has recorded an ever-increasing tendency for man to cluster, for one reason or
another, with his fellow man in compact living areas. This is undoubtedly a tread that
began well before written records documented this development. It has reached a point
where we speak of the present century as being the era of urban man and are
concerned with problems of population, transportation and living space, especially in
the sprawling megalopolis of both east and west coast. We have reached the point
where in the United States over 70 percent of the population is classified as urban.

The expanding Los Angeles metropolitan area is an early example of uncontrolled

urbanization. Urbanization is the physical growth of urban areas as a result of global change.
Urbanization is also defined by the United Nations as movement of people from rural to urban
areas with population growth equating to urban migration. The United Nations projected that
half of the world'
s population would live in urban areas at the end of 2008.

Behavior Science Unit-5 13 Prepared by: Sanjib Mishra, Lecture

Urbanization is closely linked to modernization, industrialization, and the sociological process
of rationalization.

Snap Shot
Widening income disparities
The distance between the richest and poorest countries was about 3 to 1 in 1820, 11 o 1 in
1913, 35 to 1 in 1950, 44 to 1 in 1973 and 72 to 1 in 1992. In 1997 it was roughly 727 to 1.

Urbanization Fact and Figures

• The Third World is moving to cities, while the developed world wants suburban space.
• Twenty-five year ago, less the 40 percent of the global population lived in urban areas;
in 2000 almost 50 percent will live in cities; for 2025 the projection is 60 percent.
• Of future urban dwellers, nearly 90 percent will be living in developing countries.
• Half a century ago, just 41 of the world’s 100 largest cities were in developing
countries. By 1995 the number had risen to 60. At the same time, industrial world is
spreading out.

Urbanization Extra Note: Movement

Percentage of population which is urbanized, by country, as of 2006.As more and more
people leave villages and farms to live in cities, urban growth results. The rapid growth of
cities like Chicago in the late 19th century and Shanghai a century later can be attributed
largely to people from rural communities migrating there. This kind of growth is especially
commonplace in developing countries.

The rapid urbanization of the world’s population over the twentieth century is described in the
2005 Revision of the UN World Urbanization Prospects report. The global proportion of
urban population rose dramatically from 13% (220 million) in 1900, to 29% (732 million) in
1950, to 49% (3.2 billion) in 2005. The same report projected that the figure is likely to rise to
60% (4.9 billion) by 2030. However, French economist Philippe Bocquier, writing in THE
FUTURIST magazine, has calculated that "the proportion of the world population living in
cities and towns in the year 2030 would be roughly 50%, substantially less than the 60%
forecast by the United Nations (UN), because the messiness of rapid urbanization is
unsustainable. Both Bocquier and the UN see more people flocking to cities, but Bocquier
sees many of them likely to leave upon discovering that there’s no work for them and no place
to live."

According to the UN State of the World Population 2007 report, sometime in the middle of
2007, the majority of people worldwide will be living in towns or cities, for the first time in
history; this is referred to as the arrival of the "Urban Millennium" or the '
tipping point'. In
regard to future trends, it is estimated 93% of urban growth will occur in developing nations,
with 80% of urban growth occurring in Asia and Africa.

Urbanization rates vary between countries. The United States and United Kingdom have a far
higher urbanization level than China, India, Swaziland or Niger, but a far slower annual
urbanization rate, since much less of the population is living in a rural area.

Behavior Science Unit-5 14 Prepared by: Sanjib Mishra, Lecture

Urbanization is not always attributed to high density. In Manila, the cost of living has forced
residents to live in low quality slums and shanty towns Urbanization occurs naturally from
individual and corporate efforts to reduce time and expense in commuting and transportation
while improving opportunities for jobs, education, housing, and transportation. Living in
cities permits individuals and families to take advantage of the opportunities of proximity,
diversity, and marketplace competition.

People move into cities to seek economic opportunities. In rural areas, often on small family
farms, it is difficult to improve one'
s standard of living beyond basic sustenance. Farm living
is dependent on unpredictable environmental conditions, and in times of drought, flood or
pestilence, survival becomes extremely problematic.

Cities, in contrast, are known to be places where money, services and wealth are centralised.
Cities are where fortunes are made and where social mobility is possible. Businesses, which
generate jobs and capital, are usually located in urban areas. Whether the source is trade or
tourism, it is also through the cities that foreign money flows into a country. It is easy to see
why someone living on a farm might wish to take their chance moving to the city and trying
to make enough money to send back home to their struggling family.

There are better basic services as well as other specialist services that aren' t found in rural
areas. There are more job opportunities and a greater variety of jobs. Health is another major
factor. People, especially the elderly are often forced to move to cities where there are doctors
and hospitals that can cater for their health needs. Other factors include a greater variety of
entertainment (restaurants, movie theaters, theme parks, etc) and a better quality of education,
namely universities. Due to their high populations, urban areas can also have much more
diverse social communities allowing others to find people like them when they might not be
able to in rural areas.

These conditions are heightened during times of change from a pre-industrial society to an
industrial one. It is at this time that many new commercial enterprises are made possible, thus
creating new jobs in cities. It is also a result of industrialization that farms become more
mechanized, putting many labourers out of work. This is currently occurring fastest in India.

Economic effects
As agriculture, more traditional local services, and small-scale industry give way to modern
industry the urban and related commerce with the city drawing on the resources of an ever-
widening area for its own sustenance and goods to be traded or processed into manufactures.

Research in urban ecology finds that larger cities provide more specialized goods and services
to the local market and surrounding areas, function as a transportation and wholesale hub for
smaller places, and accumulate more capital, financial service provision, and an educated
labor force, as well as often concentrating administrative functions for the area in which they
lie. This relation among places of different sizes is called the urban hierarchy.

Changing form of urbanization

Behavior Science Unit-5 15 Prepared by: Sanjib Mishra, Lecture

Massive urbanization in Delhi, India resulted in tremendous strain on the city'
s infrastructure.
The planned Dwarka Sub City can be seen in foreground while the unplanned and congested
residential areas of West Delhi are visible in the background. Different forms of urbanization
can be classified depending on the style of architecture and planning methods as well as
historic growth of areas.

Recent developments, such as inner-city redevelopment schemes, mean that new arrivals in
cities no longer necessarily settle in the centre. In some developed regions, the reverse effect,
originally called counter urbanization has occurred, with cities losing population to rural
areas, and is particularly common for richer families. This has been possible because of
improved communications, and has been caused by factors such as the fear of crime and poor
urban environments. Later termed "white flight", the effect is not restricted to cities with a
high ethnic minority population.

Conflict and Disintegration

The disruption that occurs in society is known as conflict and disintegration.

Family Pattern

Family is the first and most fundamental socialize of the individual. Conflict and
disorganization is primary unit of a society. The stability and cohesiveness of the family unit
may not be the prime factor in understanding the basis for maintenance of social bonds in
general. For example: In Stable marriages partners are psychologically secured and of similar
socioeconomic or religious background. Divorce rate is highest among those who lack these
qualifications, lower socioeconomic levels and who show a great diversity in religious and
other beliefs.

Environmental stresses on the family have their impact on its members in various ways. The
strength of the relationships between members of the family and the types of bonds between
them are the basic determiners of the outcome of individual actions under social and
economic stress. Conflict is arising when male breadwinner easily suffer in unemployment.
Crime is antisocial behavior that is learned and the family along with the peer group serves
the most important training.
Many researchers believe that the prime basis for delinquency lies in the breakup of the home
and unhappy home.

Community Conflict

Community conflict is arising in the industrial society and urban setting. Revolution is a good
example of community conflict. A basic set of conditions seems to be ground for the
germination of civil strife (conflict) and violence. Continuous frustrations to community
people bring the conflict. Social mobility also brings the conflict.
Discrimination and segregation are the end result of the prejudice that pears between majority
and minority groups. Discrimination always brings the conflict. Minority group are prone of

Crime and Delinquency

Behavior Science Unit-5 16 Prepared by: Sanjib Mishra, Lecture

Crime is behavior that violates the criminal law. Delinquency is similar activity by a juvenile.
This is behavior that deviates from official norms and is disruptive of the legal order. It is
social disorganization that should come to the attention of duly constituted agents of the state
and be acted on with the machinery available.

Crime Data
Scholars quote that true crime rate statistics are impossible to attain because figures are often
incomplete and biased. Male and teenager are more prone of crime.
Lower class and certain minority groups are more often in trouble with the law. More
delinquents and criminals come from broken homes and from urban areas.

Social Dynamics in Crime

Crime and delinquency have been identified above as being deviations from the official norms
of a society. The developing and continuing nonconformity to these group norms represents a
disorganization of social values and relationship.
Bonds of relationships between individuals are stronger for adding values of the group. Big
city are more encountered with violence than small city. Alienation of an individual or a
group from the values of the society reduces the ties that may have existed and makes social
conflict more likely.

Industrial Conflict
In industrial world many sources of conflict are found. Some are economic factors while other
is individual and social nature. Conflict may arise in different parties of dispute. 3 board
groups are involved – organizations of workers, management entities and the government.
The government generally monitors company activity and management performance.
Problems of antitrust, fair trade, and consumer protection are carry conflict in organization.
The union and management always face conflict and antagonist

Extra Note: Work-family conflict

Work-family conflict is “a form of inter role conflict in which the role pressures from the
work and family domains are mutually incompatible in some respect. That is participation in
the work (family) role is made more difficult by virtue of participation in the family (work)
role”. Conflict between work and family is important for organizations and individuals
because it is linked to negative consequences. For example, conflict between work and family
is associated with increased absenteeism, increased turnover, decreased performance, and
poorer physical and mental health...

Conceptually conflict between work and family is bi-directional. Most researchers make the
distinction between what is termed work-family conflict, and what is termed family-work
conflict. Work-to-family conflict occurs when experiences at work interfere with family life
like extensive, irregular, or inflexible work hours, work overload and other forms of job
stress, interpersonal conflict at work, extensive travel, career transitions, unsupportive
supervisor or organization.

Work can conflict with one’s home and family life. However, workaholism can lead to
adverse affects on one’s relationship with his or her partner. Workaholism is “an individual
difference characteristic referring to self-imposed demands, compulsive overworking, an

Behavior Science Unit-5 17 Prepared by: Sanjib Mishra, Lecture

inability to regulate work habits, and overindulgence in work to the exclusion of most other
life activities.”

Extra Note: Conflict

Conflict is actual or perceived opposition of needs, values and interests. A conflict can be
internal (within oneself) to individuals. Conflict as a concept can help explain many aspects of
social life such as social disagreement, conflicts of interests, and fights between individuals,
groups, or organizations. In political terms, "conflict" can refer to wars, revolutions or other
struggles, which may involve the use of force as in the term armed conflict. Without proper
social arrangement or resolution, conflicts in social settings can result in stress or tensions
among stakeholders. When an interpersonal conflict does occur, its effect is often broader
than two individuals involved, and can affect many associate individuals and relationships, in
more or less adverse, and sometimes even way.

Conflict as taught for graduate and professional work in conflict resolution (which can be
win-win, where both parties get what they want, win-lose where one party gets what they
want, or lose-lose where both parties don'
t get what they want) commonly has the definition:
"when two or more parties, with perceived incompatible goals, seek to undermine each other'
goal-seeking capability".

A clash of interests, values, actions or directions often sparks a conflict. Conflicts refer to the
existence of that clash. Psychologically, a conflict exists when the reduction of one motivating
stimulus involves an increase in another, so that a new adjustment is demanded. The word is
applicable from the instant that the clash occurs. Even when we say that there is a potential
conflict we are implying that there is already a conflict of direction even though a clash may
not yet have occurred.

Individual human societies may each define crime and crimes differently. While every crime
violates the law, not every violation of the law counts as a crime; for example: breaches of
contract and of other civil law may rank as "offences" or as "infractions".

Governing or administering agencies may for example codify rules into laws, police citizens
and visitors to ensure that they comply with those laws, and implement other policies and
practices designed[by whom?] to prevent crime. In addition, authorities provide remedies and
sanctions, and collectively these constitute a criminal justice system. Legal sanctions vary
widely in their severity; they may include (for example) incarceration of temporary character
aimed at reforming the convict.

The label of "crime" and the accompanying social stigma normally confine their scope to
those activities seen as injurious to the general population or to the State, including some that
cause serious loss or damage to individuals.

Behavior Science Unit-5 18 Prepared by: Sanjib Mishra, Lecture
The term is often used to refer to a juvenile who commits a minor criminal act—juvenile

In other cases, a delinquent is a person who fails to pay a debt or other financial obligation,
like a mortgage. Failure to cure a delinquent payment can result in repossession or
foreclosure. Accounts that are not current are also known as delinquent accounts.

Juvenile delinquency refers to children who act against the law. Most legal systems prescribe
specific procedures for dealing with juveniles, such as juvenile detention centers. There are a
multitude of different theories on the causes of crime, most if not all of which can be applied
to the causes of youth crime. Youth crime is a major issue and is an aspect of crime which
receives great attention from the news media and politicians. Crime committed by young
people has risen since the mid-twentieth century, as have most types of crime. The level and
types of youth crime can be used by commentators as an indicator of the general state of
morality and law and order in a country, and consequently youth crime can be the source of
‘moral panics’ Theories on the causes of youth crime can be viewed as particularly important
within criminology. This is firstly because crime is committed disproportionately by those
aged between fifteen and twenty-five. Secondly, by definition any theories on the causes of
crime will focus on youth crime, as adult criminals will have likely started offending when
they were young. Usually, a delinquent will do to someone else what has been done to them.
A Juvenile Delinquent is one who repeatedly commits crime. These juvenile delinquents
sometimes have mental disorders/behavioral issues such as post traumatic stress disorder or
bipolar disorder, and are sometimes diagnosed with conduct disorder partially as a result of
their delinquent behaviors.

Crime statistics
Several methods for measuring crime exist, including household surveys, hospital or
insurance records, and compilations by police and similar law enforcement agencies.
Typically official crime statistics are the latter, but some offences are likely to go unreported
to the police. Public surveys are sometimes conducted to estimate the amount of crime not
reported to police. Such surveys are usually more reliable for assessing trends. Public surveys
rarely encompass all crime, rarely procure statistics useful for local crime prevention, often
ignore offences against children, and do not count offenders brought before the criminal
justice system.

Crime statistics are gathered and reported by many countries and are of interest to several
international organizations, including Interpol and the United Nations. Law enforcement
agencies in some countries, such as the FBI in the United States and the Home Office in
England & Wales, publish crime indices, which are compilations of statistics for various types
of crime.

What is industrial conflict?

When disputes arise in the workplace, they may be because of the roistering schedule or more
serious matters, such as the inability of stakeholders to reach a settlement on the negotiation
of new wage agreements or things such as unfair dismissals of employees.

Behavior Science Unit-5 19 Prepared by: Sanjib Mishra, Lecture

Industrial conflict A term which refers to all expressions of dissatisfaction within the
employment relationship, especially those pertaining to the employment contract, and the
effort bargain. The many different kinds of industrial conflict may be divided into two broad
classes—informal and formal.

Informal industrial conflict is so labeled because it is not based on any systematic

organization, results directly from a sense of grievance, and supposedly is wholly expressive
in nature. Many forms of industrial sabotage which appear irrational would constitute
industrial conflict in this sense, as would purely individualized and even unconscious forms of
protest, including absenteeism, frequent job-changing, negligence, and even accidents at
work. Industrial sociologists have also regarded spontaneous walk-outs and strikes as
examples of informal industrial conflict, as well as the constant opposition to management
expressed in workgroup norms regulating output, restrictive practices, secrecy, or other
guarded treatment of superiors. The idea of informal industrial conflict thus draws attention to
the roots of behavior which may appear incomprehensible from the point of view of
management. Used too widely, however, it loses its vigor.

Formal industrial conflict is reserved for organized expressions of conflict articulated through
a trade-union or other worker representative. Its characteristic form is the organized strike:
that is, a withdrawal of labour such as to constitute a temporary breach of contract, using the
collective strength of the workforce to avoid sanctions and achieve adjustments to pay or
conditions of work. Strikes may be reinforced by other types of formal sanction such as the
go-slow and work to rule.

At one time there was much debate in industrial sociology about the term strike-proneness—
epitomizing the search for structural causes of industrial conflict. Though weak correlations
have been found with some of these factors, the frequency and incidence of strikes and similar
forms of unrest is so erratic that plenty of discrepant occurrences could be found.

Union and Management Relations

Union and management relations historically are based on mistrust, conflict of interest, and
ingrained adversarial attitudes. Surmounting this history and building a strong foundation of
trust are essential to achieving new levels of productivity and a competitive advantage.

Vanto's initiatives, tailored to specific union and management situations, bring about a
dramatic shift in how people work together to fulfill organizational goals. When people can
see themselves as an integral, vital part of an organization' s future, they are able to step
outside their separate, often adversarial roles and experience themselves as part of a team.
Union represents employees under a contract. In the organization there are many discontents,
controversy, or military in industrial scene. Harassment has brought more conflict.

The dynamics of Industrial Discord

The bases for conflict in the industrial area are conflict between labor and management.
Industries have face strikes and slowdowns. It brings frustration, aggression and apathy to
labor. Aggression brought frustration and eventually carries physical and verbal action.

Behavior Science Unit-5 20 Prepared by: Sanjib Mishra, Lecture

Conflict resolution is best practice for union-management disputes. Mediator, arbitrator or
third-party, consultant may be used for conflict resolution.

Summary of Chapter (Synopsis)

Behavior is a dynamic factor, not a static (constant). The basis for it lies in the learning by the
individual of the requirements of a social existence; the group influences are strong and long
lasting. Norms and values of the group get incorporated into the individual’s socialization in
his development as the result of the learning process.

Cultural and environmental factors shape individual and group responses which influence the
broad action pattern. Change is one of the most identifiable of the features of aggregate
activity. Cultural, attitudes and values have played an important role but these technological
developments play crucial role as well as by concomitant factors of migration and conflict.

Change in groups must be studied first in terms of the changes occurring on an individual
basis. Attitudes are fundamental in the functioning o individuals in society and developed
mainly in primary groups such as the family. Motivational and personality factors play role
changes agents are apt to be those who conforms lease to the constraints of the culture.

Patterns of response in social change include the compromises of accommodation or the

assimilation of diversity as in a melting pot. Negative reaction include alienation, the
tendency toward withdrawal, and deterioration of inter group contact. Isolation, the lack of
integration in a society, in further possible circumstance. The lack of group norms in the
individual is known as anomie.

Collective behavior, sometimes called mass behavior, includes the social and economic
phenomena of fads and fashions as well as the more highly changed crazes and booms. Social
movements on a broad scale and intended to change the status quo show more organization
and stability. The highly emotional and more immediate influence processes may be present
in the behavior of crowds; the aggressive behavior of a mob or the withdrawal as in panic may
be the resulting circumstance. Each pattern often is enhanced by the presence of rumor.

The base for collective behavior lies in the ambiguity (unclear) of the guidelines for decisions
in a new situation. This provides insecurity for individuals. Once responses are made in
highly changed social situation, to a spread of emotional contagion provides a firm, though
often illogical, basis for the action of an individual.

Future important activity in a society is seen in the movement of individual’s vertically

through the various socio-economically determined levels or horizontally from one type of
group to another. Studies of mobility through an individual’s lifetime indicate that extensive
rises in status do not occur as the traditional stereotype would indicate. More movement takes
place between generations, but the similarity in occupations of fathers and sons is even grater
than the difference. Industrial development provides the diversity threat aids mobility.
Education becomes an important contributor to movement when the mobility. Education
becomes an important contributor to movement when the requirements of a more complex
technology place a premium on new or greater skills.

Behavior Science Unit-5 21 Prepared by: Sanjib Mishra, Lecture

Demography, the study of population, provides a further basis for the discussion of social
dynamics, changes in population arising form variations in the birth rate or the drop in
morality with technological development can have profound social results. Age mix results
the problems in society.

Migration between countries or within provides behavioral ramification (effect, consequence).

Productive manpower attracted by developing economy can help expand the material and
social activity of the economy still further. Internal migration may have even more effect at
present. The decline of agriculture or its mechanization has caused an exodus (mass
migration) from the South to North. West in the United stated and from other cities. The
political and social disruptions in the process constitute one of the country’s most significant
problem areas.

Urbanization is nothing new; present patterns represent a persistence o historical trend. Cities
have grown because they provide diversified services to the inhabitants, but his same diversity
may have undesirable consequences in the conflicts it produces. The stimulation of a city may
also provide a threat for the insecure and increase alienation.
Conflict in a society ahs many of its roots in the primary units such as the family. Stability of
a martial unit is greatest at higher socioeconomic level and where the partners show similar
backgrounds. The effects of external stress on the family deepened on the attitude and
behavior with respect of the individual parents. Males with little authority or prestige in the
family unit show greatest deterioration and negative responses.

The competing elements in the community provide a basis for the emergence of conflict.
Frustrations in a rapidly changing set of inter group conditions provide an emotional basis for
conflict. Prejudice produces varied reactions; withdrawal or aggression and hostility may be
the result or there may be genuine growth and stability. Generally, however the social loss in
discrimination is extensive.
Criminal behavior is difficult to quantify as statistics of the reflect certain biases. Young
males are clearly the highest offenders, however. Lower socioeconomic status shows some
reaction shows some reaction to frequency of crime as well, though the figure misleading.
Crime is deviant behavior by those who have not internalized the norms and values of the
dominant society; either they have no norms or subscribe to the values of a deviant group.
Alienation of such individuals can be reduced by incorporation them into the main cultural

Industrial conflict involves various parties to the dispute-worker, management, and the
political body. Each of these entities may have their own internal conflict. The most visible
form of industrial conflict are strike –represents only a small part of the total discord.
Restriction of the output or other harassment abound (many). The bases for industrial conflict
lie in the fundamental factors in individual and social and individual behavior. Frustration,
aggression, and counter aggression have been well documented. Means of conflict resolution
must incorporate consideration of these dynamics.

Behavior Science Unit-5 22 Prepared by: Sanjib Mishra, Lecture