Study On

"Relationship between Aggressive Behavior of Children and Advertisements"





TABLE OF CONTENT CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2.1 2.2 2.3 3.1 3.2 Advertising Objectives of Advertising Functions of Advertising Classification of Advertising Purpose of the Study Objectives of the Study Research Methodology Relationship Between Aggressive Behavior Of Children And TV Ads Role of Child / Children on Purchase Decision under the Influence of Advertising

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Advertisement has become an integral part in today’s marketing scenario. In earlier times, advertisement was not given as much emphasis as it is being given today. The Institute of Practitioners in Advertising defines the term as: “advertising presents the most persuasive possible selling message to the right prospects for the product or service at the lowest possible cost”. Here we have a combination of creativity, marketing research & economic media buying. Advertising may cost a lot of money but that cost is justified if it works effectively and economically. CONCEPT The word advertising is a Latin word which means “to turn attention of people to a specific thing.” It is a paid publicity. According to Oxford Dictionary the word ‘to advertise’ means ‘to make generally or publicly known’, describe publicly with a view to increasing sales. Advertising is thus, a mass communication tool, which is essentially in paid form by a firm or an individual and the ultimate purpose of which is to give information, develop attitudes & induce action, which are useful to the advertiser. Advertising presents and upholds the ideas, commodities and services of a recognized advertiser, which provides as a communication link between the producer and the potential buyers. It gives the information to the would-be buyers who are interested in seeking the information about a product and the manufacturer. Advertising may be taken as the most efficient means of reaching people with product information. Advertising presents a mass persuasion apart from disseminating information to the prospective buyers about the product and the producer. While creating awareness and popularity, it seeks to persuade. It is a more effective and extensive and less expensive way of creating contacts.


Origin of advertising The origin of advertising does not lie in the modern industrial age, but it has its roots in the remote past. Thousands of years ago most people were engaged in hunting, farming, or handicraft related activities. They used to barter products among themselves. Distribution was limited to how far the vendor could walk and distribute, advertising was limited to how loud they could shout. Perhaps the earliest form of advertising was simply the trader shouting out the fact that he existed and naming what he had to sell in the local market place. As an instrument of marketing, advertising was an effective method through multiple sales reaching many people at one time. Then it had used the media as a tool. 1.2 OBJECTIVES OF ADVERTISING

The purpose of advertising is to sell something - a product, a service or an idea. The real objective of advertising is effective communication between goods and clients and increasing awareness. Advertising plays an important role in today’s competitive business world. It provides benefits to Manufacturers, Retailers, Customers, Salesman and Society as well. Following are the few primary objectives of advertising

Introduces a New Product: Advertising is used to introduce a new product in the market. It helps to compete with establish brands and, thereby, ensures the survival and success of new product.

Creates Demand for Product: Advertising creates demand for the product. Advertising spread information about the product or services and makes consumers aware about it through various mass media which makes positive effect on the mind of the people and create demand for the product.


Expand Market It helps in expanding local markets, to national level and even to international level. Trading at national and international level is impossible without advertising

Assists Personal Selling: Advertising reaches a prospect before a salesman could. The prospect is well-informed through advertising.

Building Brand Image: The purpose of repeat advertisings is to make people more brands conscious. Once good brand image is developed, buyers generally become brand loyal. Money spent on advertising is a long term investment to build brand and company image.

Reduces the cost of goods: Advertising generates more demand, which leads to large scale production and distribution. This results in economies in large scale which in turn reduces cost of goods.

Persuades prospects: Every competitor makes superior claims of his product. Therefore, a prospect needs to persuade to buy products. So, the role of Advertising is not only to inform but also to persuade.

Employment: Advertising provides employment in the field of advertising to copywriters, models, etc. It provides indirect employment in society due to large scale production and distribution.

1.3 FUNCTIONS A normal characteristic of advertising is to create primary demand for a product category rather than for a specific brand. It is believed that the product advertising must give stress on brand name. The functions of advertising are:

• • • • •

To distinguish products from their competitors: There are so many products in the market. Sometime the same types of products are competing in one market. To communicate product information: Through advertisement one company can send its product information to the target audiences. To urge product use: Advertisement can create the urge within us for a product. To expand product distribution: When the market demand of a particular product increases, the retailer and distributor are engaged in the sale of that product. To increase brand preference: There are various products with various bands. So we are getting the preference to choose the band of a particular product with the help of advertisement.

To reduce overall sale cost: Advertising increases the primary demand in the market. When demand is there and the product is available, automatically the overall price will decrease.



Advertising is the paid, non-personal communication of information about products or ideas by an identified sponsor through the mass media in an effort to manipulate customer behavior. Advertising is non-personal because it's a fantasy created by a computer that selects one part of the target audience. It communicates information about products or ideas. Advertising can be classified on the basis: • • • •

Function advertising Region advertising Target Market advertising Company demand advertising Desired response and Media advertising

Classification based on the functional aspect of advertising

Informative advertising

This type of advertising informs the customers about the products, services, or ideas of the firm or organization. Examples: Vishal Mega mart is offering 2 kg sugar for every Rs. 1,000/- purchase every day.

Persuasive advertising

This type of advertising persuades or motivates the prospective buyers to take quick actions to buy the products or services of the firm. Example: “Buy one, get one free”.

Reminder advertising

This genre of advertising reminds the existing customers to become medium or heavy users of the products or services of the firm that have been purchased by them at least once. This type of advertising exercise helps in keeping the brand name and uses of the products in the minds of the existing customers.

Negative advertising

This type of advertising dissuades target audience from purchasing such products and services which would not only harm them but also the society in general. Examples: Advertisements of various civic authorities against alcohol, tobacco, and narcotics.

Classification according to the region

Global advertising

It is executed by a firm in its global market niches. Reputed global magazines like Times, Far Eastern Economic Review, Span, Fortune, Futurist and Popular Science. Cable TV channels are also used to advertise the products throughout world. Supermodels and cinema stars are used to promote high-end products Examples: Sony, Philips, Pepsi, Coca Cola, etc.

National advertising

It is executed by a firm at the national level. It is done to increase the demand of its products and services throughout the country. Examples: BPL (Believe in the best). Whirlpool refrigerator (Fast Forward Ice Simple) etc.

Regional advertising

If the manufacturer confines his advertising to a single region of the country, its promotional exercise is called Regional Advertising. This can be done by the manufacturer, wholesaler, or retailer of the firm. Examples: Advertisements of regional newspapers covering those states or districts where these newspapers are circulated. Example: The Assam Tribune (only for the NE region) etc.

Local advertising

When advertising is done only for one area or city, it is called Local Advertising. Some professionals also call it Retail Advertising. It is sometime done by the retailer to persuade the customer to come to his store regularly and not for any particular brand. Examples: Advertisements of Ooo la la, Gupshup (Local FM channels) etc.

Classification based on target markets.

Consumer product advertising

This is done to impress the ultimate consumer. An ultimate consumer is a person who buys the product or service for his personal use. This type of advertising is done by the manufacturer or dealer of the product or service. Examples: Advertisements of Intel, Kuttons (shirt), Lakme (cosmetics) etc. • Industrial product advertising:

This is also called Business-to-Business Advertising. This is done by the industrial manufacturer or his distributor and is so designed that it increases the demand of industrial product or services manufactured by the manufacturer. It is directed towards the industrial customer.

Trade advertising

This is done by the manufacturer to persuade wholesalers and retailers to sell his goods. Different media are chosen by each manufacturer according to his product type, nature of distribution channel, and resources at his command. Hence, it is designed for those wholesalers and retailers who can promote and sell the product.

Professional advertising

This is executed by manufacturers and distributors to influence the professionals of a particular trade or business stream. These professionals recommend or prescribe the products of these manufacturers to the ultimate buyer. Manufacturers of these products try to reach these professionals under well-prepared programmes. Doctors, engineers, teachers, purchase professionals, civil contractors architects are the prime targets of such manufacturers.

Financial advertising

Banks, financial institutions, and corporate firms issue advertisements to collect funds from markets. They publish prospectuses and application forms and place them at those points where the prospective investors can easily spot them.
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Classification based on company demand
There are two types of demand, as follows:• Market Demand:

Advertising is the total volume that would be bought by a defined customer group, in a defined geographical area, in a defined time period, in a defined marketing environment under a defined marketing programme. • Company Demand:

It is the share of the company in the market demand. Accordingly, there are two types of advertising, as follows.

Primary demand advertising

It is also called Generic Advertising. This category of advertising is designed to increase the primary demand. This is done by trade associations or groups in the industry. Primary advertising is done by many companies at the same time, but there is no competition. The idea is to generate a continual demand for the product.

Selective demand advertising

This is done by a company or dealer to increase the company demand. The company would advertise its own brand only. The retailer can also advertise a particular brand. Examples: Titan wrist watch, Hero Honda bike, Sony television etc.

Classification based on desired responses
An ad can either elicit an immediate response from the target customer, or create a favorable image in the mind of that customer. The objectives, in both cases, are different. Thus, we have two types of advertising under this classification.
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Direct action advertising

This is done to get immediate responses from customers. Examples: Season's sale, purchase coupons in a magazine. • Indirect action advertising

This type of advertising exercise is carried out to make a positive effect on the mind of the reader or viewer. After getting the advertisement he does not rush to buy the product but he develops a favorable image of the brand in his mind. • Surrogate advertising

This is a new category of advertising. In this type of promotional effort, the marketer promotes a different product. For example: the promotion of Bagpiper soda. The firm is promoting Bagpiper Whisky, but intentionally shows soda. They know that the audience is quite well aware about the product and they know this fact when the actor states, "Khoob Jamega Rang Jab Mil Baithenge Teen Yaar ... Aap ... Main, Aur Bagpiper").

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Classification based on the media used for the advertisements

Audio advertising

It is done through radio, PA systems, auto-rickshaw, and four-wheeler promotions etc. • Visual advertising

It is done through PoP displays, without text catalogues, leaflets, cloth banners, brochures, electronic hoardings, simple hoardings, running hoardings etc. • Audio-visual

It is done through cinema slides, movies, video clips, TV advertisements, cable TV etc.

Written advertising

It is done through letters, fax messages, leaflets with text, brochures, articles and documents, space marketing features in newspapers etc.

Internet advertising

The World Wide Web is used extensively to promote products and services of all genres.

Verbal advertising

Verbal tools are used to advertise thoughts, products, and services during conferences, seminars, and group discussion sessions. Kinesics also plays an important role in this context.

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Advertising agencies are targeting children more, than in past and using them as tool of marketing. Specially, in the food ads are considered incomplete without the children. Estimates suggest that, children between the ages of 6 and 14 watches about 25 hours of television per week and are exposed to as many as 20,000 commercials in a single year (Leonhardt and Kerwin 1997)

This figure shows that children are being involved a lot in the media, which is why

advertisers are investing in children ads. French advertisers have spent as much as 150 million a year on advertising to children under age of 12 and this figure is rising, particularly for food advertising. (M.S. Shabbir, 2008) (2). Study will also try to explain in brief the effect of children on parent’s decision making. A research study suggests that “Repeatedly exposing children to certain factors (e.g., media violence), produces aggressive adults (Huesmann & Miller 1994) (3). This is why the study will also try to evaluate the ill effects of media on children such as aggressive or stubborn behavior.

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Every research has some objectives, reasons behind the study conducted. Objective of this study is to determine the affect of visual advertising on behavior of children, and other such advertising related variables. The objectives behind the project are as follows: • • • To check the relationship between aggressive or stubborn behavior of children and TV ads. To identify how a child or children can play a vital role in purchase decision / behavior under stimulation from an advertisement. To determine the primary source of exposure to advertisement for children and their preferred medium.

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The research methodology defines what the activity of research is, how to proceed, how to measure progress, and what constitutes success. It provides us an advancement of wealth of human knowledge, tools of the trade to carry out research, tools to look at things in life objectively; develops a critical and scientific attitude. The research methodology is a science that studying how research is done scientifically. It is the way to systematically solve the research problem by logically adopting various steps. Also it defines the way in which the data are collected in a research project. Following research methodology was adopted for the accomplishment of the assigned objectives 2.3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN • Descriptive research design was adopted for the study.


Primary data: Primary data was collected through a survey of various parents with kids between age 7 to 18 in West Delhi. The data was collected for getting firsthand information about various factors that are essential to accomplish the assigned objectives.

Secondary data: Extensive literature review is done using various journals and articles published on internet.

2.3.3 AREA OF STUDY • West Delhi region was undertaken for the research purpose

2.3.4 SAMPLING PLAN Sampling refers to the method of selecting a sample from a given universe with a view to draw conclusions about that universe. A sample is a representative of the universe selected for study.
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SAMPLING TECHNIQUE Random sampling technique was used to identify parents with kids between the ages 7 to 18.

SAMPLE SIZE A sample size of 50 parents was used for the research.



Quantitative Data was collected through a questionnaire from all the parents. 2.3.6 LIMITATIONS • • • Time was a limiting factor for the study Cost and coverage of survey area The responses given by respondents were not always accurate because the respondents gave the response according to their understanding.

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3.1 Relationship Between Aggressive Behavior Of Children And TV Ads
Aggression - “Human aggression is any conduct aimed at another individual with the immediate goal to cause harm. It is important to also note that the person responsible for the aggression must believe that the action will injure the target, and that the target is provoked to steer clear of the action.” Anderson & Bushman (2002) Aggression can be divided into two category schemes • Hostile Aggression - Hostile aggression, in the past, has been considered as being spontaneous, thoughtless motivated by anger, having the definitive motive of harming the target, and taking place as a response to some apparent aggravation. It is occasionally called affective, impulsive, or reactive aggression. • Instrumental Aggression - It is a deliberate means of attaining some target other than hurting the victim, and being proactive rather than reactive. Behaviors like aggression can be learned by watching and imitating the behavior of others. A considerable amount of evidence suggests that watching violence on television increases the likelihood of short-term aggression in children (Aronson, Wilson, & Akert, 2005) (4). Individuals may differ in how they respond to violence. The greatest impact is on those who are already prone to violent behavior. Adults may be influenced by violence in media as well. A long-term study of over 700 families found "a significant association" between the amount of time spent watching violent television as a teenager and the likelihood of committing acts of aggression later in life.

Domain specific theories of aggression
Three main theories of aggression guide most current research. The theories themselves overlap considerably, which is what instigated early attempts to integrate them into a broader framework (Anderson et al. 1995, 1996a) (5).

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Cognitive Neoassociation Theory Aversive events such as frustrations, provocations, loud noises, uncomfortable temperatures, and unpleasant odors produce negative affect. These negative effects are often generated through action/violent content in fast paced advertising. Negative affect produced by unpleasant experiences automatically stimulates various thoughts, memories, expressive motor reactions, and physiological responses associated with both fight and flight tendencies. The fight associations give rise to rudimentary feelings of anger and fear. Furthermore, cognitive neoassociation theory assumes that cues present during an aversive event become associated with the event and with the cognitive and emotional responses triggered by the event. In cognitive neoassociation theory, aggressive thoughts, emotions, and behavioral tendencies are linked together in memory (Collins & Loftus 1975)

. Cognitive neoassociation theory also

includes higher-order cognitive processes, such as appraisals and attributions. If people are motivated to do so, they might think about how they feel, make causal attributions for what led them to feel this way, and consider the consequences of acting on their feelings. Such deliberate thought produces more clearly differentiated feelings of anger, fear, or both. It can also suppress or enhance the action tendencies associated with these feelings. This model is particularly suited to explain hostile aggression, but the same priming and spreading activation processes are also relevant to other types of aggression. Social Learning Theory According to social learning theories (Bandura 1983, 2001; Mischel 1973, 1999; Mischel & Shoda 1995)

, people acquire aggressive responses the same way they acquire other complex

forms of social behavior--either by direct experience or by observing others. Social learning theory explains the acquisition of aggressive behaviors, via observational learning processes, and provides a useful set of concepts for understanding and describing the beliefs and expectations that guide social behavior. Social learning theory--especially key concepts regarding the
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development and change of expectations and how one construes the social world--is particularly useful in understanding the acquisition of aggressive behaviors and in explaining instrumental aggression. Script Theory Huesmann (1986, 1998) (8) proposed that when children observe violence in the mass media, they learn aggressive scripts. Scripts define situations and guide behavior: The person first selects a script to represent the situation and then assumes a role in the script. Once a script has been learned, it may be retrieved at some later time and used as a guide for behavior. This approach can be seen as a more specific and detailed account of social learning processes. Scripts are sets of particularly well-rehearsed, highly associated concepts in memory, often involving causal links, goals, and action plans (Abelson 1981, Schank & Abelson 1977)


When items are so strongly linked that they form a script, they become a unitary concept in semantic memory. Furthermore, even a few script rehearsals can change a person's expectations and intentions involving important social behaviors (Anderson 1983, Anderson & Godfrey 1987, Marsh et al. 1998)

. A frequently rehearsed script gains accessibility strength in two ways.

Multiple rehearsals create additional links to other concepts in memory, thus increasing the number of paths by which it can be activated. Multiple rehearsals also increase the strength of the links themselves. Thus, a child who has witnessed several thousand instances of using a gun to settle a dispute on television is likely to have a very accessible script that has generalized across many situations. In other words, the script becomes chronically accessible. This theory is particularly useful in accounting for the generalization of social learning processes and the atomization (and simplification) of complex perception-judgment-decision-behavioral processes.

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The General Aggression Model
A Heap of Stones is Not a House “Science is built up with fact, as a house is with stone. But a collection of fact is no more a science than a heap of stones is a house.” Jules Henri Poincar´e

Poincar´e’s analogy fits the scientific study of aggression. The several current domain-specific theories are the important stones awaiting blueprints, mortar, and a construction crew to build the much more useful house, a general theory of human aggression. General aggression model (GAM) framework was designed to integrate existing mini-theories of aggression into a unified whole. This general model has at least four advantages over smaller domain theories. 1. It is more comprehensive than the set of existing mini-theories. 2. It better explains aggressive acts that are based on multiple motives, e.g., both instrumental and affect-based aggression (Bushman & Anderson 2001) (11). 3. It aids in the development of more comprehensive interventions designed to treat individuals who are chronically aggressive; many current treatment attempts fail because they focus on only one specific type of aggression or use only one mini-theoretical approach to treatment (Tate et al. 1995) (12). 4. It provides broader insights about child rearing and development issues, thus enabling parents, teachers, and public policy makers to make better decisions about child-rearing practices (Zigler et al. 1992) (13). GAM provides a useful integrative framework for domain specific theories of aggression, transforming a heap of stones into a house. It focuses on the “person in the situation,” called an episode, consisting of one cycle of an ongoing social interaction. Figure 1 presents a simplified version of the main focus of the model. The three main foci concern (a) Person and situation inputs

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(b) Cognitive, affective, and arousal routes through which these input variables have their impact (c) Outcomes of the underlying appraisal and decision processes.

Figure 1: The General Aggression Model

I. Inputs
Aggression research focuses on discovering what biological, environmental, psychological, and social factors influence aggressive behavior, and on how to use these discoveries to reduce unwarranted aggression. These factors can be categorized as features of the situation or as features of the person in the situation. The following is the list of personological and situational input variables 1. Person Factors Person factors include all the characteristics a person brings to the situation, such as personality traits, attitudes, and genetic predispositions. Stable person factors are those that display consistency across time, across situations, or across both. This consistency is largely the result of the person’s consistent use of schemata, scripts, and other knowledge structures (Mischel 1999, Mischel & Shoda 1995) (14). Following is the list of a few person factors.
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a. Traits - Certain traits predispose individuals to high levels of aggression. One recent breakthrough, for example, a type of high self-esteem (and not low self-esteem) produces high aggression. Specifically, individuals with inflated or unstable self-esteem (narcissists) are prone to anger and are highly aggressive when their high self-image is threatened (Baumeister et al. 1996, Bushman & Baumeister 1998, Kernis et al. 1989) (15). b. Sex - Males and females differ in aggressive tendencies, especially in the most violent behaviors of homicide and aggravated assault. The ratio of male to female murderers in the United States is about 10:1 (FBI 1951–1999)

. Laboratory studies often show the

same type of sex effect, but provocation dramatically reduces sex differences in physical aggression, and specific types of provocation differentially affect male and female aggression (Bettencourt & Miller 1996) aggression. c. Beliefs - Many types of beliefs play a role in preparedness to aggress. Efficacy related beliefs are particularly important (e.g., Bandura 1977) (18). Those who believe that they can successfully carry out specific aggressive acts (self-efficacy) and that these acts will produce the desired outcomes (outcome efficacy) are much more likely to select aggressive behaviors than those who are not so confident of the efficacy of aggressive acts. Aggression-related beliefs significantly predict future levels of aggressive behavior (Huesmann & Guerra 1997) (19). The source of such beliefs in children is often the family (Patterson et al. 1989, 1992) (20) and exposure to media (Children, adolescents, and the media, 2004) (21). d. Attitudes - Attitudes are general evaluations people hold about themselves, other people, objects, and issues. Positive attitudes towards violence in general also prepare certain individuals for aggression. e. Values - Beliefs about what one should or ought to do—also play a role in aggression preparedness. For many people, violence is a perfectly acceptable method of dealing with interpersonal conflict, perhaps even a preferred method. f. Long-Term Goals - Long-term, abstract goals also influence the preparedness of the individual for aggression. For example, the overriding goal of some gang members is to
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. The preferred types of aggression also differ

for males and females. Males prefer direct aggression, whereas females prefer indirect

be respected and feared (Horowitz & Schwartz 1974, Klein & Maxson) aggression.


similarly, a

personal life goal of obtaining wealth can increase one’s preparedness for instrumental g. Scripts - The interpretational and behavioral scripts a person brings to social situations influences that person’s preparedness for aggression (Huesmann 1988, 1998) (23). Scripts are composed of many of the preceding elements. 2. Situational Factors Situational factors include any important features of the situation, such as presence of a provocation or an aggressive cue. Like the person factors, situational factors influence aggression by influencing cognition, affect, and arousal. a. Aggressive Cues - Aggressive cues are objects that prime aggression-related concepts in memory. For instance, Berkowitz & LePage (1967) (24) found that the mere presence of guns (versus badminton racquets and shuttlecocks) increased the aggressive behavior of angered research participants (see Carlson et al. 1990 for a meta-analytic confirmation of this phenomenon). More recently, our understanding of the weapons effect has been enhanced by the discovery that weapon pictures and words automatically prime aggressive thoughts (CA Anderson et al. 1998) (25). b. Provocation - Perhaps the most important single cause of human aggression is interpersonal provocation (Berkowitz 1993, Geen 2001) (26). Provocations include insults, slights, and other forms of verbal aggression, physical aggression, and interference with one’s attempts to attain an important goal, and so on. One emerging line of research concerns workplace violence, aggression, and bullying (Cowie et al. 2001, Folger & Baron 1996) (27). c. Frustration - Frustration can be defined as the blockage of goal attainment. Most provocations can be seen as a type of frustration in which a person has been identified as the agent responsible for the failure to attain the goal. Even frustrations that are fully justified have been shown to increase aggression against the frustrating agent (e.g., Dill & Anderson 1995) (28) and against a person who was not responsible for the failure to attain the goal (e.g., Geen 1968) (29).

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d. Pain And Discomfort - Other research has shown that even nonsocial aversive conditions (e.g., hot temperatures, loud noises, unpleasant odors) increase aggression (Berkowitz 1993) (30). Acute aversive conditions, such as pain produced by immersing a hand in a bucket of ice water, increase aggression (e.g., Berkowitz et al. 1981)


General discomfort, such as that produced by sitting in a hot room, can also increase aggression; this effect appears to be mediated primarily by increasing negative affect, though there may be cognitive and arousal processes at work too (Anderson et al. 2000)


e. Drugs - Various drugs such as alcohol and caffeine can also increase aggression (Bushman 1993) (1997)

. These effects appear to be indirect rather than direct; Bushman

found that aggression-facilitating factors (e.g., provocation, frustration,

aggressive cues) have a much stronger effect on people who are under the influence of drugs than on people who are not. II. ROUTES Input variables influence the final outcome behavior through the present internal state that they create. For instance, trait hostility and exposure to violent movie scenes interactively influence accessibility of aggressive thoughts (Anderson 1997) (35), aggressive affect (Bushman 1995) (36), and aggressive behavior (Bushman 1995) cognition, affect, and arousal. 1. Cognition relative accessibility of aggressive concepts in memory. Frequent activation of a concept results in its becoming chronically accessible, whereas an immediate situational activation results in making the concept accessible for a short time (e.g., Bargh et al. 1988; Sedikides & Skowronski 1990) (38). The temporary increase in the accessibility is often called priming. A host of factors, such as media violence, can prime aggressive thoughts (e.g., Anderson & Dill 2000, Bushman 1998) (39). b. Scripts - Huesmann (1998) (40) has described in detail the basic processes underlying the development of highly accessible aggressive scripts. Similarly, the hostile attribution
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. The internal states of most interest concern

a. Hostile Thoughts - Some input variables influence aggressive behavior by increasing the

biases characteristic of aggressive children can be seen as instances of hostility-related scripts (Crick & Dodge 1994, Dodge & Coie 1987) (41). 2. Affect for later effects on aggressive behavior. For example, pain increases state hostility or anger (Berkowitz 1993, K.B. Anderson et al. 1998)

a. Mood And Emotion - Input variables can also directly influence affect, setting the stage . Uncomfortable temperatures

produce a small increase in general negative affect and a larger increase in aggressive affect. Exposure to violent movie clips also increases hostile feelings (Hansen & Hansen 1990) (43). Many personality variables are related to hostility-related affect. For example, trait hostility as measured by self-report scales is positively related to state hostility (Anderson 1997, K.B. Anderson et al. 1998) (44). 3. Arousal - can influence aggression in three ways. tendency, including aggressive tendencies. If a person is provoked or otherwise instigated to aggress at the time that increased arousal occurs, heightened aggression can result (Geen & O’Neal 1969) (45). b. Arousal elicited by irrelevant sources (e.g., exercise) can be mislabeled as anger in situations involving provocation, thus producing anger motivated aggressive behavior. This mislabeling process has been demonstrated in several studies by Zillmann, who has named it excitation transfer. Excitation transfer theory suggests that this type of arousal effect may persist over a long period. Even after the arousal has dissipated, the individual may remain potentially aggressive for as long as the self-generated label of “angry” persists. c. A third, and as yet untested, possibility is that unusually high and low levels of arousal may be aversive states, and may therefore stimulate aggression in the same way as other aversive or painful stimuli. A large number of situational variables influence both physiological and psychological arousal. Exercise increases both, whereas alcohol decreases both. Interestingly, changes in physiological and psychological arousal do not always coincide. Hot temperatures increase heart rate while a. Arousal from an irrelevant source can energize or strengthen the dominant action

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simultaneously decreasing perceived arousal. This suggests that heat might increase aggression through the arousal route (Anderson et al. 2000) (46). Interconnections As shown in Figure 1, the contents of these three routes are highly interconnected. That cognitions and arousal influence affect is an idea that goes back several generations, through Schachter & Singer (1962) and William James (1890). Research has shown that people often use their affective state to guide inference and judgment processes (Schwarz & Clore 1996) (47). At a theoretical level, one can view affect as a part of semantic memory that can be primed via spreading activation processes. Thus, hostile cognitions might make hostile feelings more accessible, and vice versa. III. OUTCOMES The third focus, on outcomes, includes several complex information processes, ranging from the relatively automatic to the heavily controlled (e.g., Smith & Lazarus 1993)

. As shown in

Figure 1, results from the inputs enter into the appraisal and decision processes through their effects on cognition, affect, and arousal. In Figure 2 the more automatic processes are labeled “immediate appraisal,” whereas the more controlled processes are labeled “reappraisal.”

Figure 2: Appraisal & Decision Process

The outcomes of these decision processes themselves determine the final action of the episode. The final outcomes then cycle through the social encounter to become part of the inputs for the
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next episode, as depicted in Figure 1. The appraisal and decision processes depicted in Figure 2 are taken from research on spontaneous inferences (Krull & Dill 1996) (49) and on explanation and attribution processes (Anderson et al. 1996) (50). Immediate appraisal is automatic, i.e., relatively effortless, spontaneous, and occurring without awareness. Depending on the circumstances, immediate appraisal may produce either an automatic trait or situational inference. For example, if a person (target) has been thinking aggressive thoughts and is bumped by another person (actor), the target is likely to perceive the bump as an aggressive act by the actor. However, if the target has been thinking about how crowded the room is, the same bump is likely to be immediately perceived as an accidental consequence of the crowded situation. The present internal state determines, to a great extent, which type of automatic inference is generated. And of course, both person and situation factors determine the present internal state. Thus, Crick & Dodge’s hostile-attribution-bias children bring to the situation a readiness to see intentional affronts where none exists. Immediate appraisals include affective, goal, and intention information. An aggressive appraisal may include anger-related affect, a retaliation goal, and a specific intention to carry out that goal. However, the exact response will differ considerably from person to person, depending on the person’s social learning history (i.e., their personality) and present state of mind (i.e., which knowledge structures are currently most accessible). What happens after immediate appraisal depends on other resources. If the person has sufficient resources (time, cognitive capacity) and if the immediate appraisal outcome is both important and unsatisfying, then the person will engage a more effortful set of reappraisals. Otherwise, impulsive action results, action that may be aggressive or nonaggressive depending on the content of the immediate appraisal. Reappraisal involves searching for an alternative view of the situation. It can include a search for relevant information about the cause of the event, a search for relevant memories, and a search for features of the present situation. Reappraisal may include numerous cycles as alternatives are considered and discarded. At some point the recycling process ceases and a thoughtful course of action occurs. If reappraisal leads the person to believe that the bump was an intentionally harmful act, the person may well respond with a thoughtful aggressive action, which may be coldly calculating or may still have hot affective characteristics. Indeed, the reappraisal can increase the level of anger as past wrongs are dredged up from memory or as the damage to one’s social image becomes more apparent. Note that the “present
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internal state” is affected by both types of appraisal, indicated by the double-headed arrow in Figure 2.

Affect of commercial advertising on children Advertising can affect cultural values. Some advertising messages, encourage aggressive individualism, which may clash with the traditional cultural values of a country where the collective or group is emphasized over the individual or humility or modesty is preferred to aggressiveness. For Example, Alcohol and tobacco companies have seemingly targeted low-income minority communities with a heavy preponderance of outdoor advertising for their products. These advertisements when shown to children would definitely affect the behavior. With the increase in viewing time and the trend towards more violence on TV, researchers need to revise that statistic upwards. Contrary to public perception, cartoons are some of the most violent programs on TV. Cartoon violence is especially pernicious, because it trivializes the violence, often making it humorous. For example, after one of his numerous attempts to kill the Roadrunner, Wile E. Coyote plummets to the ground. He gets up, and his body starts wiggling up and down like an accordion. It looks funny, but it teaches children that violence is not serious. It also teaches them that violence does not have serious, genuine consequences. Granted most children will not grow up to be murderers and criminals. Nonetheless, according to the American Psychological Association, they may: • Become less sensitive to the pain and suffering of others • Be more fearful of the world around them • Behave in aggressive or harmful ways toward others • Be less likely to see anything wrong with violence
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Watching violent ads on TV may also have serious, long‐term consequences. According to a long‐term study by Dr. Leonard D. Eron, watching television violence at age 8 was the strongest predictor of aggression 22 years later‐‐stronger even than exhibiting violent behavior as children. The groundbreaking study statistically controlled for initial aggressiveness, intelligence, and social class. A later study of students from the first through the fourth grade reached similar frightening conclusions. Men, who were heavy viewers of violent TV ads as children, were twice as likely as males, who were light viewers of violent TV, to push, grab, or shove their spouses and three times as likely to be convicted of criminal behavior by the time they were in their early 20s. Women, who were heavy viewers of violent programs as children, were more than twice as likely to have thrown something at their partner and more than four times as likely to have punched, beaten, or choked another adult.

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3.2 Role of Child / Children on Purchase Decision under the Influence of
Advertising Using Kids / Children

Children Influence Stimulated By Advertising


Idea Generator

Price Influence

Experience Influence

Taste Influence

Consumption Process Consumptio n


General Decision

Choice Decision

Purcha se Act

Experience Formation

He alth Influe nce

Info rm ation Co lle cto r

Co nvenienc e Influe n ce

Reinforcement Figure Purchase Decision Based on Child’s /4.3.1 Children’ Influence + Personal Discretion + Societal Influence
Figure 3: Role of Children in Purchase Behavior of Parents 33 | P a g e

The amount of influence exerted by children varies by product category and stage of the decision making process. For certain products they are instrumental in initiating a purchase, while for others, they make the final selections themselves. The purchasing act is governed by how they have been socialized to act as consumers. Family, peers and media are key socializing agents for children wherein family-specific characteristics such as parental style, family's Sex Role Orientation (SRO), and patterns of communication play key roles. The structure of Indian families has been previously characterized as joint families with traditional SRO (that is, the husband predominated in all family affairs). However, owing to influences from the West, the structure of Indian families has changed to nuclear or extended families (nuclear families plus grandparents). The Indian families have become more modern in SRO, such that the decision making has become more egalitarian. Compared to this, the West is experiencing an increase in the number of single parent or femaleheaded households. Such a shift in family composition and structure has a bearing on the strength in the role that children are expected to play as buyers in the family. Children enjoy greater discretion not only in making routine consumption decisions for the family but also in pestering their parents to buy other products desired by them. Contemporary researchers express that children constitute a major consumer market, with direct purchasing power for snacks and sweets, and indirect purchase influence while shopping for big-ticket items (Halan, 2002; Singh, 1998)

. Indian children have recently attracted considerable attention

from marketers because the market for children's products offers tremendous potential (pegged at Rs. 5000 crore/$1110mn) and is rapidly growing. According to available industry data, the chocolate and confectionary market is estimated at Rs. 1300 crore/$290mn, the apparel market at Rs. 480 crore/$110mn and kids footwear at Rs. 1000 crore/$220mn (Bhushan, 2002) addition to this, 54% of India is estimated to be under the age of 25 (Bansal, 2004) (53). Children constitute three different markets: the primary, the influencer, and the future market (Figure 3). Certain products are simply children's products for which they are the primary users/buyers. They sometimes either purchase a product themselves or select the product before
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. In

it is purchased by the parents. For other products, such as ones which are used by the entire family unit, they may influence purchases made by the parents. There are some products where children wield direct influence or pester power by overtly specifying their preferences and voicing them aloud. For other products, parents' buying patterns are affected by prior knowledge of the tastes and preferences of their children. This 'passive dictation' of choice is prevalent for a wide variety of daily consumed product items as well as products for household consumption. Also, decision making in households is seen to change with the mere presence of children. The nature of joint decisions in couple decision making units and family decision making units is seen to be different (Filiatrault and Ritchie, 1980)

. It is also observed that children are

socialized by their parents to act as rational consumers. After years of direct or indirect observation of parental behavior in the marketplace, they gradually acquire relevant consumer skills from their parents A greater access to pocket money and a bigger say in purchase decisions has resulted in children being more informative and demanding. Impulse category brands are always being evaluated. The need for something new, something novel makes them experimenting on the retail front and keeps marketers on their toes, trying hard to keep their brands in the top-of-mind-recall at all days of the week and all times of the day.

Example: Suppose a family wants to buy a new personal computer than they may definitely take the opinion of their children/child. The child may help his parents by telling them about the features, best brand and other important facts.

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4.1 What is your child's primary source of information regarding new products and services? Answers Television Newspapers Magazines Internet Peers (Family / Friends) No. of respondents 26 5 5 11 3

PIE 5.1


A large size of population is influenced by Television and Internet.

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4.2 Which form of advertisement does your child prefer?

Answers Still ads Moving ads

No. of respondents 9 41



Audio visual ads have a greater impact on children.

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4.3 Do you consult your child before making a major purchase decision?

Answers Yes No

No. of respondents 36 13


Interpretation: 73% parents consult with their children before purchasing a product.

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4.4 Does information provided in advertisement affects your child’s opinion about the product?

Answers Yes No

No. of respondents 43 7

PIE CHART 5.4 Interpretation: 86% of parents are of the view that information provided in the advertisement helps a child frame up a positive perception about the product.

4.5 Does your child pursue you to purchase products by getting influenced by advertisements?

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Answers Yes No

No. of respondents 45 5

PIE CHART 5.5 Interpretation: Most of the children pursue their parents to purchase products by getting influenced by the advertisements.

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4.6 Do you think advertisements make children more aggressive or stubborn in their behavior?

Answers Yes No

No. of respondents 37 13

PIE CHART 5.6 Interpretation: 74% parents are of the view that children get influenced by watching certain ads which may be reflected on their behavior.

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 Advertisements having aggressive content, if seen frequently, are absorbed by children and used later on as primary response to a similar episode in real life.  Advertisements affect the behavior of children in two ways o Acts as information provider o Sublimely alters long term behavior patterns  Children pursue their parents to purchase products after getting influenced by the advertisements.  Parents consult with their children before purchasing a product.  Television is the primary source of information regarding new products and services, followed by internet.

 Advertisements with moving ads are more effective than advertisement with still ads.  Information in advertisements, graphical or vocal, helps in forming a child’s perception about the product.

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After concrete review of past research data, it can be concluded that, advertising on television has a considerable affect on upbringing of children. Frequent exposure to aggressive/violent content on television can be absorbed very rapidly by them through sublimal learning. It can also be concluded that children affect purchasing behavior in family by performing three kinds of roles, listed as following: 1. Primary Consumer 2. The Influencer 3. Future Consumer Advertising acts as the information provider, thus affecting knowledge process of children. Children in India may not have the purchasing power comparable to their Western counterparts, but they are still the center of the universe in the Indian family system, and they can actually pull the parents to visit a place time and again. Children are an enormously powerful medium for relationship building in India. They not only influence markets in terms of the parental decisionmaking to buy certain kinds of products, they are also future consumers. Hence more investigation of children's roles in family decision making is imperative.

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 Advertisement should be made keeping in mind the factors that influence/attracts

children. This is a must in case of products exclusively for children.  Advertisement should be according to the product and its suitability with different age groups.

 Advertisers should try to refrain from showing activities inflicting aggressive behavior.  Parents should try to divert their child’s attention from advertisements that may negatively affect their behavior.

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Bhushan, 2002 Bansal, 2004 Filiatrault and Ritchie, 1980

Websites • http//, Advertising – B. N. Ahuja, Surjeet, New Delhi

http//, children's Understanding of TV advertising effect on age and parental influence.pdf file by Tammo H.A. Bijmolt’Wilma Claassen http//www.slideshare.com

• • • •

• Books •

Kotler. Philip : Marketing Management 12th edition, Prentice-Hall India Pvt Ltd New Delhi

Kanuk Leslie, Schiffman Leon: Consumer behavior 9th edition, Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt Ltd.

S.L.Gupta, V.V.Ratra: Advertising and Sales Promotion Management
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Name Name Designation Designation Address Address Contact No. Contact No. ____________________________________ _______________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________


What is your child's primary source of information regarding new products and services? a. Television b. Newspapers c. Magazines d. Internet e. Peers (friends/family) [ [ [ [ [ ] ] ] ] ]


Which form of advertisement does your child prefer? a. Still ads (Magazines / Newspapers) b. Moving ads (Television / Internet) [ [ ] ]

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Do you consult your child before making a major purchase decision? a. Yes b. No [ [ ] ]


Does information provided in advertisement affects your child’s opinion about the product? a. Yes b. No [ [ ] ]


Does your child pursue you to purchase products by getting influenced by advertisements?
a. Yes b. No [ [ ] ]


Do you think advertisements make children more aggressive or stubborn in their behavior?
a. Yes b. No If yes, why __________________________________________________________________

[ [

] ]

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