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PNUEMATIC

VICE

A PROJECT
REPORT
ON

PROJECT GROUP:

"PNEUMATI
(1) Amit G. Korat
C VICE"
Harshil R.
(2) Thakkar

B.S.
(3) Tahir J. Saiyad
PATEL
Satish A.
(4) Miyani
POLYT
Vishal M.
ECHNI
(5) Purohit
C,
KHERV
Internal Guide: - H. M. Shah
A
B.S.P.P 2014-2015

12644031904
6
12644031904
0
12644031906
3
11644031904
0
12466031904
8
H.O.D.:- Mr. K. P. Patel

Page 1

PNUEMATIC
VICE
ment No: -

12644031
9046

has

completed
Part-I

UDP

CERTIFICATE
Project
work having
title
Pneumatic
Th
vice.
is
is
He
has
to
undergone
ce
the process
rti of
shodh
fy yatra,
th literature
at survey and
M problem
r. definition.
A He
is
m supposed to
it carry
out
G. the residue
K UDP Part-II
on
or work
at same
haproblem
vi during
n Semester-VI
g for the final
E fulfillment
nr of the UDP
ol work which

is
pr
er
eq
ui Guide
sit UDP Head
e of
Departmen
to t
co Mr. H.M.
m Shah Mr. K.P.
pl Patel
et
e
Di
pl
o
m
a
E
n
gi
ne
er
B.S.P.P 2014in 2015 Page 2
g.

PNUEMATIC
VICE
ng

Enrolment
No:

12644031
9040
has
CERTIFICATE
completed
Part-I

UDP

Project
Thwork having
is title
is Pneumatic
to vice.
ce
rti He

has
fy undergone
th the process
shodh
at of
M yatra,
r. literature
H survey and
ar problem
s definition.
is
hi He
l supposed to
out
R. carry
T the residue
UDP Part-II
h
work
on
a
same
k
problem
k
during
ar
Semester-VI
ha
for the final
vi
fulfillment

of g.
th
e
U
D
P Guide
w UDP Head
or of
Departmen
k t
w Mr. H.M.
hi Shah Mr. K.P.
ch Patel
is
pr
er
eq
ui
sit
e
to
co
m
pl
et
e B.S.P.P 2014Di 2015 Page 3
pl
o
m
a
E
n
gi
ne
er
in

PNUEMATIC
VICE
o:
12644031
9063
has
completed
Part-I UDP
Project
CERTIFICATE
work having
title
Pneumatic
vice.
Th
is He
has
is undergone
to the process
ce of
shodh
rti yatra,
fy literature
th survey and
at problem
M definition.
is
r. He
Tasupposed to
out
hi carry
r the residue
J. UDP Part- II
on
S work
ai same
y problem
during
a
Semester-VI
d
for the final
ha
fulfillment
vi
of the UDP
n work which
g is
E prerequisite
nr to complete
ol Diploma
m Engineering
en.
t
N

. H.M. Shah
Mr. K.P.
G Patel
ui
d
e

U
D
P
H
e
a
d
of
D
e
p
ar
t
m
e
nt
MrB.S.P.P 20142015 Page 4

PNUEMATIC
VICE
nrolment

No:

11644031
9040

has

completed
CERTIFICATE
Part-I UDP
Project
work having
Thtitle
is Pneumatic
is vice.
to
ce He

has
rti undergone
fy the process
shodh
th of
at yatra,
M literature
r. survey and
S problem
at definition.
is
is He
h supposed to
out
A. carry
M the residue
UDP Part-II
iy
work
on
a
same
ni
problem
ha
during
vi
Semester-VI
n
for the final
g
fulfillment
E
of the UDP

w ngineering.
or
k
w
hi
ch Guide
is UDP Head
pr of
Departmen
er t
eqMr. H.M.
ui Shah Mr. K.P.
sit Patel
e
to
co
m
pl
et
e
Di
pl
o
m
a
E B.S.P.P 20142015 Page 5

PNUEMATIC
VICE
Enrolment

No:

12644031
9048

has

completed
CERTIFICATE
Part-I UDP
Project
work having

Thtitle

is Pneumatic
is vice.
to

ce He

has
rti undergone
fy the process
th of
shodh
at yatra,
M literature
r. survey and
Vi problem
s definition.
is
h He
al supposed to
out
M carry
. the residue
P UDP Part-II
on
ur work
o same
hi problem
th during
Semester-VI
av
for the final
in
fulfillment
g
of the UDP

w gineering.
or
k
w
hi
ch Guide
is UDP Head
pr of
Departmen
er t
eqMr. H.M.
ui Shah Mr. K.P.
sit Patel
e
to
co
m
pl
et
e
Di
pl
o
m
a
E
B.S.P.P 2014n 2015 Page 6

PNUEMATIC
VICE

TEMENT
FORM
STUDENT
PARTICULA
RS-1
FIRST NAME

AMIT

LAST NAME

KORAT

MOBILE NO.

EMAIL

972746438
1

997446333
2
3

amitkorat007@gma
il.com

U ENROLLMENT NO:- 126440319048


S
E COLLEGE NAME
B.S.PATEL POLYTECNIC, GANPAT UNIVERSITY.
R
AT:D
BAPUNAGAR
E
ADDRESS
TA:- AHEMEDABAD
FI
DIST:- AHEMEDABAD-382350
N
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
E BRANCH
D
2014th
P SEMESTER
5 SEM.
YEAR
2015
R
G-18
O TEAM NAME
B
L SIGNATURE OF
STUDENT
E
M
/P
R
O
JE
C B.S.P.P 2014-2015
T
(
U
D
P
)
S
T
A

Page 7

PNUEMATIC
VICE

TEMENT
FORM
STUDENT
PARTICULA
RS-1
FIRST NAME

HARSHIL

LAST NAME

THAKKAR

MOBILE NO.
EMAIL

972716000
2

997806991
2
4

harshil.thakkar18@gmail.com

ENROLLMENT NO:- 126440319040

U
S COLLEGE NAME
E
R ADDRESS
D
E
FI BRANCH
N
E SEMESTER
D
TEAM NAME
P
R
SIGNATURE OF
O STUDENT
B
L
E
M
/P
R
O B.S.P.P 2014-2015
JE
C
T
(
U
D
P
)
S
T
A

B.S.PATEL POLYTECNIC, GANPAT UNIVERSITY.


AT:- KUDER
TA:- PATAN
DIST:PATAN-384265
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
5

th

SEM.

YEAR

20142015

G-18

Page 8

PNUEMATIC
VICE

TEMENT
FORM
STUDENT
PARTICULA
RS-1
FIRST NAME

TAHIR

LAST NAME

SAIYAD

MOBILE NO.
EMAIL

812853931
7

972334445
2
1

tahirsaiyad1497@gmail.com

ENROLLMENT NO:- 126440319063

U
S COLLEGE NAME
E
R
D ADDRESS
E
FI
N BRANCH
E
D SEMESTER
P TEAM NAME
R
O SIGNATURE OF
B STUDENT
L
E
M
/P
R
O
JE B.S.P.P 2014-2015
C
T
(
U
D
P
)
S
T
A

B.S.PATEL POLYTECNIC, GANPAT UNIVERSITY.


AT:- MANDALI
TA:MEHESHANA
DIST: MEHESHANA
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
5

th

SEM.

YEAR

20142015

G-18

Page 9

PNUEMATIC
VICE

TEMENT
FORM
STUDENT
PARTICULA
RS-1
FIRST NAME

SATISH

LAST NAME

MIYANI

MOBILE NO.

EMAIL

815488704
2

992497242
2
9

satishmiyani6@gma
il.com

U ENROLLMENT NO:- 116440319040


S
E COLLEGE NAME
B.S.PATEL POLYTECNIC, GANPAT UNIVERSITY.
R
AT:D
INDIACOLONY
E
ADDRESS
TA:- AHEMEDABAD
FI
AHEMEDABADN
382350
E
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
D BRANCH
P
YEA
2014th
5 SEM.
R SEMESTER
R
2015
O
TEAM NAME
G-18
B
L
SIGNATURE OF
E STUDENT
M
/P
R
O
JE
C
T B.S.P.P 2014-2015
(
U
D
P
)
S
T
A

Page 10

PNUEMATIC
VICE

TEMENT
FORM
STUDENT
PARTICULA
RS-1
FIRST NAME

VISHAL

LAST NAME

PUROHIT

MOBILE NO.
EMAIL

971447560
5

738333710
2
0

Vishalpurohit048@gmail.com

ENROLLMENT NO:- 126440319048

U
S COLLEGE NAME
E
R ADDRESS
D
E
FI BRANCH
N
E SEMESTER
D
TEAM NAME
P
R
SIGNATURE OF
O STUDENT
B
L
E
M
/P
R
O B.S.P.P 2014-2015
JE
C
T
(
U
D
P
)
S
T
A

B.S.PATEL POLYTECNIC, GANPAT UNIVERSITY.


AT:-PETLAD
TA:-AANAND
DIST:MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
5

th

SEM.

YEAR

20142015

G-18

Page 11

PNUEMATIC
VICE
ribution and

support
both
morally and
financially
ACKNOWLEDGEMEN
T
towards
completion
of
this
project.
I
also
wam
is grateful to
h my project
to supervisor
th Mr.
anH.M.Shah
k who without
m his help and
y guidance
fri this project
not
enwould
ds have been
fo completed.
r
I also
th
my
ei show
r gratitude to
tr my friends
e and all who
m contributed
enin one way
door the other
us in
the
co course
of
nt the project.

Y
o
ur
s
F
ai
th
fu
ll
y:
-

HARSHIL
3
T
AHIR
4
S
ATISH
5
V
ISHAL

1
AM
I
T
B.S.P.P 20142015 Page 12
2

PNUEMATIC
VICE
s because

they
can
work
in
inflammabl
ABSTRACT
e
environmen
Pn t
without
eucausing fire
m or
at explosion.
ic Apart from
sy that,
st overloading
e in
m pneumatic
s system will
ar only lead to
e sliding
or
sa cessation of
fe operation.
r Unlike
th electromoti
anve
el component
ec s,
tr pneumatic
o component
m s do not
ot burn or get
iv overheated
e when
sy overloaded.
st
e The
m

opased is also
er processed
at in
special
io ways.
n Therefore,
of pneumatic
p systems
necan work in
u environmen
m ts
that
at demand
ic high
level
sy of
st cleanliness.
e One
m example is
s the
doproduction
es lines
of
nointegrated
t circuits.
pr
od
uc
e
po
llu
ta
nt
s.
Th
e
ai
r
re
le

B.S.P.P 20142015 Page 13

PNUEMATIC
VICE

INDEX

SR.

NO.

. 38

11
Pneumati
c
Systems
Diagram .

40

10.

Sa
f
e
t
y

12.
Cost
estimatio
n.

. 41

13.

Con
clus
ion
.

. 43

12.

Reference
.





44

B.S.P.P 2014

2015 Page 14

PNUEMATIC
VICE
force
and

power
of
fluids such
as water, oil
INTRODUCTION
and
air.
Powered
A clamps
n open
and
in close with
cr the force of
edpressurized
ibl air or oil,
e large
ra presses
n shape and
geform metal
of with
m hydraulic
anpressure,
uf and
ac assembly
tu torque tools
ri fasten
n component
g s
with
sy pressurized
st air. In each
e example,
m fluid power
s provides
us the energy
e necessary
th to
exert
e significant

ms
while
ec systems
hathat
use
ni liquids like
ca oil or water
l are
called
fo hydraulic
rc system. The
es pneumatic
. systems will
Sy be
the
st subject
of
e the
first
m three
s sessions in
th the course
at starting
us from
this
e session.
ai
r Pneumatics
ar is all about
e using
ca compressed
lle air to make
d a
process
p happens.
neCompresse
u d
air
is
m simply the
at air
we
ic breathe
sy squeezed
st into a small
e space
m under

pr ial energy
es which can
su be released
re to do useful
. work.
Yo
u Their
miprinciple of
g operation is
to
ht similar
re that of the
m hydraulic
e power
m systems. An
beair
r compressor
th converts
at the
ai mechanical
of
r energy
prime
u the
n mover into,
demainly,
r pressure
of
pr energy
es the
su compressed
This
re air.
potransformat
ss ion
es facilitates
se the
s transmissio
pon, storage,
te and control
energy.
nt of

Af umatic
te system
r consists of
co a group of
m pneumatic
pr component
es s connected
si together so
onthat
a
, signal
th (compresse
e d
air)
is
co passed
m through the
pr system
to
es make
se something
d happen at
ai the output.
r These
sh groups
of
oucomponent
ld s can be
bedivided into
pr five
epcategories
ar according
edto
their
fo function in
r the
us pneumatic
e. circuit
as
follows:
A
p
1.
ne Supply

e e
l

elements

e are the
m sources
e of power
n that
t drives
s the
:

system
which

are the

h compress
e ors.
sB.S.P.P 20142015 Page 15

PNUEMATIC
VICE
are used

2
.

I
n
p
u
t
e
l
e
m
e
n
t
s
:
t
h
e
s
e
e
l
e
m
e
n
t
s

to send
signals to
the final
control
elements
and
come in
two
forms;
either as
compone
nts that
is
actuated
by
the
operator
like push
buttons
or
sensors
that
determin
e
the
status of
the
power
elements
such as
limit
switches
and
proximity
sensors.

3
.

P
r
o
c
e
s
s
i
n
g
e
l
e
m
e
n
t
s
:
t
h
e
s
e
e
l
e
m
e

nts may
perform
operation
s on the
input
signals
before
sending
the
signal to
the final
control
elements
such as
nonreturn
valves,
direction
al control
valves
and
presser
control
valves.
4. Final

control
element
s:

to

control
the
motion of
actuators
such

as

direction

a s
l (actuato
rs):
c these are
o the
n outputs
the
t of
r pneumati
o c system
l which
use the
v stored
a potential
l energy to
v perform
a certain
e
task such
s
as
.
pneumati
c
cylinders
5
and
.
motors.
P
o
w
e
r
e
l
e
m
e
n
t

B.S.P.P 20142015 Page 16

PNUEMATIC
VICE
e
3

low
Contro
MAINl Valve
COMPONENT
4
D
OF ouble
PNEUMATIC
Acting
VISE Cylind
er
5
B
1
atch
Co
Vise
m
6
P
p
neuma
r
tic
e
Pipe
s
s
o
r
2

Dir
e
c
t
i
o
n
C
o
n
t
r
o
l
V
a
l
v

B.S.P.P 20142015 Page 17

PNUEMATIC
VICE
of all
we
have
to take
P
a plate
R
as per
O
our
C
requir
E
ement
D
(335*2
U
10
R
mm).
E
O
2
M
F
ake a
P
multipl
R
e hole
OJ
(as
E
C
per
T:
req.)
of 13
mm
for
clampi
ng of
plate
on
a
machi
ne
table.

Fir
s
t

Ta
k
e
b
a
t
c
h
v
i
c
e
o
f
3
m
m
s
t
o
c
k

gth
capac
ity.
vice
is in
ruf
castin
g
form
so
some
mach
ining
proce
ss are
like
millin
g,
drillin
g,
grindi
ng
are to
be
carrie
d out
on it
to
make
as
per
our
requir
emen
t.

l
e
B.S. P.P 2014n
2015 Page 18

PNUEMATIC
VICE
ic
e
a
n
d
fi
x
it
o
n
a
pl
at
e
a
n
d
1
fit
No
it
w
w
it
w
h
e
th
e
h
h
a
el
v
p
e
of
b
t
ol
a
ts
k
(h
e
e
n
x
a
a
g
o
v

n
a
l
)
.
2

We
h
a
v
e
u
s
e 1
d We
h
t
a
h
v
e
e
ta

ke
n
b
o
a
l
cy
t
li
s
n
d
3
er
0
of
m
b
m
or
e
l
di
o
a
n
m
g
.
et
er
of

5
0
m
m
,
r
o
d

e
n
gt
h
of
cy
li
n
d
er
is
1
0
0
m
m
.

d
i
a
m
e
t
e 2
T
he rod
r
of
cylind
2
er
is
0
fitted
with
m
the
help of
m
fabrica
tion
&
work.
lB.S.P.P 20142015 Page 19

PNUEMATIC
VICE
end with
a
rectangul
ar block.

C
y
l
i
n
d
e
r

We
have
provided
a clamp
for easy
moveme
nt of the
pneumati
c vice.

i
s
s
u
p
p
o
r
t
e
d
b
We provide two hard metal pieces to clamping object in
y
a vice.
i
t
s

B.S.P.P 2014-2015

Page
20

PNUEMATIC
VICE
t

CA
LC
UL
ATI
ON

1 Bar =
100Kpa
=
100KN
m-2 =
14.5
PSI

Pre
s
s
u
r
e
M
e
a
s
u
r
e
m
e
n

F
(
F
o
r
c
e
,
N
e
w
t
o
n
s
)

P=

F
A

A
(Area,
metres
square
d)

Eq u

io e5
n r0
:
m
P
= om
F fA
/ =
A
p(3
P=
i .1
10
bars4
= t/
1.0o4)
1
n*
N/m
m2 (d
=
*d
)
2
Dia d

2=

So,
1963
we
have
select
3
ed
P=
pneu
matic
cylind
er
move
200
Kg. Of
force
1.01
at 10
= F /
bar
1963
press
Fure.=
B.S.P.P
2000
20141= N
2015
m (3.14
F=/
*
Page
e = 4) 200
21 *
(50Kg.
t
50)

PNUEMATIC
VICE
widely
used in
our
THE
society,
ADVANTAGES
especial
OF
ly in the
PNEUMATIC
industri
SYSTEMS
al
P
sectors
n
for the
e
driving
u
of
m
automa
a
tic
t
machin
i
es.
c
Pneuma
tic
c
systems
o
have a
n
lot of
t
advanta
r
ges.
o
l

s
y
s
t
e
m
s
a
r
e

High
effectiv
eness
Many
factorie
s have
equippe
d their
producti
on lines
with
compres

s s. There
e is an
d unlimite
d supply
a of air in
i our
r atmosp
here to
s produce
u compres
p sed air.
p Moreove
l r, the
i use of
e compres
s sed air
is not
a restricte
n d by
d distance
, as it
m can
o easily
v be
a transpor
b ted
l through
e pipes.
After
c use,
o compres
m sed air
p can be
r released
e directly
s into the
s atmosp
o here
r without

t lity
h Pneum
e atic
compo
n nents
e are
e extrem
d ely
durable
o and
f cannot
be
p damag
r ed
o easily.
c Compa
e red to
s electro
s motive
i compo
n nents,
g pneum
. atic
compo
nents
2
are
Hig
more
h
durable
d
ur and
a
reliable
bi
.
lit
y
a 3 Simpl
e design
n
The
d
re desi
li
gns
a
of
bi

p
n
e
u
m
a
t
i
c
c
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
s
a
r
e

mpl
e.
The
y
are
thus
mor
e
suit
able
for
use
in
sim
ple
auto
mati
c
cont
rol
syst
ems
.
High
adaptab
ility
to
harsh
environ
ment
Compa
red to
the
elemen
ts
of
other
system
s,
compre

r
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
l
y
s
i

s
s
e
d

erature
, dust,
corrosi
on, etc.

a5 Safet
i y
r6 Pne
umatic
i syste
s ms are
safer
than
l
electro
e
motive
s
syste
s
ms
becau
a
se
f
they
f can
e work
c in
t inflam
e mable
d enviro
nment
b withou
y t
causin
h g fire
i or
g explos
h ion.
Apart
T from
e that,
m overlo
p ading

i
n
p
n
e
u
m
a
t
i
c
s
y
s
t
e
m
w
i
l
l

ly lead
to
sliding
or
cessat
ion of
operat
ion.
Unlike
electro
motive
compo
nents,
pneu
matic
compo
nents
do not
burn
or get
overhe
ated
when
overlo
aded.

o
B.S.P.P 2014n 2015 Page 22

PNUEMATIC
VICE
rectilinea
r
and
oscillatin
1
g
Eas
moveme
y
nt
of
s
pneumat
el
e
ic
ct systems
io
are easy
n
of to adjust
and
s
subject
p
e
to
few
e
limitation
d
s.
The
a
pressure
n
and the
d
pr volume
e
of air can
ss easily be
ur
adjusted
e
by
a
T
pressure
h
regulator
e
.

s
2 Envir
p
onment
e al
e friendly
d The
s operatio
n of
o pneuma
f tic
systems

d
o
e
s
n
o
t
p
r
o
d
u
c
e
p
o
l
l
u
t
a
n
t
s
.

leased
is also
process
ed in
special
ways.
Therefor
e,
pneuma
tic
systems
can
work in
environ
ments
that
demand
high
level of
cleanlin
ess.
One
exampl
e is the
producti
on lines
of
integrat
ed
circuits.

T
h
e3 Econo
mical
a4 As
i pneu
r matic
comp
r onent
e s are

n
o
t
e
x
p
e
n
s
i
v
e
,
t
h
e
c
o
s
t
s
o
f
p
n
e
u
m
a
t
i
c

syste
ms
are
quite
low.
More
over,
as
pneu
matic
syste
ms
are
very
durab
le,
the
cost
of
repair
is
signi
ficant
ly
lower
than
that
of
other
syste
ms.

B.S.P.P 20142015 Page 23

PNUEMATIC
VICE
sign.

E
xtrem
ADVANTAGE
OF
ely
PNEUMATIC
VISE
high
clampi
ng
1
force.
Qu
H
i 4
igh
c
accura
k
cy and
repeat
o
ability.
p
e 5
R
r
educe
a
s
t
produc
i
tion
o
costs.
n 6
D
.
esign
is
2
compa
St
ct and
a
very
b
simple
l
to
e
operat
e
a
requiri
n
ng
d
almost
no
r
maint
i
enanc
g
e.
i 7
C
d
an be
mount
d
ed
e
3

h
o
r
i
z
o
n
t
a
l
l
y
o
r
v
e
r
t
i
c
a
l
l
y
.
B.S.P.P 20142015 Page 24

PNUEMATIC
VICE
ages, they

are also
subject to
DISADVANTAG
many
E
OF
PNEUMATIC
limitations.
SYSTEMS
R
elativ
ely
low
accur
acy
As
pneu
matic
syste
ms are
power
ed by
the
force
provid
ed by
compr
essed
air,
their
operat
ion is
subjec
t
to
the
volum
e
of
the

Al
th
ou
g
h
p
ne
u
m
at
ic
sy
st
e
m
s
po
ss
es
s
a
lo
t
of
ad
va
nt

co
pply of
m
air to
pr
the
es
syste
se
m may
d
not be
air. accura
As
te,
th
causin
e
g
a
vol decrea
u
se in
m
the
e
overall
of
accura
air cy of
m
the
ay
syste
ch
m.
an
L
ge 2
wh ow
loadin
en
g
co
As the
m
cylind
pr
ers of
es
pneu
se
matic
d
compo
or
nents
he
are
at
not
ed,
very
th
large,
e
a
su

pn
eu
m
ati
c
sy
ste
m
ca
nn
ot
dri
ve
loa
ds
th
at
ar
e
to
o
he
av
y.
3

Pr

o
c
e
s
s
i
n
g
r
e

quire
d
befor
e use
Compr
essed
air
must
be
proces
sed
before
use to
ensure
the
absen
ce of
water
vapou
r
or
dust.
Other
wise,
the
movin
g
parts
of the
pneu
matic
compo
nents
may
wear
out
quickl

y
du
e
to
fri
cti
on.

essed,
the
movin
g
speed
s

of

the
piston

Un
e
v
e
n

are

relativ
ely
uneve
n.

m
N
o 5
oise
v
i
Noise
n
will be
g
produc
s
ed
p
when
e
compr
e
essed
d
air is
As
releas
air ed
ca
from
n
the
ea
pneu
sil
matic
y
compo
be
nents.
co
m
pr

S.P.P 2014B. 2015 Page 25

PNUEMATIC
VICE
e

foll
owi
THE
ng
APPLICATION
OF PNEUMATIC
are
SYSTEMS
so
Th
e
ap
pli

me
exa
mpl
es.

ca (a)
tio Transpo
n rt
system
of
Figu
pn
re
eu
shows
m
a
ati
simpli
c
fied
sy
indust
st
rial
e
transp
m
ort
s
syste
is
m.
ve
When
ry
the
ex
button
te
switch
ns
is
iv
pushe
e.
d, the
Th
cylind

er
wil
l
pu
sh
on
e
of
th
e
go
od
s
fro
m
th
e
sh
elf
on
to
th
e
tra
nsf
er
bel
t.
W
he
n
th
e
bu
tto
n

switch
is
releas
ed,
the
cylind
er will
retract
autom
atically
. Fig.
34b
shows
the
circuit
diagra
m
of
the
transp
ort
syste
m.

(a)
Operat
ion of
a

pn
eu
m
ati
c
tra
ns
po
rt
sy
ste
m

(b)
Pneum
atic
circuit
diagra
m of a
pneu
matic
transp
ort
syste
m

B.S.P.P 20142015 Page 26

PNUEMATIC
VICE
syste

(
b
)
V
e
h
i
c
l
e
d
o
o
r
o
p
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
s
y
s
t
e
m
Pn
eu
m
ati
c

ms
can be
used
to
operat
e the
doors
of
public
vehicl
es
(Fig.
35a).
Assum
ing
that
the
openin
g and
closin
g
of
the
doors
are
control
led by
two
button
switch
es ON
and
OFF.
When

th
e
bu
tto
n
sw
itc
h
ON
is
pr
es
se
d,
th
e
do
ors
wil
l
op
en.
W
he
n
th
e
bu
tto
n
sw
itc
h
OF
F
is

pushe
d, the
doors
will
close.
Fig.
35b
shows
a
pneu
matic
syste
m that
can be
used
to
operat
e the
doors
of
vehicl
es.

(a)
Ope
rati
on

of a
pneu
matic
syste
m
that

(b)
Pne
um
atic
circ
uit
dia
gra
m
con
trol
s
the
mo
ve
me
nt
of
vehi
cle
doo
rs.

B.S.P.P 20142015 Page 27

PNUEMATIC
VICE

A
ll
MAINmain
PNEUMATIC
COMPONENTS
pneu
matic
Pneu comp
maticonent
comp
onents can
s can be
be
repres
divideented
d into
two by
categsimple
ories: pneu
1.
matic
symbo
ls.
Each
symbo
l
shows
only
the
functi
on of
the
comp
2.
onent
it
repres
ents,
but
not its
struct
ure.
Pneu
matic

sy
mb
ols
ca
n
be
co
mb
ine
d
to
for
m
pn
eu
ma
tic
dia
gra
ms
.A
pn
eu
ma
tic
dia
gra
m
de
scr
ibe
s
the
rel
ati
on
s
bet
we
en

each
pneu
matic
comp
onent,
that
is, the
design
of the
syste
m.
(a)
Comp
resso
r
A
comp
ressor
can
compr
ess air
to the
requir
ed
pressu
res. It
can
conve
rt the
mech
anical
energ
y from
motor
s and
engin
es
into
the

pot
ent
ial
en
erg
y
in
co
mp
res
se
d
air
(Fi
g.
2).
A
sin
gle
ce
ntr
al
co
mp
res
sor
ca
n
su
ppl
y
var
iou
s
pn
eu
ma
tic
co
mp

onent
s with
compr
essed
air,
which
is
transp
orted
throug
h
pipes
from
the
cylind
er to
the
pneu
matic
comp
onent
s.
Compr
essors
can
be
divide
d into
two
classe
s:
recipr
ocator
and
rotary.

(a) Compressor used in


laboratories

B.S.P.P 2014-2015

(c) Pneumatic symbol of


compressor

Page
28

PNUEMATIC
VICE
by
variou
s
compo
(b
nents,
)
Pr
each
es of
su
which
re
has its
re
gu own
lat pneu
in
matic
g

co
m
po
ne
nt
Pr
es
sur
e
re
gul
ati
ng
co
m
po
ne
nts
ar
e
for
m
ed

symbo
l:
(1) Filt
er
can
rem
ove
imp
uriti
es
fro
m
com
pre
sse
d
air
bef
ore
it is
fed
to
the

(2)

tor
to
sta
biliz
e
the
pre
ssur
e
and
reg
ulat
e
the
ope
rati
on
of
pne
um
atic
com
pon
ent
s
(3) Lu
bri
cat
or

To
pro
vid
e
lub
rica
tio
n
for

(
b
)
P
n
e
u
m
a
ti
c
s
y
m
b
o
ls
o
f
t
h
e
p
n
e
u
m
a
ti
c
c
(a) Pressure
o
regulating m
componentp
o
n
e

nts
e
within a n
t
pressur
B.S.P.P
2014e
2015 Page 29
regulati
ng
compon

PNUEMATIC
VICE
e

com
pres
3
Th
e
co
ns
u
m
pti
on
of
co
m
pr
es
se
d
air

sed
air
inclu
de
exec
utio
n
com
pon
ents
(cyli
nder
s),
dire
ctio

xa

nal

cont

ple

rol

valv

of

es

co

and

assi

po

stan

ne

nts

valv

th

es.

at
co
ns
u
m

(a)
Execu
tion
comp

on
en
t
ne
u
m
ati
c
ex
ec
uti
on
co
m
po
ne
nts
pr
ovi
de
rec
tili
ne
ar
or
rot
ar
y
m
ov
e
m
en
t.
Ex

ample
s
of
pneu
matic
execut
ion
compo
nents
includ
e
cylind
er
piston
s,
pneu
matic
motor
s, etc.
Rectili
near
motio
n
is
produc
ed by
cylind
er
piston
s,
while
pneu
matic
motor
s
provid
e
contin

uo
us
rot
ati
on
s.
Th
er
e
ar
e
m
an
y
kin
ds
of
cyl
ind
ers
,
su
ch
as
sin
gle
act
ing
cyl
ind
ers
an
d
do
ubl
e

acting
cylind
ers.
(i)
Singl
e
actin
g
cylind
er
T
herefo
re, it
can
only
produc
e
thrust
in one
directi
on
(Fig.
4).
The
piston
rod is
propell
ed in
the
opposi
te
directi
on by
an
intern
al

spr ent or
ing weight
,
of
a
or
load.
by
th
e
ext
er
nal
for
ce
Fig. 4
pr
Cross
ovi
section of
de
a single
acting
d
cylinder
by
m
ec
ha
nic
al
m
ov
e
B.S.P.P 2014m
2015 Page 30

PNUEMATIC
VICE
d

becau
se
it
Fig. 5 (a) Single acting
has to
cylinder
overco
me
the
force
from
(b) the
Pneumatic
spring.
symbol
of a
Theref
single acting
cylinder
ore, in
order
Th
to
e
provid
thr e the
ust driving
fro force
m
for
th
machi
e
nes,
pis the
to
diame
n
ter of
ro
the
d
cylind
is
er
gr
should
ea
be
tly increa
lo
sed. In
we order
re
to

m
atc
h
th
e
len
gt
h
of
th
e
spr
ing
,
th
e
len
gt
h
of
th
e
cyl
ind
er
sh
oul
d
als
o
be
inc
re
as
ed,
th

us
limitin
g the
length
of the
path.
Single
acting
cylind
ers are
used
in
stampi
ng,
printin
g,
movin
g
materi
als,
etc.
(ii)
Doubl
e
actin
g
cylind
er
I
na
double
acting
cylind
er, air
pressu

re
is
ap
pli
ed
alt
er
na
tel
y
to
th
e
rel
ati
ve
sur
fac
e
of
th
e
pis
to
n,
pr
od
uci
ng
a
pr
op
elli
ng
for
ce

and a
retract
ing
force
(Fig.
6). As
the
efecti
ve
area
of the
piston
is
small,
the
thrust
produc
ed
during
retract
ion is
relativ
ely
weak.
The
impec
cable
tubes
of
double
acting
cylind
ers are
usuall
y
made

of
d
ste coated
el.
with
Th
chromi
e
um to
wo reduce
rki frictio
ng n.
sur
fac
es
ar
e
als
o
pol
ish
ed
B.S.P.P 2014an
2015 Page 31

PNUEMATIC
VICE
e

D
irectio
nal
control
valves
ensure
the
flow of
air
betwe
en air
ports
by
(b) openin
Pneuma
g,
tic
closin
symbol
g and
of a switchi
double
ng
their
intern
al
conne
ctions.
Their
classifi
Fig. 7
cation
(a)
is
Double
deter
acting
mined
cylinder
by the
acting
numb
cylinder
er
of
ports,
(c)
the
Dire
numb
ction
er
of
al
switchi
cont
ng
rol
positio
valv
ns, the

no
rm
al
po
siti
on
of
th
e
val
ve
an
d
its
m
et
ho
d
of
op
er
ati
on.
Co
m
m
on
ty
pe
s
of
dir
ect
ion
al
co
ntr
ol
val
ve
s
inc
lud
e
2/

2, 3/2,
5/2,
etc.
The
first
numb
er
repres
ents
the
numb
er
of
ports;
the
secon
d
numb
er
repres
ents
the
numb
er
of
positio
ns. A
directi
onal
control
valve
that
has
two
ports
and
five
positio
ns can
be
repres
ented
by the
drawin
g
in
Fig. 8,
as well

as
its
ow
n
uni
qu
e
pn
eu
m
ati
c
sy
m
bol
.

d
ir
e
c
ti
o
n
a
l
c
o
n
tr
o
l
v
a
l
v
e

B.S.P.P 20142015 Page 32

Fig. 8
Describi
ng a 5/2

PNUEMATIC
VICE
uses
the
thrust
(i) from
the
2/
spring
2
to
Di
open
re
cti and
on close
the
al
co valve,
stoppi
nt
rol ng
va compr
essed
lv
air
e
from
flowin
g
he
str toward
uct s
workin
ur
g tube
e
A
of
from
a
air
2/
inlet
2
dir P.
ect When
ion a force
is
al
applie
co
to
ntr d
the
ol
val control
axis,
ve
the
is
valve
ve
will be
ry
pushe
si
d
m
ple open,
. It conne

cti
ng
P
wit
h
A
(Fi
g.
9).
Th
e
for
ce
ap
pli
ed
to
th
e
co
ntr
ol
axi
s
ha
s
to
ov
erc
o
m
e
bo
th
air
pr
es
sur
e
an
d
th
e
re
pul
siv

e force
of the
spring.
The
control
valve
can be
driven
manua
lly or
mecha
nically
, and
restor
ed to
its
origina
l
positio
n
by
the
spring.

Fig. 9 (a)
2/2
direction
al control
valve

(3)

(35)

3/

3/
2
dir
ect

ional
control
valve
can be
used
to
control
a
single
acting
cylind
er (Fig.
10).
The
open
valves
in the
middle
will
close
until
P and
A are
conne
cted
togeth
er.
Then
anoth
er
valve
will
open
the
sealed
base
betwe
en A
and
R
(exhau
st).
The
valves
can be
driven
manua

lly, directi
m
onal
ec
control
ha
valves
nic can
all
further
y,
be
ele divide
ctr d into
ica two
lly
B.S.P.P
or
classes:2014pn
eu
2015Normally
m
open type
(N.O.) and
ati
normally
cal
closed type
ly.
(N.C.) (Fig.
3/
11).Page 33
2

PNUEMATIC
VICE

(3) Normally

closed type
B.S.P.P 20142015 Page 34

Fig. 10 (a)
3/2
directional
control valve

(2)

PNUEMATIC
VICE
essure

(4)
(4) 5/2

Di
re
cti
on
al
co
nt
rol
va
lv
e
he
na
pr
es
sur
e
pul
se
is
inp
ut
int
o
th
e
pr

control
port
P,
the
spool
will
move
to the
left,
conne
cting
inlet
P and
work
passa
ge B.
Work
passa
ge A
will
then
make
a
releas
e
of
air
throug
h R1
and
R2.
The
directi
onal

val
ve
s
wil
l
re
m
ain
in
thi
s
op
er
ati
on
al
po
siti
on
un
til
sig
nal
s
of
th
e
co
ntr
ar
y
ar
e
rec
eiv
ed.

Theref
ore,
this
type
of
directi
onal
control
valves
is said
to
have
the
functio
n
of
mem
ory.

(1) Cross section

B.S.P.P 2014(3)
2015 Page 35

PNUEMATIC
VICE
ples

(c)
Co
nt
rol
va
lv
e

co
ntr
ol
val
ve
is
a
val
ve
th
at
co
ntr
ols
th
e
flo
w
of
air.
Ex
a
m

includ
e nonreturn
valves
, flow
control
valves
,
shuttle
valves
, etc.
(i)
Nonretur
n
valve
A
nonretur
n
valve
allow
s air
to
flow
in
one
direc
tion
only.
Whe
n air
flows

in
ve is
th
popp
e
et
op
valve
po
(Fig.
sit
13).
e
dir
ect
ion
,
th
e
val
ve
(a) Non-return
wil
valve
l
clo
se.
An
ot
he
r
na
m
e
for
no
n(c) Pneumatic
ret
symbol
ur
n
B.S.P.P 2014val
2015 Page 36

PNUEMATIC
VICE

(ii
)
Fl
o
w
co
nt
rol
va
lv
e
A flow
control
valve is
formed
by a
nonreturn
valve
and a
variable
throttle

(a) Flow
control valve

(2) Cross

section

(Fi
g.
1
4)
.

(3) Pneumatic

symbol

B.S.P.P 20142015 Page 37

PNUEMATIC
VICE
cau

se
seri
ous
SAFET
da
Y
MEASU ma
RES
ge
WHEN
USING to
PNEUM the
ATIC
hu
CONTR
ma
OL
SYSTE n
MS
bo
dy
(1)

if
the
y
ent
er
the
bo
dy
thr
ou
gh
duc
ts
like
the
ora
l
cav
ity

any
one
.
(3) Und

(2)

er
hig
h
tem
per
atur
e,
com
pre
sse
d
air
can
pas
s
thro
ugh
hu
ma
n
skin
.
(4) C

o
m
pr
es
se
d
ai
r
re
le
as

le
s
an
d
oil
dr
op
le
ts,
w
hi
ch
ca
n
ca
us
e
da
m
ag
e
to
ey
es
.
(5) Eve

n
tho
ugh
the
pre
ssur
e of
co

s is
rela
tive
ly
low,
whe
n
the
con
tain
er
lose
s its
enti
rety
,
fier
ce
exp
losi
ons
ma
y
still
occ
ur.
(6) Bef

ore
swi
tchi
ng
on
a
co

tho
rou
ghl
y
ins
pec
t
the
wh
ole
circ
uit
to
see
if
the
re
are
any
loo
se
par
ts,
ab
nor
ma
l
pre
ssu
re
or
da
ma
ge
d

e
n
t
l
y

(7)

d
u
e
t
o
t
h
e
h
i
g
h
p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
b
u
i
l

e
b
e
f
o
r
e
t
h
e
s
y
s
t
e
m
p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
i
s
i
n
c

e
n
t
i
r
e
c
i
r
c
u
i
t
i
s
r
e
q
u
i
r
e
d
t
o
p
r
e
v
e

d
by
pne
um
atic
cyli
nde
rs
is
rela
tive
ly
larg
e,
and
(8)

the
acti
on
is
usu
ally
ver
y
fast
,
you
ma
y
suf
er
seri
ous
inju
ries
if

s
s
h
o
u
l
d
b
e
i
n
s
t
al
l
e
d
o
n
t
h
e
c
o
m
p
r
e
(9)

s
s
e
d
ai
r
s

a
n
d
s
p
e
e
d
y
c
o
n
tr
ol
o
f
ai
r
fl
o
w
.

B.S.P.P 20142015 Page 38

PNUEMATIC
VICE
s

s
(10)

In

e
d
a
i
r
s
u
p
p
l
y
u
n
i
t
s
h
o
u
l
d
b
e
t
u
r
n
e
d
o
f

s
u
p
pl
y
u
ni
t
m
u
st
b
e
tu
rn
e
(11)

Th

o
f
b
ef
or
e
c
h
a
n
g
e
s
c
a
n
b
e

t
h
e
m
o
v
i
n
g
p
a
r
t
s
o
f
t
(12)

St

e
s
y
s
t
e
m
.
N
e
v

t
h
e
m
e
c
h
a
n
i
c
a
l
o
p
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
v
a
l
v
e
w
i
t
h

B.S.P.P 20142015 Page 39

PNUEMATIC
VICE

PNEUMATIC
SYSTEMS
DIAGRAM

B.S.P.P 20142015 Page 40

PNUEMATIC
VICE
ucts
are :

(1)
COSTING
Materi
al (2)
Labor
(3)
1 T
Expen
h
ses
e
r
e
2 Mater
ial :
a
r 1 Direct
materi
e
al :
t
Materi
h
al
r
e
which
e
is
e
proces
l
sed
e
m
for
e
final
n
t
produ
s
ct but
o
it is a
f
part of
a
the
n
produ
y
p
r
o
d

ct

is

direct
materi

al

erial :

co

Mate

st

rial

is

whic

thi

does

not

at

form

eri

al

part

is

of

cal

the

led

final

dir

prod

ect

uct

fro

but it

is a

must

ark

be

et.

for

2 I

d
i
r
e
c
t
m
a
t

proc
essin
g
direc
t
mate
rial
is
calle
d in-

dir
ect
m
at
eri
al
e.g
.
Co
tto
n
wa
ste
,
oil,
etc
.
3

Lab
or
:
1 D

T
h
e
w
o
r
k
e
r
w
h
o
a
c
t
u
al
ly
p
e

i
r
e
c
t

rf

l
a
b
o
r

o
r
m
d
t
h
w

or

ir

on

th

dir

la

ect

ly

r.

at 2 Indirect
eri
labor :
al
It
rat superv
ised
he
the
r
activit
y
of
m
the
ec
direct
labor.
ha
4 Expen
nic
ses:
all
1 Direct
y
Expen
ses :
of
by

The

expe

ac

nses,

hin

which

can

is

be

cal

direct

led

ly

ch

pens

an

es.

ge 2 In

Direct
d
Expen
on
ses :
th
e
pa
rti
cul
ar
pr
od
uct
,

The
expen
ses
that
cannot
be
directl
y or
confid
ently
chang
ed on
partic
ular

products
are
e called incaldirect
expenses
led.
ar

B.S.P.P 2014ex

2015 Page 41

PNUEMATIC
VICE
ost 1750/-

3. Direct
otherESTIMATION
COST
expenses
1200/Sr.
No.
_ Total
Cost=
10,000/2
.
D
i
r
e
c
t
l
a
b
o
u
r
cB.S.P.P 2014-

2015 Page 42

PNUEMATIC
VICE
that can

easily
fixed the
workpice
& work on
CONCLUSIONS
it. The
T pneumatic
h vice
e provide
extremely
p high
r clamping
o force &
j High
e accuracy
c and
t repeatabili
t ty.
h Pneumatic
u system
s can get
g high
i production
v rate.
e When
s compresse
a d air is
released
s from the
y pneumatic
s componen
t ts then
e noise can
m produced.

T not
h produce
e pollutants.
o
p
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
o
f
p
n
e
u
m
a
t
i
c
s
y
s
t
e
m
s
d
o
e
s

S
o
,
T
h
e
p
n
e
u
m
a
t
i
c
v
i
c
e
c
a
n
b
e
u
s
e
e
a
s
i
l
y

.
.

B.S.P.P 20142015 Page 43

PNUEMATIC
VICE
asa
n
2) Pn
eu
mat
ic
REFERANCE
syst
em
by
1)
S.R
.Ma
jum
dar

B.S.P.P 20142015 Page 44